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2023 | Buch

Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Conference (IGGEC) 2021, Vol. 2

herausgegeben von: Arvind Kumar Agnihotri, Krishna R. Reddy, H. S. Chore

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book presents select proceedings of the Indian Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Conference (IGGEC-21). Various topics covered in this book include geotechnical engineering, earthquake geotechnical engineering, geoenvironmental engineering, ground improvement, transportation geotechnics, waste management and sustainable engineering. The book will be a valuable reference for researchers and professionals in the discipline of civil, materials, geoenvironmental engineering, landfills, hydrogeology, ground improvement and earthquake geotechnical engineering.



Environmental Geotechnology

Performance of Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns in Sandwiched Solid Waste Layer at Saturation Condition

Solid waste heaps are become the biggest problem for geoenvironmental engineers due to their exposure to the natural agent’s rainwater and wind (leachate and spreading on the surface). They occupy a large area in the cities and below soil is contaminated; hence, construction becomes a challenge. This solid waste possesses low strength, highly compressible and high permeable large volumes. To use these solid wastes, sites shall improve its engineering characteristics up to the desired level. An attempt is made to strengthen this material using the high tensile stiffness geosynthetic (HTSG) encased stone columns. The multilayered model is created in a three-dimensional numerical program; solid waste is sandwiched between sand and clay. HTSG encased stone column is installed into the multilayer soil to improve the solid waste layer. And it is studied under saturation conditions. Significant parameters are investigated to understand the performance and behavior of the HTSG encased stone column in the solid waste at full saturation condition. The measured parameters are load-carrying ratio (LCR), settlement reduction ratio (SRR), radial deformation and bulging failure that have been studied by changing the stiffness of the encased geosynthetic. Results are shown that the promising performance of the HTSG encased stone columns can control the lateral bulging at the solid waste zone hence increasing its performance. This research may be useful to strengthen the solid waste dump sites, and hence, low to medium-scale construction activities can be made.

J. Sudheer Kumar
A Narrative Review on Emerging Nanobioremediation Toward Enhanced Environmental Sustainability

It is very necessary to have a critical review of the state of the art and practice of nanobioremediation, the recent innovative development in remediation techniques which finds its roots from nanotechnology and biotechnology. Recent studies have indicated its capability in complete eradication of contaminants (generally 100% efficiency) from a given polluted medium, highlighting the economical solutions which it offers to the costly traditional methods of treating contaminants such as heavy metals and aliphatic hydrocarbons posing significant threat to the environment and its wider applicability than its counterparts together. However, such a promising sustainable tool is still in its developmental phase and researchers worldwide are showing ample interest to unveil other aspects of this innovative technology. Furthermore, few studies have indicated the inhibitory effects of nanoparticles on the overall balance of the soil-ecosystem, such as on the survival of native microbes. This study aims at finding facts through established literature about various developmental phases and technologies through which nanobioremediation is evolving to change the future for enhanced environmental sustainability. The green production of different nanoparticles was also discussed in this work. This paper also underlines various prospects of nanobioremediation which can be optimized by conducting further research. Future investigation on its wider applicability and compatibility is also suggested.

Shaid Yousuf, Arvind Kumar Agnihotri
Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide on Microbial Methane Oxidation in Biochar-Amended Soil

Odor is a serious concern at municipal solid waste landfills. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of the odorous components of landfill gas which is highly corrosive and toxic even at lower concentrations. Recently, biogeochemical cover system consisting of biochar-amended soil and basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag has been investigated to simultaneously mitigate methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and H2S. It is proposed that the biochar-amended soil layer can mitigate CH4 by microbial oxidation and BOF slag can mitigate CO2 and H2S by geochemical reactions with the calcium and iron oxides present in the slag. For the functioning of the biogeochemical cover system, it is crucial to understand the effect of H2S on microbial CH4 oxidation in biochar-amended soil layer. In this regard, column test was conducted simulating biogeochemical profile which comprised of a 30 cm thick BOF slag layer over a 45 cm thick biochar-amended soil layer, exposed to a synthetic landfill gas (48.25% CH4, 50% CO2 and 1.75% H2S) at variable flux rates (50–150 gCH4 m−2 day−1). Batch incubation tests and microbial characterization were performed on the biochar-amended soil samples after exhuming from column to quantify the CH4 oxidation rates and microbial community composition as well as to discern the effects of H2S. Results showed that the biochar-amended soil can absorb significant amount of H2S while oxidizing CH4. During column incubation, most of the H2S was absorbed at the bottommost part of biochar-amended soil layer (bottom 10 cm). Methane oxidation rates ranged from 184 to 407 ug g−1 day−1 in the top 35 cm of the biochar-amended soil layer. However, in the bottommost part (at 40 cm) where H2S was fully absorbed, CH4 oxidation was lower (20% of the average CH4 oxidation rates in the upper regions), suggesting suppression of methanotrophic activity due to H2S. The biochar-amended soil samples were dominated with methylotrophic bacteria accounting for 35–51% of the total sequences. The bottommost part had the lowest methylotrophic abundance (21% of the total sequences) and showed presence of sulfur oxidizing bacteria such as Thiobacillus and Desulfosporosinus, although their relative abundance was less than 1%. Overall, the study shows that biochar can absorb significant amount of H2S and can support methanotrophic activity at the same time contributing to CH4 and H2S mitigation.

Jyoti K. Chetri, Krishna R. Reddy
Effects of Open Dumping of Municipal Solid Waste on Surrounding Soil Characteristics: A Review

Waste that results from human and animal activities but is discarded or unwanted or useless is termed as municipal solid waste (MSW). The majority of MSW is discarded in open dumping which contains all sorts of complex organic and inorganic fractions in higher concentrations, and this creates all types of nuisances like leachate and bad odor in the surrounding area. The produced leachate percolates through surrounding soil altering its characteristics. In this particular paper, we review the effects of open dumping of MSW on surrounding soil characteristics. By geochemical analysis, it has been observed that the soil sample obtained contains enough higher concentrations of the organic fraction to influence the properties of soil. The soil samples were obtained at various depths at locations surrounding the dumpsite. The soil samples were also subjected to other tests for further analysis of mechanical properties, namely specific gravity test, grain size analysis, California bearing ratio test (CBR), Atterberg’s limit test, direct shear test, compaction test, and permeability analysis. It has been observed that there was a decrease in the trend of specific gravity, CBR, and Cohesion values and an increase in trends of permeability of soil compared to unaffected soil in the same region. The study done on biological activity in soil showed increased microbial activity. It has been reported that open dumping has altered the mechanical properties of soil and altered its ecology.

Vishal Pastapure, Davinder Singh, Sanjeev Kumar
Analysis of Landfill Leachate and Contaminated Groundwater: A Review

Landfill leachate is the liquid that extracts waste from the landfill and seeps into the ground. It is necessary to dispose of the leachate properly to avoid hazardous effects on the environment. Landfill leachate contains pollutants like heavy metals, organic, inorganic compounds, xenobiotic compounds, etc. It mixes with subsoil and contaminates the groundwater. For effective treatment of landfill leachate, it's necessary to study the physicochemical, biological characteristics, and environmental behavior. The concentration of heavy metals in leachate and the degree of contamination of groundwater are determined. In order to remove these metals, various treatments are discussed. The paper reviews the analysis of landfill leachate and the quality of groundwater. Leachate pollution indexes (LPI) of landfill leachate are determined through physiochemical analysis. The overall leachate pollution potential and its hazardous nature are estimated through LPI. The results from different studies are compared with Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The results provided important information on landfill leachate studies, and further scope of research has been discussed in detail.

