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Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.

Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Erratum to: Modeling and Prediction of Pressure Loss in Dilute Pneumatic Conveying System with 90° Bend

Dilute gas–solid flow exits widely in industrial applications and nature process. It is of great value to estimate pressure loss during conveying. Because of the complex mechanism in gas–solid flow, accurate estimation of pressure loss can hardly be made. Based on the experimental condition in Tianjin University, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been built, considering different states of motion during collisions between wall and particles with different properties. CFD model has been validated with experiment data and an automatic modeling system has been built. This paper has engaged in studying pressure loss in 90° bend with different curative radius.

Chao Wang, Xiaomeng Sun

Intelligent Automation

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Application of Production Rule in Intelligent Collaboration System of Information Appliances

The intelligent collaboration among information appliances based on production rule is researched to enable them to achieve mutual recognition, mutual communication and mutual cooperation. An intelligent collaboration platform of information appliances is built and the intelligent collaborative process is discussed. And then all the facts in information appliances are showed with abstract representation, all the rules are showed with production rule, and they are stored in the knowledge bases. Finally, an inference algorithm is designed combining production rule and expert system. The experimental results and application show that the intelligent collaborative system of information appliances based on production rule have the advantage of convenient control, clear rule description, intuitive knowledge representation and good inference effectiveness.

Huazhong Liu, Jihong Ding, Anyuan Deng

Chapter 2. Research on Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Engine Based on MOBP Neural Network

Facing the demands of precise and intelligent diagnosis for engine faults, this paper applies the artificial intelligent theory, studies and realizes the application of the MOBP neural network on the intelligent diagnosis for engine faults. As is proved by the experiments, the training time based on the MOBP neural network is shorter than traditional methods, and the reasoning efficiency is significantly improved. It is confirmed that the study of the intelligent fault diagnosis for engine based on the MOBP neural network is practical.

Heda Zhang, Jiantong Song, Jialin Han, Fang Fang, Wanqiang Ren

Chapter 3. Feedback Linearization Optimal Control for Bilinear Systems with Time-Delay in Control Input

This paper considers the optimal control problem for bilinear system with time-delay in control input based on state feedback. Firstly, we change a bilinear system with time-delay in control action model to a time-delay pseudo linear system model by local linearization. Through the Artstein transformation, a linear controllable system without delay is obtained. Then based on the theory of linear quadratic optimal control, a optimal controller is designed by solving the Riccati equation. At last, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the method.

Dexin Gao

Chapter 4. L∞ Dynamic Surface Control for a Class of Nonlinear Pure-Feedback Systems with Finite-Time Extended State Observer

This paper presents a novel dynamic surface control (DSC) design for a class of nonlinear pure-feedback system without using adaptive approach. By introducing a set of alternative state variables and the corresponding transform, state-feedback control of the pure-feedback can be viewed as output-feedback control of a canonical system. To estimate unknown states of the newly derived canonical system and the lumped overall uncertainty, a finite-time extended state observer (ESO) is adopted. The closed-loop stability and

$$ L_{\infty } $$

convergence of the tracking error to a small compact set around zero are proved. Comparative simulations are included to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Guofa Sun, Xuemei Ren, Dongwu Li

Chapter 5. Cross Function Projective Synchronization of Liu System and the New Lorenz System with Known and Unknown Parameters

In this paper, we focuses on a new way of the function projective synchronization (FPS) of the hyperchaotic Liu system and the hyperchaotic New Lorenz system. We call this new method the cross function projective synchronization (CFPS). Within the two systems, we achieved the CFPS at the first place through a proper control scheme. Furthermore, by designing the parameter update law, the time of reaching projective synchronization could be adjustable. Eventually, several numerical simulations are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

Yuqing Sun, Wuneng Zhou, Yuan Du

Chapter 6. The Application of Multiwavelets to Chaotic Time Series Analysis

Multiwavelets offer symmetry, orthogonality, and short support, which is not possible with scalar wavelet. In this paper, we analyzed chaotic time series using multiwavelets. Two benchmark chaotic time series and the real-world data of Sunspots time series were analyzed. Three type of accuracy criteria: Mean square error, Root mean square error and Mean absolute error were used to measure the performance of the reconstruction. And the results were compared to the scalar wavelet. Experimental results indicate that multiwavelets were superior to scalar wavelet for chaotic time series analysis.

Zhihong Zhao, Shaopu Yang, Yu Lei

Chapter 7. Localization and Navigation of Intelligent Wheelchair in Dynamic Environments

An intelligent wheelchair JiaoLong with multi-mode is developed for the handicapped and the elderly. JiaoLong is designed of two manipulate modes according to the user’s disability and the environments for use. Based on the dynamic localizability matrix, an improved particle filter localization algorithm is proposed in this paper. The results of experiments show the practicability of the system design and the effectiveness provided by the improved localization method.

Jingchuan Wang, Juncheng Wang, Weidong Chen

Chapter 8. Adaptive Particle Filter with Estimation Windows

Particle filter is well suited to estimate the state of non-linear non-Gaussian dynamic systems, which comes at the cost of higher computational complexity. But in many real time applications, it must deal with constraints imposed by limited computational resources. To deal with this question, we distribute the samples among the different observations arriving during a filter update, the novel algorithm represents densities over the state space by mixtures of sample sets. Another contribution of this paper is to increasing the efficiency of particle filters by adapting the size of sample sets during the estimation process. According to the relative entropy theory and particle number controller idea, we choose the number of samples, decrease computation overhead. A simulation of the classic HARD bearing only tracking problem is presented, the results show that the novel algorithm performs better than generic particle filter.

Peng Li, Jian Tang

Chapter 9. Binary Encoding Differential Evolution with Application to Combinatorial Optimization Problem

Differential Evolution algorithm is a new competitive heuristic optimization algorithm in the continuous field. The operators in the original Differential Evolution are simple; however, these operators make it impossible to use the Differential Evolution in the binary space directly. Based on the analysis of problems led by the mutation operator of the original Differential Evolution in the binary space, a new mutation operator was proposed to enable this optimization technique can be used in binary space. The new mutation operator, which is called semi-probability mutation operator, is a combination of the original mutation operator and a new probability-based defined operator. Initial experimental results of two different combinatorial optimization problems show its effectiveness and validity.

Changshou Deng, Bingyan Zhao, Yanlin Yang, Hai Zhang

Chapter 10. The Research on the Fuzzing

From Miller firstly introduced the fuzzing in 1990 and found failures in over 25 % of UNIX programs, to recent TaintScope system presented by Peking University and the discovery of 27 0day vulnerabilities in several popular software including Adobe Acrobat, the practical experiences and results have illuminated that fuzzing are effective for vulnerability mining. In this paper, fuzzing is studied and surveyed. First, new features of fuzzing are analyzed. And then, give the definition of Cd and Md. Cd and Md describe the ability to implement vulnerability mining on the vulnerability of the test case. Based on the Cd and Md, this paper also gives a new fuzzing architecture Feedback Fuzz.

Lanlan Qi, Jiangtao Wen, Hui Huang, Xiong Wang, Zhiyong Wu

Chapter 11. Attitude Control of Solar Sail Spacecraft Using Fractional-Order PID Controller

In consideration of the extreme flexibility characteristics of film sail and large-scale booms of solar sail, a nonlinear rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model is presented. Based on the coupling dynamic model, a fractional order PID controller is designed to stabilize the system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method, as the asymptotic tracking of the sail target attitude angle and robust vibration suppression of flexible structures are all achieved, and results is much better compared with the traditional PID controller.

Yong Wang, Min Zhu, Yiheng Wei, Cheng Peng, Yang Zhang

Chapter 12. Ubiquitous Visual Navigation for the Robotic Wheelchair

A new Robotic Wheelchair System (RWS) is presented. The new RWS departs completely from the conventional approaches of autonomous robots which rely on onboard sensors to map locally their environment for navigating progressively and autonomously. Instead, our RWS makes use of an innovative tracking and servoing system to achieve global and reliable navigation of robotic wheelchairs. The UVSS enables visual feedback control of robotic wheelchair in a global environment. Furthermore it coordinates with an onboard autonomous control system, whose purpose is to avoid the obstacles in the neighborhood of the wheelchair and to enable navigation when the global control from RWS is not available due to delays and packets dropouts in the communication channel. In addition to servoing and navigation, the RWS also provides continuous communication between the wheelchair riders and their supporters. To test the proposed system, experiments for servoing the robotic wheelchair in following a designed path under UVSS is performed. Experimental results validates the advantage of the new system.

