Air pollution induced changes in pine needle chemistry were observed at sample sites in the surroundings of the Pechenganikel smelter. Close to the smelter, elevated concentrations of Ni, Cu and S were found (Ni: 0.7-1 mmol/kg, Cu: 0.4-0.5, and S 40-60 mmol/kg). Close to the pollution source, needles were enriched in Ni and Cu by needle age. Correlation and principal component analyses show that changes in the element composition of pine needles depended on air pollution and on natural factors as well. The contribution from air pollution increased with needle age. Besides direct input of pollutants from atmosphere, soil contamination and nutritional disturbance contributed significantly to the observed changes.
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- Pine Needle Chemistry Near a Large Point SO2 Source in Northern Fennoscandia
Galina N. Koptsik
Serguei V. Koptsik
- Springer Netherlands