Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in:
Buchtitelbild

2012 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

Plastics in the Marine Environment: The Dark Side of a Modern Gift

verfasst von: Jort Hammer, Michiel H. S. Kraak, John R. Parsons

Erschienen in: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Verlag: Springer New York

share
TEILEN

Abstract

Plastics are one of the most widely used materials in the world; they are broadly integrated into today’s lifestyle and make a major contribution to almost all product areas. The typical characteristics that render them so useful relate primarily to the fact that they are both flexible and durable. These characteristics are very useful when plastics are used in everyday life. But when plastics are discarded into the environment they can persist for very long periods of time. Because of their nearly indestructible morphology and the toxins they contain, plastics can seriously affect ecosystems (UNEP 2005).
Fußnoten
1
 The term plastics refers to a large number of synthetic organic compounds that have a polymeric structure and the ability to be cast in various shapes. However, the term plastic only refers to the plasticity of a material.
 
2
Degradation implies here to the loss of useful properties following chemical changes in polymeric materials. When plastic material is technically said to be fully degraded, the polymer structure no longer exists (Andrady 1994 ).
 
3
Actinism is the intrinsic property in radiation that produces photochemical activity.
 
4
A chromophore is a chemical group capable of selective light absorption resulting in the coloration of certain aromatic organic compounds.
 
5
A free-radical is a usually short-lived atom or molecule with at least one unpaired electron. Free-radicals are often highly reactive and unstable.
 
6
 A fish trap consisting of a net suspended over a series of hoops, laid horizontally in the water.
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat ACC (2010) How is plastic made? American Chemistry Council, Plastics Division, the Chlorine Chemistry Division, and the Chemical Products and Technology Division ACC (2010) How is plastic made? American Chemistry Council, Plastics Division, the Chlorine Chemistry Division, and the Chemical Products and Technology Division
Zurück zum Zitat Aliani S, Molcard A (2003) Hitch-Hiking on floating marine debris: macrobenthic species in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Hydrobiologia 503(1):59–67 CrossRef Aliani S, Molcard A (2003) Hitch-Hiking on floating marine debris: macrobenthic species in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Hydrobiologia 503(1):59–67 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Allsopp M, Walters A, Santillo D, Johnston P (2007) Plastic debris in the World’s oceans, Greenpeace Allsopp M, Walters A, Santillo D, Johnston P (2007) Plastic debris in the World’s oceans, Greenpeace
Zurück zum Zitat Andrady AL, Pegram JE, Tropsha Y (1993) Changes in carbonyl index and average molecular weight on embrittlement of enhanced-photodegradable polyethylenes. J Polym Environ 1(3):171–179 CrossRef Andrady AL, Pegram JE, Tropsha Y (1993) Changes in carbonyl index and average molecular weight on embrittlement of enhanced-photodegradable polyethylenes. J Polym Environ 1(3):171–179 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Andrady AL (1994) Assessment of environmental biodegradation of synthetic polymers. J Macromol Sci, Part C: Polym Rev 34(1):25–76 CrossRef Andrady AL (1994) Assessment of environmental biodegradation of synthetic polymers. J Macromol Sci, Part C: Polym Rev 34(1):25–76 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Andrady AL, Hamid SH, Hu X, Torikai A (1998) Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on materials. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 46(1–3):96–103 CrossRef Andrady AL, Hamid SH, Hu X, Torikai A (1998) Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on materials. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 46(1–3):96–103 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Andrady AL (2011) Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1596–1605 CrossRef Andrady AL (2011) Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1596–1605 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Baird RW, Hooker SK (2000) Ingestion of plastic and unusual prey by a juvenile harbour porpoise. Mar Pollut Bull 40(8):719–720 CrossRef Baird RW, Hooker SK (2000) Ingestion of plastic and unusual prey by a juvenile harbour porpoise. Mar Pollut Bull 40(8):719–720 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Barnes DKA (2002) Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris. Nature 416(6883):808–809 CrossRef Barnes DKA (2002) Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris. Nature 416(6883):808–809 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Barnes DKA, Milner P (2005) Drifting plastic and its consequences for sessile organism dispersal in the atlantic ocean. Mar Biol 146(4):815–825 CrossRef Barnes DKA, Milner P (2005) Drifting plastic and its consequences for sessile organism dispersal in the atlantic ocean. Mar Biol 146(4):815–825 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Barnes KA, Galgani F, Thompson