Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Politics, Allen Guttmann (2002: 1) reminds us, “has always been a part of the Olympics. The modern games were, in fact, revived to propagate a political message; in the eyes of Pierre de Coubertin and the men who succeeded him as president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the political purpose of the games—the reconciliation of warring nations—was more important than the sports.” This chapter begins by deconstructing the notion of Olympism, discusses the politics of gender using case studies of uniforms and sex testing for female Olympians, and then concludes with an analysis of ideology and the IOC.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abrams, Roger I. 2013. Playing tough: The world of sports and politics. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.
Allison, Lincoln. 1993. The changing politics of sport. Manchester: Manchester UP.
———, eds. 2005. The global politics of sport: The role of global institutions in sport. London: Routledge.
Andranovich, Greg, Matthew J. Burbank, and Charles H. Heying. 2010. Political economy and the Olympic games. In Sport and public policy: Social, political, and economic perspectives, ed. Charles A. Santo and Gerard C.S. Mildner, 185–200. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Bairner, Alan. 2009. The politics of the Olympics: A survey. London: Taylor and Francis.
Bale, John, and Mette Krogh-Christensen, eds. 2004. Post-Olympism? Questioning sport in the 21st century. Oxford: Berg.
Bayliss, Sam, Simon Butler, Michael Klaczynski, Angela Williams, Ivy Yip, and James Lui, (supervised by Mike Lee). 2004, February. Aspects of the Olympic games: Political, social and economic. http://olympics.pthimon.co.uk/OlympicsReport.pdf
Belam, Martin. 2012. Keeping the torch burning: Terror, protest and the games. Guardian.
Berg, Brennan K., Seth A. Kessler, and Thomas M. Hunt. 2012. A realist perspective of sport and international relations: US governmental perceptions of Olympic boycott movements, 1936–2008. International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics 4(3): 307–320. CrossRef
Blue, Adrianne. 1988. Faster, higher, further: Women’s triumphs and disasters at the Olympics. London: Virago.
Borgers, Walter. 1996. Olympic torch relays, 1936–1994. Berlin: Agon Sportverlag.
Boykoff, Jules. 2014. Activism and the Olympics: Dissent at the Games in Vancouver and London. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Boyle, Raymond, and Richard Haynes. 2009. Power play: Sport, the media, and popular culture. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP. CrossRef
Brownell, Susan. 2008a. The 1904 anthropology days and Olympic games: Sport, race, and American imperialism. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Buchanan, Ian, and Bill Mallon. 2008. Historical dictionary of the Olympic movement. 4th ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Budd, Adrian, and Roger Levermore, eds. 2003. Sport and international relations: An emerging relationship. London and New York: Routledge.
Buzuvis, Erin E. 2010. Caster Semenya and the myth of a level playing field. The Modern American 6(2), Article 5. http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/tma/vol6/iss2/5
Cantelon, Michael. 2009. Sex-a-side: Volleyball uniforms and the reproduction of female objectivity. In Sexual sports rhetoric: Global and universal contexts, ed. Linda K. Fuller, 13–23. New York: Peter Lang.
Caraccioli, Jerry, and Tom Caraccioli. 2008. Boycott: Stolen dreams of the 1980 Moscow Olympic games. Washington, DC: New Chapter Press.
Caudwell, Jayne. 2012. Sex watch: Surveying women’s sexed and gendered bodies at the Olympics. In Watching the Olympics: Politics, power, and representation, ed. John Sugden and Alan Tomlinson, 151–164. London: Routledge.
Chappelet, Jean-Loup, and Brenda Kübler-Mabbott. 2008. The international Olympic committee and the Olympic system: The governance of world sport. London and New York: Routledge.
Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia, and Ian P. Henry. 2012. Discourses of Olympism: From the Sorbonne 1894 to London 2012. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Clarke, Liz. 2012. At London Olympics, women’s athletes’ wardrobes are source of debate. The Washington Post, July 26.
Cleary, Jennifer Anne. 2011. Notes: A need to align the modern games with the modern times: The International Olympic Committee’s commitment to fairness, equality, and sex discrimination. Case Western Reserve Law Review 61(4): 1285–1313.
Close, Paul, David Askew, and Xin Xu. 2006. The Beijing Olympiad: The political economy of a sporting mega-event. London: Routledge.
Coleman, Isobel. 2012. London Olympics breaks new ground for women. CNN World, July 25. http://www.globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2012/07/25/london-olympics-breaks-new-ground-for-women/
Cooky, Cheryl, and Shari L. Dworkin. 2012, August 12. Woman enough to win? The Society Pages: Social Science That Matters. http://thesocietypages.org/specials/sex-testing/
———. 2013a. Running down what comes naturally: Gender verification and South Africa’s Caster Semenya. In Fallen sports heroes, media, and celebrity culture, ed. Lawrence R. Wenner, 148–162. New York: Peter Lang.
———. 2013b. Policing the boundaries of sex: A critical examination of gender verification and the Caster Semenya controversy. Journal of Sex Research 50(2): 103–111. CrossRef
Cooky, Cheryl, Ranissa Dycus, and Shari L. Dworkin. 2013. “What makes a woman a woman?” versus “Our first lady of sport”: A comparative analysis of the United States and the South African media coverage of Caster Semenya. Journal of Sport and Social Issues 37(1): 31–56. CrossRef
Dave, Chetan. 2005. The 2012 bid: Five cities chasing the summer games. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
Davenport, Joanna. 1996. Monique Berlioux: Her association with three IOC presidents. Journal of Olympic History 4(3): 10–17.
DeFrantz, Anita L. 2004. Olympic women enrich the Games. WeNews. http://womensenews.org/story/commentary/040811/olympic-women-enrich-the-games#.UyOEUl7yswc
Delorme, Nicolas. 2014. Were women really underrepresented in media coverage of summer Olympic games (1984–2008)? An invitation to open a methodological discussion regarding sex equity in sports media. Mass Communication and Society 17(1): 121–147. CrossRef
Donnelly, Peter, and Michele K. Donnelly. 2013. The London 2012 Olympics: A gender equality audit. Centre for Sport Policy Studies Research Report. Toronto: CSCPS, Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto.
Dong, Jinxia. 2003. Women, sport, and society in modern China: Holding up more than half the sky. New York: Taylor and Francis.
Dreger, Alice. 2011. Redefining the sexes in unequal terms. New York Times, Y5, April 24.
Espy, Richard. 1979. The politics of the Olympic games. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Farrell, Courtney. 2010. Terror at the Munich Olympics. Edina, MN: ABDO Publishers.
Fausto-Sterling, Anne. 2000. Sexing the body: Gender politics and the construction of sexuality. New York: Basic Books.
Fuller, Linda K. 2006a. Sports celebrity-hood seen in a positive light: The case of Yao Ming and HIV/AIDS in China. Atlanta, Georgia: Popular Culture Association.
———. 2009e. Framing a flaming issue: The Beijing Olympic torch topic. Paper presented for Popular Culture Association, New Orleans, Louisiana.
———. 2012. Sexist commentary at the Olympic games. Paper presented at the International Symposium for Olympic Research, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.
———. 2013b. Bikinis, bodysuits, burqas, and boxer shorts: The continuing controversies over female Olympians’ uniforms. Dublin, Ireland: International Association for Mass Communication Research.
———. 2013c. Sex verification for the Olympic games: History, hysteria, and hyperandrogenism. North American Society for the Sociology of Sport (NASSS) Conference, Quebec City, Canada.
Gold, John R., and Margaret R. Gold, eds. 2007. Olympic cities: City agendas, planning, and the world's games, 1896 to 2012. New York: Routledge.
Guttmann, Allen.  2002. The Olympics: A history of the modern games. 2nd ed. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Guttmann, Allen. 2006. The most controversial Olympics. In National identity and global sports events: Culture, politics, and spectacle in the Olympics and the football World Cup, ed. Alan Tomlinson and Christopher Young, 65–82. Albany, NY: SUNY.
