Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Transportation is fundamental to the development of society. It provides opportunities to interact with others, moves the goods we need, and supports a vibrant economy. This chapter introduces the demand for transportation and explores key trends and growth forecasts. These underline the on-going importance of transportation to social progress and the significant challenge that lies ahead in planning transportation in the face of growing population, rising incomes, and technological change.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
This includes motorcycles, scooters, and powered three wheelers.
While this analysis extends well beyond the USA, the levels of car ownership per license holder in the USA today are already at 1.15 according to Sperling and Gordon ( 2009).
These movements exist to fulfil the broader socio-economic trends which drive travel demand and that reflect transportation supply described above.
This section draws extensively on material prepared for May and Marsden ( 2010).
Mallard and Glaister ( 2008, p. 151) define an externality as “an unconsidered cost or benefit experienced by a third party due to an economic decision made by others.” A common example is congestion, whereby drivers only take account of the delay they expect to experience and not the delay that their journey will cause others.
Source: Infoplease, Billion Dollar U.S. Weather Disasters, 1980–2010. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0882823.html (accessed on April 19, 2015).
Alam, M. A., & Ahmed, F. (2013). Urban transport systems and congestion: A case study of Indian Cities, Transport and Communications Bulletin for Asia and the Pacific, Number 83. Accessed November 14, 2014, from www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/b82_Chapter3.pdf.
Almeida, P., & Silva, P. (2009). The peak of oil production—Timings and market recognition. Energy Policy, 37(4), 1267–1276. CrossRef
Banister, D., & Berechman, Y. (2001). Transport investment and the promotion of economic growth. Journal of Transport Geography, 9, 209–218. CrossRef
Black, W. R. (2005). Sustainable transport: definitions and responses. In TRB conference on integrating sustainability into the transportation planning process, 11–13 July 2004, Baltimore, TRB conference proceedings 37.
Börjesson, M., Fosgerau, M., & Algers, S. (2010). Identifying the value of travel time distribution—Evidence from the Swedish value of time study 2008. In Proceedings of the European Transport Conference 2010.
Burger, J. R., Allen, C. D., Brown, J. H., Burnside, W. R., Davidson, A. D., Fristoe, T. S., et al. (2012). The macroecology of sustainability. PLoS Biology, 10(6), 1–7. CrossRef
Button, K. (1993). Transport, the environment and economic policy. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
Cascetta, E., Pagliara, F., & Papola, A. (2007). Governance of urban mobility: Complex systems and integrated policies. Advances in Complex Systems, 10(2), 339–354. CrossRef
Commission for Global Road Safety. (2007). Make roads safe: A decade of action for road safety. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.makeroadssafe.org/publications/Documents/decade_of_action_report_lr.pdf.
Cowie, J. (2010). The economics of transport: A theoretical and applied perspective. Oxon: Routledge.
Cresswell, T. (2006). On the move: Mobility in the modern Western world. London: Routledge.
Dalal-Clayton, B., & Sadler, B. (2005). Strategic environmental assessment: A sourcebook and reference guide to international experience. London: Earthscan.
Dargay, J., Gately, D., & Sommer, M. (2007). Vehicle ownership and income growth, worldwide: 1960-2030. The Energy Journal, 28(4), 143–169. CrossRef
Den Boer, L. C., & Schroten, A. (2007). Traffic noise reduction in Europe Health effects, social costs and technical and policy options to reduce road and rail traffic noise. Delft: CE Delft.
DETR. (2000). Social exclusion and the provision and availability of public transport. London: Department of Environment, Transport and the Region.
DfT. (2003). The future of air transport white paper. Department for Transport, London. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080728103028/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/air/.
DfT. (2009). UK air passenger demand and CO 2 forecasts. London: Department for Transport.
DfT. (2010). Transport statistics Great Britain (36th ed.). London: Department for Transport.
Dulac, J. (2013). Global land transport infrastructure requirements: Estimating road and railway infrastructure capacity and costs to 2050. Information paper for the International Energy Agency. Accessed November 7, 2014, from http://www.iea.org/publications.
Eddington, R. (2006). The case for action: Sir Rod Eddington’s advice to government. HM Treasury. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk.
EIA. (2011). International Energy Outlook. US Energy Information Administration. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://188.8.131.52/forecasts/ieo/world.cfm.
Eurostat. (2013). Energy transport and environment indicators. Eurostat Pocketbooks, ISSN 1725-4566.