RC, Barlaz M (2009) Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Philos Trans Royal Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 364(1526):1985–1998 CrossRef Barnes KA, Galgani F, Thompson RC, Barlaz M (2009) Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Philos Trans Royal Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 364(1526):1985–1998 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bocio A, Domingo JL, Falcó G, Llobet JM (2007) Concentrations of Pcdd/Pcdfs and Pcbs in Fish and Seafood from the Catalan (Spain) market: estimated human intake. Environ Int 33(2):170–175 CrossRef Bocio A, Domingo JL, Falcó G, Llobet JM (2007) Concentrations of Pcdd/Pcdfs and Pcbs in Fish and Seafood from the Catalan (Spain) market: estimated human intake. Environ Int 33(2):170–175 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bruin D (2004) Aanspoelen Bultrug Op De Vliehors. Vlieland, The Netherlands Bruin D (2004) Aanspoelen Bultrug Op De Vliehors. Vlieland, The Netherlands
Zurück zum Zitat Bugoni L, Krause L, Virgínia Petry M (2001) Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in Southern Brazil. Mar Pollut Bull 42(12):1330–1334 CrossRef Bugoni L, Krause L, Virgínia Petry M (2001) Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in Southern Brazil. Mar Pollut Bull 42(12):1330–1334 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Camphuysen K (2001) Northern Gannets Morus Bassanus found dead in the Netherlands, 1970–2000. Dutch Seabird Group, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ) Camphuysen K (2001) Northern Gannets Morus Bassanus found dead in the Netherlands, 1970–2000. Dutch Seabird Group, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ)
Zurück zum Zitat Carson HS, Colbert SL, Kaylor MJ, McDermid KJ (2011) Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1708–1713 CrossRef Carson HS, Colbert SL, Kaylor MJ, McDermid KJ (2011) Small plastic debris changes water movement and heat transfer through beach sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1708–1713 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Cheshire AC, Adler E, Barbière J, Cohen Y, Evans S, Jarayabhand S, Jeftic L, Jung RT, Kinsey S, Kusui ET, Lavine I, Manyara P, Oosterbaan L, Pereira MA, Sheavly S, Tkalin A, Aradarajan S, Wenneker B, Westphalen G (2009). Unep/Ioc guidelines on survey and monitoring of marine litter, UNEP regional seas reports and studies. Vol. IOC Technical Series No. 83+ 120 Cheshire AC, Adler E, Barbière J, Cohen Y, Evans S, Jarayabhand S, Jeftic L, Jung RT, Kinsey S, Kusui ET, Lavine I, Manyara P, Oosterbaan L, Pereira MA, Sheavly S, Tkalin A, Aradarajan S, Wenneker B, Westphalen G (2009). Unep/Ioc guidelines on survey and monitoring of marine litter, UNEP regional seas reports and studies. Vol. IOC Technical Series No. 83+ 120
Zurück zum Zitat Cho D-O (2011) Removing derelict fishing gear from the deep seabed of the East Sea. Mar Policy 35(5):610–614 CrossRef Cho D-O (2011) Removing derelict fishing gear from the deep seabed of the East Sea. Mar Policy 35(5):610–614 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Claessens M, Meester SD, Landuyt LV, Clerck KD, and Janssen CR (2011) Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in marine sediments along the Belgian Coast. Mar Pollut Bull 62(10): 2199–2204 Claessens M, Meester SD, Landuyt LV, Clerck KD, and Janssen CR (2011) Occurrence and distribution of microplastics in marine sediments along the Belgian Coast. Mar Pollut Bull 62(10): 2199–2204
Zurück zum Zitat Cliff G, Dudley S, Ryan PG, Singleton N (2002) Large sharks and plastic debris in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Mar Freshw Res 53:575–581 CrossRef Cliff G, Dudley S, Ryan PG, Singleton N (2002) Large sharks and plastic debris in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Mar Freshw Res 53:575–581 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Coyne MS (1994) Feeding ecology of subadult green sea turtles in South Texas waters, University of Florida Coyne MS (1994) Feeding ecology of subadult green sea turtles in South Texas waters, University of Florida
Zurück zum Zitat Darnerud PO (2003) Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife. Environ Int 29(6):841–853 CrossRef Darnerud PO (2003) Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife. Environ Int 29(6):841–853 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Davison P, Asch RG (2011) Plastic ingestion by mesopelagic fishes in the north pacific subtropical gyre. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 432:173–180 CrossRef Davison P, Asch RG (2011) Plastic ingestion by mesopelagic fishes in the north pacific subtropical gyre. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 432:173–180 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat De Laender F, Hammer J, Hendriks AJ, Soetaert K, Janssen CR (2011) Combining monitoring data and modeling identifies PAHs as emerging contaminants in the Arctic. Environ Sci Technol 45(20):9024–9029 CrossRef De Laender F, Hammer J, Hendriks AJ, Soetaert K, Janssen CR (2011) Combining monitoring data and modeling identifies PAHs as emerging contaminants in the Arctic. Environ Sci Technol 45(20):9024–9029 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Denuncio P, Bastida R, Dassis M, Giardino G, Gerpe M, Rodríguez D (2011) Plastic ingestion in Franciscana Dolphins, Pontoporia Blainvillei (Gervais and D’orbigny, 1844), from Argentina. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1836–1841 CrossRef Denuncio P, Bastida R, Dassis M, Giardino G, Gerpe M, Rodríguez D (2011) Plastic ingestion in Franciscana Dolphins, Pontoporia Blainvillei (Gervais and D’orbigny, 1844), from Argentina. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1836–1841 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Derraik JGB (2002) The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 44(9):842–852 CrossRef Derraik JGB (2002) The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 44(9):842–852 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Diamanti-Kandarakis E (2009) Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: an endocrine society scientific statement. Endocr Rev 30(4):293–342 CrossRef Diamanti-Kandarakis E (2009) Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: an endocrine society scientific statement. Endocr Rev 30(4):293–342 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ebbesmeyer CC, Ingraham WJ (1994) Pacific toy spill fuels ocean current pathways research. Eos Trans AGU 75(37):425 CrossRef Ebbesmeyer CC, Ingraham WJ (1994) Pacific toy spill fuels ocean current pathways research. Eos Trans AGU 75(37):425 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ebewele RO (2000) Polymer science and technology, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall College Div, Upper Saddle River, NJ CrossRef Ebewele RO (2000) Polymer science and technology, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall College Div, Upper Saddle River, NJ CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Edyvane KS, Dalgetty A, Hone PW, Higham JS, Wace NM (2004) Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia. Mar Pollut Bull 48(11–12):1060–1075 CrossRef Edyvane KS, Dalgetty A, Hone PW, Higham JS, Wace NM (2004) Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia. Mar Pollut Bull 48(11–12):1060–1075 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat EPA (1993) Plastic pellets in the aquatic environment, sources and recommendations. Washington, DC, United States Environmental Protection Agency Oceans and Coastal Protection Division, Marine Debris Section: 130 EPA (1993) Plastic pellets in the aquatic environment, sources and recommendations. Washington, DC, United States Environmental Protection Agency Oceans and Coastal Protection Division, Marine Debris Section: 130
Zurück zum Zitat EPA (2008) Municipal solid waste generation, recycling and disposal in the United States: facts and figures for 2008, United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA (2008) Municipal solid waste generation, recycling and disposal in the United States: facts and figures for 2008, United States Environmental Protection Agency
Zurück zum Zitat Eriksson C, Burton H (2003) Origins and biological accumulation of small plastic particles in fur seals from Macquarie Island. AMBIO: J Human Environ 32(6):380–384 Eriksson C, Burton H (2003) Origins and biological accumulation of small plastic particles in fur seals from Macquarie Island. AMBIO: J Human Environ 32(6):380–384
Zurück zum Zitat Fendall LS, Sewell MA (2009) Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers. Mar Pollut Bull 58(8):1225–1228 CrossRef Fendall LS, Sewell MA (2009) Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers. Mar Pollut Bull 58(8):1225–1228 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Galgani F, Lecornu F (2004) Debris on the Sea Floor at Hausgarten: In the Expedition Arktis Xix/3 of the Research Vessel Polarstern in 2003. Berichte Polar, Meeresforsch, 488 Galgani F, Lecornu F (2004) Debris on the Sea Floor at Hausgarten: In the Expedition Arktis Xix/3 of the Research Vessel Polarstern in 2003. Berichte Polar, Meeresforsch, 488
Zurück zum Zitat Gioia R, Nizzetto L, Lohmann R, Dachs J, Temme C, Jones KC (2008) Polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in air and seawater of the Atlantic Ocean: sources, trends and processes. Environ Sci Technol 42(5):1416–1422 CrossRef Gioia R, Nizzetto L, Lohmann R, Dachs J, Temme C, Jones KC (2008) Polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in air and seawater of the Atlantic Ocean: sources, trends and processes. Environ Sci Technol 42(5):1416–1422 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gouin T, Roche N, Lohmann R, Hodges G (2011) A thermodynamic approach for assessing the environmental exposure of chemicals absorbed to microplastic. Environ Sci Techno 45(4):1466–1472 CrossRef Gouin T, Roche N, Lohmann R, Hodges G (2011) A thermodynamic approach for assessing the environmental exposure of chemicals absorbed to microplastic. Environ Sci Techno 45(4):1466–1472 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gregory MR (1978) Accumulation and distribution of virgin plastic granules on New Zealand beaches. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 12:399–414 CrossRef Gregory MR (1978) Accumulation and distribution of virgin plastic granules on New Zealand beaches. N Z J Mar Freshw Res 12:399–414 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gregory MR (1996) Plastic ‘scrubbers’ in hand cleansers: a further (and minor) source for marine pollution identified. Mar Pollut Bull 32(12):867–871 CrossRef Gregory MR (1996) Plastic ‘scrubbers’ in hand cleansers: a further (and minor) source for marine pollution identified. Mar Pollut Bull 32(12):867–871 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gustafsson K, Björk M, Burreau S, Gilek M (1999) Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in Blue Mussels ( Mytilus Edulis). Environ Tox Chem 18:1218–1224 Gustafsson K, Björk M, Burreau S, Gilek M (1999) Bioaccumulation kinetics of brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) in Blue Mussels ( Mytilus Edulis). Environ Tox Chem 18:1218–1224
