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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th IFIP WG 5.5 International Precision Assembly Seminar, IPAS 2012, held in Chamonix, France, in February 2012. The 15 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers are organized into the following topical sections: micro processes and systems; handling and manipulation in assembly; tolerance management and error compensation methods; metrology and quality control; intelligent control of assembly systems; and process selection and modelling techniques.



Micro Assembly Processes and Systems

Development of a Micro-scale Assembly Facility with a Three Fingered, Self-aware Assembly Tool and Electro-chemical Etching Capabilities

This abstract outlines current developments of a micro-assembly facility focusing on studies using a three fingered gripper. Individual fingers of the gripper comprise thin fibers ranging in diameter from 7 to 80 μm that are attached to quartz based oscillators and are capable of sensing proximity, contact, and controlling adhesion forces. To optimize gripper finger performance, an electrolytic etching facility has been used to selectively modify oscillator performance and this system is currently being developed for automated processing. To demonstrate current performance of the gripper system, a micro-CMM contact sensing probe has been assembled and a preliminary performance evaluation is presented.
Jacob W. Chesna, Stuart T. Smith, D. J. Hastings, Borja de la Maza, Bartoz K. Nowakowski, Feilong Lin

Semi-automated Assembly of a MEMS-Based Micro-scale CMM Probe and Future Optimization of the Process Chain with a View to Desktop Factory Automation

The assembly process of a novel micro-scale co-ordinate measuring machine probe is presented. The process makes use of a semi-automated miniature robot. The initial tests that led to the full process chain are described, and the full process chain presented. The presented process chain successfully produced four assembled probes. Future work is suggested to augment the presented process chain leading to further automation.
James D. Claverley, Arne Burisch, Richard K. Leach, Annika Raatz

Design, Fabrication and Testing of Assembly Features for Enabling Sub-micron Accurate Passive Alignment of Photonic Chips on a Silicon Optical Bench

In this paper, we report on passive alignment with sub-micron precision of two photonic chips on a silicon optical bench. An effective design principle to minimize the tolerance chain is presented and applied to a case study. The chips have been successfully manufactured and individual characterization of the chips revealed that all critical dimensions were within or close to specs. Sub-pixel analysis of images of assembled chips showed that a repeatability of 0.3 μm from a single photonic chip to the silicon optical bench can be achieved. Moreover, it was demonstrated that passive alignment features defined in the waveguiding layers are robust enough to function as mechanical endstops.
J. F. C. van Gurp, Marcel Tichem, U. Staufer

Parallel Packaging of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Using Self-alignment

Packaging is one of the major cost drivers for MEMS devices. Currently wire bonding is the dominant method for electrically connecting MEMS chips to substrate. Using self-alignment a method for packaging multiple MEMS at the same time has been developed. The presented process achieves high throughput and precise alignment at low cost. The Controlled Collapse Re-flow Chip Joining (C-4) process has been adapted to the specific requirements of MEMS. The combination of coarse robotics and liquid solder self-alignment guarantees precise positioning and alignment of the individual MEMS chips to the respective substrates. The new method has been implemented in a case study. In the study force sensors have been packaged. Precise angular alignment of the sensors is critical for receiving accurate measurements. Results of the case study are presented.
Jens Taprogge, Felix Beyeler, Alexander Steinecker, Bradley J. Nelson

Processes for the Self-assembly of Micro Parts

The following approach of a fluidic based self-assembly process uses the surface forces for a precise handling and positioning of small devices for a roll-to-roll manufacturing. The surface, on which the device should be positioned, will be functionalized with hydrophile and hydrophobic areas. Thus water droplets can be caught on the hydrophile areas. The devices to be positioned will be placed on these droplets and due to the surface tension moved to their final position. The droplets, a solution of ultrapure water and isopropanol, are evaporating residue-free within seconds [1].
Matthias Burgard, Norbert Schläfli, Uwe Mai

Precisely Assembled Multi Deflection Arrays – Key Components for Multi Shaped Beam Lithography

Multi shaped beam lithography requires the precise and durable alignment and fixation of MEMS based Multi Deflection Arrays on stable ceramic system platforms using vacuum and high temperature compatible interconnection and joining technologies. Micron accuracy during assembly is accomplished by mark detection using image processing and 3DOF alignment procedures; while interconnection as well as precise fixation is carried out using a fine pitch solder bumping process. Qualification investigations using electron beam equipment show that the precisely aligned multi shaped beam arrays are able to deflect the electron beams in accordance with the simulation results.
Matthias Mohaupt, Erik Beckert, Thomas Burkhardt, Marcel Hornaff, Christoph Damm, Ramona Eberhardt, Andreas Tünnermann, Hans-Joachim Döring, Klaus Reimer

Handling and Manipulation in Assembly

Construction Kit for Miniaturised Handling Systems: Further Developments and First Applications

Purpose of the Paper
At the IPAS Conference in 2008, we described in our presentation the idea of a construction kit for micro assembly based on a standardised interface for automatic exchange of (those times mainly) different grippers. In the meantime the construction kit has been developed further and completed purposively. So now automation of a wide range of tasks in the field of micro technology is carried out. At the actual state, the kit is including a miniature modular robot arm, two changing systems, various grippers, suitable storage racks, and additional tools such as cameras and dispensing tips. However the kit is open for everybody to adapt further elements and indeed this is done.
Andreas Hoch, Matthias Haag, Samuel Härer

Flexible Gripper System for Small Optical Assemblies – Final Tests and Findings

This paper presents our work on developing a flexible, adaptive and multifunctional gripper system for the assembly of camera phone lens modules. Key features of the system include tool change system for different end tools and visual position measurement of the component after grasping. This paper presents the development work and discusses the findings of system tests carried out in order to validate the developed gripper system.
Timo Prusi, Riku Heikkilä, T. H. Ha, J. Y. Song, C. W. Lee, Reijo Tuokko

Handling and Manipulation of Microcomponents: Work-Cell Design and Preliminary Experiments

The paper introduces an experimental setup for the automatic manipulation of microcomponents, based on a 4 dof robot with Shoenflies motion and a two-camera vision system. The general architecture of the work-cell is presented. The work-cell functionality was tested via repeatability experiments using a set of vacuum grippers. Due to their intrinsic simplicity, vacuum grippers are very cheap and appear a promising solution for micromanipulation. An innovative nozzle for a vacuum gripper was designed, fabricated and tested, comparing its performance with traditional needles. The design was conceived to reduce the frequency of occlusions of the gripper and handle a wide range of particles. The performed tests evaluate the success and precision of the part release. Indeed, this is a crucial aspect of micromanipulation because microparts tend to stick to the gripper preventing the successful performance of manipulation tasks. The results confirm that adhesive effects prevent the release of components. For this reason different strategies were adopted in order to improve the efficiency in the release of stuck components. This solution increases the percentage of release and, setting appropriately the intensity of the pressure, it does not affect negatively the accuracy nor the repeatability of the positioning.
Serena Ruggeri, Gianmauro Fontana, Claudia Pagano, Irene Fassi, Giovanni Legnani

Adhesive Workpiece Fixturing for Micromachining

Even though significant progress has been made in the field of micro production and the development of miniaturized micro production-machines in the last ten years, an explicit consideration of clamping-devices has not taken place. The requirements for clamping technology in the manufacturing of microparts and the manufacturing of macroscale parts are highly different. Special clamping devices for each sector are needed. This article presents the designing of a special adhesive micro-clamping device for micro production. The clamping force is applied by fixing the workpiece to the clamping module using hot melt adhesives. Thus high surface pressure and damage to the micro-component is avoided. The development of this adhesive clamping device is a first implementation of a novel and promising approach for micro production. Basic functioning could be confirmed by practical tests.
Philipp Blumenthal, Annika Raatz

Dual-Stage Feed Drive for Precision Positioning on Milling Machine

A positioning system with long stroke and high precision by dual-stage control was designed. The focus was on combining the long-stroke travel range of linear stage with high-precision characteristics of piezoelectric actuators. The control method used in the system was dynamic compensation type, where the error from linear stage becomes the input to the piezoelectric actuators. Positioning error of 30 μm with single-stage control in a 1 mm stroke can be reduced to 2 μm by using dual-stage control. This technique can be implemented for high-precision positioning in manufacturing and machining systems.
Hendra Prima Syahputra, Hyeon Mo Yang, Byeong Mook Chung, Tae Jo Ko

High Resolution Actuators for Severe Environments

Stepping Piezo Actuators (SPA) are long stroke linear piezoelectric actuators able to perform long stroke (typ. >10mm) with an important resolution (typ. <1nm). Use of famous Amplified Piezo Actuator APA® gives the motor interesting characteristics, such as useful deformation mode and speed improvement, compared to standard inertial motors.
The paper proposes experimental results obtained on various size of SPA. Speed aspects and max input current are considered as well as non-magnetic and thermal vacuum compatibilities.
Christian Belly, Mathieu Bagot, Frank Claeyssen

