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This edited volume provides insight into temperate fruits, with an emphasis on postharvest physiology, storage, packaging and technologies for maintaining fruit quality. Chapters are devoted to individual fruits and focus on fundamental issues such as methods for maintaining or enhancing quality, minimizing postharvest losses, and recommended technologies to boost demand. Contributions come from experts in the field, making this a key reference for all aspects of postharvest management of temperate fruits.

The volume is unique in its focus on the biodiversity, nutritional and health benefits, and postharvest technologies for shelf life enhancement of temperate fruits. Contributing authors address the postharvest biology and technology of individual temperate fruits such as plum, cherry, peach, apricot, apple, pear, quince, loquat, kiwi, persimmon and berries. There has been tremendous growth in the research and development of new techniques to maintain the quality of temperate fruits from farm to table. Contributions from experts in the field cover these recent advances, providing up-to-date and relevant information for researchers, postharvest/fruit technologists, food scientists, postgraduate students, and others working in the industry.



Biodiversity of Temperate Fruits

Temperate fruit crops have a wide range of diversity morphologically, biochemically, and genetically, and, thus, they have an important role in preserving endangered plant material for future use through different programs. The effective growth and survival of temperate crops, and their fruit production, depends mainly on temperature, light, rainfall, humidity, frost, fertilizers, and soil requirements. The application of biotechnology in postharvest technology of fresh fruits is applicable in reducing their losses in both quantity and quality from harvest to consumption. The study of biodiversity with implications of genetic engineering allows researchers to detect and map genes, identify their functions, and transfer specific genes for specific traits into plants for the development of fruit crops.
Aejaz Ahmad Dar, Reetika Mahajan, Padma Lay, Susheel Sharma

Orchard Management in Temperate Fruits

The orchard management system is associated with many factors, which has a direct and practical importance on the overall production and productivity of the orchard. The main aim of different cultural practices in temperate orchard management is to find out the real goal at minimum input cost and to sustain the framework of the orchard in a timely and efficient manner. Applications of model concepts lead to the more precise and uniform produce that ultimately support the homogeneity of fruit quality. Recent studies also found that interactions exist between different aspects of orchard management, namely, soil, irrigation, nutrition, training and pruning, weed competition, and plant growth dynamics in temperate fruit orchards. Research showed that adopting a scientific orchard management system will have the advantage of high accuracy in fruit quantity in general and quality in particular.
Mohammad Maqbool Mir, Munib-ur-Rehman, Gh Hassan Rather, Umar Iqbal, Ashaq Hussain Pandit, Mohammad Amin Mir, Khalid Mushtaq Bhat

Nutritional and Health Benefits of Temperate Fruits

Epidemiologic evidence has suggested a close relationship between the daily consumption of fruits and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, certain forms of cancer, and general health and wellbeing. The upsurge in the consumption of unhealthy processed foods is slowly breeding unhealthy nations, and this comes at huge costs to governments. Recent reports indicate very low per capita global fruit consumption. Therefore, the recent interest in phytonutrient compositions of fruits could not have come at a better time. Although the phytonutrient compositions of fruits have been widely reported, comprehensive analysis of their phytonutrient compositions and effects on health are lacking. Therefore, in this chapter, we report the phytonutrient compositions of some temperate fruits and their health benefits. This information will be useful to a wide range of stakeholders, including consumers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and government departments involved with food, in the hope to educate and increase fruit consumption.
Callistus Bvenura, Ngemakwe Nitcheu Patrick Hermaan, Lingyun Chen, Dharini Sivakumar

Postharvest Technologies for Shelf Life Enhancement of Temperate Fruits

During the last three or four decades, temperate fruit production and consumption have increased tremendously, thanks to new developments and findings of research activities. These aspects concern better understanding of the physiology of the crops in order to develop appropriate technologies, which can ensure quality preservation and improve the availability of products for fresh consumption, as well as for processing. This chapter intends to highlight some major factors that have a direct effect on the preservation and/or deterioration of fresh temperate fruit during postharvest operations. Hence, it presents an overview of the available reports on the effects of postharvest technologies on the enhancement of shelf life and storage potential of various temperate fruits.
Mohamed Benichou, Jamal Ayour, Maha Sagar, Abderrahim Alahyane, Imane Elateri, Ahmed Aitoubahou

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Plum

Plums are highly perishable fruit. The short postharvest life confines their supply to distant markets. Among various factors, rapid softening, higher respiration, and ethylene production are most critical for the safe and prolonged storage of plums. The short postharvest life poses a serious restraint for its proper storage and transportation. The rapid postharvest fruit softening and successive microbial infestations lead to significant economic losses during supply chain and marketing of plums. The storage of plums under low temperature is recommended for the extension of its storage life. However, the extended low-temperature storage leads to various physiological disorders, such as chilling injury, internal browning, flesh reddening, abnormal ripening, gel formation, reddish discoloration, flesh breakdown, increased decay, and the loss of consumer acceptance. Adopting improved production and postharvest management protocols, as well as in-depth understanding of the physiology of plum fruit, may facilitate the extension of storage life and maintenance of its quality.
Ahmad Sattar Khan, Zora Singh, Sajid Ali