Zurück zum Zitat Hale RC, La Guardia MJ, Harvey E, Matt Mainor T (2002) Potential role of fire retardant-treated polyurethane foam as a source of brominated diphenyl ethers to the US environment. Chemosphere 46(5):729–735 CrossRef Hale RC, La Guardia MJ, Harvey E, Matt Mainor T (2002) Potential role of fire retardant-treated polyurethane foam as a source of brominated diphenyl ethers to the US environment. Chemosphere 46(5):729–735 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hamidi SHHA (2000) Handbook of polymer degradation. CRC, Boca Raton, FL Hamidi SHHA (2000) Handbook of polymer degradation. CRC, Boca Raton, FL
Zurück zum Zitat Hanni KD, Pyle P (2000) Entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic materials at South-East Farallon Island, California, 1976–1998. Mar Pollut Bull 40(12):1076–1081 CrossRef Hanni KD, Pyle P (2000) Entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic materials at South-East Farallon Island, California, 1976–1998. Mar Pollut Bull 40(12):1076–1081 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hosler D, Burkett SL, Tarkanian MJ (1999) Prehistoric polymers: rubber processing in ancient Mesoamerica. Science 284(5422):1988–1991 CrossRef Hosler D, Burkett SL, Tarkanian MJ (1999) Prehistoric polymers: rubber processing in ancient Mesoamerica. Science 284(5422):1988–1991 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hoss DE, Settle LR (eds) (1990) Ingestion of plastics by teleost fishes. Proceedings of the second international conference on marine debris. Honolulu, Hawaii Hoss DE, Settle LR (eds) (1990) Ingestion of plastics by teleost fishes. Proceedings of the second international conference on marine debris. Honolulu, Hawaii
Zurück zum Zitat Johnson S, Kenney R, Kraus L, Clapham (2005) Fishing gear involved in entanglements of right and humpback whales. ROYAUME-UNI, Blackwell, Oxford Johnson S, Kenney R, Kraus L, Clapham (2005) Fishing gear involved in entanglements of right and humpback whales. ROYAUME-UNI, Blackwell, Oxford
Zurück zum Zitat Katsanevakis S, Katsarou A (2004) Influences on the distribution of marine debris on the seafloor of shallow coastal areas in Greece (Eastern Mediterranean). Water Air Soil Pollut 159(1):325–337 CrossRef Katsanevakis S, Katsarou A (2004) Influences on the distribution of marine debris on the seafloor of shallow coastal areas in Greece (Eastern Mediterranean). Water Air Soil Pollut 159(1):325–337 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kenyon KW, Kridler E (1969) Laysan albatrosses swallow indigestible matter. Auk 86:339–343 CrossRef Kenyon KW, Kridler E (1969) Laysan albatrosses swallow indigestible matter. Auk 86:339–343 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat KIMO (2010) Fishing for Litter, Kommunenes Internasjonale Miljoorganisasjon, Local Authorities International Environmental Organisation KIMO (2010) Fishing for Litter, Kommunenes Internasjonale Miljoorganisasjon, Local Authorities International Environmental Organisation
Zurück zum Zitat Koch HM, Calafat AM (2009) Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2063–2078 CrossRef Koch HM, Calafat AM (2009) Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2063–2078 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Laist DW (1997) Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In: Coe JM, Rogers DB (eds) Marine debris: sources, impacts, and solutions. Springer Series on Environmental Management, pp 99–139 Laist DW (1997) Impacts of marine debris: entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestion records. In: Coe JM, Rogers DB (eds) Marine debris: sources, impacts, and solutions. Springer Series on Environmental Management, pp 99–139
Zurück zum Zitat Law KL, Morét-Ferguson S, Maximenko NA, Proskurowski G, Peacock EE, Hafner J, Reddy CM (2010) Plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. Science 329(5996):1185–1188 CrossRef Law KL, Morét-Ferguson S, Maximenko NA, Proskurowski G, Peacock EE, Hafner J, Reddy CM (2010) Plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. Science 329(5996):1185–1188 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Legler J (2008) New insights into the endocrine disrupting effects of brominated flame retardants. Chemosphere 73(2):216–222 CrossRef Legler J (2008) New insights into the endocrine disrupting effects of brominated flame retardants. Chemosphere 73(2):216–222 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Liddell HG, Scott R, Jones HS, Barber EA (1968) A Greek-English Lexicon compiled by Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott. The Clarendon, London Liddell HG, Scott R, Jones HS, Barber EA (1968) A Greek-English Lexicon compiled by Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott. The Clarendon, London
