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The book argues that in order to better understand the undercurrents of the Niger Delta conflict, it is imperative to analyse the dynamics of choice in terms of the distinct courses of action taken by the Ogoni and Ijaw. Given the similar structural constraints, the author considers why the Ogoni adopted nonviolent resistance, and the Ijaw violent resistance. This book is divided into seven chapters starting with an introduction to oil and political violence in African conflicts, and includes a synoptic overview of four other resource-rich countries in Africa. Theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of conflict are then presented with the aim of situating the Niger Delta conflicts within the wider conflict literature. Chapter Three concentrates the discussion on the Nigerian Niger Delta, outlining the core issues at the centre of the contestations. The following three chapters offer an in-depth empirical analysis on the interaction between the narratives on nonviolence versus violence, the nature of leadership styles, and the organisation of the Ogoni and Ijaw movements along with a concluding chapter.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
This chapter provides an introduction to oil and political violence in African conflicts, discusses the methodology and scope of this study, and presents a synoptic overview of four other resource-rich countries in Africa (Angola, Chad, Congo, and South Sudan) that have, like Nigeria, experienced oil-related conflicts. It briefly introduces the prelude to conflicts and resistance in Africa dating back to the colonial era where different African communities protested against various forms of rules imposed upon them by colonial rulers. The modes of resistance employed were violent as demonstrated by the Kenyan Mau Mau rebellion, the Maji Maji resistance in Tanzania, the Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba resistance in Senegal and the nonviolent resistance seen in the Aba Women’s riot in Nigeria. This book addresses the reasons explaining why the Ogoni and the Ijaw, having shared similar lived experiences, decide to adopt different strategies of engagement with the state that saw the use of nonviolence and violence in the Niger Delta.
Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu

Chapter 2. Theoretical and Conceptual Underpinnings of Conflict

Abstract
This chapter focuses on the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of conflict with the aim of situating the Niger Delta conflicts within the wider conflict literature. It sets out the conceptual understandings of the dynamics of nonviolence and violence in conflicts that include social movements, contention, structure and agency and the construction of collective narratives. The chapter is structured to show the importance of understanding the dynamics of choice between violence and nonviolence when attempting to analyse the Niger Delta conflicts. This is because research into this topic requires the survey of such diverse literature that makes it necessary to examine theoretical concepts such as contention, construction of collective narratives and identities, social movements, structure and agency. This chapter sets out a theoretical and analytical framework that uses the theories to elucidate the concepts used in the book.
Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu

Chapter 3. The Nigerian Niger Delta

Abstract
This chapter concentrates the discussion on the Nigerian Niger Delta. It outlines the environmental, socio-economic and political issues at the centre of the contestations and sets the backdrop for the strategic choices of violence and nonviolence in the Niger Delta conflicts, in addition to arguing why a different focus on the conflicts is important. Firstly, the environment marks the context within which the complexity of the Niger Delta has been established. Secondly, state failure is regarded within the context of socio-economic factors, especially in explaining why development is not commensurate to what is expected in spite of the abundance of resources in the region. Thirdly, the role of political factors interlinked with state policies responsible for the polarisation of groups accounts for the snowballing of ethnic and communal conflicts from nonviolence as seen in the Ogoni movement to violence of the Ijaw movement.
Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu

Chapter 4. Historical Narratives of the Ogoni and the Ijaw

Abstract
This chapter focuses on how the narratives of the Ogoni led to nonviolence and those of the Ijaw to violence. This first empirical chapter seeks to elucidate the reasons why although the Ogoni and the Ijaw reside within a related topography, sharing similar origins, values and culture, the narratives from the two groups do not present them as having a collective voice or as collectively representing the Niger Delta. The narratives will be analysed to show that the discourses used to denote the grievances of the two movements are distinct, with the Ogoni using a moderate nonviolent form of discourse and the Ijaw indicating a stronger and more contentious debate while charting a distinct cause. This distinction will clarify that the narratives each work for particular communities that have significant context specificity of their own.
Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu

Chapter 5. The Nature of Leadership Within the Ogoni and Ijaw Movements

Abstract
This chapter illustrates how the Ogoni leaders preached nonviolence and the Ijaw preached violence, analysing the strategies adopted by the different leaders. It is concerned with the nature of leadership within the two movements, and the ways in which the Ogoni leaders preached nonviolence and the Ijaw preached violence. Specifically, it argues that while the Ogoni are able to demonstrate one style of leadership, the Ijaw appear to have two types of leaders; one was more similar to the Ogoni-favoured nonviolence, but was then replaced by another type that was completely different and promoted violence.
Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu

Chapter 6. Organising Nonviolent and Violent Struggles—the Ogoni and Ijaw

Abstract
This chapter examines how the Ogoni developed an organisational structure for advocacy, negotiations and peaceful links with international bodies, while the Ijaw developed an organisation primarily suited for armed struggle. It also analyses the development and presentation of the Ogoni Bill of Rights and compares it with the Kaiama Declaration. This chapter builds on the nature of the Ogoni and Ijaw leadership presented in Chap. 5. In this chapter I argue that the differences in terms of the organisational structure of the Ogoni and the Ijaw movements demonstrate the commitment to nonviolence versus violence. The chapter will analyse the development and presentation of the Ogoni Bill of Rights in comparison to the Kaiama Declaration, as well as the establishment of MOSOP in comparison to the Ijaw Youth Council (IYC) and later MEND, to further highlight the dynamics of choice between nonviolence and violence between the two movements.
Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu

Chapter 7. Conclusion

Abstract
This chapter draws threads from all the previous chapters into a conclusion, presenting an overview of the findings and contributions of this book, together with recommendations for future research. Closely related to the dynamics of choice between Ogoni nonviolence and Ijaw violence is the understanding of the types of leadership that steered the two groups towards their different courses of action. While acknowledging the similarities of the living experiences of the Ogoni and the Ijaw ethnic groups in the Niger Delta, clear distinctions emerged, showing that the two conflicts are not one and the same. Each group is fighting a context-specific battle.
Zainab Ladan Mai-Bornu

Backmatter

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