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Cherry

Cherry is a non climacteric fleshy drupe cultivated in the temperate regions of the world. The two commercially important species of cherries are sweet and sour cherries. Cherries are highly perishable and very difficult to handle after harvest. They are susceptible to bruising, desiccation and browning of stem. They are also susceptible to various physiological and microbial disorders. Several postharvest technologies have been developed to increase the shelf life and market value of cherries. These include controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere storage (MAP), irradiation, edible coatings and some chemical treatments. The other methods meant for processed cherry products like dehydration, freezing and canning have also been adopted for processing of cherries.
Manzoor Ahmad Shah, Shabir Ahmad Mir, Showket Ahmad Pala

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Peach

Peach is a climacteric fruit and undergoes rapid ripening after harvest. The fast ripening of the fruit is responsible for its short shelf life and represents a serious constraint for its efficient handling and transportation. Quick softening of the fruit after harvest and subsequent mold growth leads to huge losses in the marketing chain of the fruit. This chapter mainly sums up recent studies about the maturation parameters, ripening, physiological disorders, microbiological disorders, and postharvest techniques (cold storage, controlled atmosphere storage, and modified atmosphere packaging) of peach fruit. Various treatments, including physical (heat treatment, intermittent warming, irradiation, and edible coatings) and chemical methods (1-methylcyclopropene, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, calcium chloride, oxalic acid, melatonin, and nitric oxide), have been applied to peach fruit to enhance its shelf life.
Saqib Farooq, Mohammad Maqbool Mir, Shaiq Ahmad Ganai, Tabasum Maqbool, Shabir Ahmad Mir, Manzoor Ahmad Shah

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Apricot

Apricots are an excellent source of nutrients and are cherished for their peculiar flavor. However, high rates of ripening and susceptibility to mechanical injury and diseases limit their shelf life. Being climacteric in nature, ethylene regulates the ripening of apricot fruits. The adoption of different pre- and postharvest treatments like harvesting at optimum maturity, maintenance of cold chain, selection of proper packaging material, and storage atmospheres, decide the postharvest behavior of fruits. For delaying the ripening and maintaining the quality of harvested produce, prompt cooling and low-temperature storage is recommended. However, if apricots are kept at low temperatures for longer durations, chilling injury occurs in the fruits, which is manifested in the form of various symptoms. Therefore, postharvest technology of apricots aims at the reduction of fruit losses as well as optimization of fruit quality throughout the postharvest chain.
Sabeera Muzzaffar, Mohd Munaff Bhat, Touseef Ahmed Wani, Idrees Ahmed Wani, F. A. Masoodi

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Apple

Apple is a climacteric fruit commercially grown in temperate regions of the world. Apple quality and its postharvest life can be influenced by several factors, including harvest maturity, storage conditions, and postharvest treatments. Apples have a relatively long storage life compared with other fruit crops. However, the main problem of apple storage is the decrease of fruit firmness. Fruit ripening is accompanied by softening, which is one of the most important determinants of fruit quality and consumer acceptability. Numerous techniques, including controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methlycyclopropene treatment, coatings, etc., have been employed for increasing the shelf life of apple fruit.
Khalid Gul, Nisar Ahmad Mir, Preeti Singh, Ali Abas Wani

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Pear

The shelf life of pear fruit is very short and pears are susceptible to decay, mechanical damage, and moisture and nutritional losses during storage. The quality of pears after harvest depends on the storage temperature, response to ethylene in ripening, gene expression, cell wall degradation, chemical treatments, etc. Moreover, the shelf life and quality of pear fruits also depend on harvest maturity, application of coating materials, storage conditions, packaging materials used, and different postharvest treatments. This chapter deals with different aspects of postharvest biology and technology of pear fruits and their possible influences on quality during storage and shelf life.
Amit Nath, A. S. Panwar

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Quince

Quince (Cydonia oblonga) is a species in the genus Cydonia, which belongs to the family Rosaceae. Quinces have received attention in the last 10 years because of their high content in biologically active phytochemicals. The harvesting time lasts from September to October, depending on the cultivar. The fruit can be stored at 0–2 °C for 3–6 months and prolonged by controlled atmosphere conditions. Various packaging techniques and chemical and heat treatments have been found to enhance the shelf life of quince fruit.
Toiba Majeed, Idrees Ahmed Wani, Sabeera Muzzaffar