Zurück zum Zitat Mallory M, Robertston G, Moenting A (2006) Marine plastic debris in Northern Fulmars from Davis Strait, Nunavut. Oxford, ROYAUME-UNI, Elsevier, Canada Mallory M, Robertston G, Moenting A (2006) Marine plastic debris in Northern Fulmars from Davis Strait, Nunavut. Oxford, ROYAUME-UNI, Elsevier, Canada
Zurück zum Zitat Mato Y, Isobe T, Takada H, Kanehiro H, Ohtake C, Kaminuma T (2000) Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 35(2):318–324 CrossRef Mato Y, Isobe T, Takada H, Kanehiro H, Ohtake C, Kaminuma T (2000) Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 35(2):318–324 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mato Y, Isobe T, Takada H, Kanehiro H, Ohtake C, Kaminuma T (2001) Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 35(2):318–324 CrossRef Mato Y, Isobe T, Takada H, Kanehiro H, Ohtake C, Kaminuma T (2001) Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 35(2):318–324 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat McIlgorm A, Campbell HF, Rule MJ (2011) The economic cost and control of marine debris damage in the Asia-Pacific region. Ocean Coastal Manage 54(9):643–651 CrossRef McIlgorm A, Campbell HF, Rule MJ (2011) The economic cost and control of marine debris damage in the Asia-Pacific region. Ocean Coastal Manage 54(9):643–651 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Moore CJ, Leecaster MK, Moore SL, Weisberg SB (2001) A Comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific Central Gyre. Mar Pollut Bull 42(12):1297–1300 CrossRef Moore CJ, Leecaster MK, Moore SL, Weisberg SB (2001) A Comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific Central Gyre. Mar Pollut Bull 42(12):1297–1300 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Moore CJ, Lattin GL, Zellers AF (2005) Density of plastic particles found in zooplankton trawls from coastal waters of California to the North Pacific Central Gyre, Algalita Marine Research Foundation Moore CJ, Lattin GL, Zellers AF (2005) Density of plastic particles found in zooplankton trawls from coastal waters of California to the North Pacific Central Gyre, Algalita Marine Research Foundation
Zurück zum Zitat Moore CJ, Lattin GL, Zellers AF (2011) Quantity and type of plastic debris flowing from two urban rivers to coastal waters and beaches of Southern California. J Integrated Coastal Zone Manage 11(1):65–73 Moore CJ, Lattin GL, Zellers AF (2011) Quantity and type of plastic debris flowing from two urban rivers to coastal waters and beaches of Southern California. J Integrated Coastal Zone Manage 11(1):65–73
Zurück zum Zitat Morris PJT (1986) Polymer pioneers: a popular history of the science and technology of large molecules. Philadelphia, Center for history of chemistry polymer project Morris PJT (1986) Polymer pioneers: a popular history of the science and technology of large molecules. Philadelphia, Center for history of chemistry polymer project
Zurück zum Zitat Moser ML, Lee DS (1992) A fourteen-year survey of plastic ingestion by Western North Atlantic Seabirds. Colon Waterbirds 15(1):83–94 CrossRef Moser ML, Lee DS (1992) A fourteen-year survey of plastic ingestion by Western North Atlantic Seabirds. Colon Waterbirds 15(1):83–94 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Nadal A, Alonso-Magdalena P, Soriano S, Quesada I, Ropero AB (2009) The pancreatic [beta]-cell as a target of estrogens and xenoestrogens: implications for blood glucose homeostasis and diabetes. Mol Cell Endocrinol 304(1–2):63–68 CrossRef Nadal A, Alonso-Magdalena P, Soriano S, Quesada I, Ropero AB (2009) The pancreatic [beta]-cell as a target of estrogens and xenoestrogens: implications for blood glucose homeostasis and diabetes. Mol Cell Endocrinol 304(1–2):63–68 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ng KL, Obbard JP (2006) Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore’s coastal marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 52(7):761–767 CrossRef Ng KL, Obbard JP (2006) Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore’s coastal marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 52(7):761–767 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat O’Hara K, Iudicello S, Bierce R (1988) A citizen’s guide to plastics in the ocean: more than a litter problem. Center for Marine Conservation, Washington, DC O’Hara K, Iudicello S, Bierce R (1988) A citizen’s guide to plastics in the ocean: more than a litter problem. Center for Marine Conservation, Washington, DC
