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The floricultural industry has been undergoing an unprecedented revolu­ tion in terms of the type of commodity produced and the production and marketing technology in both developed and developing countries. As a result of this revolution, as we know today, there is a flower for every purpose and for every person in the world, as is evident from the slogan of the Society for American Florists: "say it with flowers". In re­ cent years, the Latin American and European countries have become sizeable competitors for the North American fresh flower markets and the trend continues growing. Like any other crop production, floricultural production can be divided into three basic factors: (1) production costs (2) quality (3) transportation costs. All these must be optimum for this area or industry to be safe from competition. With increasing consumer awareness and the current recession, the pressure from the artificial floral products in­ dustry and also of neighbouring countries on the American fresh flower industry, and continued competition even amongst the growers, whole­ salers and retailers, quality in floricultural industry is becoming increas­ ingly important to all those concerned with handling these products. The visual quality aspects of the product are the sole determiner of consumer acceptability in this industry and, unlike fruits and vegetables, flowers cannot be marketed by just discarding the damaged portion.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Flowers possess the great gift of establishing a tie with nature, thus satisfying an innate human need which is becoming increasingly evident in every society. As a result of continuous evolution, the floricultural industry, as we know it today, apart from being an art, is a highly specialized profession involving several basic scientific principles. It is now to offer floral products to suit every occasion and every kind of person in the world.
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 2. Senescence of Flowers and Ornamentals — Basic Principles and Considerations

Abstract
Senescence is one of the least well-defined steps in biological development. The gross change of a series of changes leading finally to death of an organism has been referred to as senescence, Sacher [1] defined senescence as the final phase in the ontogeny of the organ in which a series of normally irreversible events is initiated that leads to cellular breakdown and death of the organ. Senescence of higher plants is classified into three major types [2, 4]: (a) population senescence (e.g. annual plants), (b) organism or individual plant senescence, and (c) determinate organ senescence (e.g. leaves, fruits, flowers, petals etc.).
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 3. Carnation

Abstract
Owing to its excellent keeping quality, wide range of forms, ability to withstand long-distance transport and remarkable ability to rehydrate after continuous shipping, carnation is preferred by growers to roses or chrysanthemums in several flower-exporting countries. According to a study conducted in the USA, approximately 34% of the total number of consumers expressed their liking for carnation 5 days after they were purchased, as against only 20% who favoured roses [1]. Although cut carnations are sold all the year round, they are in particular demand for Valentine’s Day, Easter, Mother’s Day and Christmas. While standard carnations are in greater demand, the miniature types are fast gaining in popularity for their potential use in floral arrangements and also as a cut flower at comparatively low price. White and pink standard carnations are in greatest demand, followed by red, yellow, sky blue and bicoloured [2]. In contrast, in miniatures, the terminal flowers bud is pinched to encourage clusters of short-stemmed small flowers. These types are mainly used for flower arrangements.
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 4. Rose

Abstract
Roses, owing to their wide variety in flower colour, form, growth habit and plant size, have widespread consumer acceptance. Cut roses are generally preferred (51%) to carnations (41%) and chrysanthemums (4.5%) when they are fresh [1]. They account for approximately 39% of the total sale of fresh flowers in the United States of America [2, 11]. Roses are in great demand for Valentine’s Day, Sweetheart’s Day, Memorial Day and Christmas. Furthermore cut roses are commonly used for many religious and social events such as marriages, birthdays, and social gatherings and are regularly exchanged between loved ones.
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 5. Chrysanthemum

Abstract
Florist chrysanthemum is grown throughout the world both for cut flowers and as potted plants. This plant has been studied intensively by scientists and growers, with the result that the crop can now be grown to precise schedule at any time by controlling the growing to precise schedule at any time by controlling the growing conditions. The ability of the producer to obtain a quality crop of chrysanthemum depends upon understanding the complex interaction between the plant and its environment.
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 6. Tulip

Abstract
Tulip is regarded as the most attractive spring bulb flower. In recent years the popularity of tulips has suffered to a considerable extent because of the short keeping quality of the flower. Tulips are grown for cut flowers or as potted plants for Valentine’s Day, Easter and Mother’s Day [1].
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 7. Orchid

Abstract
Orchids are considered to be the very special cut flower in the world. They belong to a largest family in the plant kingdom, with over 20 000 known species [1]. The terrestial forms are able to produce the photosynthates needed for their growth and flowering. Out of all the existing orchid types, only a few genera, such as Cattleya, Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium, Cymbidium and Vanda, are commercially grown for cut flowers [3]. Cymbidium and Vanda are also produced in the open in subtropical areas. These are regarded as a special occasion flowers, replacing roses in weddings and other formal social functions, Easter and Mother’s Day celebrations. Orchids are in demand throughout the year and make very good specimen flowers for transworld delivery.
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 8. Gladiolus

Abstract
The name Gladiolus was suggested by Pliny to describe the shape of the leaf, which resembles that of a sword (Latin gladus-sword) [1]. It is grown from corms both for cut flower and garden decoration. As a cut flower, Gladiolus is one of the most important grown in Europe and the USA. The flowers vary widely in colour, with attractive shades like crimson, pink, salmon, scarlet, purple, cherry red, apricot, cream, white or a combination of two or more shades. In form, they are either single or double, with or without ruffled petals and pigmentation in the centre.
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 9. Other Cut Flowers

Abstract
Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii, Hook.), named in honour of Traug Gerber, is commonly known as Transvaal Daisy, or Barberton Daisy. It is a dwarf perennial herbaceous plant growing in clumps with solitary flower heads on long slender stems which grow well above the foliage. The flowers come in a wide range of colours including yellow, white, orange, pink, crimson and purple. Gerberas are good for beds, borders, rock gardens, pot culture and cut flowers. The flowers suit very well in different floral arrangements. Gerberas can be successfully grown both on plains and in the hills. In western countries they are usually grown in greenhouses, but in mild weather are even grown outdoors on the south-west side. Cultivars of commercial importance are Maroon, the Clementine series, Xenia, Flamengo, Delphi, Apple Blossom and Uranus [1].
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 10. Potted Plants

Abstract
The demand for potted chrysanthemums has increased tremendously in the last few years, primarily because of its suitability as a potted plant. It is undoubtedly a number one potted flowering plant [1, 2, 15]. The dollar returns per sq. foot basis are highest for chrysanthemum with $ 4.12 per sq. ft. as compared $ 3.72 for lilies and $ 2.16 for poinsettia [2]. It is relatively easy to produce attractive potted mums and sell them for profit. As an indoor plant, chrysanthemums keep exceptionally well for a longer time, which makes them indispensible potted plants in the home. Furthermore, with a wide range of flower colours to choose from, it meets the liking of the vast majority of the public [3].
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Chapter 11. Foliage Plants

Abstract
The term foliage plants has been used in many ways by several scientists. The diverse nature of the plants included in this group makes it difficult to define the term precisely. Bailey and Bailey [1] used this term to designate plants that are grown primarily for their foliage rather than for flowers. Due to the diverse nature of growth habit and the parts of special interest, there is no single definition of foliage plants which encompasses both these aspects. A recent definition developed by Conover [2] is currently being used in the foliage industry. According to this definition, foliage plants include all the plants grown primarily for their foliage and utilized for interior decoration or interior landscape purposes. The flowers, if present, are inconspicuous and are relatively of secondary importance. Table 11.1 gives the important plant species, including the varieties used for indoor decoration. The importance of foliage plants has increased many folds in the recent past [33, 34].
Dattajirao K. Salunkhe, Narayana R. Bhat, Babasaheb B. Desai

Backmatter

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