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Über dieses Buch

This book presents a compilation of collaborations between researchers and practitioners in the fields of policing and cyber criminology, IT law and security, providing a comprehensive overview of current and emerging challenges in law enforcement, AI and Digital Society.

The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI), together with the spread of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, is creating smart societies that are increasingly interconnected. The scope of connectivity, massive rise in the volume of smart devices and growing interfaces between humans and technology, together with the expansion of Big Data and volumetric metadata generated and collated, are driving the cultural change toward Industry 4.0.

Therefore, in light of do-it-yourself biohackers trying to become cyborgs, Augmented Humanity (fusion between humans and technology), governments’ utilization of the various technologies (example eHealth), holographic communications, smart cities / smart societies, cryptocurrencies etc., in the era of Industry 4.0 with AI at its core, enhancing their policing models has become a priority for governments.

As the patterns of crime, policy and technology are changing in line with smart societies, law enforcement agencies around the world are called upon to formulate future-ready legislative frameworks, rethink crime prevention, investigatory decision making and predictive policing, prevent or mitigate potentially devastating cyber-attacks, and ensure the security of operational capabilities, namely: Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (C3I).



Rethinking Criminal Justice in Cyberspace: The EU E-evidence Framework as a New Model of Cross-Border Cooperation in Criminal Matters

This chapter analyses the recently proposed EU legal framework on cross-border access to e-evidence for criminal justice purposes. The analysis is placed within the broader context of transformations that the use of technology brings not only on the socio-economic aspects of life but also the increasing challenges posed for the criminal justice in dealing with new forms of crime and globalisation of evidence. This study aims to contribute to the ongoing debate through an analysis of the specific provisions of the E-evidence framework, recommending amendments that would help achieve a balanced approach between efficient criminal investigations and the protection of fundamental rights. At the same time this study addresses what has not received sufficient attention: the challenges posed to traditional principles of cross-border cooperation in the EU and beyond, mutual recognition and mutual trust, the concept of jurisdiction and territoriality, dual criminality, the concept of privacy in the digital age, personal data protection and procedural rights of suspects in criminal proceedings. Through the lens of E-evidence this chapter aims to reflect on these challenges and offer new perspectives.
Oriola Sallavaci

Policing in the Era of AI and Smart Societies: Austerity; Legitimacy and Blurring the Line of Consent

The policing of space, in the traditional sense, can no longer be defined by physical boundaries and is unable to be controlled by any single legal jurisdiction or one rule of law. In a time of artificial intelligence (AI) and smart technologies, arguably policing has reached the limits of policing by public consent in the sense that the new police were introduced in 1829 to counter the problems of rising crime which were becoming a threat the existing social and political order [9]. Policing threats such as cybercrime—whilst experiencing several years of simultaneous budgets cuts, the evolution of new technologies, and the changing nature of crime has created challenges for the governance of policing [54]. This is the context in which this chapter will explore the capacity and limits of policing in an age of austerity, to combat the ever-increased risk of becoming a victim of some form of cybercrime whilst practicing within the global context of AI and smart technologies.
Mark Manning, Stuart Agnew

Behavioural Analytics: A Preventative Means for the Future of Policing

Without sufficient intelligence, police response to crimes occurs in the form a reactive retort. This is even more so in the case of cyberspace policing, as digital platforms increase the complexities involved in the overall police incident response development. In this paper, we briefly introduce cybercrime and the necessities that police forces have to deal with. We argue that there is an urgent need for development and adoption of proactive and preventive techniques to identify and curb cyber and cyber-enabled crimes. We then present topic modelling as one of effective preventive techniques for predicting behaviours that can potentially be linked to cybercrime activities on social media.
Alireza Daneshkhah, Hamid Jahankhani, Homan Forouzan, Reza Montasari, Amin Hosseinian-Far

Securing Transparency and Governance of Organ Supply Chain Through Blockchain

The governance and supply chain of organs is a complicated process throughout the life cycle; from the outset of pre-assessment of organ placement, it’s supply chain journey and important post donor analysis. Healthcare organisations face a huge challenge in the diverse collation of data that are held in systems which are mostly in silo operation and little scope for interoperability or accessibility of medical data. Lack of data access or trust in its accuracy makes the task more challenging and problematic for healthcare institutions whose preference undoubtably would be to focus their energies on the decision making side of a patient’s health in assessing organ donor suitability and urgency to organ match due to the receiving patient criticalities, rather than time and resources spent on validating data authenticity, etc. There are further complications that can occur in potential mix-ups of organs, contamination of DNA during organ transplant, non-ethical organ supply and audit trail transparency related to these activities. There is a serious question on how to create a single source of the truth and blockchain may provide the best possibilities. Blockchain is becoming a more sought after technology being used in the healthcare space due to its attributes of immutability, traceability and security whilst providing that assurance of transparency and audit trail. Blockchain looks to be a good fit to manage the supply chain of organ procurement/placement and an audit control method to analyse data in any pre or post operation event. Combined with the right processes, in the form of a cyber security framework/maturity model for the healthcare industry, would ensure that all those who signed up to the blockchain deployed for the supply chain logistics would respect the ethics and requirements and expect transparency for those authorised to access. However, some challenges exist in GDPR compliancy of data that would exist on a certain proposed blockchain models and needs further exploring with regards to benefits in data held off-chain.
Nicanor Chavez, Stefan Kendzierskyj, Hamid Jahankhani, Amin Hosseinian

IoT and Cloud Forensic Investigation Guidelines

IoT devices are becoming more prevalent in society, with an expected 21.5 Billion devices connected by 2025 [24], and when an incident occurs in the vicinity of such devices then they should be considered as potential digital evidence. A network of IoT devices is often referred to as a smart environment, or more frequently as a cyber physical system [17]. Is there a need for yet another framework? It could be questioned that: (i) there is no need for such frameworks since the IoT devices are not that important; or, (ii) that there are adequate SOPs and frameworks already in place? This chapter aims to provide answers to these questions.
I. Mitchell, S. Hara, J. Ibarra Jimenez, Hamid Jahankhani, Reza Montasari

Algorithms Can Predict Domestic Abuse, But Should We Let Them?

As domestic abuse has become a higher priority for law enforcement in England and Wales, so demand and the intensity of resource deployment has increased. With many police struggling to meet demand, some are exploring algorithms as a means to better predict the risk of serious harm and so better target their resources. In this chapter, I set out the case for algorithms playing a role in domestic abuse strategies, within the context of their wider growth in policing. I include examples of how targeting algorithms work now and explore a range of concerns and potential pitfalls. The central argument of this chapter is to promote the cause of regulation in algorithms in policing. This fledgling field has much promise but will not succeed without due regard to the many potential problems that accompany it.
Matthew Bland

Tackling Teen Sexting—Policing Challenges When Society and Technology Outpace Legislation

Concerns over cyberattacks, identify theft, ransomware and online fraud dominate the language of cybercrime and attract considerable public and political attention. Yet within the discourses of online risk, fears surrounding children and young people online remain at the forefront of media and policy debate. In modern society children have become the object of social concern and increasing anxiety about risk, superimposed on protective discourses, located as vulnerable innocents and sexting has attracted considerable attention as a moral panic. Drawing on data from police forces across the UK, this chapter outlines the ad hoc nature of police responses to the complex challenges of the production and sharing of intimate images by young people and it both raises concerns about the inconsistent application of legislation resulting in the criminalisation of minors who may be victims of abuse, and questions effective use of Outcome 21 as an alternative to arrest for young people in the UK since its introduction in 2016.
Emma Bond, Andy Phippen

Image Recognition in Child Sexual Exploitation Material—Capabilities, Ethics and Rights

Image recognition—the use of software to identify images for a specific task—has long been proposed as a solution to addressing some of the more laborious and technical complex tasks such as the triaging of child abuse and exploitation imagery. However, a lack of knowledge and understanding of the capabilities, and limits, of image recognition sometimes results in high levels of expectation that cannot be delivered technically. In tackling key challenges in the policing child abuse material in areas such as victim identification, image categorisation and the prevention of replication and communication of images, image recognition algorithms have been proposed as potential solutions. However, a case study approach highlights concerns around issues such as data bias, lack of training data, and data ethics, which highlight that the complexity of image recognition in this domain might not be as effective as one might wish.
Andy Phippen, Emma Bond