Zurück zum Zitat Oehlmann J, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Kloas W, Jagnytsch O, Lutz I, Kusk KO, Wollenberger L, Santos EM, Paull GC, Van Look KJW, Tyler CR (2009) A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2047–2062 CrossRef Oehlmann J, Schulte-Oehlmann U, Kloas W, Jagnytsch O, Lutz I, Kusk KO, Wollenberger L, Santos EM, Paull GC, Van Look KJW, Tyler CR (2009) A critical analysis of the biological impacts of plasticizers on wildlife. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2047–2062 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ogata Y, Takada H, Mizukawa K, Hirai H, Iwasa S, Endo S, Mato Y, Saha M, Okuda K, Nakashima A, Murakami M, Zurcher N, Booyatumanondo R, Zakaria MP, Dung LQ, Gordon M, Miguez C, Suzuki S, Moore C, Karapanagioti HK, Weerts S, McClurg T, Burres E, Smith W, Velkenburg MV, Lang JS, Lang RC, Laursen D, Danner B, Stewardson N, Thompson RC (2009) International pellet watch: global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (Pops) in coastal waters. 1. Initial phase data on Pcbs, Ddts, and Hchs. Mar Pollut Bull 58(10):1437–1446 CrossRef Ogata Y, Takada H, Mizukawa K, Hirai H, Iwasa S, Endo S, Mato Y, Saha M, Okuda K, Nakashima A, Murakami M, Zurcher N, Booyatumanondo R, Zakaria MP, Dung LQ, Gordon M, Miguez C, Suzuki S, Moore C, Karapanagioti HK, Weerts S, McClurg T, Burres E, Smith W, Velkenburg MV, Lang JS, Lang RC, Laursen D, Danner B, Stewardson N, Thompson RC (2009) International pellet watch: global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (Pops) in coastal waters. 1. Initial phase data on Pcbs, Ddts, and Hchs. Mar Pollut Bull 58(10):1437–1446 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Omori K, Guo X, Yoshie N, Fujii N, Handoh IC, Isobe A, Tanabe S (2011) Toxic metals in polyethylene plastic litter. TERRAPUB interdisciplinary studies on environmental chemistry (Marine Environmental Modeling & Analysis) pp 271–277 Omori K, Guo X, Yoshie N, Fujii N, Handoh IC, Isobe A, Tanabe S (2011) Toxic metals in polyethylene plastic litter. TERRAPUB interdisciplinary studies on environmental chemistry (Marine Environmental Modeling & Analysis) pp 271–277
Zurück zum Zitat Orós T, Calabuig P, Déniz S (2005) Diseases and causes of mortality among sea turtles stranded in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998–2001). Dis Aquat Organ 63:13–24 CrossRef Orós T, Calabuig P, Déniz S (2005) Diseases and causes of mortality among sea turtles stranded in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998–2001). Dis Aquat Organ 63:13–24 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat OSPAR (2008) Background document for the Ecoqo on plastic particles in stomachs of seabirds, Biodiversity Series, London. OSPAR Commission, 18 pp OSPAR (2008) Background document for the Ecoqo on plastic particles in stomachs of seabirds, Biodiversity Series, London. OSPAR Commission, 18 pp
Zurück zum Zitat Page B, McKenzie J, McIntosh R, Baylis A, Morrissey A, Calvert N, Haase T, Berris M, Dowie D, Shaughnessy PD, Goldsworthy SD (2004) Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after government and industry attempts to reduce the problem. Mar Pollut Bull 49(1–2):33–42 CrossRef Page B, McKenzie J, McIntosh R, Baylis A, Morrissey A, Calvert N, Haase T, Berris M, Dowie D, Shaughnessy PD, Goldsworthy SD (2004) Entanglement of Australian sea lions and New Zealand fur seals in lost fishing gear and other marine debris before and after government and industry attempts to reduce the problem. Mar Pollut Bull 49(1–2):33–42 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat PEMRG (2010) Plastics – the facts 2010: an analysis of European plastics production, demand and recovery for 2009, PlasticsEurope Market Research Group PEMRG (2010) Plastics – the facts 2010: an analysis of European plastics production, demand and recovery for 2009, PlasticsEurope Market Research Group
Zurück zum Zitat PEMRG (2011) Plastics – the facts 2011: an analysis of European plastics production, demand and recovery for 2010, PlasticsEurope Market Research Group PEMRG (2011) Plastics – the facts 2011: an analysis of European plastics production, demand and recovery for 2010, PlasticsEurope Market Research Group
Zurück zum Zitat Randall JE (1992) Review of the biology of the tiger shark (Galeocerdo Cuvier). Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 1992(43):21–31 CrossRef Randall JE (1992) Review of the biology of the tiger shark (Galeocerdo Cuvier). Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 1992(43):21–31 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Robarts MK, Piatt JF, Wohl KD (1995) increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the Subarctic North Pacific. ROYAUME-UNI, Elsevier, Oxford Robarts MK, Piatt JF, Wohl KD (1995) increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the Subarctic North Pacific. ROYAUME-UNI, Elsevier, Oxford
Zurück zum Zitat Ross JB, Parker R, Strickland M (1991) A survey of shoreline litter in Halifax Harbour 1989. Mar Pollut Bull 22(5):245–248 CrossRef Ross JB, Parker R, Strickland M (1991) A survey of shoreline litter in Halifax Harbour 1989. Mar Pollut Bull 22(5):245–248 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ryan PG, Conella AD, Gardner BD (1988) Plastic ingestion and Pcbs in seabirds: is there a relationship? Mar Pollut Bull 19(4):174–176 CrossRef Ryan PG, Conella AD, Gardner BD (1988) Plastic ingestion and Pcbs in seabirds: is there a relationship? Mar Pollut Bull 19(4):174–176 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ryan PG, Moore CJ, van Franeker JA, Moloney CL (2009) Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):1999–2012 CrossRef Ryan PG, Moore CJ, van Franeker JA, Moloney CL (2009) Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):1999–2012 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Sajiki J, Yonekubo J (2003) Leaching of bisphenol a (Bpa) to seawater from polycarbonate