Due to their exceptional properties, the PZT–type materials have become the most important piezoelectric materials, having an extremely large area of applications in many fields. Their high conversion factors of 60–70 % makes them the most remarkable materials for ultrasound transducers. There are numerous methods to prepare such materials. Two physical methods are the most usual: the conventional mixed route in which the stoichiometric amounts of oxides are mixed together, followed by calcination to accomplish the solid–state reaction and the mechanochemical synthesis, where the chemical reaction takes place during milling, being activated by the mechanical energy of collisions. No calcination is necessary in this case. The resulted powders are more homogenous both structurally and chemically. Other relevant methods are: coprecipitation, hydrothermal and sol-gel routes. Here the reactions take place in solution, at molecular level, thus producing materials with a high degree of homogeneity. The precipitate product or the gel resulted is subjected to a calcination process at low temperatures and the powders are very homogenous and in the nanometric range (10–200 nm).
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- Preparation of Piezoelectric Nanoparticles
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