Shweta Ranjan, Davinder Singh, Sanjeev Kumar
The Potential of Chrysopogon Zizanioides (L.) Nash in Remediation of Heavy Metal-Contaminated Land—A Review

Several laboratories, greenhouses, and field studies showed that Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Nash (Vetiver Grass, VG) can produce high bio-mass due to C4 photosynthesis efficiency and highly tolerate to adverse climatic variation such as prolonged drought, flood, submergence and temperatures, soils with high acidity, alkalinity, salinity, and high levels of several contaminants such as heavy metals, organic waste, nuclear waste, and mine waste. It can accumulate metals in its root and shoot part, particularly aluminum, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, manganese, lead, and zinc from contaminated soil due to its fine structured roots and associated microorganisms. The majority of heavy metals are accumulated in its root part which makes it suitable for bioaccumulation of contaminants from soil, water, and sediments. By using VG as a phytoremediator, it gives better results with addition of chelating agents such as EDTA, which enhances the bioavailability of metals. It has great potentials to be used for the stabilization of contaminated sites and as a carbon sink to reduce the effects of global warming. Vetiver grass is classified among a very few plants in the literatures that have a wide range of tolerance to extremely adverse conditions of climate and growing medium (soil, sand, and tailings). The special characteristics and morphology of roots makes vetiver a choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes from contaminated medium. In this study, an attempt had been made to provide a clear understanding for potential uptake of contaminants through phytoremediation work from different types of soils, contaminants, metals salts, pH of medium, methodologies, and several chelating agents used. This review will provide a pave way for the researchers doing research in the field of phytoremediation with vetiver grass.

Pawan Kumar, V. P. Singh
Performance Evolution and Analytical Approach of Air Pollution Control System in Al Foundry

The point of this work is to give an outline of the reusing cycle for aluminium (Al), from scrap overhauling through projecting. The article examines ongoing progressions and forward leaps in aluminium reusing advances. Aluminium reusing helps the climate and the economy. The degree of risky contaminations in reused aluminium combinations is expanding, which is a critical drawback when contrasted with new amalgams. Ceaseless development of undesired materials might be limited by means of the utilization of various innovations, pre-softening cycles and medicines, just as through measure improvement. The primary destinations for creating aluminium reusing and projecting are shown and talked about. The presentation improvement of auxiliary aluminium scrap medicines utilizing a burner, cooling towers, an Al melting crucible furnace, a sack house channel, and an attractions blower connected to a smokestack is nitty-gritty, similar to an investigation of softening procedures. Nonetheless, the decision to perform optional treatment activities before to and after the liquefying stage, in this way working on working conditions all through the heater's activity, is a money saving advantage examination.

Anas Khan, Shaurya Kumar Singh, Davinder Singh, Tarun Kumar
Recovery Techniques and LCA Involved with Municipal Solid Waste Bottom Ash Treatment: A Review

Incineration is considered one of the common disposal techniques for effective management of solid wastes. The process if not managed and monitored scientifically can cause environmental hazards. The solid residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants is either dumped directly or consumed as a raw material for further valuable produce. The bottom ash (BA) contains high traces of metals, non-metals, and other compounds which need proper treatment before direct consumption or disposal to landfills. The concentration and the composition depend on the type of waste to be incinerated at such facilities. The BA founds its possible usage in various geotechnical and geo-environmental applications; hence, a brief overview of its behavior is necessary. BA usage is limited to certain applications due to its physiochemical properties and the possibility of leaching. The paper summarizes the characterizations of BA and the possible environmental effects of leaching of these components. Additionally, the pre-treatment and the leaching mechanisms are discussed which suggests effective techniques of treatment for potential sustainable applications of BA as an important resource.

Pravez Alam, Sanjeev Kumar, Davinder Singh, Tarun Kumar
Sustainable Uses of Sewage Sludge as a Construction Material—A Review

Rapid urbanization is the foremost reason for the drastic increase in waste sludge in many countries. Sewage sludge disposal is a thoughtful environmental issue, and management of sewage sludge is becoming a challenge at the global level, resulting in increasing environmental concern. Use of waste materials as a construction material is also sustainable, and it can be an alternative to disposal of waste, which diminishes the adverse effect on the environment as proved through various studies. Therefore, the sewage sludge disposal problem can be reduced if sludge is used in large-scale economic applications. Various types of waste have been used and reused to develop sustainable construction materials in recent decades. In this review paper, we are focusing on collecting knowledge about the different types of uses of sewage sludge as in various aspects of construction have been done by many researchers, which provide information about the present practices of sewage sludge use for various purposes in construction, products properties made from sewage sludge, their effect on the environment, economic and social impacts, and also provide possible recommendations for future research.

