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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on Chemical Engineering and Processing, covering interdisciplinary innovation technologies and sciences closely related to chemical engineering, such as computer image analysis, modelling and IT. The book presents interdisciplinary aspects of chemical and biochemical engineering interconnected with process system engineering, process safety and computer science.



Silage of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a Bioenergy Feedstock in Poland

The production of biogas from the waste materials and crops is one of the main ways of acquiring the renewable energy. The switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a plant with significant potential for energy utilization in terms of thermal utilization and bio-logical processing. The aim of that work is to indicate the level of biogas productivity of switchgrass. The research methodology has been done according to DIN 38414 p.8. The plant material was used in the form of silage. The effect of exposure of plant material to atmospheric air was tested in the studies. Results were compared with silage samples. Plant substrate samples were mixed with biologically active liquid substrates: inoculum and slurry. Studies were carried out on the mixture with a dry matter content of up to 8% m/m. The results were statistically analysed. The correct courses of the fermentation processes were observed for both tested cases of the plant materials. Results of the studies indicated that the productivity of biogas for silage switchgrass, which was exposed to atmospheric air, was increased by 20.7% v/v. At the same time, increased emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrogen sulphide were observed. The average methane concentration in biogas was higher for the aerated plant sample and was equal to 56.11% v/v. Favourable results for the initial method of aeration should be attributed to initiate decomposition of biomass be-fore the actual fermentation process.

Mariusz Adamski, Waldemar Szaferski, Piotr Gulewicz, Włodzimierz Majtkowski

Process Intensification in Practice: Ethylene Glycol Case Study

Process Intensification (PI) is broadly defined as the development of innovative equipment and technologies that offer drastic improvements in chemical processing. Interest in PI has been increasing steadily for the past 30 years, as confirmed by numerous publications and patents. The outstanding improvement offered by PI technologies is achieved through, for example, the enhancement of physical and chemical phenomena with novel equipment, the integration of functions and the introduction of new driving forces and energy sources. Hence, PI can overcome most difficult process bottlenecks, which cannot be tackled by using classical equipment. Despite its great potential to improve production processes, PI implementations in industry is still limited. Apart from reliance on well-established technologies and a reluctance to use novel processes, the scarcity of PI implementation can be attributed to the lack of knowledge of how and where intensification should be applied. Therefore, systematic methodologies are required that enable to identify the part of the flowsheet that should be intensified and to determine the most adequate PI technology for overcoming current process limitations. To this end, a novel approach for process retrofitting by means of PI is illustrated with an excellent example of ethylene glycol production. Replacing a tubular reactor with a reactive distillation column resulted in significant improvement of ethylene glycol processing: the operating costs were limited by 14%, and the number of required unit operations was decreased by over 70%.

Magda H. Barecka, Mirko Skiborowski, Andrzej Górak

Problems of Heat Transfer in Agitated Vessels

In the chapter, the problems of heat transport in the agitated vessels, equipped with a jacket or coil, are analysed on the basis of our own and literature results of the studies. Different measurement methods of mean and local heat transfer coefficients were described. The results of the experimental studies on the heat transfer coefficient in agitated vessels of different geometry were compared and discussed.

Magdalena Cudak, Marta Major-Godlewska, Joanna Karcz

Non-invasive Measurement of Interfacial Surface States

The study presents the possible use of optoelectronic system for the measurement of the values which are specific for hydrodynamics of two-phase gas-liquid flow in vertical pipes, where a very-high-viscosity liquid forms a falling film in a pipe. The experimental method was provided and the findings were presented and analyzed for selected values which characterize the two-phase flow. An attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of flow parameters and properties of the liquid on the gas-liquid interface value, which is decisive for the conditions of heat exchange and mass transfer in falling film equipment.

Krystian Czernek, Małgorzata Płaczek

The Influence of Rotating Magnetic Field on Biochemical Processing

Enzymes have extremely interesting properties that make them catalysis for a huge number of chemical reactions. These little-reaction machines are commonly applied in chemical engineering processes. There are many different approaches and methods available to improve enzymes activated processes. This paper discusses a possibility to apply them for a rotating magnetic field as a tool in modern chemical engineering to precisely regulate ex vivo and in vivo enzyme activity.

