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This book brings together the emerging trends and techniques incorporated in regional science during the first two decades of this millennium. The book includes systematic and analytical notes making scientific commentary on the innovative methods of regional development, measurement of the development, regional development models, and policy measures that have significant implications and wide applicability instrumental for India as well as the other global south countries. There is clear evidence in the global south of the uneven spatial distribution of resources, economic activities, literacy, and health conditions. The most striking fact is the coexistence of development and underdevelopment that makes the planning process complicated. This can hardly be explored without taking a deep insight into the matter of how the regional parameters are impacting regional society or economy to shape the development of that region. There can be no effective global policy framework that will be effective equally for each and every region to mitigate local issues of society or economy. It is here that the book integrates the efforts of practitioners working towards addressing these regional issues and striving for sustainable regional development through their innovative ideas.

Through its contributions, the book addresses development issues, regional impact of climate change, social justice, migration, well-being, livelihood vulnerabilities, and regional urban-environmental issues from the standpoint of regional science. It is a significant resource for researchers of spatial science, and policy makers.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Regional Science and Sustainable Regional Development

Frontmatter

Regional Science, Regional Planning, and the Global South

Abstract
This chapter critically reviews the emergence and evolution of Regional Science as an academic discipline for more than the last five decades. For assessing the role of the discipline in hosting the scholarly output, the Scopus Source List 2019 is used. It examines the constraints in Regional Science practices in taking an influential role to disseminate innovative ideas concerning regional planning and assesses its prospects in getting reinstalled at the core of regional and spatial planning strategies. The chapter ends with a critical discussion on why the socially and economically transforming Global South could be an interesting field of investigation for the practitioners of Regional Science.
Mukunda Mishra, R. B. Singh

The Role of Local Resources as Factors of Regional Development

Abstract
Local resources play an important role in weakly developed regions. The activation of those resources represents one aspect of conditioning socioeconomic development, which exerts a favourable influence on the lives of inhabitants and facilitates the effective use of funds invested inwardly from outside the region. Local resources represent unique—and socially and economically utilizable—features, factors and phenomena in a given area that is able to shape its internal potential for development. The research detailed here sought to identify the structure of local resources in three marginal regions of eastern Poland (the province or regions—Voivodeships of Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Podkarpackie) and to assess their development potential. The work showed that most resources were of average utilitarian and uniqueness value, often also characterized by considerable spatial differentiation. The several types of resources that were found to dominate included architectural forms and buildings, as well as valuable features that were helping to shape attractiveness to tourists. The resources of greatest utility in shaping local development, in fact, emerge as very positively evaluated from the point of view of uniqueness also. Equally, a group of highly unique resources is characterized by far more limited utility from the practical point of view. This may attest to the still-unused potential where the local resources in the regions studied are concerned.
Jerzy Bański, Iwona Kiniorska

Livelihood Zonation Mapping: An Unplugged Sect of Regional Science

Abstract
Amidst the global health emergency, when couples of academicians are devoted to pursuing their research linked with COVID-19, this present chapter is purposively concerned with the lesser-highlighted issue of customarily categorized livelihoods scenario, on a spatial basis, in one of the nations of Global South. The prime objective of the present section is to find out the fundamental fashion of regional deviation as well as the concentration of livelihood and future suggestions for suitable policy proposals. While this volume is systematically based on secondary datasets from recognized sources and the methods are being adopted after judiciary modification of established modus operandi like ‘crop combination’, ‘location quotient’, ‘crop diversification’, and ‘GDP geographical area ratio’. On the other side, for the overall ‘livelihood zone map’ (LZM), the standard ‘Z’-score method, and GIS mapping tool have been used. Although the regional data-oriented outcome is much voluminous, in a nutshell, it can be affirmed that in Goa, Delhi (NCR), West Bengal, and Manipur, the quality of livelihood condition is well, while among rest of the Indian states and union territories, the status is below the desired level. Conclusively, for a more precise and area-oriented suitable policy proposal, more research work has been needed for the novel development of livelihood conditions and the country’s economic base.
Somenath Halder, Rajesh Sarda

Sustainable Regional Development in South America

Frontmatter

The Indigenous Territories and Local Sustainable Development in the Amazon Region