Tolerance Management and Error Compensation Methods

Tolerance Management for Assembly – Not a Matter of Product Size

Today’s industrial assembly systems have to enable individualized production as well as to feature a high degree of automation to cope with both quality requirements and increasing cost pressure. An overall tolerance concept is necessary to allow processes under the above referenced conditions. Reducing costs and the complexity of assembly processes can be achieved by an assembly product design based on the information provided by a tolerance analysis. This paper describes industrial standards and innovative concepts of a holistic tolerance management that are independent of product size.
Rainer Müller, Martin Esser, Christian Janßen, Matthias Vette, Stefan Quinders

Modelling and Analysis of the Geometrical Errors of a Parallel Manipulator Micro-CMM

A micro coordinate measurement machine (micro-CMM) with high precision and high accuracy is introduced for the measurement of part dimensions in micro scale. This design is intended to achieve submicron resolution for a work envelop of at least (100x100x100) mm. In this study, a mathematical measuring model to explicitly define the coordinate of the probe in x, y and z directions have been represented. An algorithm to find the workspace was implemented. The error model of the machine was created and the effect of structural errors on probe position was studied analytically. The significance of each geometric parameter was studied in order to minimize the measuring error and achieve the best machine design. Finally, the results of the analytical error model were confirmed through a Monte Carlo analysis.
Ali Rugbani, Kristiaan Schreve

Methods for Implementing Compensation Strategies in Micro Production Systems Supported by a Simulation Approach

Customers demands for highest product quality and lowest product costs and the use of rapidly changing technologies are the challenges for industrial companies. To cope with these challenges production processes need to be more effective. This also applies to the production of innovative micro products. However, the micro production has so far not adopted the advantages of established organization and quality strategies in production systems. Therefore, this article proposes three compensations methods which integrate quality strategies into a micro production system (MPS) with respect to the special needs of producing micro products. The aim is to balance quality errors against each other throughout the production process. This is illustrated by the example of micro assembly. This example uses a simulation approach to show the integration of the afore mentioned compensation methods in combination with a quality strategy. It allows a dynamic view of the effect of balancing errors during the whole production process.
Christian Löchte, Jamal Kayasa, Christoph Herrmann, Annika Raatz

Metrology and Quality Control

Accuracy Measurements of Miniature Robot Using Optical CMM

This paper describes accuracy measurement method for high resolution miniature robot manipulators. The robot itself, measuring method and the results are presented. Parallel kinematic robot structures have by now seen as the most promising, due to their simpler and stiffer structure and easier miniaturisation. A robot using the direct drive method and direct high resolution feedback has been studied. The accuracy measurement for such robot is not straightforward because of the sub micrometre accuracy requirements and robots incapability to carry any measurement object or sensor. New kind of method is presented in this paper. It bases on the use of non-touching optical Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). Main advantage of presented method is its capability to traceable measurements and minimal interference with the measured robot. Results show that presented method is suitable for the accuracy measurements of the miniature devices.
Asser Vuola, Reijo Tuokko

A System for the Quality Inspection of Surfaces of Watch Parts

In luxury industry and, in particular in watch making, the quality of a surface is fully associated with its visual appearance and represents a corollary to the technical mastery necessary to manufacture valuable products. Traditionally, the inspection of these surfaces is carried out by human experts. Their judgment is influenced by several factors, which are not easy to control and which introduce variability in quality inspection. Nevertheless, experts have the capacity to handle different situations and they only give access to the specific knowledge related to the inspection of aesthetic surfaces. For these reasons, in the development of systems for automated visual inspection, experts are considered as the reference. The main goal the work presented in this paper is to provide automated tools for the quantitative estimation of the quality of aesthetic surfaces, in order to reduce the variability of the inspection. The different parts of an artificial vision system for surface quality control are investigated and a parallel is drawn with the inspection carried out by human experts. The adopted inspection process is based on three steps: the identification of defects, their quantification and the judgment about their acceptability.
Giuseppe Zamuner, Jacques Jacot

Characterisation of High Accuracy, Feedback Controlled, Adhesive Bonding

Adhesive bonding for industrial purposes has, over the last years, become more important compared to conventional joining methods, due to application in miniaturized systems where other ways of joining are too bulky. These days’ industries have to deal with the challenge of applying adhesive bonds with small tolerances, while the geometrical dimensions of the applied adhesives change due to the curing process of the bond. This effect is called ‘adhesive shrinkage’. This paper explains the effects of adhesive shrinkage, during bonding processes, on internal bond stress and the influences on position accuracy of the adherent parts. Effect of parameters like curing time, gap size between components and adhesive volume are studied. This is done by use of a test setup containing a manipulator with force sensor to simulate an industrial setup for the application of similar adhesive bonds. Results show that the gap-size has influence on shrinkage behaviour, whereas the adhesive volume, which defines the cross section area of the bond, is less important. Results can be used to develop a bonding procedure, which leads to an optimal balance between position accuracy and bond stress, thus guaranteeing a reliable and accurate bond in industrial manufacturing environments.
Rik Lafeber, Gerrit van den Bosch, Max Murre, Jitze Bassa, Leo van Moergestel, Erik Puik

