Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are an extraordinarily diverse group of chemicals used in veterinary medicine, agricultural practice, and human health and cosmetic care. The various sources and origins of PPCPs as pollutants in the environment are depicted in the illustration “Origins and Fate of PPCPs” (available: http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdı/chemistry/pharma/images/drawing.pdf; note: all of the URLs cited in the text of this chapter are from the web site Daughton/EPA 2003a). PPCPs are ubiquitous pollutants, owing their origins in the environment to their worldwide, universal, frequent, and highly dispersed but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals (and domestic animals) and from other uses such as pest control (e.g. see http://www.epa.gov/nerlesdı/chemistry/pharma/images/double-drugs.pdf). Therapeutic drugs in current use comprise more than 3 000 distinct bioactive chemical entities formulated (using a wide array of so-called inert “excipients”) into tens of thousands of registered end-use products; the definitive listings of drugs regulated in the US is maintained by the US FDA (2003). Personal care products contribute untold numbers of additional ingredients and formulations.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- PPCPs in the Environment: Future Research — Beginning with the End Always in Mind
C. G. Daughton
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
- Chapter 33