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Loquat

Loquat, a non-climacteric fruit, is well known for its taste, juiciness and high nutrition value. Loquat is mainly consumed as fresh fruit and the important quality attributes are skin color, flesh firmness, soluble solids content, acidity and soluble solids content/acidity ratio. It has a short shelf life at ambient temperatures and is susceptible to various physical, mechanical and nutritional losses. A number of technologies have been evaluated for extending the shelf-life of loquat fruit and include cold storage, controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging, edible coatings, chemical and heat treatments.
Bisma Zargar, Mohammad Maqbool Mir, Shaiq Ahmad Ganai, Shabir Ahmad Mir, Manzoor Ahmad Shah, Shafat Ahmad Banday

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Kiwifruit

Kiwifruit is one of the most recently domesticated temperate fruit crops. The consumption of fresh kiwifruits is booming due to its numerous health benefits. The postharvest physiology of kiwifruit is rather complex and is very sensitive to exogenous ethylene. The lack of proper maturity harvest indices is a major drawback in postharvest management, except for the soluble solids content (SSC), which is widely used as a harvest index. Many pre- and postharvest factors are involved in the deterioration of fresh fruit quality and storage life. Therefore, the development of novel techniques to maintain the quality and shelf life of fruits after harvesting is a major challenge. Recent postharvest and storage techniques like the use of ethylene scrubber and blockers, surface coatings, postharvest fungicides, heat treatments, ionizing radiation, and the use of bioagents, controlled atmosphere (CA) storage, and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), along with cold chain management, are helping to address the call for preserving quality.
Nirmal Kumar Meena, Murlimanohar Baghel, S. K. Jain, Ram Asrey

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Strawberry

Strawberry is one of the most cultivated and consumed berry in the world. It is widely appreciated for its characteristic aroma, bright red color, juicy texture, and sweetness. Strawberries are highly perishable, with a short postharvest life. Their short postharvest life is mainly due to their susceptibility towards mechanical injury, physiological deterioration, water loss, and microbial decay. Owing to higher perishability, the shelf life enhancement of strawberry fruit is crucial and demanding. Various techniques like controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging, gamma irradiation, coatings, chemical treatments, etc. have been used for the shelf life enhancement of strawberry fruit.
Sadaf Parvez, Idrees Ahmed Wani

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Berries

The common term ‘berry fruit’ includes different fruits, such as blueberry, currant, gooseberry, raspberry, and blackberry. These fruits are the richest sources of natural antioxidants. Almost all berries are non-climacteric and are considered highly perishable, being susceptible to mechanical injury during transportation, picking, and storage. The postharvest life of berries is limited to a few days and only a small percentage of these fruits can be consumed fresh. In order to minimize undesirable changes in quality attributes during the postharvest period, a series of techniques to extend the shelf life of perishable fruit can be adopted. Postharvest technology comprises different methods of harvesting, packaging, rapid cooling, storage under refrigeration, as well as modified and controlled atmospheres, and transportation under controlled conditions. This chapter will deal with various aspects of berries, viz., fruit maturation, ripening, postharvest biological factors, and causes of postharvest losses and different postharvest techniques to extend the postharvest shelf life.
Sunil Kumar, Murlimanohar Baghel, Ashok Yadav, Mahesh Kumar Dhakar

Postharvest Biology and Technology of Persimmon

Persimmon production has continued to increase in recent years. It is now being cultivated in more countries and new varieties are also reaching markets. One important feature that differentiates persimmon from other fruit crops is that the fruits from some cultivars are astringent at harvest, while other cultivars produce non-astringent fruits. Therefore, from a postharvest point of view, some cultivars require specific treatments being applied to remove astringency before their commercialization. On the other hand, storage of persimmons is limited by their sensitivity to manifest chilling injury at low temperature; the main chilling injury symptoms are related to textural changes. This chapter presents the postharvest biology and technology aspects of persimmon fruits.
Cristina Besada, Alejandra Salvador

Food Safety Management of Temperate Fruits from Farm to Fork

Temperate crops cover a wide range of delicious fruits which are popular all over the world, and their safety assurance related to supply chain management is very crucial. The fruit industry has the responsibility to implement safety management systems in order to control the potential contamination of possible hazards. The safety management in temperate fruits can be maintained through the use of guidelines and standards of hazard analysis of critical control points, good agriculture practice, and standard operating procedures. Safety management in temperate fruits is important to track down the deficiencies and loopholes in sanitation, hygiene, and improper practices related to production.
S. A. Sofi, Muneer Ahmad Dar, Shafiya Rafiq

Erratum to: Nutritional and Health Benefits of Temperate Fruits

This chapter’s co-author’s name was incorrectly printed in the chapter. This error in name has been rectified and changed from Bvenura Callistus to Callistus Bvenura.
Callistus Bvenura, Ngemakwe Nitcheu Patrick Hermaan, Lingyun Chen, Dharini Sivakumar


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