Intelligent Control of Assembly Systems

Towards Intelligent Assembly and Manufacturing Environment – Modular ICT Support for Holonic Manufacturing System

This paper discusses the possibilities of a modular and more transparent knowledge management concept for a holonic assembly and manufacturing environment that enhances representation of past and present status of the production system thus allowing autonomous reasoning to be applied. The modular ICT approach is developed for a holonic manufacturing system (HMS). The main characteristics of the system are that it is an open system and has characteristics of a complex system. The system itself is an adaptive system, where different services are needed depending on theevolution of the production system itself. The research approach represented here aims to enhance knowledge management and process control by facilitating the move from technology based solutions to conÞgurable systems and processes where the digital models and modular knowledge management systems can be conÞgured based on the need - not based on the closed legacy systems and Þxed process planning. The principles of modularization such as functionalities and interfaces, are used to deal with interactions of the full system.
Minna Lanz, Eeva Järvenpää, Pasi Luostarinen, Fernando Garcia, Reijo Tuokko

Enabling Fast Ramp-Up of Assembly Lines through Context-Mapping of Implicit Operator Knowledge and Machine-Derived Data

Ramp-up of precision assembly lines is a cost-intensive and experience-driven task. Most of the time the knowledge how to effectively and efficiently setup an assembly line is intrinsic and is therefore neither shared nor reused by production experts. Almost no machine data is recorded until the correct functionality of the line is achieved and human problem solving tasks are not or poorly documented. In this paper a novel approach for structuring operator knowledge and combining it with machine-derived data by the use of semantic technologies is proposed. This enables human operators to express their experience in an easy to understand, machine readable way and makes it therefore accessible to other workers.
Konstantin Konrad, Michael Hoffmeister, Matthias Zapp, Alexander Verl, Johannes Busse

Accelerated Ramp-Up of Assembly Systems through Self-learning

The ramp-up process of assembly systems has a huge impact on both the productivity of those systems and the quality of the output. In this work we present a new technique for accelerating the ramp-up process by automatically capturing knowledge about a machine and subsequently reusing it to inform an engineer performing ramp-up. This technique relies on a novel process called the Knowledge Object Algorithm. The technique is explained and demonstrated using synthetic data, designed to emulate a typical use case of such a system. The future direction for this work is also outlined and further experiments detailed.
Robert Oates, Daniele Scrimieri, Svetan Ratchev

Process Selecting and Modelling Techniques

A Methodology for Assessing the Cost Effectiveness of Assembly Processes

Assembly processes are undergoing frequent changes as a result of the current drive for agility and rapid product solutions. These changes induce complexities and dynamics in the survival of most Manufacturing Enterprises (MEs). To remain competitive, MEs have to continuously and flexibly adjust through the redesign and organisation of their manufacturing and assembly processes as well as resource elements, with the aim to improve ‘cost’ and ‘values’ generated. Cost and values are part of key performance indicators necessary for determining the economic viability of assembly processes. The paper therefore presents a methodology capable of capturing, modelling and using information related to cost and value generation for in-depth assembly process analysis. This form of analysis can help determine assembly process efficiency and therefore support the selection or redesign of assembly processes for maximum value realisation at minimal cost.
Kwabena Agyapong-Kodua, Svetan Ratchev

Model Based Planning of Complex Micro-manufacturing Strategies

In recent decades micro-manufacturing becomes increasingly important. Complex multi-material and multi-functional products are required in industries such as bio-medicine, transport, consumer electronics etc. These products, however, cannot be made by single process. Combination of various shaping and assembling processes is required. This paper, gives a systematic overview on the topic of process changing. Clear and systematic process classification system and appropriate design and modelling strategy are presented. Special emphasis is put on planning of complex manufacturing chains. This paper shall help process engineers to make their decisions easier.
Daniel Zdebski, Shukri Afazov, Svetan Ratchev, Joel Segal

Towards an European Approach for Characterisation of Multimaterial Micromanufacturing Process Capabilities

The paper describes a comprehensive approach for the modelling and description of technologies available within a European Research Infrastructure consisting of distributed research infrastructures all over Europe. The resulting knowledge management system integrates the partial approaches of several European research activities in this area to a comprehensive description format for technical capabilities as well as maturity and economic aspects.
Markus Dickerhof, Sabino Azcarate, Attila Temun


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