Abstract
The Amazon system plays a significant role in the world’s climate and has the largest rainforest on earth. The region is renowned for its incredible biodiversity, both aquatic and terrestrial. This chapter seeks to understand the Amazon dynamics of natural protected areas and indigenous people in relation to the recognition of indigenous territories for sustainable development in Amazonian. Also, we presented the dimensions of territorial management from the perspective of the national state and indigenous territorial governance. In the management of the national territory, we draw attention to the Amazon Cooperation Treaty. In indigenous territorial governance, we highlight the territorialities of people: Ka’apor, Yanomami, Timbira, Achuar, Tikuna, and Piaroa. These are experiences of political autonomy and governance that reflect the organization of community social processes in the Amazon region. The local actions supported or not by the national states have allowed the protection of their habitats, support a spatial continuity to exercise their cultural practices in the territories that they occupy ancestrally and traditionally, which aim to guarantee local cultural development. The use of the resources of the Amazon has multiple visions. However, it should be aimed at sustainable use, considering that natural resources have become a global priority presently and that many political decisions convert the preservation and regeneration of the natural environment. In this sense, the protected natural areas and indigenous territories are presented as a part of effective strategies to contain deforestation, landscape fragmentation, and conserve biodiversity. Finally, the use of resources in the Amazonian territories opens the way a pole of sustainable development from a local perspective targeting global markets, guaranteeing a better quality of life for future generations.
Melgris José Becerra, Jorge Adriàn Flores Rangel, Claudio Ubiratan Gonçalves, Gabriel Ibrahin Tovar

Territorial Planning and Regionalization in Brazil: Empirical Consolidation and the Role of the National Development Bank

Abstract
Brazil has a long tradition of regional development policies. Since the mid-twentieth century, different governments have made efforts to reduce the differences between Brazilian regions. For example, we can mention the Northeast region that received great financial and institutional incentives for its development. In the 1990s, this process was interrupted and resumed in the 2000s with the arrival of the Workers’ Party governments. Among other mechanisms, there was BNDES’s financing participation at this new moment in the regional development process. This article aims to analyze the bank’s disbursements and whether there has been a change in the direction of the poorest regions. Although the participation of the richest region, Southeast, in the total of the national GDP has been reduced, it is not possible to say that the bank was central to this process.
Pablo Ibanez, Gustavo Westmann, Fabiola Lana Iozzi

Erosion and Coastal Structures in Brazilian Metropolises: The Case of Fortaleza and Its Inequalities

Abstract
In this chapter, we aimed to identify and analyze how the structures were designed to prevent the advance of the sea in each region of the city of Fortaleza, a capital in the Northeast of Brazil, and how they interacted with local arrangements (e.g., social, political, and economic). Coastal erosion is a natural process caused by multiple factors and may also result from anthropic interventions along the coastline and hydrographic basins. Fortaleza has undergone several changes imposed by coastal erosion, in which the initial responses were based on rigid structures. In the last 20 years, the form of intervention has changed; there has been a substantial investment in coastal protection solutions with the use of more sand, the so-called soft structures to contain the advance of the sea. The methodology applied was based on the analyses of academic documents, satellite images in association with the instruments from the Brazilian Coastal Management Program (GERCO), and the National Coastline Conservation Program (Procosta). The result shows that Fortaleza has passed and continuously been undergoing resignifications caused by changes in its coastline along its 294 years of its history, ranging from the first coastal structure in 1875 to the most recent in 2019. Today, along the 34 km of coastline was possible to identify 39 coastal structures. Recovery type of structures was identified in 62% of the total cases. At the same time, protection types appear in 38% of cases. It represents that about 60% of Fortaleza’s coastline is altered due to the installation of coastal protection and/or restoration structures. The majority of these interventions are concentrated in areas less noble in the city, in neighborhoods with some of the worst human development index (HDI) and have a high population and demographic density levels in the city. In contrast, we also observed an evident change in the conception of coastal structures installed in the city. When we analyze the coastal neighborhoods with some of the best HDIs, there was a concern to integrate the protection and recovery structures with the rehabilitation structures. We conclude that municipal, state, and federal public authorities must seek the best ways to manage such spaces, focusing on participative methodologies that consider environmental and social characteristics, promoting greater equality from the point of view of their economic and social use.
Eduardo Lacerda Barros, Davis Pereira de Paula, Renan Gonçalves Pinheiro Guerra, Jader de Oliveira Santos