Hargreaves, Jennifer. 1994. Sporting females: Critical issues in the history and sociology of women’s sports. London and New York: Routledge. CrossRef
Hart-Davis, Duff. 1986. Hitler’s games: The 1936 Olympics. New York: Harper and Row.
Heining, Andrew. 2009. High-tech suits, Phelps bring high drama to swimming, again. The Christian Science Monitor, July 29.
Hill, Christopher R. 1996. Olympic politics: Sport politics and the moral order. 2nd ed. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Hiller, Harry H. 2012. Host cities and the Olympics: An interactionist approach. London and New York: Routledge.
Hilton, Christopher. 2006. Hitler’s Olympics: The 1936 Berlin Olympic games. Stroud: The History Press.
Hodkiewicz, Lisa Gabrielle. 2008. Breaking the norms: Women and the modern Olympic games of Pierre de Coubertin. Unpublished thesis, History Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Hogan, Jackie. 2010. Staging the nation: Gendered and ethnicized discourses of national identity in Olympic opening exercises. In The Olympics: A critical reader, ed. Vassil Girginov, 135–150. London: Routledge.
Holmes, Burton. 1984. The Olympian games in Athens, 1896: The first modern Olympics. New York: Grove Press.
Horne, John, and Garry Whannel. 2012. Understanding the Olympics. London: Routledge.
Houry, Cecile. 2011. American women and the modern summer Olympic games: A story of obstacles and struggles for participation and equality. Unpublished dissertation, University of Miami.
Huang, Carol. 2008. China trains 200,000 cheerleaders—for other Olympic teams. Christian Science Monitor, July 8.
Hulme, Derick L. Jr. 1990. The political Olympics: Moscow, Afghanistan, and the 1980 U. S. boycott. New York: Praeger.
International Olympic Committee. 2009. Women and sport: The current situation. Lausanne: Department of International Cooperation and Development.
Jarvie, Grant, Dong-Jhy Hwang, and Mel Brennan. 2008. Sport, revolution and the Beijing Olympics. Oxford and New York: Berg.
Jefferys, Kevin. 2012. Sport and politics in modern Britain: The road to 2012. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Jordan-Young, Rebecca, and Katrina Karkazis. 2012. So you say you’re a woman? That should be enough. New York Times, June 17.
Kasimati, Evangelia. 2003. Economic aspects and the summer Olympics: A review of related research. International Journal of Tourism Research 5: 433–444. CrossRef
Kietlinski, Robin. 2008. Faster, higher, stronger: Gender and the Olympic games in twentieth century Japan. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Killanin, Baron Michael Morris, and John Rodda. 1980. The Olympic games, 1980: Moscow and Lake Placid. New York: Collier Books.
Klein, Aaron J. 2005. Striking back: The 1972 Munich Olympics massacre and Israel’s deadly response. New York: Random House.
Kruger, Arnd, and William J. Murray. 2003. The Nazi Olympics: Sport, politics, and appeasement in the 1930s. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Large, David Clay. 2007. Nazi games: The Olympics of 1936. New York: W. W Norton and Co.
———. 2012. Munich 1972: Tragedy, terror, and triumph at the Olympic games. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Larson, James F., and Heung-Soo Park. 1993. Global television and the politics of the Seoul Olympics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Lee, Mike. 2006. The race for 2012: The inside story of how London won the bid. London: Virgin Books.
Levy, Ariel. 2006. Female chauvinist pigs: Women and the rise of raunch culture. New York: Free Press.
Lenskyj, Helen Jefferson. 2002. The best Olympics ever? Social impacts of Sydney 2000. Albany, NY: SUNY.
———. 2008. Olympic industry resistance: Challenging Olympic power and propaganda. Albany, NY: SUNY.
———. 2013. Gender politics and the Olympic industry. Basingstoke: Palgrave Pivot. CrossRef
———. 2014. Sexual diversity and the Sochi 2014 Olympics: No more rainbows. Basingstoke: Palgrave Pivot. CrossRef
Li, Hongmei. 2011. The gendered performance at the Beijing Olympics: The construction of the Olympic misses and cheerleaders. Communication Theory 21: 368–391. CrossRef
Llewellyn, Matthew P. 2011. Rule Britannia: Nationalism, identity and the modern Olympic games. London and New York: Routledge.