Neelam Singh, Vikas Kumar
Enhanced Landfill Mining Waste Valorization Techniques: A Methodological Review

Waste is produced by every one of us. High standards of life styles has raised the rate of waste generation rate to a global average of about 0.74 kg/capita/day and likely to mount the waste generated annually to about 2.2 billion tons by 2025. The waste disposal scenario varies from a pathetic system of open dumping in developing nations to a system of green energy generation in advanced nations. The advanced methods employed by developed countries have their shortcomings with respect to the impact on environment which has forced the need of a more advanced system of waste management through the technique of “Enhanced Landfill Mining”, where disposal of wastes is carried out with least impacts on environment. While developing countries are incorporating ELFM in their integrated waste management systems, the possible technologies to achieve so; are reviewed in this paper, going hierarchically from lesser efficient incineration process to the most advanced plasma gasification process. More details of plasma gasification process with its capability to achieve both waste-to-energy and waste-to-products conversions have been discussed. Also, the present scenario of waste disposal in India and the status of waste-to-energy technologies specific to the character of its wastes is reviewed. This will contribute a lot to the research in sustainable waste management.

Shakeel Ahmad Dar, Pushpendra Kumar Sharma, Bishnu Kant Shukla
A Comprehensive Review of Mass Transfer Phenomenon in Gas-Liquid Phase Flow During Aeration in Wastewater Treatment

Understanding mass exchange processes in polyphase frameworks (gas-fluid) is critical for figuring out their modern purposes and significance in environmental and organic design, particularly during the air circulation process in wastewater and water treatment tasks. A far-reaching audit of exploratory discoveries and theoretical investigations of mass exchange in polyphase frameworks (gas-fluid) utilized in air circulation frameworks in water and wastewater dealing with plants, organic circulated air through filters, power plant cooling frameworks, mineral air pocket floatation and plunging columns, among different applications, have been included for the momentum research. The effect of an assortment of factors on mass exchange boundaries (volumetric mass exchange coefficients, working conditions, stage component properties and reactor math) was likewise examined. The impact of mass exchange in the compound and petrochemical ventures and the instrument of mass exchange engaged with the self-refinement of waterways, streams and cascades by entrainment of air have all been talked about. With the reason for better comprehension, the hydrodynamics associated with the mass exchange and its application in numerous modern areas, the latest writing on mass exchange (gas-fluid) has been gathered and different traditional models have been thought about toward the end.

Insha Imtiyaz, Krishnakant, Bishnu Kant Shukla, S. Varadharajan, Gaurav Bharti

Recycled Waste Materials

Utilization of Different Supplementary Cementitious Materials and Recycled Concrete Aggregate for Stabilization of Pavement Base Layer

In developing countries like India, infrastructure development is one of the most important concerns. Hence, the destruction of old structures and the construction of new ones are on the rise. Therefore, one side, the outcome is huge demolition concrete waste and other side demanding high quantity of natural resources. Keeping view on this, in the present study, an attempt was made to understand the utility of demolition concrete waste in the form of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) for stabilization of base layer of pavement. Addition to this, the conventional cementitious binder material also tried to replace with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) like pond ash and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) originated from iron and steel making. To observe the behavior of the abovementioned non-conventional materials, different laboratory investigations were done like CBR and UCS with different material combinations, and same were compared with conventional mix. From this experimental work, it was observed that, the mix prepared with RCA offered low results as compared to mix prepared with natural aggregate (conventional mix). But, addition with cement as binding material offered promising one. Similarly, a by-product named as GGBS offered good results with natural aggregate (NA). Hence, based on the abovementioned points, it may be recommended to use of the RCA with cement and NA with GGBS for stabilizing the pavement base layer for the construction of low volume roads which offers an economical construction as well as gives different environmental benefits.

Tanna Manohar, