Piezoelectric crystals offer the potential of real-time or near-time measurement of a vast number of measurands: these include temperature, pressure, magnetic field strength and analytes in both the liquid and gaseous phase. Moreover, their high sensitivity of response to very small changes in nano mass at their surface offers the potential of extraordinary low detection limits for analytes. Consequently, piezoelectric crystals (PZs) have received increasing attention since the mid-1970s, particularly in laboratories in the USA, UK and Japan. The majority of publications have presented the virtues of highly specific applications under very controlled conditions; there are very few instances where such devices have been taken into an environment outside the laboratory. A major feature of PZ or micromass chemical sensors is the reaction of specific coatings applied to their surface: these coatings hold the key to future developments. Of particular interest in environmental and health and safety studies is the measurement of dusts and toxic gases in the atmosphere and toxic chemical species in natural waterways.
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- Piezoelectric sensors
M. J. Hepher
- Springer Netherlands
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