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So far we have asked ourselves where the profit-maximizing price lies, meaning exactly one optimal price. When we charge only one uniform price for a product, the left side of Fig. 7.1 shows what our profit situation looks like, with the numbers of our power tool business. Leaving fixed costs aside for simplicity’s sake, the dark rectangle corresponds to our profit.
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A profit curve can also have two maxima. This can happen with the so-called double-kinked demand curve defined by Gutenberg.
Fehr B (1961) Zweitpreis-Auktionen – Von Goethe erdacht, von Ebay genutzt. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, December 22, 2007, p. 22; Vickrey W, Counterspeculation, Auctions and Competitive Sealed Tenders, Journal of Finance, 1961, pp. 8–37.
Hays C. Variable price coke machine being tested. New York Times, October 28, 1999.
Morozov E. Ihr wollt immer nur Effizienz und merkt nicht, dass dadurch die Gesellschaft kaputtgeht. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, April 10, 2013, p. 27.
Prices requested on www.lufthansa.com on March 15, 2013; the lowest economy-class price is for a restricted, round-trip ticket; the highest first-class price was for a flexible, one-way fare.
For a comprehensive treatment of price bundling, please see Georg Wübker . Optimal Bundling: Marketing Strategies for Improving Economic Performance, Springer, New York, 1999.
The US Supreme Court upheld a ban on block booking in 1962, citing price discrimination.
www.bmw.de, as of February 23, 2013.
Spiekermann S. Individual Price Discrimination—An Impossibility? Institute of Information Services, Humboldt University; see also “Caveat Emptor.com”, The Economist, June 30, 2012.
On Orbitz, Mac Users Steered to Pricier Hotels. The Wall Street Journal, June 26, 2012, p. A1.
Craymer L. (2013) Weigh more, pay more on Samoa Air. The Wall Street Journal, April 3, 2013.
BJ’s is a club store in the USA; AAA is the American Automobile Association.
Century-Old Ban Lifted on Minimum Retail Pricing. The New York Times, June 29, 2007.
Ohne Schweiz kein Preis. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, February 7, 2012, p. 3.
Trevisan E (2013) The Irrational Consumer: Applying Behavioural Economics to Your Business Strategy, Gower Publishing, Farnham Surrey, UK.
Simon-Kucher & Partners, INTERPRICE-Model for the Determination of an International Price Corridor, Bonn, several years.
US Patent Office, Application Number 13/249 910, September 30, 2011.
Don’t Like This Price? Wait a Minute. The Wall Street Journal, September 6, 2012, p. 21.
Poundstone W. (2010) Priceless. Hill and Wang, New York, pp. 105–106.
Holman WJ (2012) Hug a Price Gouger. The Wall Street Journal, October 30, 2012.
According to the concept of the experience curve, unit costs fall by a certain percentage for every doubling of cumulative production volume. A low launch price leads to a more rapid doubling of the cumulative production volume and therefore to a more rapid reduction of unit costs. One speaks of economies of scale when unit costs decline as production volumes increase each period.
Ebay, December 8, 2003.
Apple Annual Report 2012.
Nokia Marks Lumia 900 at Half Price in the US. The Wall Street Journal Europe, July 16, 2012, p. 19.
Cancer Care, Cost Matters. New York Times, October 14, 2012.
Sanofi Halves Price of Cancer Drug Zaltrap after Sloan-Kettering Rejection. New York Times, November 11, 2012.
Personal letter from Peter Drucker, June 7, 2003.
There are exceptions. In a Vickrey Auction, similar to what eBay uses, the buyer has an incentive to reveal his or her true willingness to pay.
Cukier K, Mayer-Schönberger V (2013). Big Data: A Revolution that Will Transform how We Live, Work, and Think. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York; see also “The Financial Bonanza of Big Data”, The Wall Street Journal Europe, March 11, 2013, p. 15.
Dupuis J (1962). On tolls and transport charges. reprinted in International Economic Papers. Macmillan, London (Original 1849)
- Price Differentiation: The High Art