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2014 | Buch

Power-to-Gas: Technology and Business Models

verfasst von: Markus Lehner, Robert Tichler, Horst Steinmüller, Markus Koppe

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : SpringerBriefs in Energy


Über dieses Buch

Increased production of energy from renewable sources leads to a need for both new and enhanced capacities for energy transmission and intermediate storage. The book first compares different available storage options and then introduces the power-to-gas concept in a comprehensive overview of the technology. The state of the art, advancements, and future requirements for both water electrolysis and methanation are described. The integration of renewable hydrogen and methane into the gas grid is discussed in terms of the necessary technological measures to be taken. Because the power-to-gas system is very flexible, providing numerous specific applications for different targets within the energy sector, possible business models are presented on the basis of various process chains taking into account different plant scales and operating scenarios. The influence of the scale and the type of the integration of the technology into the existing energy network is highlighted with an emphasis on economic consequences. Finally, legal aspects of the operation and integration of the power-to-gas system are discussed.


Chapter 1. Storage Options for Renewable Energy
In the recent years, the European energy policy has agreed on the increased integration of renewable energy sources in the energy system, and large efforts are being made to implement renewable energy. This tendency is not limited to the European market, but is a basic development in many regions. The energy policy is primarily based on climate change policy aims and demands, however further parameters are relevant in the portfolio of intentions for increasing the percentage of renewable energy sources, such as reduction of the import dependency and increasing the domestic value or price stability. To some extent, relatively high expansion rates in the implementation of energy systems based on renewable sources can be achieved, such as in Germany and China, for example.
Markus Lehner, Robert Tichler, Horst Steinmüller, Markus Koppe
Chapter 2. The Power-to-Gas Concept
This chapter gives an overview of the technological fundamentals of the Power-to-Gas concept. After a general introduction to the concept itself, efficiencies and synergy potentials of the Power-to-Gas technology are described. Furthermore, a very short introduction to similar concepts is given, as well as a view to the technological challenges and restrictions for integration of hydrogen into the natural gas grid. Due to the limited available space, only the main aspects are addressed with reference to further reading.
Markus Lehner, Robert Tichler, Horst Steinmüller, Markus Koppe
Chapter 3. Water Electrolysis
This chapter reviews basic aspects of water electrolysis technologies. First, fundamentals of water electrolysis are discussed to give an overview on basic modes of operation, different ways to determine the electrolyzer efficiency and basic aspects of performance optimization strategies. Second the three main water electrolysis technologies, namely the alkaline electrolysis (AEC), the polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis (PEMEC) and the solid oxide electrolyte electrolysis (SOEC), are described in more detail. The state of the art, typical system setups, operating characteristics, main component materials, technological assets and drawbacks, current and future developments and future challenges of each of the main technologies are discussed.
Markus Lehner, Robert Tichler, Horst Steinmüller, Markus Koppe
Chapter 4. Methanation
Methanation describes the heterogeneous, gas-catalytic or biological synthesis of CH4 from H2 and CO/CO2 or in case of the biological path, alternatively from other carbon sources. It is the second substantial, but optional process step beside the electrolysis within the Power-to-Gas concept. The chemism of the methanation reaction is known for more than one century and chemical methanation processes have been state of the art for several decades. They have been and still are, applied to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from synthesis gas derived from coal or biomass.
Markus Lehner, Robert Tichler, Horst Steinmüller, Markus Koppe
Chapter 5. Business Models
This chapter (Tichler 2014) focuses on the economic dimension of the Power-to-Gas technology respectively of the Power-to-Gas system. The economic dimension can be defined as quite complex due to the fact that Power-to-Gas offers significant benefits to the whole energy system. As a consequence, an economic analysis of Power-to-Gas requires not only business analysis but also comprehensive macroeconomic and systemic analysis.
Markus Lehner, Robert Tichler, Horst Steinmüller, Markus Koppe
Power-to-Gas: Technology and Business Models
verfasst von
Markus Lehner
Robert Tichler
Horst Steinmüller
Markus Koppe
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN