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Über dieses Buch

How can a scientist or engineer synthesize and utilize polymers to solve our daily problems? This introductory text, aimed at the advanced undergraduate or graduate student, provides future scientists and engineers with the fundamental knowledge of polymer design and synthesis to achieve specific properties required in everyday applications. In the first five chapters, this book discusses the properties and characterization of polymers, since designing a polymer initially requires us to understand the effects of chemical structure on physical and chemical characteristics. Six further chapters discuss the principles of polymerization reactions including step, radical chain, ionic chain, chain copolymerization, coordination and ring opening. Finally, material is also included on how commonly known polymers are synthesized in a laboratory and a factory. This book is suitable for a one semester course in polymer chemistry and does not demand prior knowledge of polymer science.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

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Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Synthetic polymers are vital materials used in modern daily life from packaging, electronics, medical devices, clothing, vehicles, buildings, etc., due to their ease of processing and light weight.
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Chapter 2. Polymer Size and Polymer Solutions

Abstract
The size of single polymer chain is dependent on its molecular weight and morphology.
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Chapter 3. Structure Morphology Flow of Polymer

Abstract
The chemical composition, configuration and molecular arrangement determine the structure of polymer. The physical structure of polymer is the morphology of polymer
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Chapter 4. Chemical and Physical Properties of Polymers

Abstract
The chemical and physical properties of polymers are dependent on their chemical and physical structures and molecular weight. Their relationship related to the chemical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties [1–3] are discussed below.
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Chapter 5. Characterization of Polymer

Abstract
The characterization of polymer is a vital part of polymer technology.
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Chapter 6. Step Polymerization

Abstract
The step polymerization builds up the molecular weight of polymer by stepwise function. Sometimes, the polymerization involves the release of small molecule by-product, so it is also called condensation polymerization. It is the earliest polymerization technique in the synthetic polymers. In 1907, Leo Baekeland of Germany created the first completely synthetic polymer, Bakelite, by reacting phenol and formaldehyde. It is also called phenolic resin. The molecular weight of the phenolic resin builds up stepwise by removing water. The product was commercialized in 1909 by forming a company bearing his name as Bakelite until present day.
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Chapter 7. Radical Chain Polymerization

Abstract
The polymerization of unsaturated monomers typically involves a chain reaction. In a chain polymerization, one act of initiation may lead to the polymerization of thousands of monomer molecules
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Chapter 8. Ionic Chain Polymerization

Abstract
The carbon–carbon double bond can be polymerized either by free radical or ionic methods. The difference arises because the π-bond of a vinyl monomer can respond appropriately to the initiator species by either homolytic or heterolytic bond breakage as shown in Eq. 8.1.
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Chapter 9. Coordination Polymerization

Abstract
The coordination polymerization is invented by two Italian scientists: Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta. They shared the nobel prize in chemistry in 1963 using Ziegler–Natta catalysts to polymerize nonpolar monomers: 1-alkene, cycloalkenes, dienes, and alkynes through coordination mechanism instead of common chain or step polymerization [1].
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Chapter 10. Chain Copolymerization

Abstract
Copolymers [1, 2] contain two or more repeating monomer structures in the polymer chain. The copolymer can be synthesized by chain polymerization using two or more type of monomers. It is called chain copolymerization.
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Chapter 11. Ring-Opening Polymerization

Abstract
Polymers can be synthesized by polymerizing monomers with ring structure as shown in Table 11.1. The polymerization of these compounds has some aspects of both chain and step polymerizations as far as kinetics and mechanisms are concerned.
Table 11.1
Examples of polymers prepared by ring-opening polymerization [1]
Polymer type
Polymer repeating group
Monomer structure
Monomer type
Polyalkene
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figa_HTML.gif
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figb_HTML.gif
Cyclic alkene
Polyether
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figc_HTML.gif
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figd_HTML.gif
Cyclic ethera
Polyesterb
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Fige_HTML.gif
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figf_HTML.gif
Lactone
Polyamide
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figg_HTML.gif
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figh_HTML.gif
Lactam
Polysiloxane
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figi_HTML.gif
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figj_HTML.gif
Cyclic siloxane
Polyphosphazene
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figk_HTML.gif
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figl_HTML.gif
Hexachloro-cyclotriphosphazenec
Polyamine
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Figm_HTML.gif
https://static-content.springer.com/image/chp%3A10.1007%2F978-3-642-38730-2_11/MediaObjects/307395_1_En_11_Fign_HTML.gif
Aziridened
aEpoxide (x = 2); oxetane (x = 3)
bRing opening of cyclic oligomers has also been developed
cPhosphonitrilic chloride trimer
dAlso called alkyleneimine
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Backmatter

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