Fahrig, L., & Rytwinski, T. (2009). Effects of roads on animal abundance: An empirical review and synthesis. Ecology and Society, 14(1), 1–20.
Fischer, C. S. (1992). America calling: A social history of the telephone to 1940. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Fry, C., & Therivel, R. (2009). Transport. In P. Morris & R. Therivel (Eds.), Methods of environmental impact assessment (3rd ed., pp. 94–119). Oxon: Routledge.
Frye, A. (2005). Mobility in old age—A European policy perspective. In Proceedings of the SIZE conference, 19th May. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://size-project.at/conference05.htm.
Geels, F. W. (2002). Technological transitions as evolutionary reconfiguration processes: A multi-level perspective and a case-study. Research Policy, 31, 1257–1274. CrossRef
Geels, F. W. (2005). The dynamics of transitions in socio-technical systems: A multi-level analysis of the transition pathway from horse-drawn carriages to the automobile (1860–1930). Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 17(4), 445–476. CrossRef
Geiser, K. (2001). Materials matter: Toward a sustainable materials policy. Cambridge: MIT Press.
GIA. (2010). Maritime containerization: Market research report. Global Industry Analysts Inc. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.strategyr.com/Maritime_Containerization_Market_Report.asp.
Gillingwater, D., Humphreys, I., & Watson, R. (2003). Air freight and global supply chains: The environmental dimension. In P. Upham (Ed.), Towards sustainable aviation (pp. 149–162). London: Earthscan. Chapter 9.
Global Commission for Road Safety. (2007). Make roads safe: A new priority for sustainable development. Accessed August 4, 2012, from www.roadsafe.org.
Goodwin, P., Hallett, S., Kenny, F., & Stokes, G. (1991). Transport: The new realism. Report to the Rees Jeffreys Road Fund, TSU Oxford.
Gorham, R. (2002). Air pollution from ground transportation. An assessment of causes, strategies and tactics, and proposed actions for the international community. Division for Sustainable Development, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York.
Grant-Muller, S., & Laird, J. (2006). Costs of congestion: Literature based review of methodologies and analytical approaches. Transport Research Findings No.1/2006, Scottish Government, Edinburgh.
Gudmundsson, H., & Hojer, M. (1996). Sustainable development principles and their implications for transport. Ecological Economics, 19, 269–282. CrossRef
Guiver, J., & Jain, J. (2011). Grounded: Impacts of and insights from the volcanic ash cloud disruption. Mobilities, 6(1), 41–45. CrossRef
Haines, S. (2010). Systems thinking research rediscovered: Ludwig von Bertalanffy and the Society for General Systems Research’s relevance in the 21st century. In Proceedings of the 54th annual meeting of the ISSS.
Hall, R. P. (2006). Sustainable transportation. PhD. Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Headicar, P. (2009). Transport policy and planning in Great Britain. Oxon: Routledge.
Hesse, M., & Rodrigue, J.-P. (2004). The transport geography of logistics and freight distribution. Journal of Transport Geography, 12, 171–184. CrossRef
Hickman, R., & Banister, D. (2009, September 28–30). Backcasting for low carbon transport—London and Delhi. In University of Oxford, 4 Degrees and beyond conference, St Anne’s College.
Hille, J. (1997). The concept of environmental space—Implications for policies, environmental reporting and assessments. European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen.
Hirsch, R. (2005). The inevitable peaking of world oil production. The Atlantic Council of the US. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.hilltoplancers.org/stories/hirsch0502.pdf.
Hubers, C., Lyons, G., & Birtchnell, T. (2011, January 5–7). The unusual suspects: The impacts of non-transport technologies on social practices and travel demand. In: 43rd Universities Transport Study Group conference, Milton Keynes, UK.
IATA. (2011, June). IATA industry fact sheets. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.iata.org/pressroom/facts_figures/fact_sheets/Pages/index.aspx.
Industry Taskforce on Peak Oil and Energy Security. (2010). The oil crunch: A wake up call for the UK economy. Industry Taskforce on Peak Oil and Energy Security. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://peakoiltaskforce.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/final-report-uk-itpoes_report_the-oil-crunch_feb20101.pdf.
