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2021 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

15. Postscript: The Intellectual Origins of European Integration

verfasst von : James Ashley Morrison, José Luís Cardoso

Erschienen in: Political Economy and International Order in Interwar Europe

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

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Abstract

This chapter draws on the previous contributions in this volume to consider the intellectual origins of European integration. First, it analyses the many changes in, and responses to, the operation of “the state” wrought by the First World War and the calamities that followed. In this period, the classic questions surrounding the relationship between law, order and liberty took on new meaning and inspired new ideas. Some of the more ambitious—even radical—figures suggested rewriting entirely the so-called “rules of the game.” Others sought to re-establish the old order on a more philosophically robust and practically pragmatic footing. These new ideas both followed from, and fostered, new approaches, methods and academic collaborations across the traditional disciplinary, cultural and national borders. For many, these dynamics brought a heightened urgency and a new sense of possibility to the age-old dreams of a united Europe. The chapter closes by reflecting on the work undertaken—and the work left unfinished—by the architects of the post-war European project.

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Fußnoten
1
In this chapter, we borrow some of the useful concepts and formulations developed earlier in this volume. We cite all external references throughout.
 
2
This is not to suggest that their attacks exceeded those levied by, say, Orwell (1950) and Arendt (1958).
 
3
It is useful to remember that “the market” was indeed a figure of speech, the generalisation of a particular locus of economic interchange used as a metaphor for the broader economy. Watson (2018).
 
4
Keynes (1923b) Preface. See also Hayek (1943, 176).
 
5
Of course, it is possible to craft rules—such as with the “non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment,” the Taylor rule, etc.—that define monetary policy in relation to the inflation rate itself. Such rules aim to stabilise the real purchasing power of a currency while still limiting the monetary authorities’ room for discretion. But this might just shift “the politics of money” onto the measures of inflation, the time-frames considered, and the construction of the price indices: do we include the costs of housing? Do we include the cost of imported consumables? et cettera.
 
6
Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth.
 
7
Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice.
 
8
In part, Keynes was misled by his own prejudice. The full remark ran, “Bolshevism is such a delirium, bred by besotted idealism and intellectual error out of the sufferings and peculiar temperaments of Slavs and Jews. But we can no more regard this culminating delirium as a lasting fact or influence than the rule of Robespierre or the Jacobins” (Keynes 1922, 372–73). He had forgotten that Robespierre was followed by Bonaparte; and, so, too, was Lenin followed by Stalin. Yet, Keynes was uncanny in his warnings about the German ultranationalists. As France prepared to occupy the Ruhr (in January 1923), he predicted, “There exist already over a large part of Europe situations worse than the gloomiest prophets foresaw…A sensational denouement can only come about through a political event—a strike in the Ruhr, a fall of government in France or a reactionary Putsch in Germany…The combination of economic distress with patriotic rage might at last drive Germany desperate. A movement of violence from reactionary Bavaria, aided perhaps by the Communist left, would face us with a German government of an entirely different complexion and ideas of policy from those we have dealt with hitherto.” (Keynes 1923a, 105). Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch–in Munich, Bavaria–transpired ten months later.
 
9
The (apocraphyl) remark is associated with the Duke of Wellington.
 
10
This question is alive and well in the haggling over Brexit.
 
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Metadaten
Titel
Postscript: The Intellectual Origins of European Integration
verfasst von
James Ashley Morrison
José Luís Cardoso
Copyright-Jahr
2021
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-47102-6_15