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Über dieses Buch

This book describes the emerging point-of-care (POC) technologies that are paving the way to the next generation healthcare monitoring and management. It provides the readers with comprehensive, up-to-date information about the emerging technologies, such as smartphone-based mobile healthcare technologies, smart devices, commercial personalized POC technologies, paper-based immunoassays (IAs), lab-on-a-chip (LOC)-based IAs, and multiplex IAs. The book also provides guided insights into the POC diabetes management software and smart applications, and the statistical determination of various bioanalytical parameters. Additionally, the authors discuss the future trends in POC technologies and personalized and integrated healthcare solutions for chronic diseases, such as diabetes, stress, obesity, and cardiovascular disorders. Each POC technology is described comprehensively and analyzed critically with its characteristic features, bioanalytical principles, applications, advantages, limitations, and future trends. This book would be a very useful resource and teaching aid for professionals working in the field of POC technologies, in vitro diagnostics (IVD), mobile healthcare, Big Data, smart technology, software, smart applications, biomedical engineering, biosensors, personalized healthcare, and other disciplines.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. An Overview of Point-of-Care Technologies Enabling Next-Generation Healthcare Monitoring and Management

Abstract
Point-of-care (POC) technologies have advanced considerably during the last decade to pave the way to the emergence of next-generation healthcare monitoring and management. The most prominent developments encompass the smartphone (SP)-based technologies, paper-based assays (PBA), lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platforms, microfluidic operations, new biosensors, rapid assay formats, automated and fully integrated assay technologies, prolonged reagent storage concepts, and novel bioanalytical technologies. The advances in complementary technologies would provide considerable support to the development of critically improved POC technologies. Although paper- and LOC-based assays are cost-effective and simple, emerging SP-based technologies become the ideal POC solution for healthcare due to their enormous outreach and enriched features. Such POC technologies could increase the outreach of healthcare for remote and decentralized settings worldwide. The recent trend is strongly inclined toward mobile healthcare (mH), which would lead to critically improved healthcare monitoring and management.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, John H. T. Luong

Chapter 2. Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Technologies for Mobile Healthcare

Abstract
Smartphone (SP)-based devices and associated tools have emerged as ideal next-generation point-of-care devices (POCD) for in vitro diagnostics (IVD) of important physiological parameters including blood glucose level. Such devices with advanced features are anticipated to play an enhanced role in the future of cost-effective mobile healthcare (mH) and personalized medicine. The detection principle of the diversified SP-IVD devices encompasses optical, surface plasmon resonance, lateral flow, or electrochemical methods. Another appealing approach is the transformation of SP into a compact and inexpensive microscope or cytometer to detect biomolecules, metabolites, biomarkers, and pathogens. The exponential development of SP-IVD technologies will foster their widespread use in personalized mH in remote settings and, particularly, in developing countries with limited healthcare resources. The extent of private health data created by SP-IVD will herald the enlargement of Cloud-based technologies to securely transmit, store, and retrieve such confidential data across medical fraternity and policymakers.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, John H. T. Luong

Chapter 3. Commercially Available Smartphone-Based Personalized Mobile Healthcare Technologies

Abstract
Smartphone-based personalized mobile healthcare devices (SPMHDs) have become efficient with cost-effectiveness for monitoring and management of healthcare, particularly at remote, decentralized, and personal settings. The last few years have witnessed a surge in commercial SPMHDs for tracking blood pressure, physical activity, blood glucose, body weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiogram, blood oxygen saturation, and sleep quality. As equipped with advanced Bluetooth technology, Cloud computing, smart application, and telemedicine capabilities, SPMHDs are capable of real-time “on-site” analysis and increasing the user’s compliance by providing constant alerts and notifications. Moreover, they have the most extensive outreach as smartphones have become ubiquitous. With continuous innovation and improvement in mobile healthcare (mH), the next-generation SPMHDs will play a critical role in personalized healthcare to reduce the healthcare costs with improved health outcomes. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview, prospects, and applications of the commercial SPMHDs along with the challenges.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, John H. T. Luong

Chapter 4. Point-of-Care Diabetes Management Softwares and Smart Applications

Abstract
The point-of-care (POC) diabetes management has witnessed significant improvement during the recent years. The current generation of diabetes management softwares has many striking features such as simple analysis, better data visualization, prediction of the trend, and data safety. Most diabetes management softwares have been developed by the topmost in vitro diagnostic (IVD) companies, such as Abbott, Roche, Dexcom, Medtronic, LifeScan, etc., which account for the predominant market share of POC diabetic blood glucose monitoring market. However, during the last decade, several new companies, such as iHealth, have also developed innovative POC diabetic devices and smart applications. Cellphones (CPs) have emerged as the ideal POC device for personalized mobile healthcare. The number of CP users has already crossed 7 billion, which accounts for 98% of the world population. CP-based blood glucose monitoring (BGM) devices and healthcare applications have further led to the development of prospective smart applications for diabetic glucose monitoring and management. The emergence of Cloud computing and wearable devices, such as smart watches, emphasize the critical role of smart applications in providing improved mobile health and telemedicine tools for diabetic management.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist

Chapter 5. Paper-Based Point-of-Care Immunoassays

Abstract
Paper-based point-of-care (POC) immunoassays (IA) enable the detection of analytes at the remote, decentralized, and personalized settings. Based on their low-cost, simplicity, and rapid analyte detection, they are ideal for POC diagnostic applications in developing countries, which have limited healthcare resources, personnel, and infrastructure. They obviate the limitations of conventional immunodiagnostic assays and the upcoming automated immunoassays, such as the need for highly-skilled analysts, costly infrastructure, bulky and expensive instruments, continuous power supply, and complex process steps. The emerging trend is toward the development of fully-integrated paper-based IAs (PIAs) that can be read by smartphones (SP) or smart readers. This chapter discusses the various PIAs that have been developed to date together with the future trends and challenges.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist

Chapter 6. Lab-on-a-Chip-Based Point-of-Care Immunoassays

Abstract
Lab-on-a-chip (LOC)-based immunoassays (IAs) are one of the most prospective IA formats for the point-of-care (POC) detection of analytes at the point-of-need as they are simple, cost-effective, and rapid. Although the conventional POC IA formats are lateral flow assay (LFA), dipstick, and electrochemical strips, the most recent LOC-based POC IA platforms incorporate microfluidic (MF) chips, paper, cellphone (CP), electrochemistry, lateral flow, and new biosensor concepts. There is an extensive need for such LOC-based POC IAs for the low-cost diagnosis of diseases in the developing countries and remote settings. They don’t require skilled analysts, expensive instruments, and costly infrastructure. The current trend is strongly inclined toward the use of smartphones (SPs) as the POC readers or smart readers. The next-generation LOC-based POC IAs would be fully-automated, low-cost, and simple to operate. They will employ novel IA concepts, strategies for prolonged reagent storage, innovative biosensors, and high-throughput multiplex detection. This chapter discussed the various LOC-based POC IAs along with the future trends and challenges toward the development of clinically-viable immunodiagnostics.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist

Chapter 7. Multiplex Immunoassays

Abstract
Multiplex immunoassays (IAs) refer to IA formats that can simultaneously determine many analytes in a single sample. They are becoming critically important in healthcare for the diagnosis of complex diseases, which require the simultaneous monitoring of multiple disease biomarkers. The ongoing research efforts are based on the determination of clinical scores for such complex diseases by assigning appropriate weightages to various biomarkers based on their contribution to the disease. Although a wide range of multiplex IA formats have been demonstrated by researchers with few of them commercialized successfully, there is still a need for the development of advanced and bioanalytically superior multiplex IA formats that are clinically and commercially viable. Further, the multiplex IAs should align well with the established and clinically accredited IAs. We provide here an overview of various multiplex IA formats and technologies together with the challenges involved, prospects, and guided insights.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist

Chapter 8. Bioanalytical Parameters in Immunoassays and Their Determination

Abstract
Immunoassays (IAs) play a prominent role in in vitro diagnostics (IVD) of single or multiple analytes in patient samples, a prerequisite for the monitoring and management of health. Stringent bioanalytical testing in parallel with robust statistical analysis stems from the growing concerns for public health and safety. In addition, the prominent role of statistical analysis should adhere to the recent guidelines provided by the regulatory authorities. The guidelines are regularly updated as reflected by continuously evolving technologies and recent trends in IVD and point-of-care testing (POCT). The IA must provide precision, accuracy, high sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and robustness. This chapter provides an overview of the critical bioanalytical parameters and their determination, as desired by the regulatory guidelines.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, John H. T. Luong

Chapter 9. Future Trends for the Next Generation of Personalized and Integrated Healthcare for Chronic Diseases

Abstract
The rapid advances in point-of-care testing (POCT), mobile healthcare (mH), and smart applications are paving the way toward better healthcare monitoring and management of chronic diseases. In the "not too distant" future, many if not most of the routine tests for chronic diseases could be simply performed by the patients in their homes, offices, and custom settings. The test results are then transmitted securely to the certified healthcare professionals, probably via the Cloud, and stored in the patients’ electronic health record (EHR). The patients and their doctors could see the latest results and trend in the test results, enabling them to take timely decisions and perform the desired intervention for better healthcare management. The interface of mH devices to smartphones (SPs), smartwatches, and other gadgets would further improve the compliance by patients as the care provider could set up customized text alerts and alarm for the tests, medication, and physical/lifestyle/medical intervention. This chapter offers a view of the future trends for next-generation personalized and integrated healthcare for chronic diseases.
Sandeep Kumar Vashist, Lionel Gilles Guiffo Djoko, Stuart Blincko, John H. T. Luong

Backmatter

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