Kanari, N., Pineau, J.-L., & Shallari, S. (2003). End-of-life vehicle recycling in the European Union. Journal of the Minerals Metals and Materials Society, 55, 15–19. CrossRef
Leleur, S. (2008). Systems science and complexity: Some proposals for future development. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 25, 67–79. CrossRef
Lodge, M. (2003). Institutional choice and policy transfer: Reforming British and German Railway Regulation. Governance, 16(2), 159–178. CrossRef
Lucas, K. (Ed.) (2004). Transport and social exclusion: A G7 comparison. FIA Foundation.
Lyons, G. (2009). The reshaping of activities and mobility through new technologies. Journal of Transport Geography, 17, 81–82. CrossRef
Maddison, D., Pearce, D., Johansson, O., Calthrop, E., Litman, T., & Verhoef, E. (1996). The true cost of road transport. London: Earthscan.
Mallard, G., & Glaister, S. (2008). Transport economics: Theory, application and policy. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Manheim, M. L. (1979). Fundamentals of transportation systems analysis (Vol. 1). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
May, A. D., & Marsden, G. (2010). Urban Transport and Mobility, Forum paper 5, International transport forum 2010, Transport and innovation: Unleashing the potential, Leipzig. http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/Pub/pdf/10FP05.pdf
McKinnon, A. (2008, May 28–30). The potential of economic incentives to reduce CO 2 emissions from goods transport. Paper prepared for the 1st International Transport Forum on ‘Transport and Energy: The Challenge of Climate Change’, Leipzig. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/Topics/Workshops/WS3McKinnon.pdf.
Metz, D. (2010). Saturation of demand for daily travel. Transport Reviews, 30(5), 659–674. CrossRef
Metz, B., Davidson, O. R., Bosch, P. R., Dave, R., & Meyer, L. A. (2007). Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg3/en/contents.html.
Meyer, M. D., & Miller, E. J. (2001). Urban transportation planning (2nd ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-120000-2.
Millard-Ball, A., & Schipper, L. (2011). Are we reaching peak travel? Trends in passenger transport in eight industrialized countries. Transport Reviews, 31(3), 357–378. CrossRef
Nellthorp, J., & Mackie, P. J. (2000). The UK roads review: A hedonic model of decision-making. Transport Policy, 7(2), 127–138. CrossRef
ODI. (2011). Disability facts and figures. Office for Disability Issues. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://odi.dwp.gov.uk/disability-statistics-and-research/disability-facts-and-figures.php#gd.
ONS. (2011). Government revenues from environmental taxes 1993-2010. Office for National Statistics. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-224120.
Peng, Z. (2011). Urban transportation strategies in Chinese cities and their impacts on the urban poor. Wilson Center. Accessed November 14, 2014, from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/urban-transportation-strategies-chinese-cities-and-their-impacts-the-urban-poor.
Peters, A., von Klot, S., Heier, M., Ines Trentinaglia, I., Hörmann, A., Wichmann, E., et al. (2004). Exposure to traffic and the onset of myocardial infarction. The New England Journal of Medicine, 351(17), 1721–1731. CrossRef
Reardon, L., Abdallah, S., & Seaford, C. (2011). The road to well-being: The relationships between transport and well-being: A report on the existing literature. New Economics Foundation. Accessed August 4, 2012, from www.neweconomics.org.
Rodrigue, J.-P. (2006). Transportation and the geographical and functional integration of global production networks. Growth and Change, 37(4), 510–525. CrossRef
Rodrigue, J.-P., Comtois, C., & Slack, B. (2009). The geography of transport systems. New York: Routledge.
Rogers, S. (2011). Government spending by department, 2010-11: Get the data. The Guardian on-line. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/oct/26/government-spending-department-2010-11.
Rothengatter, W. (2003). Environmental concepts—Physical and economic. In D. A. Hensher & K. J. Button (Eds.), Handbook of transport and the environment (pp. 9–35). London: Elsevier.
Schafer, A., Heywood, J., Jacoby, H. D., & Waitz, I. (2009). Transportation in a climate constrained world. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Schafer, A., & Victor, D. G. (2000). The future mobility of the world population. Transportation Research Part A, 24, 171–205.
Schrank, D., & Lomax, T. (2009). 2009 Urban mobility report. Texas Transportation Institute. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://mobility.tamu.edu.
SEU. (2003). Making the connections: Final report on transport and social exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit London.
Short, J., Van Dender, K., & Crist, P. (2009). Transport policy and climate change. In D. Sperling & J. Cannon (Eds.), Reducing climate impacts in the transportation sector (pp. 35–48). New York: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-6978-9.
Singh, S. K. (2005). Future mobility in India: Implications for energy demand and CO 2 emission. Transport Policy, 13, 398–412. CrossRef
Spellerberg, I. F. (2002). Ecological effects of roads. Enfield: Science.
Sperling, D., & Gordon, D. (2009, November–December). Two billion cars: Transforming a culture. Transportation Research News 259. Transportation Research Board.
Standing Advisory Committee on Trunk Road Appraisal (SACTRA). (1999). Transport and the Economy: Full report (SACTRA). Department for Transport (DfT), London.
Sussman, J. M. (2000). Introduction to transportation systems. Boston: Artech House.
Tian, Y., Zhu, Q., Lai, K.-H., & Venus Lun, Y. H. (2014). Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of freight transport sector in China. Journal of Transport Geography, 40, 43–52. CrossRef
Transportation Research Board (TRB). (1997). Toward a sustainable future: Addressing the long-term effects of motor vehicle transportation on climate and ecology. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
United Nations. (2006). Some facts about persons with disabilities. Accessed November 14, 2014, from http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/pdfs/factsheet.pdf.
Van Acker, V., & Witlox, F. (2005). Exploring the relationships between land-use system and travel behaviour concepts: Some first findings. Solstice: An Electronic Journal of Geography and Mathematics, XVI(2), 1–14.
Vermeulen, I., Van Caneghem, J., Block, C., Baeyens, J., & Vandecasteele, C. (2011). Automotive shredder residue (ASR): Reviewing its production from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and its recycling, energy or chemicals’ valorization. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 190(1–3), 8–27. CrossRef
Victoria Transport Policy Institute (VTPI). (2005). Sustainable transportation and TDM. Planning that balances economic, social and ecological objectives. TDM Encyclopedia.
von Weizsäcker, E. U., Hargroves, K. C., Smith, M. H., Desha, C., & Stasinopoulos, P. (2010). Factor five: Transforming the global economy through 80% improvements in resource productivity. London: Earthscan.
Wachs, M. (2005). What are the challenges to creating sustainable transportation? In TRB conference on integrating sustainability into the transportation planning process, 11–13 July 2004, Baltimore, TRB Conference Proceedings 37.
Watts, L., & Urry, J. (2008). Moving methods, travelling times. Environment and Planning Part D: Society and Space, 26, 860–874. CrossRef
WBCSD. (2004). Mobility 2030: Meeting the challenges to sustainability. World Business Council for Sustainable Development, The Sustainable Mobility Project: Full Report, Geneva. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.wbcsd.org.
Wegman, F., Eksler, V., Hayes, S., Lynam, D., Morsink, P., & Oppe, S. (Eds.). (2005). SUNflower+6: A comparative study of the development of road safety in the SUNflower+6 countries; Final report. Leidschendam: SWOV.
Whitelegg, J. (1993). Transport for a sustainable future: The case for Europe. London: Belhaven Press.
Whitelegg, J. (1997). Critical mass: Transport, environment and society in the twenty-first century. London: Pluto Press.
Whitelegg, J., & Haq, G. (2003). The global transport problem: Same issues but different place. In J. Whitelegg & G. Haq (Eds.), World transport: Policy and practice (pp. 3–25). London: Earthscan.
WHO. (2004). World report on road traffic injury prevention. Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 92 415 6260 9.
WHO. (2009). Air quality and health: Fact sheet no 313. World Health Organization. Accessed August 4, 2012, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/index.html.
WHO. (2013). Gobal status report on road safety 2013: Supporting a decade of action. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
Zhao, P. (2014). Private motorised urban mobility in China’s large cities: The social causes of change and an agenda for future research. Journal of Transport Geography, 40, 53–63. CrossRef
Zietsman, J., & Rilett, L. R. (2002). Sustainable transportation: Conceptualization and performance measures (p. 149). Austin, TX: University of Texas.
Banister, D. (2002). Transport planning. London: Routledge.
Cowie, J. (2010). The economics of transport: A theoretical and applied perspective, Oxon: Routledge.
Mallard, G., & Glaister, S. (2008). Transport economics: Theory, application and policy, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Sperling, D., & Gordon, D. (2009). Two billion cars: Driving toward sustainability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Planning for Transportation
Ralph P. Hall
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta