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This volume examines problem solving and applied systems aimed at improving performance and management of organizations. The book’s eight chapters are integrated into two parts: methodologies and techniques that discuss complex dynamic analysis of the organizations, participative processes for building trend scenarios, consultancy as a systemic intervention process, processes to promote innovative goals in organizations, and analytical processes and solid mathematical representation systems. The authors also include a model to urban parks location, an analytic model to urban services location, and a system to forecast demand with fussy sets.

Describes methodologies to analyze processes in complex dynamic organizations, including as participative, interventional, innovative, and analytical approaches;Clarifies a strategies for providing structure to complex organizations and applying analytical methods to decision making;Illustrates problem holistic solving strategies;Explains how to approach several problems from a holistic point of view and how analyze the subjacent processes to make decisions.



Part I


Chapter 1. Theoretical-Methodological Basis for Complex Organization Diagnosis

A complex organization is an adaptive social system, with human beings as basic elements, which assume different functions according to a given labor division structure to fulfill the mission and objectives of the organization and its elements. In this chapter, a methodology for the diagnosis of the organization dynamics is discussed from the point of view of the complexity approach in order to improve and solve problems related to its operation and management.
Felipe de Jesús Lara-Rosano

Chapter 2. Methodology for Building Trend Scenarios

In this chapter, we discuss a process for building trend in planning scenarios for problem-solving in public and private organizations. The process is comprised of five phases: (1) system definition and explanation of the current situation, (2) integration of forecasts, (3) integration of the predictions, (4) the construction of the future image, and (5) a description of the connection between the present and the future. This process is applied to the case “The future of the Toluca Valley aquifer to 2020.” The proposed process has the advantage of promoting participation, have its theoretical support in systems thinking and methodological basis in interactive planning.
Gabriel de las Nieves Sánchez-Guerrero

Chapter 3. Consulting as a Systemic Intervention Process

This chapter discusses three reasons why organizational consulting may be ineffective. Two of those reasons are associated with the actors involved in the consulting process; the third reason is associated with the intervention process for problem solving. Failures in the consulting process have been widely reported in the literature, along with their causes and proposed approaches to prevent such failures. Also in this chapter, the theoretical and methodological elements that form systems thinking are identified, located, and integrated in the consulting process. These elements provide conditions that allow the consulting process to become a systemic intervention. The inclusion of theoretical and methodological elements aims to improve the effectiveness of the consulting process, although it could increase the risk of transforming the consulting process from heuristic to rational.
Benito Sánchez-Lara, Oscar Everardo Flores-Choperena

Chapter 4. The Role of Technological, Economic, and Usage Ruptures in the Innovation Process

Currently, innovation has become increasingly important in the global scene because it represents a way to maintain or to reach a competitive advantage inside an organization (Carayannis et al., Innovation and entrepreneurship. Theory, policy and practice. Springer International Publishing Switzerland, p 232, 2015, 1). The objective of this chapter is identifying the technological, economic, and usage ruptures, for the purpose of showing their importance in the stabilization of a process, aimed at reaching a transformation, named the innovation process. In problem-solving, the innovation is considered as “the introduction of a new or significantly improved product or process, of a new marketing or organizational method in the company’s internal practices or external relations.” The identification of each one of the ruptures achieved by using different tools – table of technical data, pie graph, graph of the technical value of an object, and the buyer’s usage matrix – which make possible to know the technological requirements, selected needs of a market, and finally, the economic characteristics which allow for, not only the differentiation of the established price, but also the evaluation of the innovative project’s investment return to be carried out.
Cozumel A. Monroy-León

Chapter 5. Digraphs in the Analysis of Systems’ Representation of Mathematical Knowledge

One of the main goals in education is to narrow the teaching according to students’ knowledge and skills; therefore, many topics may emerge and become important, and many research questions may be posed and studied. In this context and using a systemic approach, I present and discuss a methodology to analyze the visual reasoning processes given with the use of mathematical representations when learning differential calculus at a high school level. The interest is knowing how learners acquire and use some of the systems of mathematical representation and how they organize these systems to produce acceptable responses in the school environment. The representation systems used by the participants were modeled by digraphs, which turned out to be complete, entirely disconnected, and transitive; strong, weak, and idiosyncratic systems of representation were identified. Also, based on the conclusions, some teaching recommendations were created for making decisions in the classroom for students to acquire solid systems of representation by which acceptable answers may be given to solve differential calculus problems.
Patricia Esperanza Balderas-Cañas

Part II


Chapter 6. Decision-Making with Multicriteria Optimization and GIS for Park Locations

In this chapter, we present a modeling process that allows us to make decisions using optimization multi-criteria and locate parks (gardens or small recreational green areas) from a selection of a set of green areas conducive to scattering in urban areas, such as Mexico City. This modeling process consist of steps ranging from the structuring of the problem to the use of a procedure that interfaces between a Geographic Information System and multi-criteria optimization model of a discrete location. By using this procedure, we obtained results for locating parks. Relative to the optimization model used, we achieved a formulation improvement over the original model proposed by Molano and Sarmiento (Modelo de localización de áreas urbanas para construcción de nuevos parques vecinales en Bogotá, Tesis de maestría, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, 2007) by reducing the number of binary variables needed and therefore reducing its complexity. The proper use of operations research methodology promoted verified and validated results for real problems, including the case study of the Cuauhtémoc locality in Mexico City.
Mayra Elizondo-Cortés, Adela Jiménez-Montero

Chapter 7. A Service Location Model in a Bi-level Structure

The principal aim of this chapter is to show a network location services model for a specific problem, which has originally been formulated as one with one objective. The multi-objective strategy has been useful in situations where there is more than one objective and where in many cases they may be contradictory. Such approach does not consider interdependence among each other. Multilevel programming, on the other hand, does take it into consideration, which allows for a hierarchical organization of the objectives and the consideration of relationships among them. The proposed model was applied for a drug distribution network in the State of Mexico, for which optimum storage location is suggested.
Zaida E. Alarcón-Bernal, Ricardo Aceves-García

Chapter 8. Determining the Demand in Inventory Policies for Mexican Companies Using Fuzzy Sets

In this chapter, we show an alternative to estimate the demand for the inventory control by fuzzy set for its calculation under uncertainty, and in this way, it is incorporated the subjective knowledge and administrative experience in its determination. One of the problems in Mexican companies with regard to the definition and calculation of the demand has to be with the maintenance provided by those companies, the updated data, and the system variables considered in the inventories. This action is considered as an extra cost and unnecessary. The most used models for inventory controls in the Mexican industry are Material Requirements Planning (MRP) and Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), models raised and solved in this work considering the demand as a fuzzy number. To solve EOQ with fuzzy demand, it is presented a methodology that will facilitate its use in the industry; for MRP model, it is developed to solve it through a problem of linear programming with flexible restrictions and making calculations of approximation to fuzzy numbers, using α-cuts. Finally, it is presented illustrative examples to understand the way of work with these models and fuzzy sets and also graphics and analysis of the results to know the advantages and disadvantages of using fuzzy numbers.
Ricardo Aceves-García, Zaida E. Alarcón-Bernal


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