plastic and its degradation by reactive oxygen species. Chemosphere 51(1):55–62 CrossRef Sajiki J, Yonekubo J (2003) Leaching of bisphenol a (Bpa) to seawater from polycarbonate plastic and its degradation by reactive oxygen species. Chemosphere 51(1):55–62 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Santos I, Friedrich A, Ivar do Sul J (2009) Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from Northeast Brazil. Environ Monit Assess 148(1):455–462 CrossRef Santos I, Friedrich A, Ivar do Sul J (2009) Marine debris contamination along undeveloped tropical beaches from Northeast Brazil. Environ Monit Assess 148(1):455–462 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Sax L (2009) Polyethylene terephthalate may yield endocrine disruptors. Environ Health Perspect 118:445–448 CrossRef Sax L (2009) Polyethylene terephthalate may yield endocrine disruptors. Environ Health Perspect 118:445–448 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Schrey E, Vauk GJM (1987) Records of Entangled Gannets (Sula Bassana) at Helgoland, German Bight. Mar Pollut Bull 18(6 (Suppl 2)):350–352 CrossRef Schrey E, Vauk GJM (1987) Records of Entangled Gannets (Sula Bassana) at Helgoland, German Bight. Mar Pollut Bull 18(6 (Suppl 2)):350–352 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Shaw DG, Day RH (1994) Colour- and Form-Dependent Loss of Plastic Micro-Debris from the North Pacific Ocean. ROYAUME-UNI, Elsevier, Oxford Shaw DG, Day RH (1994) Colour- and Form-Dependent Loss of Plastic Micro-Debris from the North Pacific Ocean. ROYAUME-UNI, Elsevier, Oxford
Zurück zum Zitat Sheavly SB (2005) Marine debris - an overview of a critical issue for our oceans. Sixth meeting of the UN open-ended informal consultative processes on oceans & the Law of the sea Sheavly SB (2005) Marine debris - an overview of a critical issue for our oceans. Sixth meeting of the UN open-ended informal consultative processes on oceans & the Law of the sea
Zurück zum Zitat Sivan A (2011) New perspectives in plastic biodegradation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22(3):422–426 CrossRef Sivan A (2011) New perspectives in plastic biodegradation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22(3):422–426 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Song JH, Murphy RJ, Narayan R, Davies GBH (2009) Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2127–2139 CrossRef Song JH, Murphy RJ, Narayan R, Davies GBH (2009) Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2127–2139 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Stefatos A, Charalampakis M, Papatheodorou G, Ferentinos G (1999) Marine debris on the seafloor of the mediterranean sea: examples from two enclosed gulfs in Western Greece. Mar Pollut Bull 38(5):389–393 CrossRef Stefatos A, Charalampakis M, Papatheodorou G, Ferentinos G (1999) Marine debris on the seafloor of the mediterranean sea: examples from two enclosed gulfs in Western Greece. Mar Pollut Bull 38(5):389–393 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Syrek D (1975) California litter: a comprehensive analysis and plan for abatement. The Institute for Applied Research, Sacramento, CA Syrek D (1975) California litter: a comprehensive analysis and plan for abatement. The Institute for Applied Research, Sacramento, CA
Zurück zum Zitat Takeuchi I, Miyoshi N, Mizukawa K, Takada H, Ikemoto T, Omori K, Tsuchiya K (2009) Biomagnification profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols and polychlorinated biphenyls in Tokyo Bay elucidated by [Delta]13c and [Delta]15n isotope ratios as guides to Trophic web structure. Mar Pollut Bull 58(5):663–671 CrossRef Takeuchi I, Miyoshi N, Mizukawa K, Takada H, Ikemoto T, Omori K, Tsuchiya K (2009) Biomagnification profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols and polychlorinated biphenyls in Tokyo Bay elucidated by [Delta]13c and [Delta]15n isotope ratios as guides to Trophic web structure. Mar Pollut Bull 58(5):663–671 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Teuten EL, Saquing JM, Knappe DRU, Barlaz MA, Jonsson S, Björn A, Rowland SJ, Thompson RC, Galloway TS, Yamashita R, Ochi D, Watanuki Y, Moore C, Viet PH, Tana TS, Prudente M, Boonyatumanond R, Zakaria MP, Akkhavong K, Ogata Y, Hirai H, Iwasa S, Mizukawa K, Hagino Y, Imamura A, Saha M, Takada H (2009) Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2027–2045 CrossRef Teuten EL, Saquing JM, Knappe DRU, Barlaz MA, Jonsson S, Björn A, Rowland SJ, Thompson RC, Galloway TS, Yamashita R, Ochi D, Watanuki Y, Moore C, Viet PH, Tana TS, Prudente M, Boonyatumanond R, Zakaria MP, Akkhavong K, Ogata Y, Hirai H, Iwasa S, Mizukawa K, Hagino Y, Imamura A, Saha M, Takada H (2009) Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2027–2045 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Thompson RC, Moore CJ, vom Saal FS, Swan SH (2009a) Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2153–2166 CrossRef Thompson RC, Moore CJ, vom Saal FS, Swan SH (2009a) Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):2153–2166 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Thompson RC, Swan SH, Moore CJ, vom Saal FS (2009b) Our plastic age. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):1973–1976 CrossRef Thompson RC, Swan SH, Moore CJ, vom Saal FS (2009b) Our plastic age. Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 364(1526):1973–1976 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Tomás J, Guitart R, Mateo R, Raga JA (2002) Marine debris ingestion in Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta Caretta, from the Western Mediterranean. Mar Pollut Bull 44(3):211–216 CrossRef Tomás J, Guitart R, Mateo R, Raga JA (2002) Marine debris ingestion in Loggerhead Sea Turtles, Caretta Caretta, from the Western Mediterranean. Mar Pollut Bull 44(3):211–216 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Tomy GT, Pleskach K, Arsenault G, Potter D, McCrindle R, Marvin CH, Sverko E, Tittlemier S (2008) Identilication of the novel cycloaliphatic brominated flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane in Canadian Arctic Beluga ( Delphinapterus Leucas). Environ Sci Technol 42:543–549 CrossRef Tomy GT, Pleskach K, Arsenault G, Potter D, McCrindle R, Marvin CH, Sverko E, Tittlemier S (2008) Identilication of the novel cycloaliphatic brominated flame retardant 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane in Canadian Arctic Beluga ( Delphinapterus Leucas). Environ Sci Technol 42:543–549 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat UNEP (2001) Marine litter - trash that kills, United Nations Environment Programme UNEP (2001) Marine litter - trash that kills, United Nations Environment Programme
Zurück zum Zitat UNEP (2005) Marine litter, an analytical overview. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi UNEP (2005) Marine litter, an analytical overview. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi
Zurück zum Zitat UNEP (2009a) Marine Litter: A Global Challenge. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, 232 UNEP (2009a) Marine Litter: A Global Challenge. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, 232
Zurück zum Zitat UNEP (2009b) Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear. United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome UNEP (2009b) Abandoned, lost or otherwise discarded fishing gear. United Nations Environment Programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome
Zurück zum Zitat Van Franeker JA (1985) Plastic ingestion in the North Atlantic Fulmar. Mar Pollut Bull 16(9):367–369 CrossRef Van Franeker JA (1985) Plastic ingestion in the North Atlantic Fulmar. Mar Pollut Bull 16(9):367–369 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Van Franeker JA, Meijboom A (2002) Marine litter monitoring by Northern Fulmars (a pilot study). Wageningen, Alterra, Alterra-rapport 401, 72 pp Van Franeker JA, Meijboom A (2002) Marine litter monitoring by Northern Fulmars (a pilot study). Wageningen, Alterra, Alterra-rapport 401, 72 pp
Zurück zum Zitat Van Franeker JA, Blaize C, Danielsen J, Fairclough K, Gollan J, Guse N, Hansen P-L, Heubeck M, Jensen J-K, Le Guillou G, Olsen B, Olsen K-O, Pedersen J, Stienen EWM, Turner DM (2011) Monitoring plastic ingestion by the Northern Fulmar Fulmarus Glacialis in the North Sea. Environ Pollut 159(10):2609–2615 Van Franeker JA, Blaize C, Danielsen J, Fairclough K, Gollan J, Guse N, Hansen P-L, Heubeck M, Jensen J-K, Le Guillou G, Olsen B, Olsen K-O, Pedersen J, Stienen EWM, Turner DM (2011) Monitoring plastic ingestion by the Northern Fulmar Fulmarus Glacialis in the North Sea. Environ Pollut 159(10):2609–2615
Zurück zum Zitat Walker WA, Coe JM. (eds.) (1989) Survey of marine debris ingestion by odontocete cetaceans. Proceedings of the second international conference on marine debris. Honolulu, Hawaii Walker WA, Coe JM. (eds.) (1989) Survey of marine debris ingestion by odontocete cetaceans. Proceedings of the second international conference on marine debris. Honolulu, Hawaii
Zurück zum Zitat Yamamoto T, Yasuhara A (1999) Quantities of bisphenol a leached from plastic waste samples. Chemosphere 38(11):2569–2576 CrossRef Yamamoto T, Yasuhara A (1999) Quantities of bisphenol a leached from plastic waste samples. Chemosphere 38(11):2569–2576 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Yamashita R, Tanimura A (2007) Floating plastic in the kuroshio current area, Western North Pacific Ocean. Mar Pollut Bull 54(4):485–488 CrossRef Yamashita R, Tanimura A (2007) Floating plastic in the kuroshio current area, Western North Pacific Ocean. Mar Pollut Bull 54(4):485–488 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zarfl C, Matthies M (2010) Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the arctic? Mar Pollut Bull 60(10):1810–1814 CrossRef Zarfl C, Matthies M (2010) Are marine plastic particles transport vectors for organic pollutants to the arctic? Mar Pollut Bull 60(10):1810–1814 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zarfl C, Fleet D, Fries E, Galgani F, Gerdts G, Hanke G, Matthies M (2011) Microplastics in oceans. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1589–1591 CrossRef Zarfl C, Fleet D, Fries E, Galgani F, Gerdts G, Hanke G, Matthies M (2011) Microplastics in oceans. Mar Pollut Bull 62(8):1589–1591 CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Plastics in the Marine Environment: The Dark Side of a Modern Gift
verfasst von
Jort Hammer
Michiel H. S. Kraak
John R. Parsons
Copyright-Jahr
2012
Verlag
Springer New York
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3414-6_1