Radosław Drozd, Agata Wasak, Maciej Konopacki, Marian Kordas, Rafał Rakoczy

Chemical Processing of Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Grass Mixtures in Terms of Biogas Yield in Poland

Decomposition of waste biomass as a result of thermal, biological and chemical processing allows for the acquisition of energy and its carriers. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and grass mixtures are a universal biological substrate for energy purposes. The digestibility of organic substrates in the fermentation process limits the presence of raw fiber. The aim of the work was to indicate the effectiveness of the method, which consists in pretreatment with the sodium hydroxide of the plant material. Processing conditions for low sodium concentrations (3.5 and 2% m/m) were determined. The study used the methodology of testing productivity of biogas in accordance with DIN 38414 p.8. Fresh vegetable substrate, slurry and inoculum were used to produce test mixtures. The results of the research have been developed statistically. Shapes of obtained characteristics of biogas productivity showed the correct course of the methane process. The total biogas productivity of switchgrass as a result of processing with sodium hydroxide gave better effect than with similarly processed grass mixtures. Cumulative biogas productivity of switchgrass mixtures as a result of chemical processing increased by about 10% v/v. Cumulative biogas productivity of grass mixtures, as a result of chemical processing, increased by approximately 17.5% v/v.

Karol Durczak, Mariusz Adamski, Piotr Tomasz Mitkowski, Waldemar Szaferski, Piotr Gulewicz, Włodzimierz Majtkowski

Analysis of Flow Through the Entry Region of a Channel with Metal Foam Packing

The paper presents results of numerical simulation of fluid flow through a horizontal channel filled with AlSi7Mg alloy open-cell aluminium foam. The numerical analysis regarded adiabatic and nonadiabatic flow of air, water and machine oil. Due to the complex structure of the foam skeleton, numerical simulations were performed by application of a simplified geometrical foam model in the shape of Kelvin structure. The subject of the detailed analysis was distribution of velocity and temperature in the inlet area of the channel. The local fluid velocity demonstrates considerable variability due to the periodic changes in the cross-section of the foam cells. The impact of the wall on the velocity distribution is visible only at the distance not exceeding the diameter of a cell. The fluctuations of the fluid temperature are only discernible at the distance equal to three times the cell size. It was further stated that the hydrodynamic flow development occurs relatively quickly near the channel inlet. The distribution of the velocity is formed along a section with the length corresponding to five times the size of a foam cell while the thermal development requires a several times greater length of the channel section.

Roman Dyga, Małgorzata Płaczek, Stanisław Witczak, Krystian Czernek

CFD Modelling of Liquid-Liquid Multiphase Slug Flow with Reaction

Microstructured reactors (MSR) receive great attention for obtaining higher surface-to-volume ratios, higher mass and heat transfer rates, higher safety and other advantages over traditional reactors. Extremely good performance of MSR can be obtained due to generation of slug/segmented flow in liquid-liquid systems or Taylor flow in gas-liquid systems. High number of geometrical and process parameters creates great challenge for optimization of such a system. Numerical studies on this problem can improve overall knowledge about process and give opportunity to fast and precise designing of MSR.

Jakub Dzierla, Maciej Staszak, Krzysztof Alejski

Effect of Blade Shape on Unsteady Mixing of Gas-Liquid Systems

Mechanical mixing can be conducted in few ways. One is unsteady mixing which is used in all cases where it is not recommended to use baffles. In this mixing, the impeller speed is variable over time which causes a higher mixing power demand as compared to steady mixing. In unsteady mixing, also a higher stress around the impeller can be observed as well as the increased axial force in the stirred vessel which results in lower minimum impeller speed in solid-liquid systems. Thus, mixing can be also used in gas-liquid systems allowing to generate a higher relative power demand in relation to the steady mixing as well as higher mass transfer coefficients. Its value, just as for steady mixing, is affected by impeller’s geometry. This chapter analyzes how the shape of impeller’s blade affects the steady and unsteady mixing for impellers with elliptical and hollow unsymmetrical blades. In addition, basic equations describing the torque and impeller speed variations over time are presented together with the maximum and average mixing power equations.

Sebastian Frankiewicz, Szymon Woziwodzki

Supercritical Fluids in Green Technologies

Supercritical fluid technologies offer the possibility to obtain new products with special characteristics or to design new processes, which are environmentally friendly and sustainable. By using supercritical fluids as the processing media, one can also avoid the problem of solvent residues and restrictions on the use of conventional organic solvents in industrial technologies. In this overview some novel applications of supercritical fluids are presented and the future expected development in the field of high pressure green technologies is outlined.

Marek Henczka, Małgorzata Djas, Jan Krzysztoforski

The Application of CFD Methods for Modeling of a Three-Phase Fixed-Bed Reactor

The mathematical model of the three-phase fixed-bed reactor (TBR) consisting of the continuity equation, the momentum balances of each phase and mass balances of reaction mixture components were presented and discussed. These balances are the result of averaging by means of Euler’s procedure and form the basis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Although the CFD model is based on fundamental principles some empirical relations (closure lows) must be implemented into the momentum balance in order to ensure a proper description of the dynamics of very complex three-phase system. Therefore, the sensitivity of a multiphase CFD model with respect to relations defining drag forces between phases, distribution of porosity in the cross-section of the reactor and the values of Ergun constants was analyzed. As an example of advantages resulting from using CFD model in computations of hydrodynamic parameters the process of catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of phenol carried out in the trickle-bed reactor was presented. The comparative calculations showed that the CFD model describes better the hydrodynamic phenomena in the bed than the simple plug flow model and as a result predicts much more accurate the outlet concentrations of reacting components.

Daniel Janecki, Grażyna Bartelmus, Andrzej Burghardt

The Use of Spray Drying in the Production of Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials with Defined Porous Structure

Chitin and lignin are important, widespread, natural biopolymers and they have gained much attention in various branches of science. Recently, due to the unique properties of these biopolymers, special attention has been paid to the synthesis of various chitin-based and lignin-based inorganic-organic hybrids with defined porous structure parameters. This chapter reviews the use of spray drying as a useful technique for controlled synthesis of inorganic-organic functional materials, with chitin-silica and lignin-silica as examples.

Teofil Jesionowski, Beata Michalska, Marcin Wysokowski, Łukasz Klapiszewski

Applications and Properties of Physical Gels Obtained on the Basis of Cellulose Derivatives

Polymer physical gels have been used in numerous practical applications within food processing, chemical, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. They may be obtained on the bases of synthetic and natural polymers. Natural polymers are easily biodegradable, hence their more extensive usage within the areas where synthetic polymers have been applied so far. The following chapter discusses basic properties and applications of physical gels obtained on the basis of cellulose derivatives. Additionally, it presents the application of rheology to examine the substances of this sort. The most widely known water-soluble cellulose derivatives include methylcellulose (MC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), ethyl cellulose (EC), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC). Despite the fact that the aforementioned polymers have been known for years, the research on their properties and the potential for new applications and usages are still being conducted.

Patrycja Komorowska, Jacek Różański

The Characterization of the Residence Time Distribution in a Fluid Mixer by Means of the Information Entropy

The concept of residence time distribution (RTD) is applied to describe a mixing process. The main idea of the proposed approach is the utilization of experimental RTD measurements to determine the information entropy. This paper discusses a method to compute information mixing capacity as a measure of mixing performance for a continuous flow system. The proposed criterion is applied to evaluate a mixing system with motionless inserts.

Marian Kordas, Daniel Pluskota, Rafał Rakoczy

Selected Aspects of Dust Removal from Gas Stream for Chamber Separators

Dust occurring in the atmospheric air constitutes a difficult and important matter within environmental protection. Consequently, the relevant solutions aiming to eliminate or reduce the emissions of such pollutants are being sought for. It is implemented by the application of the relevant exhaust gases purification installations as well as by controlling the dust emissions. While selecting or designing the dust removal devices one should consider the estimated quantities and types of dusts, the places of their intended usage, material durability, tightness of connections. In the course of numerous production processes it is necessary to use precise, multi-stage air purification. In order to perform the preliminary dust removal, the simplest devices, like gravity settling chambers, can be successfully applied. The following chapter presents the theoretical fundamentals of dust removal process as well as the methods for dust removal from the air and exhaust gases taking advantage of various physical mechanisms. On top of that, designing solutions for the devices applied to dust removal are going to be presented so are the outcomes of the research regarding the modernisation of a classic chamber separator. The attempts included the changes in the design by replacing a cuboidal chamber with a cylindrical one. In order to intensify the process, swirl motion phenomenon has been taken advantage of. This allowed to obtain satisfactory efficiency values by using a set of basic physical phenomena.

Andżelika Krupińska, Marek Ochowiak, Sylwia Włodarczak

Cleaning Porous Materials Using Supercritical Fluids

In this work, processes for cleaning porous materials using supercritical fluids as cleaning media are considered. In the first part of the work, a literature review is provided, showing examples of successful development of such processes. In the literature review, the processes are characterized and advantages resulting from application of supercritical fluids are explained. The advantages and disadvantages of using supercritical fluids as cleaning media are discussed. In the second part of the work, practical guidelines for development of novel processes for cleaning porous materials, in which supercritical fluids can be applied, are formulated. The guidelines include the review of references processes as a starting point for process design, the analysis of the physical properties of the investigated system, investigation of potential negative effect of treatment with SCFs on the porous material’s key properties, experimental investigation of the process, as well as process optimization and scale-up. The guidelines are illustrated with an exemplary process—cleaning microfiltration membranes using supercritical carbon dioxide instead of liquid organic solvents. Despite some technological challenges and limitations, supercritical fluids can be applied in many processes for cleaning porous materials, leading often to safer and more environmentally friendly processes, as well as to products of superior quality.

Jan Krzysztoforski, Marek Henczka

Large Eddy Simulations on Selected Problems in Chemical Engineering

The paper focuses on an application of large eddy simulations to predict a course of complex processes in the non-premixed, turbulent reactive flows of incompressible fluids. The simulations and experiments were carried out in two impinging jet reactors. The subgrid model for concentration variance, supplied with a new dynamic coefficient for the scale-similarity model, which takes into account the spatial variation of the turbulence Reynolds number and depends on the Schmidt number, as well as a numerical cell size, was presented. Obtained numerical results were compared with the experimental data using particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence methods for fluids characterized by different Schmidt numbers. The LES method was subsequently used to predict the course of parallel chemical reactions and a precipitation process. In both cases a very good agreement with the experimental results was obtained. Finally, the results of the new model for subgrid-scale diffusivity coefficient are presented.

Łukasz Makowski, Krzysztof Wojtas

Practical Aspects of Settling Tanks Design

The following work discusses the phenomenon of solid particle settling, presents the characteristics of suspensions and the fundamentals of sedimentation. The velocity of a solid particle free settling has been characterized as well as the sedimentation velocity. Additionally, the paper tackles upon the issue of a liquid stream purification and wastewater purification, where various devices used for the purpose have been characterized, such as horizontal settling tanks, swirl settling tanks and Dorr settling tanks. A special attention was paid to the characteristics of swirl settling tanks, their advantages and potential applications. Also, the outcomes of the research performed to develop the said devices have been described. The aforementioned research considered the influence from the advanced settling tank design components introduced over the purification efficiency of liquid streams from heavy and light fractions, such as inlet or outlet connectors or a partition inside the device. The damming of liquid and the values of local resistance factors have been evaluated as they differ in various technical solutions for settling tanks. The research allowed to determine the construction marked with the highest efficiency in purification of liquid stream, which gives us a possibility to develop the option for analyses with regards to the devices of this type.

Małgorzata Markowska, Szymon Woziwodzki, Magdalena Matuszak, Marek Ochowiak

Aerosol Therapy Development and Methods of Increasing Nebulization Effectiveness

In this chapter, the atomization process in medical nebulizers are analyzed on the basis of our own and literature results of the studies. It should be underlined that contemporary respiratory tract diseases belong to one of the most frequent and the fastest developing diseases in the world which people of wide age range fight with. Consequently, aerosol therapy belongs to constantly developing areas, which results in the advent of new and more effective pharmaceuticals as well as modern medical devices used in atomization of drugs. It is important to mention that the effectiveness of drug delivery to a patient’s respiratory tract depends on the knowledge and keeping the necessary rules of using inhaling methods under various conditions. The attempts presented in the article and regarding nebulization effectiveness increase showed a visible decrease of drop size of the generated aerosol while drop size histograms became more homogenous. Taking into consideration literature reports regarding inhalation therapy, you can come to the conclusion that nebulization of drugs constitutes an effective method in drug delivery to the respiratory system and can be widely implemented in medicine.

Magdalena Matuszak, Marek Ochowiak, Michał Doligalski

Hydraulic Mixing

Hydraulic mixing is a motionless mixing technology utilizing pressurized gas to move liquid periodically from one compartment to the other in a continuous mode. The following paper discusses experimental set-up, observed phenomena, results and their analyses in the view of Reynolds number, oscillatory Reynolds number and modified Reynolds number for hydraulic mixing. The results presented have proven the feasibility of mixing in a hydraulic mixer and have shown the need for further studies which would focus on the flow patterns governing the observed phenomena regarding the formation of the convex–concave liquid interfaces and long-time unmixed regions.

Piotr Tomasz Mitkowski, Waldemar Szaferski, Mariusz Adamski

Chemical Engineering in Biomedical Problems—Selected Applications

Application of methodology for chemical engineering in the processes of aerosol inhalation, deposition and interaction with the lung surface is discussed and illustrated by some examples from the authors’ research. Mathematical modeling of aerosol flow in the upper airways (oro-pharyngeal region) under realistic breathing condition indicated that use of the constant-flow simplification is incorrect for submicron particles. The second example shows that direct of interactions between inhaled nanoparticles and lung surface in the pulmonary region can be analyzed in vitro by studying dynamics of the lung surfactant. The results of such research allow finding the relationship between the inhaled dose and the onset of physicochemical inactivation of the lung surfactant.

Arkadiusz Moskal, Tomasz R. Sosnowski

Hybrid and Non-stationary Drying—Process Effectiveness and Products Quality

During last decades a lot of new drying techniques have been developed. Some of them are focused on breaking the limits of convective drying usually by applying intermittent conditions or utilization of few drying techniques in one process (hybrid drying). The purpose of the chapter is to discuss these new opportunities. Hence the convective non-stationary drying and various hybrid drying techniques (convective–microwave, convective–microwave–infrared, convective–microwave–ultrasonic and microwave-vacuum drying) are discussed. Many examples are provided in this chapter to illustrate the impact of the applied drying conditions and techniques on time consumption, process energy consumption, and on the quality of the product obtained. In particular, the drying of kaolin clay, oak, pine and walnut wood, apple, carrots, kale, potatoes, raspberries and red pepper are presented. The results of the studies indicate that both variable drying conditions and hybrid techniques may result in improved drying kinetics, reduced process energy consumption, and increased product quality.

Grzegorz Musielak, Dominik Mierzwa, Andrzej Pawłowski, Kinga Rajewska, Justyna Szadzińska

The Use of Pressure Membrane Separation for Heavy Metal Removal or Recovery

Environmental pollution with heavy metals is a serious global issue. In order to meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations, new technologies for the elimination and/or recovery of heavy metals from wastewater are tested and implemented. These technologies include membrane separations like reverse osmosis (RO), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). Direct and combined techniques have been discussed: BSA-enhanced nanofiltration, micellar enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) and polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF). Membrane techniques allow for a high elimination of heavy metals, comparable to currently used technologies such as chemical precipitation, coagulation, flotation, or ion exchange.

Arkadiusz Nędzarek

Prospective Application of High Energy Mixing for Powder Flow Enhancement and Better Performance of Hydrogen and Energy Storage Systems

Mechanically induced physical or chemical conversions of solids termed as mechanochemistry have recently gained more scientific attention due to their solvent-free and energy saving approach to many existing and new technologies. Relatively simple technique allowing mechanochemistry to be used as an effective method for alteration and modification of powder properties is high-energy mixing/milling (HEM) in planetary or vibrating ball mills. The outstanding feature of this technique having unique significance for powder technology is flowability improvement of cohesive powders commonly used in chemical, pharmaceutical and food process industries. Using HEM it was possible to remarkably improve flowability of such highly cohesive powders as calcium carbonate, potato starch, Apyral, Disulphiram and others. Further applications of HEM include hydrogen and energy storage in solids. New surfaces which are continuously created under ball-milling and constant mass transfer when mixing are regarded as two major factors responsible for the enhanced reactivity of metals towards hydrogen. This was shown to be effective for some lithium compounds (lithium nitride) in a composition with fluoropolymers, like PVDF and PVDF-HFP. New energy storage systems, particularly highly efficient, rechargeable batteries are the primary factors for to-day information and communication technology needs. Lithium-ion-solid polymer batteries seem to satisfy the requirements. To examine applicability of HEM for electrochemical activation of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE), in this work fluoropolymers like poly(vinylidene fluoride) and its co-polymer (PVDF-HFP) were ball-milled with various lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium amide, lithium perchlorate). The results have proven that the obtained SPE can be useful as important components of prospective energy carriers.

Ireneusz Opaliński, Karolina Leś, Sylwia Kozdra, Mateusz Przywara, Jerome Chauveau, Anthony Bonnet

Superheated Steam Drying of Solid Fuels: Wood Biomass and Lignite

Application of superheated steam drying (SSD) for two selected fuels: non-renewable (lignite) and renewable (wood biomass), is presented. In both cases SSD rises their calorific value at the same time allowing for heat recovery from the exhaust steam. Sorptional equilibrium at atmospheric pressure for wood biomass as well as at atmospheric and high pressure for lignite were determined. A novel isochoric method of sorptional equilibrium determination was used for lignite. Drying kinetics of SSD of both solids was experimentally measured and approximated by formulated models of diffusional type, describing internal heat and mass transfer inside the material. Applicability of the models for drying simulation was presented.

Zdzisław Pakowski, Robert Adamski

Extensional Flow of Polymer Solutions Through the Porous Media

The flow through porous media plays an important role within several areas of science. In many real processes in which the channels undergo continuous expansion and contraction, fluids are subjected not only to shearing but also to stretching. Such examples are the fluid flows through the plate heat exchangers, the porous beds and gaps of rock during crude oil extraction. Typically, pure and/or extensional flow is often required in many practical situations. Most often, we are dealing with the so-called mixed flow, where the deformation rates have parallel and perpendicular components to the flow direction. Solutions of high molecular weight polymers exhibit considerable differences in extensional and shear flow behaviors, and the ratio of extensional viscosity to shear viscosity can be as much as 100 times higher. In case of the flexible polymer solutions through porous media is the increase in flow resistance obtained beyond a critical flow rate. That increase has been attributed to the extensional nature of the flow field in the pores caused by the successive expansions and contractions. Such solutions exhibit strain hardening in extension. In case of the polymer solutions with semi-rigid and rigid chain structures, only the extent strain thinning region can be observed.

Sylwia Różańska

Measuring Techniques and Potential Applications of Interface Rheology

Proteins, surfactants and some polymers adsorb spontaneously at the interface between their aqueous solution and a gas, solid, or liquid phase. The surface layer made this way is characterized by different mechanical properties from the bulk solution, which is determined by surface rheology. The surface layer can undergo dilatational deformation and shear. In general, it can be characterized by both viscous and elastic properties. Surface rheology allows understanding the interaction between molecules, change of molecular conformations or molecular aggregations and diffusion rate of molecules towards the surface layer. There are many publications in which attention is drawn to the possibility of a relationship between surface rheology and foam and emulsion stability. This chapter discusses basic measurement techniques used to determine rheological properties of the sur-face layer, examples of test results, and the potential possibility of their use in practice.

Jacek Różański, Joanna Kmiecik-Palczewska

An Effective Production of Bacterial Biosurfactant in the Bioreactor

In the last decades, interest in natural, environmentally friendly, surfactants has still grown. However, effective production of biosurfactant of bacterial origin is a complex process. In the following study the practical aspects of bioreactor production of valuable products are discussed. The various problems connected with optimal microorganism selection, bioreactor work parameters as well as product isolation are presented. Moreover, a case study regarding the effective production of bacterial biosurfactant for environmental purposes is demonstrated.

Wojciech Smułek, Agata Zdarta, Ewa Kaczorek

Reduction of Energy Consumption in Gas-Liquid Mixture Production Using a Membrane Diffuser and HE-3X Stirrer

Mechanical mixing of liquids in the presence of gas is used when it is necessary to exchange mass between the liquid and gas phase whose special case is aeration of liquid. Mixing of liquid-gas multiphase systems has been widely used in industrial absorption (purely physical and with chemical reaction) processes of hardly soluble gases and biochemical engineering. The rate of liquid mass transfer limits the whole process. By increasing the surface of the interphase contact and splitting large gas bubbles into finer ones, it is possible to significantly intensify the process. In this case, the barbotage itself is insufficient and the mechanical stirring apart from the increase in the interphase contact area and the shorter restoration time of the limiting layer, is responsible for even circulation throughout the apparatus. For this purpose, the modernization of the process has been introduced by introducing a membrane diffuser into the test apparatus, which is used to efficiently introduce the gas into the mixer and to guarantee the maximum dispersion of the air bubbles at low volume flow rates. In addition, the mixer is fitted with a modified HE-3X stirrer which is to increase the residence time of the air bubbles and reduce the energy consumption for creation of gas-liquid mixture.

Waldemar Szaferski

Atomizers with the Swirl Motion Phenomenon

The liquid atomization is very important and widespread process in many branches of industry and in agriculture. The technology development, better construction solutions to improve atomization process for the specific application are searched for. Depending on the assignment on which the atomizer is to be used, there are different requirements. Atomization itself doesn’t mean that the process proceeds in a correct and that performance of the spray system is optimum. The application of the effervescent atomizer witch swirl motion phenomenon improves of atomization process compared to pressure-swirl or effervescent atomizers, affects aerosol quality, improves atomization process and ensures its optimization. The spray parameters are influence by many factors: geometric dimensions, liquid properties and operational conditions. The dimensions of atomizer outlet, mixing chamber, aerator have the most important impact on the atomization process. Viscosity and surface tension affect Sauter mean diameter. Viscosity also affects spray angle, while the significant influence of the surface tension on the spray angle has not been shown.

Sylwia Włodarczak, Marek Ochowiak, Magdalena Matuszak

Process Data Modeling—New Challenges for Education of Chemical Engineers

The process design confronts chemical engineers with many challenges. These days they are predominantly related to customer requirements regarding project delivery time and cost. It forces us to apply the appropriate design philosophy. Currently, many countries are implementing a design process system called Building Information Modeling (BIM). According to the BIM methodology, object design should take into account 2D documentation, 3D models and the appropriate way to manage and share the design data. The BIM methodology also constitutes a challenge for high education universities that educate process and chemical engineers, since equipment or process design has so far been limited to creating 2D documentation without being able to manage and share it with other branches. Taking BIM into account, it is therefore advisable to introduce the ability to create 3D models for the equipment and the entire installations as well as to emphasize the management of design data. The chapter presents the management of design data introduced at the Faculty of Chemical Technology of the Poznan University of Technology as part of the student design classes in chemical and process engineering. Within this framework, the current design method was complemented by the creation of intelligent P&ID (2D) schematics, 3D models and process data management (1D). Data management is connected with the proper configuration of process data, the introduction of design progress control (statuses), and the creation of data sheets for each designed equipment. The chapter also presents the basis for the design as well as information about BIM and its current implementation in Poland.

Szymon Woziwodzki, Igor Ośkiewicz
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