Longman, Jere (2012a, April 25). For women at games, messages are mixed. New York Times.
Luo, Qing, and Giuseppe Richeri, eds. 2012. Encoding the Olympics: The Beijing Olympic games and the communication impact worldwide. London and New York: Routledge.
Macur, Juliet. 2012. Sex-verification policy is criticized as a failure. New York Times, June 25. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/26/sports/olympics/critics-say-olympic-sex-verification-policy-is-a-failure.html?_r=0
Majumdar, Boria, and Sandra Collins, eds. 2008. Olympism: The global vision: From nationalism to internationalism. London and New York: Routledge.
Mandell, Richard D. 1971. The Nazi Olympics. New York: Macmillan.
———. 1991. A Munich diary: The Olympics of 1972. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Mangan, James A., and Mark Dyreson, eds. 2010. Olympic aspirations: Intended and unintended: Political, cultural, economic and educational. London: Routledge.
———, eds. 2012. Olympic legacies: Realised and unrealised. London and New York: Routledge.
Markovits, Andrei S., and Lars Rensmann. 2010. Gaming the world: How sports are reshaping global politics and culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP.
Martinez-Patino, Maria Jose, Covadonga Mateos-Padorno, Aurora Martinez-Vidal, Ana Marie Sanchez Mosquera, Jose Luis Garcia Soidan, Maria Del Pino Diaz Pereira, and Carlos Francisco Tourino Gonzalez. 2010. An approach to the biological, historical and psychological repercussions of gender verification in top-level competitions. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise 5(3): 307–321. CrossRef
McDonagh, Eileen, and Laura Pappano. 2009. Playing with the boys: Why separate is not equal in sports. New York: Oxford UP.
de Morgas Spa, Miquel, John MacAloon, and Montserrat Llines. 1996. Olympic ceremonies: Historical continuity and cultural exchange. Lausanne: IOC.
Namazie, Maryam. 2012, July 25. Protest against the Olympics Committee’s failure to implement principles of equality and neutrality. One Law for All.org.uk
Netter, Sarah. 2008, August 18. Olympic uniforms: Less clothing means better results. abcnews.go.com
Nyong’o, Tavia. 2010. The unforgivable transgression of being Caster Semenya. Women & Performance: A Journal of Feminist Theory 20(1): 95–100. CrossRef
O’Reilly, Ian. 2010. Tension over sex testing in sport. BBC News, February 15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/in_depth/8511176.stm
Perelman, Marc. 2012. Barbaric sport: A global plague. London and New York: Verso.
Pieper, Lindsay Parks. 2012. Rules put extreme pressure on transsexual players. On the Issues (Spring). http://www.ontheissuesmagazine.com/2012spring/2012spring_Pieper.php
Pound, Richard W. 1994. Five rings over Korea: The secret negotiations behind the 1988 Olympic games in Seoul. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
———. 2006. Inside the Olympics: A behind-the-scenes look at the politics, the scandals, and the glory of the games. Chichester: Wiley.
Price, Monroe, and Daniel Dayan, eds. 2008. Owning the Olympics: Narratives of the new China. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Reeve, Simon. 2006. One day in September: The full story of the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre and the Israeli revenge operation ‘Wrath of God’. New York: Arcade.
Rintala, Jan, and Judith A. Bischoff. 2010. Persistent resistance: Leadership positions for women in Olympic sport governing bodies. In Rethinking the Olympics: Cultural histories of the modern games, ed. Bob Barney, 307–329. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Riordan, Jim. 1999. The international politics of sport in the twentieth century. London: Taylor and Francis.
Rippon, Anton. 2006. Hitler’s Olympics: The story of the 1936 Nazi games. Barnsley: Pen and Sword.
Sage, George S. 2011. Globalizing sport: How organizations, corporations, media, and politics are changing sport. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
Schaap, Jeremy. 2008. Triumph: The untold story of Jesse Owens and Hitler’s Olympics. Old Saybrook, CT: Tantor Media.