Sustaining Port Activities Through Nature Conservation: The Case of Paraná Coast in Southern Brazil

Abstract
The South and Southeast of Brazil’s coastal region are marked by the presence of the Serra do Mar, an orographic chain that extended over 1500 km between the states of Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro. This environment has a characteristic susceptibility to a high rate of sediment production due to the erosion capacity of the river network and the intensity of rains. As a result, the silting of the bay areas downstream is constant, intensified by poorly managed agricultural activity, deforestation, and the realignment of rivers. Dredging operations are necessary to maintain navigability and to make port activity in the region viable. The conservation of the remaining Atlantic Forest and the recovery of vegetation in degraded areas and river banks contribute to mitigate sediment production. These actions are attractive to port activity, creating an opportunity for economic development and nature conservation. In this work, the case of the coast of Paraná in the South of Brazil will be presented, addressing the physical characteristics of the region and the way inappropriate land use magnifies sediment production in the area. In conclusion, alternative means of economic development will be presented, focusing on generating income from the area’s potential.
Eduardo Vedor de Paula, Otacílio Lopes de Souza da Paz, Maíra Oneda Dal Pai, Marianne de Oliveira

Urban Environmental Changes in South America: A Study on Air Pollution and Urban Heat Island over Rio de Janeiro

Abstract
South American cities are great examples of late urbanization. They lack essential basic services, such as health care, mobility, water resources, and sewage supply. They are cities with different sites, historical formations, and urban spatial organization, with different environmental problems and impacts due to their millionaire populations. The Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ) is an essential example of South American metropolises. It is the second pole of demographic concentration and economic activities in Brazil, containing a large volume of activities and flows, which offers more specialized goods and services and a high urbanization rate. It is an area of intense soil occupation and many transformations throughout history and resulted in a series of modifications in the environmental system, water resources, and geomorphological, biogeographic, and atmospheric systems. In the context of the urban climate of the South American cities, this paper aims to identify the areas with the most significant potential for concentrating air pollutants and the convergence of the urban heat island in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ) in the current decade (2001–2020). Physical, atmospheric, and urban factors will be considered to control and define the pollution and heat in this important South American metropolis. The chapter is divided into two parts: The first one is related to air pollutants concentration in MARJ, defined from aerial basins; the second part refers to the mapping of the hot spaces (or urban heat island—UHI) in MARJ, using the land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and index‐based built‐up index (IBI). The results show that MARJ’s consolidated urban areas are the focus of air pollution and the urban heat island effect. The areas correspond to roads with a high flow of vehicles or close to air-polluting industries in lowland areas have a high potential to concentrate pollutants. Similarly, the urban areas, with high population density and built area, are the warmest and converge to the urban heat island with high LST and IBI, and low NDVI values. On the opposite, areas with a higher incidence of vegetated areas (high NDVI), with rugged landscape and without the presence of heavy industries, have a low concentration of pollutants and low LST and IBI values.
Heitor Soares de Farias, Andrews José de Lucena, Vitor Fonseca Vieira Vasconcelos de Miranda

Assessment of Climatic Guidelines and Urban Planning in North-Eastern Coast of Brazil

Abstract
Incorporating scientific knowledge of climate into urban planning is a major challenge for the healthy growth of a city. This chapter presents a proposal for planning local climate action based on urban climatic maps (UCMaps). The UCMaps are an accessible and easy support tool for planners, architects, and local government to make the right decision in the planning process. Based on the UCMaps, we recommend a set of climatic guidelines to combat the phenomenon of the Urban Heat Island in a city located on the northeast coast of Brazil. These maps identify the key climate areas in terms of UHI behaviour and excess heat stress based on climatopoes, which are areas of “special local climates” or “potential climate response” influenced by the urban morphology, land use and ventilation conditions. The relationship between UCMaps and Master Plan is also presented. With the UCMap, urban policymakers have various urbanistic interventions, measures, and strategies available to combat the adverse effects of the UHI and preserve the climate-related ecosystem services.
Max Anjos, António Lopes, Elis Alves, Ezequiel Correia, Francisco Mendonça

Experiences from Africa

Frontmatter

Aerotropolis and Urban and Regional Impacts: The Case of the King Shaka International Airport in Durban, South Africa

Abstract
This chapter examines the development of the King Shaka International Airport (KSIA), Africa’s first purpose-built aerotropolis in the global South city of Durban. Air travel has become the fastest-growing means of transportation and also one of the primary contributors to the globalisation of cities. This is particularly so in a neoliberal era with an emphasis on economic efficiencies and profit maximisation in urban development. John Kasarda introduced the concept of the aerotropolis (the airport-centred city), viewed as a magnet for urban and regional development. A key contention of the aerotropolis argument is that airport expansion promotes the development of surrounding regions and can serve as catalysts for economic growth. At KSIA, there were challenges relating to continued relegation to spoke status, freight and cargo logistics, and airport taxes and tariffs. This study suggests that airport-centred development is elitist, especially in developing countries, like South Africa, with high levels of inequality. The KSIA aerotropolis is a neoliberal project serving to benefit a select minority, and the huge investment of public funds into this project may not be justifiable.
Meghan Crosby, Brij Maharaj

Drivers of Socioeconomic Development and Underdevelopment in Moroccan Sahara

Abstract
The topography, natural strife, pastoral nomad character of different tribes, an abundance of minerals, and disordered geopolitical borders remain significant sources of underdevelopment of Sahara province in Morocco. The Cold War philosophy of imposing the neocolonial character and had economic plunder became the artificial symbols of self-determination imposed upon nomad tribal people’s lives. All the major players of the Cold War period had exploited the Sahara province in the name of self-determination. They had distributed uncounted weapons and artillery to different tribal groups in this region. The post-1990s globalization and the end of the Cold War period cannot continue this weapon diplomacy, and different groups of tribal groups of Sahara understood the weapon ideology. The Government of Morocco and all the different tribal groups, after lengthy discussions, had agreed upon the approach of self-determination of decentralization of Sahara province, and the country’s constitution had adopted in the year 2011. Sahara autonomous region was declared, and the Sahrawi people were asked to initiate the management of political, social, and economic areas and facilitate regional planning for the development of agriculture, industry, infrastructure, education, health, and other areas. Sahara province will collect taxes, duties, and other levies and drive development projects in different sectors. This development drive of socioeconomic areas will initiate the connecting linkage between the northern and southern part Africa and will build a common market in the longer period.
Suresh Kumar, Deepak Kumar

Indian Scenario

Frontmatter

An Overview of Climate Change Over South Asia: Observations, Projections, and Recent Advances

Abstract
South Asia is among the most populous regions of the earth, which houses fast-developing economies. The unique geographical settings and socioeconomic–demographic structure of the region make it highly vulnerable to the risks posed by climate change, as documented by several comprehensive scientific research reports. Human-induced climate change signatures have already been noted in the form of increasing extremes (e.g., cyclones, droughts, floods, heatwaves, thunderstorms, etc.), rising sea levels, and changing monsoon patterns over the region. South Asia and surrounding regions have already been subjected to the effects of climate change, which has mostly been non-uniform in time and space. Though considerable progress has been made toward understanding the science of climate change, regional climate change consequences are still not well understood and limited by sparse observational networks and inadequate knowledge of region-specific physical processes, often leading to large spread and uncertainties in model projections. Based on the available literature, the chapter presents an overview of the past, present, and future projections of climate over South Asia. Recent advances in observations and dedicated regional and earth system modeling activities over the region are also discussed alongside other emerging methodologies and tools, which can lead to the overall improvement in understanding of physical processes. We discuss the studies that have been carried out in the past and also the prospective gap areas that can be pursued in the future through the use of a combined framework of modern observation–modeling–analysis techniques.
Bhupendra Bahadur Singh, Manmeet Singh, Dharmaveer Singh

Environmental Vulnerability and Women Trafficking: Exploring the Bengal Sundarban Deltaic Region of India

Abstract
Environmental crises are inextricably linked with the development of a region. At the regional level, sustainable human development entirely depends on advantageous physiographic environmental settings, socio-economic conditions, resource availability, resource utilization, livelihood opportunities, and the existence of social ties. But the relentless confrontation of environmental challenges makes a region socio-economically as well as environmentally vulnerable and exacerbates the regional crisis and makes the society highly disorganized. Such regional crises have highly been perceived in the Indian Sundarban deltaic region for its strategic physiographic location and enormous environmental threats. Acute poverty, hunger, malnutrition, starvation become an integral part of this region. Frequent cyclones, monsoon, sea-level rise, and resultant flood and other natural hazardous situations intensify insecurities among the local inhabitants and force people to migrate as ‘climate refugees’ and create room for expanding organize criminal rackets in this region. The present study meticulously analyses how the physical environmental settings of the Indian Sundarban deltaic region continually forces the region to face enormous environmental challenges which result in large-scale resource depletion, limiting livelihood opportunities, weakening existing economy, exacerbate the regional crisis, and eventually make the society disorganized and make people specifically young women and minor girls vulnerable to human trafficking. This study also envisages the already adopted anti-trafficking measures and asking for taking further diversified approaches and policy measures to ensure meaningful climate actions and consequent socio-economic vulnerabilities and break the trafficking rackets from this region.
Priyanka Biswas, Nilanjana Das Chatterjee

Women Beyond the Politics of Presence in Urban Local Governance: Exemplifying Purulia in West Bengal, India

Abstract
The relationship of women with organised politics has not been very strong historically across the globe as the representation data suggests. The so-called sexist, patriarchal setup fails to envisage women having leadership skills to manoeuvre complex governance system. The struggle of women in politics at both macro and micro levels are more pronounced in the Global South, with India an Asian representative being no exception, where traditionally women are more confined within domestic spheres. To empower women at the mainstream grass-root level politics 74th Constitutional Amendment Act was passed on 1992 where one third seats were reserved for the women candidates in urban local governance i.e. municipalities. The main objectives of the paper are to provide an idea about the degree of participation of women in electoral politics India; along with to find out how the women municipal candidates are utilizing the ‘reservation opportunity’ in the ‘backward’ district of Purulia, West Bengal and to analyse the controlling factors responsible for the entry of the women candidates in the world of politics.
Anindya Basu, Asha Bauri

Spatial Analysis of the Intra-urban Quality of Life: A Study in the Darjeeling Town in India

Abstract
Wellbeing in development studies has been seen from the viewpoint of the quality of life (QOL). There are two dimensions of QOL, i.e., subjective and objective. Subjective QOL refers to individual’s own assessment through one’s own perspective. On the other hand, objective QOL means wellbeing in terms of material and social circumstances. The objective QOL can be measured by various social indicators by using secondary data. This study uses 18 different material indicators to perform principal component analysis (PCA) for framing a composite score index to measure the QOL of Darjeeling town. Further, spatial autocorrelation statistics, namely Global Moran’s I as the first measure and Getis-Ord GI* as the second measure, have been used to identify spatial clustering of QOL in the town. Spatial mapping of the composite score index and location of hotspots and coldspots has led to the identification of target areas where area-specific policies and plans can be framed, implemented and monitored to improve the QOL of the respective households.
Bishal Chhetri, Kabita Lepcha

Three Decades of Urban Dynamics in India: Exemplifying Haora Sadar Subdivision

Abstract
Measuring urban built-up area temporally gives an overview of the urbanization process of a place over time. The study has blended both secondary and primary data sources to measure the temporal change of urban built-up area of Haora Sadar Subdivision, Haora District, West Bengal, India. The twin city of Kolkata-Haora has been historically an industrial hotspot. The study has incorporated geospatial techniques of analysing Landsat datasets of Haora Sadar Subdivision between the time period of 1990 and 2016. Shannon’s Entropy method has been used to analyse the change in urban morphometry. The Shannon’s entropy value indicates a gradual and steady shift from dispersed to compact settlement in the study area. This chapter compares the secondary data analysis with the primary survey about the perception of the people living in the subdivision on the changing urban ways of living. The chapter has also incorporated a comparison in urban amenities among the study area, West Bengal, India. The results show that the changes in the built-up area are perfectly in sync with the change in urban amenities such as electricity, banking services, hospitals and schools. The gradual change in the built-up area is negatively impacting the number of open spaces, parks and waterbodies. This gradual shifting from dispersed urban form to compact urban form is posing a challenge to sustainable urban development and human–environment interaction.
Monalisa Patra, Koel Roy Chowdhury
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