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Über dieses Buch

This book addresses the piezoresistance in p-type 3C-SiC, which it investigates using experimental characterization and theoretical analysis. The gauge factor, the piezoresistive coefficients in two-terminal and four-terminal resistors, the comparison between single crystalline and nanocrystalline SiC, along with the temperature dependence of the piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC are also discussed.
Silicon carbide (SiC) is an excellent material for electronic devices operating at high temperatures, thanks to its large energy band gap, superior mechanical properties and extreme chemical inertness. Among the numerous polytypes of SiC, the cubic single crystal, which is also well known as 3C-SiC, is the most promising platform for microelectromechanical (MEMS) applications, as it can be epitaxially grown on an Si substrate with diameters of up to several hundred millimeters. This feature makes 3C-SiC compatible with the conventional Si-based micro/nano processing and also cuts down the cost of SiC wafers.
The investigation into the piezoresistive effect in 3C-SiC is of significant interest for the development of mechanical transducers such as pressure sensors and strain sensors used for controlling combustion and deep well drilling. Although a number of studies have focused on the piezoresistive effect in n-type 3C-SiC, 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC, comparatively little attention has been paid to piezoresistance in p-type 3C-SiC.
In addition, the book investigates the piezoresistive effect of top-down fabricated SiC nanowires, revealing a high degree of sensitivity in nanowires employing an innovative nano strain-amplifier. The large gauge factors of the p-type 3C-SiC at both room temperature and high temperatures found here indicate that this polytype could be suitable for the development of mechanical sensing devices operating in harsh environments with high temperatures.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction and Literature Review

Abstract
The piezoresistance is defined as the change in electrical resistance of a material under external mechanical strain or stress, which was discovered by Smith in 1954 (Barlian et al., Proc IEEE, 97(3):513–552, 2009, [1]). Since then, a great number of research works have been relentlessly carried out to elucidate the phenomenon in numerous materials. Besides fundamental investigation, applications of the piezoresistive effect in semiconductors can be found in numerous Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors, thanks to its superior properties, including device miniaturization, simple readout circuit, and low power consumption (Eaton and Smith, Smart Mater Struct, 6:530–539, 1997, [2]; Kumar and Pant, Microsyst Technol, 20(7):1213–1247, 2014, [3]), compared to other sensing technologies (e.g. electrostatic, piezoelectric and optical).
Hoang-Phuong Phan

Chapter 2. Theory of the Piezoresistive Effect in p-Type 3C-SiC

Abstract
This chapter qualitatively explains the piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC based on the hole transfer mechanism and the conduction effective mass change due to the deformation of energy band under strain. To explain this phenomenon, the ideas of energy band structure and band deformation of 3C-SiC are discussed. Furthermore, the description of piezoresistive coefficients are also presented in the rest of this chapter.
Hoang-Phuong Phan

Chapter 3. 3C-SiC Film Growth and Sample Preparation

Abstract
This chapter presents the growth process of p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC, the optical characterization and the electrical properties of 3C-SiC films. The fabrication of SiC resistors used for investigating the piezoresistance in p-type 3C-SiC is also described.
Hoang-Phuong Phan

Chapter 4. Characterization of the Piezoresistive Effect in p-Type Single Crystalline 3C-SiC

Abstract
This chapter presents experimental work on the piezoresistance of p-type 3C-SiC two-terminal and four-terminal resistors. Firstly, the experimental method to induce strain into SiC piezoresistors is discussed. Secondly, the gauge factor, the orientation dependence, the thickness dependence, as well as the piezoresistance at high temperature in p-type 3C-SiC are presented. Finally, the piezoresistive effect of four-terminal resistors is described at the end of this chapter.
Hoang-Phuong Phan

Chapter 5. The Piezoresistive Effect in p-Type Nanocrystalline SiC

Abstract
Different from single crystalline SiC, nanocrystalline SiC (nc-SiC), with its grain size in sub-micron scale, can be grown on various substrates (e.g. silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride) and therefore, it is a good candidate for MEMS transducers (Komura, Jpn J Appl Phys, 46(1):45–50, 2007, [1]; Somogyi, Nanoscale, 4:7720–7726, 2012, [3]; Eickhoff, J Appl Phys, 96:2872–2879, 2004, [2]).
Hoang-Phuong Phan

Chapter 6. The Piezoresistive Effect of Top Down p-Type 3C-SiC Nanowires

Abstract
The piezoresistance of SiC nanowires is of interest as a means to scale down devices size as well as to enhance the sensitivity of sensors (Phan et al., J. Microelectromech. Syst. 24(6):1663–1677, 2015, [1]; Shao et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23):233109, 2012, [2]; Gao et al., Chem. Comm. 47(43):11993–11995, 2011, [3]). However, as presented in Chap. 1, there have been a limited number of experimental work on the piezoresistance of SiC, which were fabricated using bottom up process (Shao et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(23):233109, 2012, [2]; Gao et al., Chem. Comm. 47(43):11993–11995, 2011, [3]; Bi et al., J. Mater. Chem. C 1(30):4514–4517, 2013, [4]).
Hoang-Phuong Phan

Chapter 7. Conclusion and Perspectives

Abstract
This dissertation presented the piezoresistive effect in p-type single crystalline 3C-SiC, including the gauge factor, the piezoresistive coefficients, and its thickness–, orientation–, and temperature– dependence. The piezoresistive effect in p-type 3C-SiC four-terminal resistors was also presented. Furthermore, a comparison between the piezoresistive effect of p-type single crystalline and p-type nanocrystalline SiC was also reported.
Hoang-Phuong Phan

Backmatter

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