Schaffer, Kay, and Sidonie Smith, eds. 2000. The Olympics at the millennium: Power, politics and the games. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP.
Schweinbenz, Amanda. 2012. ‘Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee’—But only if you dress like a girl: An analysis of the feminization of female Olympic athlete through athletic attire. Eleventh International Symposium for Olympic Research, Interneational Centre for Olympic Studies, London, Ontario, Canada.
Schweinbenz, Amanda Nicole, and Alexandria Cronk. 2010. Femininity control at the Olympic games. Thirdspace: A Journal of Feminist Theory & Culture 9(2).
Segrave, Jeffrey O. 2004. Hitler’s ambitious plans for the 1936 Olympics. History News Network, August 23. http://hnn.us/articles/6875.html
Senn, Alfred E. 1999. Power, politics, and the Olympic games. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Silk, Michael. 2012. The cultural politics of post-9/11 American sport: Power, pedagogy and the popular. New York: Routledge.
Sloop, John M. 2012. ‘This is not natural’: Caster Semenya’s gender threats. Critical Studies in Media Communication 29(2): 81–96. CrossRef
Springer, Shira. 2012. At Olympics, it’s time to focus on sports, not sex appeal. Boston Globe, July 22.
Stauff, Markus. 2011. Sports on television: An introduction. In Televiestudies, ed. Joke Hermes and Maarten Reesink, 173–187. Den Haag: Boom Lemma.
Sugden, John, and Alan Tomlinson, eds. 2012. Watching the Olympics: Politics, power, and representation. London and New York: Routledge.
Teetzel, Sarah. 2010. Contradictory values and rules: The case of Olympic sports. International Association of Women Philosophers, University of Western Ontario. http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/iaph/June26/Presentations/9/
———. 2011, April. Rules and reform: Eligibility, gender differences, and the Olympic games. Sport in Society 4(3): 386–398. CrossRef
Thomas, Jonathan. 1999. The image of Olympism and the practical reality for the Olympic movement. 7th International Postgraduate Seminar on Olympic Studies, IOA.
Tomlinson, Alan, and Garry Whannel, eds. 1984. Five ring circus: Money, power, and politics at the Olympic games. London: Pluto Press.
Tzanelli, Rodanthi. 2013. Olympic ceremonialism and the performance of national character: From London 2012 to Rio 2016. Basingstoke: Palgrave Pivot. CrossRef
Wallechinsky, David. 2012. The complete book of the Olympics. 2012 ed. London: Aurum.
Walters, Guy. 2007. Berlin games: How the Nazis stole the Olympic dream. New York: Harper Perennial.
Warner, Patricia Campell. 2006. When the girls came out to play: The birth of American sportswear. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
Weaving, Charlene. 2012. Buns of gold, silver, bronze: The state of Olympic women’s beach volleyball. In The Olympics and philosophy, ed. Heather L. Reid and Michael W. Austin, 228–241. Lexington, KY: University of Kentucky.
Wenn, Stephen, Bob Barney, and Scott Martyn. 2011. Tarnished rings: The and the Salt Lake City scandal. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP.
White, Anita, Katia Mascagni, and Ian Henry. 2004, January. Women, leadership and the Olympic movement. International Olympic Committee and Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy, Loughborough University. http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Reports/EN/en_report_885.pdf
Witherspoon, Kevin B. 2008. Before the eyes of the world: Mexico and the 1968 Olympic games. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois UP.
Woodward, Kath. 2012. Sex power and the games. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. CrossRef
Worden, Minky, eds. 2008. China’s great leap: The Beijing games and Olympian human rights. New York: Seven Stories Press.
Zirin, Dave. 2008. The ghosts of Olympics past. In China’s great leap: The Beijing games and Olympian human rights, ed. Minky Worden, 73–84. New York: Seven Stories.
———. 2013. Game over: How politics has turned the sports world upside down. New York: The New Press.
- Political/Nationalistic Concerns Relative to Female Olympians
Linda K. Fuller
- Palgrave Macmillan US
- Chapter 3