Open Access

Predictive Policing in 2025: A Scenario

Law enforcement authorities (LEAs) have begun using artificial intelligence and predictive policing applications that are likely to raise ethical, data protection, social, political and economic issues. This paper describes application of a new scenario methodology for identifying issues that emerging technologies are likely to raise in a future six or seven years hence, but that deserve policymakers’ attention now. It often takes policymakers that long to develop a new policy, consult with stakeholders and implement the policy. Thus, policymakers need a structured, but concise framework in order to understand the issues and their various implications. At the same time, they also prefer policies that have stakeholder support. These considerations led the University of Twente in the Netherlands and the UK’s Trilateral Research to develop the scenario that follows. It is structured with several headings that policymakers need to consider in order to move toward a desired future and avoidance of an undesired future.
Kevin Macnish, David Wright, Tilimbe Jiya

Patterns in Policing

Exactly like the societies they serve; police forces are stressed by tech driven change, a data deluge, and the rise of global connectivity. Major changes in criminal activity, from the everyday, local, simple and solvable, to the globally confounding see a rising number of unsolved crimes. At the same time police budgets and staffing levels are under pressure, whilst criminals enjoy an ever profitable growth. Policing has to turn to technology to address rising complex and render situations understandable. In this context, AI is the ‘ace card’ with underlying capabilities that eclipse humans. Specifically, AI can digest vast amounts of data, and recognise hidden patterns that escape us! So far AI has excelled in facial, vehicle and movement recognition and is proving its worth in behavioural analysis. Latterly, its ability to detect event precursors has come to the fore, and this may be the first entry into pre-crime prediction.
Peter Cochrane, Mark P. Pfeiffer

Proposed Forensic Guidelines for the Investigation of Fake News

The old adage, “seeing is believing”, no longer holds true in modern society. Digital media has paved the way for anyone to doctor images and for videos to misrepresent truth. The lines between fact, entertainment, advertising, fabrication and fiction are becoming increasingly blurred as what is termed ‘fake news’ increases in modern day society. A natural consequence of the increase in fake news is the outcry for investigations into misinformation (think Cambridge Analytica). Investigations need to be forensically sound in order for any evidence to hold up in court. This research aims to propose forensic guidelines for the investigation of fake news by researching current fact checking methodologies and determining whether what is currently in place can be aligned to the current ACPO Forensic Guidelines. In order to do this, it first attempts to establish how easily a non-professional fact checker can detect fake news by carrying out a rudimentary fake news quiz. This was then followed by a review of 41 fact checkers to understand their fact checking methodologies and concluded with a basic fact checking experiment to test the veracity of a subset of the reviewed tools. In concluding, fake news investigations can be aligned to the current ACPO forensic guidelines, however, they will need to be specifically adapted to the three main categories of fake news: images, text and video.
Natasha Omezi, Hamid Jahankhani

Current Challenges of Modern-Day Domestic Abuse

This chapter centres on the emergence of technology in cases of Domestic Abuse using two adjunct parts; (1) how digital coercive control using smart home devices is now an attack vector for abusers and (2) it sets out to highlight the use of a governance model incorporating a risk-based approach following the principles of the Cyber Security Maturity Model (CSMM). Recent reports in the media have identified cases of Domestic Abuse where attackers are using smart home devices to exert coercive control over their partners or former partners. Research importantly highlights a lack of awareness of technology facilitated Domestic Abuse by victims, support workers and law enforcement. This has resulted in the development of a new proposed framework titled SHADA—a Smart Home Anti Domestic Abuse framework, practical challenges and areas of e-policing to better engage stakeholders. The chapter concludes with additional areas of further research and provides an outlook on the use of newer technologies such as AI and considerations for the privacy of citizens in smart societies.
Joe Mayhew, Hamid Jahankhani

Correction to: Predictive Policing in 2025: A Scenario

Kevin Macnish, David Wright, Tilimbe Jiya
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