Liang Yuan

Chapter 13. Torque Distribution Control for Independent Wheel Drive Electric Vehicles with Varying Vertical Load

The performance of independent wheel drive electric vehicles (EVs) to prevent the generation of vehicle slipping is effective by distributing the four wheels’ torque independently. The direct yaw moment generated by the tire force difference between the two sides of the vehicle is taken as the control input. Considering that the control performance is affected by varying vertical load, and the designed torque distribution controller presents the effective method to give practical benefits in motion control. Last computer simulation using Matlab/Simulink-Carsim is carried out to investigate the method of torque distribution based on the ratio of the vertical load of each wheel to the total vehicle load for EVs to improve the performance of handling and security.

Guodong Yin, Jinxiang Wang, Dawei Pi

Chapter 14. Fault Diagnosis of Subway Auxiliary Inverter Based on PCA and WNN

Taken the nonlinearity of fault signals in subway auxiliary inverter and the diagnostic precision into consideration, the paper proposes the fault diagnosis method on the basis of principal component analysis (PCA) and wavelet neural network (WNN). Firstly, extract the initial feature vectors of fault signals by the decomposition and reconstruction of wavelet package, then use PCA to reduce the dimension of initial feature vectors, so as to eliminate redundant data information. Finally, the processed feature vectors will be taken as the input samples of wavelet neural network for the fault diagnosis. Experiment results have tested and verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the method. The proposed diagnostic method has higher precision and stronger convergence than the network directly using initial feature vectors.

Junwei Gao, Ziwen Leng, Yong Qin, Dechen Yao, Xiaofeng Li

Chapter 15. Ultrasonic Array Based Obstacle Detection in Automatic Parking

An ultrasonic array for automatic parking is designed and accomplished in this paper. The details of software and hardware of the system were presented in the article, and the system was validated in a refitted vehicle by automatic parking. The detection result of the ultrasonic array was contrast with that of LADAR. The system showed the advantages in the robust, economy, environments irrespective, and easy to widely application.

Huihai Cui, Jinze Song, Daxue Liu

Chapter 16. Approximate Dynamic Programming Based Controller Design Using an Improved Learning Algorithm with Application to Tracking Control of Aircraft

The strategy using approximate/adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) has been widely used to design a learning controller for complex systems of higher dimension in recent years. This paper aims at handling an important problem in the design of ADP learning controllers, which is the improvement of learning algorithm for its convergence performance. We analyze ADP controller implementation framework according to the requirement of tracking control task, with emphasis on providing an improved weight-updating gradient descent approach in optimizing connection weights in network structures. A comparison of the proposed method and classic ADP design for tracking and controlling pitch angle of aircraft is presented. It verifies the feasibility in the design of the proposed ADP based controller.

Xiong Luo, Yuchao Zhou, Zengqi Sun

Chapter 17. New Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Schur D-Stability of Matrices

In this paper, the Schur D-stability and vertex stability of matrices are investigated by means of the matrix eigenvalue theory and spectral radius approach. Four new necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained which guarantee the Schur D-stability of matrices. That the conditions limit of tridiagonal matrix and non-negative matrix in the previous literatures are abandoned. These results are wider applicable and less conservative than those in recent criteria. Three equivalence relations between the Schur D-stability, Schur stability and vertex stability are established.

Jinfang Han

Chapter 18. Aerial Cooperative Combination Formation Method of Manned/Unmanned Combats Agents

Aerial cooperative combination formation (ACCF) become a new problem when the manned/unmanned combat agents task coalition performing the air–air task. The problem of ACC formation focuses on the method to allocate the weapon units, guidance units and targets in a time-slack in order to maximize the effectiveness of the task coalition. According to the operational context, a constrained optimization model was proposed for the problem and a novel nested genetic algorithm (NGA) was designed to solve the model. In NGA, the outer-loop of GA searched for the best weapon-guidance combination and the inner-loop of GA searched for the best weapon-target allocation. Aiming to discrete characteristics of the problem, the coding rules, crossover operators and mutation operators was specially designed. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can solve the three-dimensional ACCF problem effectively.

Lujun Wan, Peiyang Yao

Chapter 19. Finite-Time Adaptive Dynamic Surface Control of Dual Motor Driving Systems

This paper is focused on finite-time adaptive control of dual motor driving servo system. By introducing a set of alternative state variables and the corresponding transform, a state space description of dual motor driving servo system is yields. Based on the obtained state space model of dual motor driving servo system, a dynamic surface control (DSC) scheme is proposed, which is able to eliminate the “explosion of complexity” problem inherent in traditional backstepping design and guarantee the finite convergence performance of the tracking errors. Simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Dongwu Li, Guofa Sun, Xuemei Ren, Xiaohua Lv

Chapter 20. Hybrid Reinforcement Learning and Uneven Generalization of Learning Space Method for Robot Obstacle Avoidance

This paper introduces a hybrid reinforcement learning algorithm for robot obstacle avoidance. This algorithm is based on SARSA (λ), and mix with the supervised learning. This hybrid learning algorithm can reduce the learning time obviously which is demonstrated by the simulations. In reinforcement learning, generalization of learning space is important for learning efficiency. An uneven generalization model is designed for improving the learning efficiency. The simulations show that the uneven model can not only reduce the learning time, but also the moving steps.

Jianghao Li, Weihong Bi, Mingda Li

Chapter 21. The Effects of Public Expenditure on Pro-poor Growth in Rural China: A General Equilibrium Simulation Approach

This paper analyzes the effects of public expenditure on poverty in different regions of rural China. A general equilibrium simulation is used to examine the effects of government actions on the rural poor populations’ welfare. The data used in this paper are available from the China’s National Bureau of Statistics. The results of this study indicate that the economic growth in China is pro-poor no matter what simulation scenario is adopted. The public expenditures from the governments made significant contribution to the reduction of poverty severity in rural China. In other words, the poor in rural China benefited from fruits of the economic growth induced by the public investments. However not all the regions have profited uniformly from the economic growth.

Yibing Wang, Xiaoyun Ma

Chapter 22. Robust Control for Air-Breathing Hypersonic Cruise Vehicles

The integral ramjet engine has gained wide popularity as one of the versatile air-breathing engines for hypersonic flight vehicles. Due to the uniqueness of tightly integrated engine-airframe configuration, results in significant coupling between the structure, propulsion system and vehicle aerodynamics, the hypersonic flight vehicle modeling and control system design become very challenging. For air-breathing hypersonic cruise vehicles, the flight Mach number control is one of the important control system task. In this paper under the condition that the air-breathing hypersonic cruise vehicle dynamics is considered, the robust Mach number controller for an air-breathing hypersonic cruise vehicle is designed by using the

H

robust control method. The simulation and validation results indicate that the designed controller makes the Mach number control system have a very good performance, the designed controller meets the Mach number control system performance and robustness demands. The effectiveness of the presented methods is demonstrated by the simulation and validation results.

Wenbiao Zhu

Chapter 23. Sensor Failure Detection and Diagnosis via Polynomial Chaos Theory—Part II: Digital Realization

The reliability and performance of complex power systems with many sensors are largely dependent on the accuracy and reliability of the sensors. Thus, it is very important for monitoring and diagnosis the sensor faults. In this paper, the digital realization of polynomial chaos theory (PCT) based sensor failure detection and diagnosis (SFDD) algorithm considering parameter uncertainties has been detailed. A digital signal processor (DSP), TMS320F2812, is adopted to implement the proposed SFDD algorithm. Both hardware-in-the-loop testing and laboratory experimental testing have been done to verify the online practical application capability of the proposed algorithm. A three-stage synchronous generator with automatic voltage regulator (AVR) has been used as a case study. The control performance of AVR is guaranteed to be more reliable by the application of SFDD algorithm based on PCT. Experiment results show good consistency with the theory analysis.

Weilin Li, Xiaobin Zhang, Huimin Li, Wenli Yao

Chapter 24. Covariance Intersection Fusion Robust Steady-State Kalman Filter for Two-Sensor Systems with Time-Delayed Measurements

For two-sensor systems with time-delayed measurements and uncertain noise variances, this paper presents a measurements transformation approach which transforms the systems with time-delayed measurements into the equivalent systems without measurement delays. Further the local robust steady-state Kalman filter with conservative upper bounds of unknown noise variances is presented, and then the covariance intersection (CI) fusion robust steady-state Kalman filter is also presented. The robustness of these filters is proved based on the Lyapunov equation. It is proved that the robust accuracy of the CI fuser is higher than that of each local robust Kalman filter. A Monte-Carlo simulation example shows its correctness and effectiveness.

Wenjuan Qi, Peng Zhang, Wenqing Feng, Zili Deng

Chapter 25. Centralized Fusion Steady-State Robust Kalman Filter for Uncertain Multisensor Systems

For multisensor systems with uncertain noise variances, a centralized fusion steady-state robust Kalman filter with the upper bound of noise variances is presented. Based on the Lyapunov equation, it is proved that the local and centralized fusion steady-state Kalman filter are robust, i.e., the variances of the actual filtering errors are less than conservative variances of the corresponding robust Kalman filters. Further, it is proved that the robust accuracy of the centralized fusion robust Kalman filter is higher than that of the local robust Kalman filter. A Monte-Carlo simulation example shows its correctness.

Peng Zhang, Wenjuan Qi, Zili Deng

Intelligent Technology and Systems

Frontmatter

Chapter 26. Agent Based Railway Network Rescheduling System

An agent based train rescheduling system for the railway network is introduced. The system is formed by four layers that including implementation layer, section rescheduling layer, line rescheduling layer and network rescheduling layer from bottom to top of the system. Four kinds of rescheduling agents are involved in each layer based on its feature. The agents in the same layer or in the neighbor layers can communicate with each other. The agent based network train rescheduling system benefits to get a global optimization in the perspective of railway network. In the end a simulation on Beijing-Shanghai high speed railway is realized to prove the system effectiveness.

Li Wang, Yong Qin, Jie Xu, Limin Jia

Chapter 27. The BLDCM Control System Based on Fuzzy-PI Controller

Recently, lots of researches have been investigated for the BLDCM system. The purpose of this paper is to design a controller which can reduce the torque and speed fluctuation when load changes suddenly. The advantage of traditional PI controller is that there is no static error, but the dynamic performance is not good especially the load changes suddenly. The advantage of Fuzzy controller is the dynamic performance is good when the load changes suddenly, but there exists static error. Compared to traditional PI and Fuzzy controller, the new algorithm based on Fuzzy-PI can improve the dynamic performance of the system. Also, the speed and torque fluctuations are reduced at the same time. Simulation results show that the validity of the proposed method. The new control algorithm can be used in BLDC control system. Simulation results can provide reference for the actual BLDC control system.

Xue Lv, Hongsheng Li

Chapter 28. Research and Comparison of CUDA GPU Programming in MATLAB and Mathematica

This paper discusses and analyzes the reasons of fast development of GPU computing, CUDA-enabled GPU programming model, direct matrix multiplication algorithms based on CPU and CUDA-enabled GPU. In three different environments of VC++2008, Matlab 2009b and Mathematica 8, for matrices of different dimensions, we compare execution efficiency by means of runtime. For research and study, GPU Computing in mathematica software systems provides a good choice because of their advantages of low cost, ease of use, high efficiency.

Xiongwei Liu, Lizhi Cheng, Qun Zhou

Chapter 29. Researching on the Placement of Data Replicas in the System of HDFS Cloud Storage Cluster

The default model and the dynamic model of data placement based on the need of fault tolerance in HDFS cloud storage cluster system were built. On this basis, the

$$ Rack_{i} $$

selection algorithm based on the weight to process the problems of data transmission was designed and the

$$ DN_{ik} $$

selection algorithm based on the gray evaluation criteria of entropy weight to evaluate each DataNode in the

$$ Rack_{i} $$

comprehensively were proposed, that come to a DataNode with the best Map/Reduce performance eventually. Analysis and experiments showed that the

$$ Rack_{i} $$

selection algorithm and

$$ DN_{ik} $$

selection algorithm can provide the data replicas pre-written into HDFS reasonable DataNodes.

Guangbin Bao, Chaojia Yu, Hong Zhao, Yangyang Luan

Chapter 30. Optimization and Implementation of the Sobel Edge Detection on Davinci Platform

Sobel is one of the best edge detection algorithms. However, it often loses some textural information when complex image is processed. This paper mainly discusses how to improve the shortcomings of Sobel and optimize the filtering, templates, and noise algorithms for edge detection. Beside the optimization, the paper presents the implementation of edge detection on Davinci platform. The algorithm code has been optimized which based on the TMS320DM6446 dual-core DSP. Multiplication operations have been split into the shift and add operations through integration algorithm engine which use the DSP’s pipelining operations. After the test experiment on Davinci platform, it can work efficiently. This method can not only provide the possibility of the real-time image processing, but also eliminate the impact of noise, and enhance the detection accuracy.

Wancai Li, Zekun Liu, Zhiwei Tang

Chapter 31. Modeling for Penicillin Fermentation Process Based on Weighted LS-SVM and Pensim

In order to solve the problem when monitoring and controlling penicillin fermentation processes, So an intelligent modeling method based on Quantum Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO) algorithm and Weighted Least Squares Support Vector Machines (WLS-SVM) is presented, which can overcome the noise of sample data, the high non-linear. Applied the method in penicillin fermentation processes and compared with the Pensim simulation platform data, it obviously found that the WLS-SVM is superior to the unweighted LS-SVM modeling method that has a better estimation accuracy and robustness.

Weili Xiong, Xiao Wang, Qian Zhang, Baoguo Xu

Chapter 32. Testing-Oriented Simulator for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in utilizing formation control and path planning in autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) designs. In this paper we present a novel method to create an AUV simulator using the Hardware in the Loop Simulation (HILS) and Virtual Reality (VR). The developed setup offers an alternative to difficult, costly, and possibly hazardous real-time testing and validation of formation control or path planning algorithms for autonomous underwater vehicles. The hardware of the platform is provided with data flow, followed by detailed descriptions of the AUV sensor models that are employed. An example of fuzzy algorithm development obstacle avoidance system is also described. Experimental results are presented showing the feasibility of methods. Finally, the suggestion of the hardware-in-loop simulator is given.

Jinhua Wang, Yongzhong Ma

Chapter 33. Virtual Reality-Based Forward Looking Sonar Simulation

Forward Looking Sonar simulators are useful tools for developing Obstacle Avoidance system of Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). A simulating the single and multi-beam forward looking sonar are established through the process simulation model. A new type beam model for sensing the environment is contrived based on collision detection technique of Virtual Reality. And it implements accurate realization of sonar resolution, which is able to keep the system real-time. The results of experiment show that the methods of simulation are feasible and the simulation is close to the AUV course of movement.

Jinhua Wang, Renjun Zhan, Xulin Liu

Chapter 34. A Machine Vision System for Bearing Greasing Procedure

Bearing is widely used in many machines, which can reduce the friction between connected components. However, many manufacturers still use human or machine methods to inspect the bearing production, which is inefficient, costly and unreliable, especially for the miniature bearing. In this paper, we propose a machine vision system for bearing greasing procedure. The proposed system uses image processing technology to process digital image captured by a camera and can locate the bearing cage quickly and accurately. Firstly, the bearing is separated from the whole image using the RANSAC least square circle fitting method. Secondly, to facilitate the process algorithm, the bearing area is transformed into a rectangle image. Next, some novel projection methods are involved. Finally, a center map is calculated to get the final greasing location. Experimental results show that the proposed machine vision system has high accuracy and efficiency, and can fully meet the online production requirement.

Hao Shen, Chengfei Zhu, Shuxiao Li, Hongxing Chang

Chapter 35. Active Control of Sound Transmission Through Double Plate Structures Using Volume Velocity Sensor

Based on coupling structural–acoustic modal model, using PZT actuators and volume velocity sensor as actuator/sensor, the analytical simulations are presented for the actively controlled the sound transmission through double plate structure. Firstly, the results show the potential for using volume velocity sensors to improve sound transmission loss through double plate structures. Secondly, the effects of physical parameters of actuator/sensor and double plate structure on control performances are discussed. And some useful conclusions are obtained, for example, if volume velocity sensor is applied to radiating plate, sound transmission loss will improve significantly, no matter where the actuators (i.e. PZT actuators on incident or radiating plate) are located.

Qibo Mao

Chapter 36. Research on Prognostics of Dynamically Tuned Gyroscope Storage Life

The storage life of dynamically tuned gyroscope (DTG) widely used in the field of guidance, navigation and control (GNC) is an important index for its military application. Aiming at this issue, the step-down-stress accelerated life testing (SDS-ALT) is implemented to test the DTG to get statistical and degradation data for its characteristics of long life and high reliability. A three-step analysis method is developed to establish Arrhenius accelerated model by using statistical data. Then, degradation data at higher stress can be converted to those at normal stress by data conversion formula. A new individual-based prognostic algorithm, named the path classification and estimation (PACE) model, which is entirely based on the converted degradation data, has been developed to predict remaining storage life estimation of DTG. Using the degradation data of SDS-ALT, the remaining storage life of DTG is evaluated. The evaluated results show that the model has higher prediction accuracy and smaller variance especially for small sample condition.

Yuxiong Pan, Qingdong Li, Zhang Ren

Chapter 37. Automatic Testing Device for Gas Cylinder Based on LabVIEW

In this paper, a testing device for gas cylinder, which is composed of PC, data acquisition card on USB bus technology and the application software compiled on the labVIEW platform, is designed on the basis of virtual instrument technology. The assembly and disassembly of the cylinder plug, weighing, temperature measuring, being irrigated upright, and hydraulic pressure testing are all realized. This device has been put into use with highly practical effect.

Fei Chen, Yingjuan Yue, Wenxia Sun, Yaque Jing

Chapter 38. Study on the FBG and ZigBee Technologies in Telemetry System of Flow Velocity

In order to overcome the disadvantage of low accuracy for traditional monitoring technologies of flow velocity, and solve the problems in real-time data acquisition and remote transmission for the existing hydrological observation, we design a new telemetry system of flow velocity based on fiber grating technology and wireless network technology, which can realize high sensitivity and automatic monitoring of flow velocity for multiple measure points in a large range of areas. The telemetry system has been put into practical application in a monitoring project and the measurement results indicate that this system is of such advantages as real-time capability, high accuracy, unattended operation, and can well meet the present requirements of hydrological observation and measurement.

Bing Han, Dongjie Tan, Xingtao Zhou, Liangliang Li, Shaopeng Yu

Chapter 39. Statics of Supporting Leg for a Water Strider Robot

Biologically inspired by water strider, water strider robot uses surface tension force produced by supporting leg to stay and walk on water surface. The robot’s loading capacity can be known through statics analysis. A static model of the supporting leg is created and the maximum surface tension condition, that is the surface-breaking condition, is analyzed. Then the calculation methods of supporting force and maximum allowed onto-water depth are proposed. For several materials, the curves between surface tension and contact angle, which are based on the proposed model and method, are shown using the Matlab program. The theoretical calculation results of the supporting force and the maximum allowed onto-water depth are compared with experimental data. Then the validity of the proposed models and methods is verified.

Licheng Wu, Yu Yang, Guosheng Yang, Xinkai Gui

Chapter 40. Orientation Control for Mobile Robot with Two Trailers

The control problem for a mobile robot with two trailers is addressed in this paper. A nonlinear smooth control law for tracking of the orientations of the trailers with asymptotic stability in backward motion is firstly proposed. The stability of the closed loop feedback system is proved with theory about cascade system and input-to-state stability and also Lypunov technique. The effectiveness of the proposed control law and the controller are illustrated by numeric simulation results.

Jin Cheng, Yong Zhang, Zhonghua Wang

Chapter 41. The Effects of Leg Configurations on Trotting Quadruped Robot

This paper studied the configuration modes between the legs and the body frame of the mammalian quadruped robot. Based on the quadruped robot models with four different leg configuration approaches, the optimal leg configuration mode of the quadruped robot with trotting gait is verified by means of ADAMS and MATLAB co-simulation for improving the locomotion stability and decreasing the slip of quadruped robot, which provide a theoretical basis for the design of leg configuration on real quadruped robot Scalf.

Bin Li, Yibin Li, Xuewen Rong, Jian Meng, Hui Chai

Chapter 42. Accuracy Improvement of Ship’s Inertial System by Deflections of the Vertical Based Gravity Gradiometer

The error of high-accuracy Inertial Navigation System (INS) due to the gravity disturbance can’t afford to be neglected. As gradiometer aided INS has been used as a resultful method for improving accuracy of underwater navigation, a novel method compensating the vertical deflections by gradiometer is introduced. In this paper, the architecture of compensation deflections of vertical by gradiometer is firstly analyzed. Then Taking pure INS as an example, an error dynamics equation of INS, including the influence of gravity disturbance, is given and the position error due to deflections of vertical and corresponding characteristics of error propagation are analyzed. Finally, simulation is done on deflections of vertical database, and form the simulation result we can see that the horizontal error of INS due to the gravity disturbance on the sailing course can reach as large as one kilometer.

Jihang Jin, Shengquan Li, Guobin Chang

Chapter 43. Probability Distribution of the Monthly Passenger Flow from Chongqing to Yichang and Monte Carlo Simulation

Based on the data of each section’s monthly passenger flow from 2006 to 2009, this paper studied the probability distribution of passenger flow from Chongqing to Yichang by use of mathematical analysis methods. By the chi-square testing, the monthly passenger flow of Chongqing and Three Gorges are accord with the normal distribution, while Yichang’s is accord with the exponential distribution. The monthly passenger flow from Chongqing to Yichang (the sum of the monthly passenger flow of Chongqing, Three Gorges and Yichang) is close to normal distribution which is approved by monte carlo method.

Peng Wan, Shoujiang Zhao, Jian Li, Ni Zhan

Chapter 44. A Design of Bus Automatic Broadcast Station System Based on RFID

In view of current broadcast station problems existed in the bus, bus automatic voice broadcast station system based on RFID is designed in this paper. The system can realize function of automatic broadcast station by combining single chip microcomputer technology with digital speech and wireless communication technology. The overall scheme, hardware and software design of the system are given in the paper, the system can lower the driver’s labor intensity, increase bus security, it has lower cost and higher practical value. The system is suitable for the development of intelligent traffic and the construction of intelligent city.

Yuping Su, Weixin Yang

Chapter 45. A Strategy for Improving Interference Suppression of Airborne Array Radar Under Clutter Environment

This paper proposed a strategy for improving interference suppression performance of airborne array radar under clutter environment. This strategy detects the range cells containing clutters and then eliminates them. After the estimation of weight coefficients in adaptive interference cancellation algorithm using the left range cells without clutters, the eliminated range cells are put back on their original positions and carry out the interference cancellation. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy improves the interference cancellation performance and ensures the freedom degrees required by adaptive interference cancellation system under clutter environment Furthermore, the resolution that distinguishes different interferences from different angles is also improved. This proposed strategy is simple and has low computational complexity. So it has the practical application prospects in airborne array radar.

Hao Jiang, Wen Zhai, Nini Rao, Bo Zhou, Chaoyang Qiu

Chapter 46. Magnetometer Calibration Scheme for Quadrotors with On-Board Magnetic Field of Multiple DC Motors

This paper presents a 3D calibration approach of magnetometer with a new fitting error function. Unlike some iterative and numerical approaches, the method has closed form solution with great simplicity and therefore can be easily implemented by microcontroller-based on-board pilots of miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) with a potential of in-flight calibration. The experimental validation on a quadrotor in our laboratory shows its efficiency profoundly owing to its close analytical solutions. The approach was further applied to evaluate the impact of the on-board magnetic field generated by the permanent-magnets of DC motors of the quadrotor at different thrust levels, and the result shows that the relation between UAV’s thrust command and motors-induced magnetic bias can be simply fitted by a linear function, which can be used for precise heading calculation during flight.

Haiwei Liu, Ming Liu, Yunjian Ge, Feng Shuang

Chapter 47. TSVD Regularization with Ill-Conditioning Diagnosis in GNSS Multipath Estimation

Multipath is one of the main error sources of the differential applications of global positioning systems (GPS). The maximum likelihood estimation of multipath is simplified with grid method using the idea of deploying estimation points. There is ill-conditioning in the simplified model, decreasing the numerical stability of the maximum likelihood estimation grid maximum likelihood estimation in some conditions. The truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) regularization with ill-conditioning diagnosis is introduced to mitigate the effects of ill-conditioning. The truncation level is selected based on ill-conditioning diagnosis by comparing the values of the diagnosis statistics of the estimation under different truncation level. TSVD regulation with the truncation level selected in ill-conditioning diagnosis approach can resist the ill-conditioning effectively and the estimation is numerical stable. The multipath effect can be effectively mitigated by the method proposed in this paper.

Qingming Gui, Ke Chen, Yongwei Gu

Chapter 48. Power Line Detection Based on Region Growing and Ridge-Based Line Detector

Automatic power line detection is one of the most important and challenging tasks for helicopter’s low flight to avoid the power-line-strike accident. In this paper, we propose a novel method to detect power lines in the infrared image. Firstly, region growing is used to get the line support regions. Then a ridge-based line detector is applied to extract the accurate power lines points in the support regions followed by a linking step combined with chain codes analysis to refine the power lines. The experimental results against two state-of-the-art line detection algorithms demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Xiwen Yao, Lei Guo, Tianyun Zhao

Chapter 49. The Implementation of the HTTP-Based Network Storage Queue Service

Network storage queue is essential for train network information collection. We developed an application of network storage on the train network queue. Based on the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, this queue can ensure security of network operation and enable effective information transfer. This queue provides an efficient way of data transmission from train network to B/S system. Network storage queue includes a real-time database Redis and an expandable external interface service layer. The benchmark shows that compared with traditional database storage, the network queue with higher performance, can ensure the safety of the train data transmission.

Bo Yu, Limin Jia, Guoqiang Cai, Honghui Dong

Chapter 50. The Visual Internet of Things System Based on Depth Camera

The Visual Internet of Things is an important part of information technology. It is proposed to strength the system with atomic visual label by taking visual camera as the sensor. Unfortunately, the traditional color camera is greatly influenced by the condition of illumination, and suffers from the low detection accuracy. To solve that problem, we build a new Visual Internet of Things with depth camera. The new system takes advantage of the illumination invariant of depth information and rich texture of color information to label the objects in the scene. We use Kinect as the sensor to get the color and depth information of the scene, modify the traditional computer vision technology for the combinatorial information to label target object, and return the result to user interface. We set up the hardware platform and the real application validates the robust and high precision of the system.

Xucong Zhang, Xiaoyun Wang, Yingmin Jia

Chapter 51. Design and Implementation of Fire-Alarming System for Indoor Environment Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor network (WSN) as an emerging networking technology with strong capability to locally and collaboratively sense and interpret data from environment, has been widely implemented in various emergency situations including firefighting. In this paper, we propose a fire-alarming system called fire-alarming system for indoor environment (FASIE) which innovatively integrates wireless fire-alarming network with handheld fire-rescuing support system. Unlike traditional firefighting networks with implementation of WSN, FASIE is capable of providing full service to firefighting activities including fire-alarming, fire-rescuing and firefighter orientation. Aiming to better illustrate FASIE, we first give an overall description of FASIE and presents the architecture of the system. And then, the hardware and system performance are introduced.

Xiuwen Fu, Wenfeng Li, Lin Yang

Chapter 52. Sound Source Localization Strategy Based on Mobile Robot

Combining the movement of the mobile robot is proposed to locate the sound source. A tetrahedron array of four microphones is used as the robot’s ears, and the azimuth and elevation of the sound source is calculated based on generalized cross-correlation algorithm. After measuring the azimuth and elevation of the sound source, robot moves a distance, and measure the azimuth and elevation again. Finally, calculate the distance of the sound source using the data obtained through the two measurements. The theoretical analysis and experiment results show that the robot is capable of localizing sound source in a three-dimensional space. The method is efficient and practical enough for real-time operation.

Qinqi Xu, Peng Yang

Chapter 53. The Design of a Novel Artificial Label for Robot Navigation

To assistant the localization and navigation of the robot, a novel artificial label based on QR Code technology is designed. This new label is made up of two sections: mode part and information part. Mode part is used to identify the artificial label and locate the robot. Information part is used to not only provide rich description information of the environment, but also provide effective navigation information to the robot. An algorithm based on shape and color is presented to recognize the label from far distance. The localization algorithm using vanishing line principle is designed to localize the artificial label quickly and accurately in the camera coordinates of the robot. The experiments demonstrate that the new artificial label has far recognition distance, large-scale recognition angle, good anti-disturbance ability high decoding efficiency and stability even in the complex indoor environment.

Hao Wu, Guohui Tian, Peng Duan, Sen Sang

Chapter 54. Information System Design for Ship Surveillance

Ship surveillance technology has been developed rapidly especially for the increasing request for maritime security and safety. In order to mitigate the maritime issues we plan to design a Ship Surveillance System (SSS), which will integrate data sources including space-borne SAR, shore-based AIS and space-based AIS. It will be inevitable to integrate other data sources such as HF-radar, optical satellite imagery, hyper-spectral and IR imagery in the future, so we adopt service-oriented architecture (SOA) concept to enhance the system’s flexibility and extensibility. This paper firstly presents the SOA-based design of ship surveillance system on the basis of research on ship surveillance using space-borne SAR and AIS. Then the main functional modules are analyzed profoundly, and the security strategy is also proposed.

Zhi Zhao, Kefeng Ji, Xiangwei Xing, Huanxin Zou

Chapter 55. Modeling of an Electric Vehicle for Drivability Improvements

A control-oriented drivability model for en electric vehicle is described. The developed model is capable of predicting longitudinal vehicle responses that affect drivability. The model is implemented in Simulink and validated by CRUISE, and the results demonstrate sufficient accuracy for the developed model. The model is useful for design, improvement and calibration of control algorithms and strategies.

Manli Dou, Gang Wu, Chun Shi, Xiaoguang Liu

Chapter 56. Simulation of the Dynamic Environment of Carrier Aircraft Approach and Landing

Simulation of marine environment is very important for the system of carrier aircraft approach and landing. The effect of environment on landing of carrier aircraft has been discussed. It designs an environment scenario generator from dynamic characteristics of environment which as a simulation node accesses to the federal system of carrier aircraft landing. It can increase the reusability and operability of the environmental data. The realization methods of fog, cloud and illumination which affect the visibility of the environment of carrier-based aircraft landing have been discussed from the basic algorithm. And it provides a basis for the visualization of the environmental data.

Xianjian Chen, Gang Liu, Guanxin Hong

Chapter 57. Script Based Spacecraft Fault Automatic Rapid Disposal Method Research and Application

In order to achieve maximize efficiency of on-orbit satellite application, realize independent fast spacecrafts fault emergency disposal, and minimum the fault effect, this paper presents a new method of script based spacecraft fault automatic rapid disposal. In the method, planning and scheduling platform is the core and satellite fault disposal script is one means. We build a complete script set for spacecraft fault disposal to realize the spacecraft fault detection, automatic completion of disposal. The method successfully applied into one on-orbit satellite operation and management and obtains good effect.

Jun Zheng, Dan Luo, Benjin Li

Chapter 58. Synthetical Ramp Shift Strategy on Electric Vehicle with AMT

The performance of the drive motor system was better with AMT system. A synthetical ramp shift strategy that identified the riding condition based on rotational speed of the drive motor before and after the shifting process has been provided. The ramp shift test on one the electric truck with AMT was done, and the test results showed that by dropping gear continuously or discontinuously, the proper gear could be found eventually when the vehicle was running on ramp, though the original gear might be improper.

Zhifu Wang, Fulin Zhang, Yang Zhou

Chapter 59. The Study of Taxi Drivers’ Fatigue Relieving Ways

The driving state of taxi drivers relate to passengers and the driver’s life safety. So the study of taxi drivers’ fatigue driving is of great significance, especially detection fatigue and fatigue ease. The taxi drivers usually have a short time rest after a long time driving. The rest mode can be divided into two kinds. One is relaxing in a taxi, another is outside a taxi. We have studied the two different relaxing ways in this paper. We have gathered the EEG signals of eight taxi drivers. Then we extracted δ, θ, α and β rhythm from drivers’ EEG signals using wavelet packet decomposition. We judged the effective ways to alleviate fatigue through comparing the EEG fatigue state index F. The results show that relaxing outside a taxi is more effective than in a taxi after a long time driving.

Wang Hong, Fuwang Wang, Zuoqiu Qi, Tianwei Shi

Chapter 60. Landmark Design for Indoor Localization of Mobile Robots

This paper focuses on the landmark design for mobile robot localization in indoor environment. A design method with two types of landmarks, which are color landmarks and black landmarks, is proposed. Particularly, the color landmarks are elaborately encoded by four types of distinctive colors. All the landmarks are installed on the ceiling in a special way so that the mobile robot can uniquely localize itself by observing the ceiling landmarks. In addition, an image processing algorithm is presented to identify the landmarks, and a localization algorithm is proposed to calculate the position and orientation of the mobile robot using the information of the identified landmarks.

Longhui Wang, Bingwei Gao, Yingmin Jia

Chapter 61. A Remote Intelligent Greenhouse Distributed Control System Based on ZIGBEE and GPRS

In order to improve the production efficiency and automation of the greenhouse, a new remote intelligent greenhouse control system based on ZIGBEE and GPRS technology is put forward in this paper. In this system data and commands are transmitted through ZIGBEE and GPRS which not only realizes higher efficiency for the real-time monitoring of multiple greenhouses, but also achieves the remote cluster control of the shutter and sprinkler irrigation. The system is composed of a central control unit and multiple field monitoring units. The information collecting and field automatic control are implemented by the field monitoring units distributed in each greenhouse, while data display, storage, query, analysis and remote command control are realized by the central control unit. The test is done in Qinghai Province, China. The result indicates that the system bears perfect function and steady performance.

Ning Su, Taosheng Xu, Liangtu Song, Shu Yan

Chapter 62. Emergency Response Technology Transaction Forecasting Based on SARIMA Model

Transactions of emergence response technology is considered to be the security of daily life and production. Due to the important role of emergency response technology transaction, a multiplication seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model is applied to the monthly emergence response technology transaction forecasting of the Beijing, China. This study demonstrates the usefulness of

$$ {\text{SARIMA}}\left( {0,1,1,} \right) \times (1,1,0)_{12} $$

in predicting the transaction series with both short- and long-term persistent periodic components. From the analysis of the transaction series, a conclusion has been made that in the next years, the transaction will maintain it growth and fluctuation.

Susu Sun, Xinbo Ai, Yanzhu Hu

Chapter 63. Research on Cloud-Based Simulation Resource Management

With the development of simulation system, too much simulation resources are accumulated, most of which are reusable. Good management on these resources can fully achieve the reusability of them and facilitate the simulation process, but the distribution and complexity of simulation resource add challenge on the management in aspects like resource storage, computing speed and resource sharing. The cloud computing integrates mature technologies to provide infinite storage and computing resource on users’ demand, which is needed in the simulation resource management. To use these merits of cloud, this paper proposed a cloud-based simulation resource management model and produced a detailed design of the prototype system. This model is universal and provides a framework for cloud-based system; the prototype system is flexible for any scale of simulation system, it offer mechanism in data security, storage and usage, and can manage the simulation resources effectively and economically.

Qiao Cheng, Jian Huang

Chapter 64. Research on the Design of Railway Passenger Traffic Decision Support System

Considered the insufficient usage of railway passenger traffic information system, we use data mining, online analytical processing, knowledge management and other technologies to develop a railway passenger traffic decision support system. This paper stated the model components and functional module of the decision support system.

Zhuomin Wei, Hongchao Song

Chapter 65. State Identification of Automatic Gauge Control Hydraulic Cylinder Using Acoustic Emission

The growing requirements of steel products qualities bring even tricky restrictions to the hydraulic cylinder which acts as a screw down to maintain the rolling spaces precisely. However, faults and disfunctions are unavoidable and bring underlying safety issues. Working with un-expected loading is one of major impact that may cause catastrophic consequence happen to the cylinder, as the classical diagnostic process to-some-extent lack of cross-validating and time-consuming, the paper proposes the potentials of using acoustic emission to fill the dilemmas. The works include the data acquisition process to record the ultrasound acoustic signals from the hydraulic cylinder, application of modified image based acoustic emission approach to generate visual effects, as well as the application of principal component analysis to project the profiles onto the 3D plane for further analyses. Through the analysis of image based profiles, the subtle differences of various cylinder conditions can be examined using the pixel and intensity values. By assessing the projection of profiles in the principal component space, a clear trajectory can be observed with normal and overload conditions allocated upon the positive and negative sides of the axis. The result provided not only the potential of using acoustic emission for dynamic state identification of the subtle changes, but also opens up the possibility of preventive measures to the cylinder at risks.

Hongzhi Chen, Chao Wu, Yanguang Sun, Hua Zhao

Chapter 66. Small-Signal Model and Control of PV Grid-Connected Micro Inverter Based on Interleaved Parallel Flyback Converter

In this paper, interleaved parallel flyback grid-connected micro inverter was focused on, and its grid-connected operation principle and control strategy were presented; what is more, the key techniques were also discussed in the paper. In photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected micro-inverter system, the tracking control is the core and key technology of the system, and directly affects the output power quality and system efficiency. The direct current control has been chosen to synchronize the current frequency and phase with the grid. The current loop control parameters was designed and presented in the paper, and finally the simulation and experimental results verify the feasibility of the control strategy.

Qiqi Zhao, Yu Fang, Zhibin Wang, Yong Xie

Chapter 67. An Improved Total Variation Regularization Method for Electrical Resistance Tomography

Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) attempts to image the conductivity distribution of an object by measuring the voltage on its boundary. The reconstruction of ERT is an ill-posed inverse problem, and little noise in the measured data can cause large errors in the estimated conductivity. In this paper, an improved TV regularization method for ERT is introduced with iterations updated by the projected Gauss-Newton steps. It replaces the conventional TV regularization penalty term

$$ \int\limits_{\Upomega } {\left| {\nabla g} \right|d\Upomega } $$

by

$$ \int\limits_{\Upomega } {\left| {\nabla g} \right|^{p} d\Upomega } $$

, in which

$$ p $$

is selected as 1.5. The choice of such a penalty compromises both the conventional smoothness and discontinuities of the imaged conductivity. The improved approach can reconstruct images with sharp edges as well as reducing the suffering of the staircase effect. Simulation and experimental results of the improved method, TV regularization and Tikhonov regularization are compared, which show that this improved TV regularization can endure a relatively high level of noise in the measured voltages.

Xizi Song, Yanbin Xu, Feng Dong

Chapter 68. Modeling and Prediction of Pressure Loss in Dilute Pneumatic Conveying System with 90° Bend

Dilute gas–solid flow exits widely in industrial applications and nature process. It is of great value to estimate pressure loss during conveying. Because of the complex mechanism in gas–solid flow, accurate estimation of pressure loss can hardly be made. Based on the experimental condition in Tianjin University, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been built, considering different states of motion during collisions between wall and particles with different properties. CFD model has been validated with experiment data and an automatic modeling system has been built. This paper has engaged in studying pressure loss in 90° bend with different curative radius.

Chao Wang, Yakun Zhao, Hongbing Ding

Chapter 69. The Coverage Problem in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network: An Improved Algorithm of Virtual Forces

At the present time, many algorithms use “virtual forces” method to solve the sensor nodes coverage problem. However, all of them studied the homogeneous sensor networks. This paper proposed an extended virtual force algorithm for the coverage of heterogeneous sensor networks. It adopted the probability sensor model, combined the static coverage strategy with the dynamic coverage strategy according to the difference of sensor radius, analyzed the threshold distance based on the difference of sensor radius. Additionally, it proposed a novel sensor “relay move” technique during the movement of sensors. Finally, we take a simulation. Simulation results show that using the algorithm is able to deploy the heterogeneous sensors in the aimed region suitably to solve the coverage problem of sensor nodes and it can balance the dissipative energy efficiently which benefits for prolonging the lifetime of network.

Jie Chen, Xianjin Wang

Chapter 70. Object Localization with Wireless Binary Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

A top-view sensing approach is proposed in this paper for infrared radiation object motion detecting and localization with binary pyroelectric infrared detectors. We develop a modulation strategy based on the radial distance and Gray code to obtain the horizontal distance between the sensor node and object. Firstly, the field of view of Fresnel lens array in a sensor node is modulated to achieve single degree of freedom spatial partition, and then the localization algorithm is proposed to coordinate multiple sensors nodes to achieve two degrees of freedom spatial partitions. The tracking experiment shows that the method proposed here has the advantages in computational efficiency and high accuracy.

Baihua Shen, Guoli Wang

Chapter 71. Petri Net Based Research of Home Automation Communication Protocol

The popularity of home automation has been increasing greatly in recent years. However, during the designation of communication protocol (especially for asymmetric, parallel, distributed, uncertain or randomized protocol model) of home automation, many questions concerned. For instance, is the protocol correct? Is every message eventually delivered and received in the right order? Can two messages with the same alternating bit value be confused? In this paper we adopt Petri net to describe and analyze the protocol of home automation. Through the analysis of dynamic properties (such as reachability, boundedness, coverability and liveness) and invariants on the base of

P

/

T

_ system modeling and its reachable marking graph, we verified the correctness of the communication protocol and finally optimized the protocol in practice.

Guangxuan Chen, Yanhui Du, Panke Qin, Jin Du, Na Li

Chapter 72. Research and Implementation of Data Link Layer in KNX Communication Protocol Stack

KNX has become worldwide open standard in home and building automation systems. In this paper, the function of data link layer in KNX Protocol Stack is presented in details. And the finite state stack (FSM) is applied to realize the data link layer which provides the medium access control and the logical link control. There are three problems in the implementation process of the data link layer: the interaction of data link layer, the upper and lower layer; the implementation of data link layer protocol; and the definition of the data structure. The first two are solved using the FSM theory and the rest is designed. Finally, we design the software of data link layer protocol by the above method. And the software testing indicates that it meets the data link layer functionality.

Xiajing Wang, Yan Wang

Chapter 73. Experimental Research of Vortex Street Oil–Gas–Water Three-Phase Flow Base on Wavelet

Vortex flowmeter was chosen to measuring the oil-gas-water three-phases flow due to its various of characteristics, experiment has been reported in the conditions as follows: vertical upward pipeline with 50 mm diameter, the volumetric flow of water is 5–8 m

3

h

−1

, oil account for 5–30 % of the total mixed flow and the gas proportion of the gas void fraction is from 1 to 5 %. The signals collected by vortex sensor are compressed and de-noised by ddencmp function. As PSD (power spectral density) peak values and variations in water flow have a very clear relationship, based on the feature of wavelet transformation, criteria may be found to distinguish different flow. The result shows that low-frequency energy is greatly influenced by the oil content and low-frequency energy is declined with the oil content is increased while low-frequency energy is increased with the gas void fraction is increased. There is a flow threshold, when the three-phase flow does not reach the threshold, the influence on Low-frequency energy by the gas void fraction can be ignored. The volume measured by the vortex flow-meter was less influenced by media with low gas void fraction.

Hongjun Sun, Jian Zhang, Xiao Li

Chapter 74. Multi-Phase Kernel Based Adaptive Soft Sensor Approach for Fed-Batch Processes

An adaptive soft sensor, multi-phase kernel based regression (MPKR) method, is proposed for online modelling of fed-batch processes. By introducing the multi-phase kernel and online phase estimation, the proposed MPKR can handle the multi-stage nature of fed-batch processes to achieve an accurate model. Simulation on biomass concentration online prediction in penicillin fermentation indicates that MPKR can obtain a promising accuracy and robust results compared to traditional kernel regression method.

Kun Chen, Yi Liu

Chapter 75. Application of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing Technology on Ladle Trunnion

The welding quality of the trunnion’s root welds is critical to the safety operation of ladles. However, due to the complex structure of the detecting surface, the non-destructive testing of these welds has been a significant problem. Ultrasonic phased array technology can achieve flexible and controllable ultrasound beam by changing the time delay of each element by which ultrasonic phased array technology has been widely used for the inspection of complex structure weld. In this paper, Omniscan MX with a 64-element phased array probe was employed in inspecting a big ladle trunnion. The results illustrate that: Ultrasonic phased array obtained high signal-to-noise ratio, accurate positioning and high detection efficiency, it is proved feasible in ladle trunnion’s inspection.

Dong Hu, Qiang Wang, Changming Yuan

Chapter 76. Optimal Tracking Design for Dry Clutch Engagement

To improve the shift quality of a vehicle equipped with an automated manual transmission, the dry clutch engagement process needs to be controlled precisely. This paper proposes to generate the optimal clutch engagement reference speed based on the optimal control theory. The gear-shift duration weighting parameters are used to balance the performance of gear-shift duration and shift smoothness. A simplified vehicle system model is developed for the vehicle level simulation validation; the vehicle launch process is studied by using proposed control strategy. Numerical simulation results indicated that the balanced shift performance can be achieved.

Taotao Jin, Pingkang Li, Zhizhou Jia

Chapter 77. Automatic Generation of User Interface Method Based on Automated Planning

We introduce the thought of intelligent planning into interface design and development in software engineering, and propose a planning-based approach for automatic interface generation. The advantages of this approach for interface design are that interface design and code realization can be separated effectively, coupling of programming can be reduced, so that developers can invoke interfaces in logical sequence, not necessarily by manual programming. It can be proved that this approach can greatly reduce manpower of developers, shorten development cycle and save costs.

Jie Gao, Fu Wang, Lei Li

Chapter 78. Coordinated Passivation Techniques for the Control of Permanent Magnet Wind Generator

With coordinated passivation techniques, the nonlinear controller of permanent magnet wind generator is designed to achieve the stability of the closed-loop system. The design method combines the control Lyapunov function with the passivity-based approach, which can ensure that the states converge to the equilibrium point quickly. Simulations have shown the effectiveness of the obtained controller and the ideal dynamic property of the controlled system.

Bing Wang, Yanping Qian, Honghua Wang

Chapter 79. The Electromagnetic Field of a Horizontal and Time-Harmonic Dipole in a Two-Layer Medium

To investigate the modeling of Shaft-Rate Electric Field, the analytic expressions of the electromagnetic fields of time-harmonic, horizontal electric dipole (HED) embedded in the sea have been derived by using image method according to uniqueness theorem of the electromagnetic field with two layer model. The distribution of electromagnetic field produced by a horizontal electric dipole embedded in seawater has been numerically calculated and analyzed by applying fast Hanker transform and fast Fourier transform. Then the case of shallow sea and harmonic electric dipole has been simulated in laboratory and the experimental results are accorded with the simulation results, thus the correctness of the solution and the derivation are validated. The electromagnetic field of a horizontal and time-harmonic dipole is put in a two-layer medium.

Lu Xiong, Shenguang Gong

Chapter 80. Analysis and Application of Sensor in Index

The paper mainly analyzes the research and application of the sensor index in the networking, and makes a deep understanding of application area and application mode of networking. It mainly focuses on the research and application of the sensor and the mastery of the qualifications of static and dynamic characteristics of the sensor by analyzing the static and dynamic characteristics, and then describes the application of sensor in the detecting techniques and analyzes the characteristic of the sensor, making the sensor more accurate in the detecting techniques. The design studies the research and application of eddy-current sensor, and then gives rise to the application of index research in the nonlinear compensator of eddy-current sensor, by the analysis of the eddy-current sensor characteristic. In the design, the author utilizes eddy current displacement sensor, and then uses experiments to illustrate, by the design analysis of index compensation circuit, that it can effectively improve the original transmission characteristic of sensor and expand linear measurement range to take index operation circuit as nonlinear compensation link of eddy current displacement sensor.

Chenghui Yang

Chapter 81. Design of Digital Switching Power Amplifier for Magnetic Suspended Bearing

Digital power amplifier used to drive magnetic bearings has gradually replaced analog power amplifier due to its advantages such as high hardware integration, excellent control performance, anti-jamming capability, fast response speed, convenient debugging and so on. In this paper, TMS32028335 is selected to be the main controller as well as using two-level current control modulation to design digital amplifier system. Experiments results indicate that the digital amplifier can effectively track coil current.

Jingwen Gong, Geng Zhang, Jinguang Zhang, Huachun Wu, Xin Cheng

Chapter 82. Weld Pool Surface Model Establishment for GTAW Based on 3D Reconstruction Technology

In Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process, weld pool contains information that can be used to establish process model, realize desired penetration control and study the weld pool characteristic. Hence, various sensing methods are used to sense weld pool status. At the same time, many researches are conducted to establish the weld process model, and obtain desired weld process control. In this paper, a three dimensional weld pool sensing system was introduced, and the image processing, weld pool reconstruction results were presented. Then, based on the reconstructed 3D weld pool geometry, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was established to describe the weld pool geometry. Simulation results show that the ANN model can reflect weld pool geometry accurately, which will benefit the GTAW process analysis and control.

XueWu Wang

Chapter 83. Design of Intelligent Vertical Axis Turbofan Wind-Driven Generator

The paper introduces the principle of intelligent vertical axis turbofan wind-driven generator, analyzes the concrete structure of the device and designs the control system. The scheme of controlling the fan blades flexibility is proposed and the methods on solving wire coil in operation is worked out as well. Owe to the unique turbofan structure, the device can adapt to wind in all directions so as to make the wind-driven generator keep constant counterclockwise rotation. The intelligent control of fan blades flexibility realizes the automatic open or close of blades according to the power of nature wind for device’s adjustment and protection. The design of the hub solves the problem of wire coil in the process of wind-driven generator operation.

Zhenjun He, Fengying Ji, Jian Zhang, Jianrong Lu

Chapter 84. Differencial-Clustering: Mining Bicluster Based on Weighted Graph in Microarray Dataset

In this study, we discuss methods of mining differential biclusters on gene expression data. A differential bicluster is a set of genes corresponding to samples which have substantially different expression values in two sample classes. These differential clusters may have meaningful biology significance that some specified experimental conditions are key factor to gene expression values and certain genes are sensitive to these conditions. In general, most of bicluster algorithms follow a respective clustering framework that they mine clusters in two classes. However, this strategy leads to low efficiency in term of time. We proposed a novel algorithm: Differencial-Clustering with the strategy which mine differential biclusters directly on weighted graph corresponding to two sample classes. The main contribution of our algorithm is that we avoid the respective cluster generation in two classes and comparison strategy. We compare our algorithm with standard subspace clustering method, the experimental result analysis demonstrate our main contribution.

Jingni Diao, Cuifang Zheng, Jilan Zhang, Jiaju Wu

Chapter 85. Design and Implementation of an Ultralow Power Data Acquisition System

A kind of low power data collecting system based on MSP430 singlechip is introduced in this paper. The system which makes use of powerful processing ability and a lot of on-chip external components of the singlechip, is available in batter power supply and portable equipment situations. It can record real-time data of the dynamic information of the object, even if the power is shut off. So it is convenient for data playback and analysis. Practices prove that the design performed effectively.

Chuan Shi, Yang Zhang, Weirong Nie, Liaoliao Yan, Jian Jiang

Chapter 86. Research on Temperature Optimal Control for the Continuous Casting Billet in Induction Heating Process Based on ARX Model

In the hot rolling line continuous casting billet electromagnetic induction heating process, it’s generally difficult to make steel billet temperature reach the technological requirement of the target temperature by the conventional voltage control curve. This paper firstly analyzes the mechanism of continuous casting billet electromagnetic induction heating, and establishes ARX model through system identification method. Based on the ARX model, it uses random search algorithm to optimize the output voltage curve. Simulation results show that the optimization strategy can effectively improve the temperature control precision in the continuous casting billet electromagnetic induction heating.

Zhe Xu, Xulong Che, Bishi He, Yaguang Kong, Anke Xue

Chapter 87. LED Intelligent Dimming System Based on Data Fusion Technology

For the purpose of energy saving and energy efficiency, the LED intelligent dimming system making use of solar power supply is designed in this paper. The system is based on STC12C5A60S2 microcontroller with multiple pyroelectric infrared detectors and light intensity sensors, in which LED dimming will be achieved according to the analysis and computation results through Multi-sensor data fusion technology. PWM dimming is adopted in the system depending on presetting programmable counter array (PCA) module of microcontroller in pulse width modulation (PWM) operation mode. Following the discussion about principle, composition and achievement, the Multi-sensor data fusion analysis is stated in accordance with different space distribution of light intensity sensors. Experiments show that the system is in simple structure and stable and reliable with the features of energy saving and intelligent.

Yu-jie Fang, Yu Su, Hui-yuan Zhao, Jia-feng Chen, Lian-zhong Qi

Chapter 88. Dual Networks Model for Lower Error and Delay Using RS-CRC Encoding

A key challenge for power distribution network communication is to transmit control and management information with very high reliability and low delay. However, the existing wireless sensor networks (WSN) or power line carrier communication (PLC) networks is not easy to resolve the issue due to the fading and interference properties of power distribution network environment. In this paper, we work out a model of WSN and PLC using RS-CRC (Reed-Solomon code and cyclic redundancy check code) encoding based on the idea of cooperative communication, in which the networks are independent in fading and interference. Simulation results show that the proposed dual networks of WSN and PLC with RS-CRC encoding have lower error bit rate and time delay compared with single network and existing research papers conclusion. In power distribution network communication using the dual networks might solve the communication issue in power industrial environment.

Yong Li, Rong Zong, Jiang Yu, Ling Zhao, Peng Li

Chapter 89. Aggregation-Based Privacy-Preservation Approximate Query Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Privacy preservation in wireless sensor networks has attracted more and more attentions. Answering generic query in wireless sensor networks while preserving data privacy is a challenge. In this paper, we present a Aggregation-based Privacy-preservation Approximate Query Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks (APAQ). APAQ provides approximate results for multiple types of query, such as Top-k query, range query, SUM, MAX/MIN, etc. APAQ adopts in-network aggregation to reduce energy consumption. Theoretical analysis and simulation results by using real-world data confirm the high efficacy and efficiency of APAQ.

Yongjian Fan, Xiaoying Zhang, Hong Chen

Chapter 90. Safety Evaluation of Dike with Cracks

Dilapidation or cracks existed in dike, only few influencing factors were considered, and systematic quantitative results lacked, safety character of dike was not clarity under the work of cracks. Based on theory of unsaturated soil mechanics and analysis model of cracks, influencing factors on safety of dike such as depth of cracks, status of cracks filled with water, changing of water level, rainfall, seepage coefficient and so on were analyzed, systematic quantitative results of dike under the work of cracks were achieved. Analysis shows that the depth of cracks is deeper, the safety coefficient of dike is less, safety status of dike becomes bad while cracks filled with water. Moreover, the endangering degree of dike with cracks keeps close correlation with characteristic of soil, the chance of accident keeps direct proportion to duration of rainfall, intension of rainfall, depth of cracks, decreasing velocity of water level about dike-slope at near-river. The results can be applicable as a reference in flood prevention, emergency dealing with, maintenance and reinforce.

Xizhong Shen, Haobing Li, Ming Zhang

Chapter 91. Simulation of Water and Floating Body with SPH Method

A real-time simulating method based on smoothed particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) for water and floating body interaction was proposed in this paper. The force analysis and state update models were established for floating body and water particles, and a collision detecting method between particles and obstacles was proposed also. The water surface was extracted from water particles based on Marching Cubes for final rendering. Experimental results showed that our method was realistic, and could achieve real-time frame rate when particle amount was less than 6,000.

Zhisheng Li, Ao Sun, Xin Zhao

Chapter 92. A Jacket Robot and its Human–Robot Interacting Technology

A special jacket actuated by Mckibben pneumatic artificial muscles is developed, which is called as “jacket robot”. It can be put on the human upper body and the two arms to help them act. To satisfy the requirement for perceiving the arm actions automatically, an action intention recognition technology based on the acceleration signal is investigated. The paper introduces the constitution of the jacket robot, its main functions and its main technical specification. The designation idea about the recognition method is emphasized. The related experiment shows that the method is efficient.

Huailin Zhao, Yulong Xia, Yi Liu

Chapter 93. Time-Delay Estimation Based on Cross-Correlation and Wavelet Denoising

A new time-delay estimation method based on the combination of wavelet transform and cross-correlation is proposed. This method uses compromise threshold function and Birge-Massart threshold selection strategy to denoise signals, and then determines the time-delay between the signals by computing the cross-correlation of the denoise signals. Comparative study of the new method, cross-correlation method and second correlation method were carried out. Results show that these three methods can give good time-delay estimations when the SNR is not low; however, only the new method can give good time-delay estimations if the SNR is very low and the noises are strongly correlated.

Hua Yan, Yepeng Zhang, Qi Yang

Chapter 94. 3D Temperature Field Reconstruction: A Comparison Study of Direct and Indirect Method

The reconstructions of 3D temperature fields by acoustic tomography are studied. Three cross-sections of the cylinder space to be measured are selected as typical planes; each plane has 8 acoustic sensors amounted on its periphery. Using the reconstruction algorithm based on Markov radial basis function and Tikhonov regularization we proposed, the 3D temperature distributions in the space are obtained in two ways. The first, called indirect 3D, is to reconstruct the 2D temperature fields of the three planes by 2D reconstruction algorithm and to interpolate them into a 3D distribution. The second, called direct 3D, is to reconstruct the 3D temperature fields directly by 3D reconstruction algorithm. Reconstructions of three temperature field models demonstrate that the direct method has better ability in complex 3D temperature field reconstruction at the expense of more travel-times to be measured.

Hua Yan, Hongzheng Lin, Shanhui Wang

Chapter 95. Real Time Simulation of Ship Wake Based on Particle System

A new ship wake simulation method based on particle systems was proposed in this paper. We firstly modeled 2-D ship waves by using Kelvin waves theory, and then extended it to 3-D model by using particle systems. After that, we simulated bow wave and stern wave with experiential models through actual observation on their shape characteristics, range and stochastic. Experimental results show that the modeling methods are efficient and realistic for ship wakes simulation.

Xin Zhao, Zhisheng Li
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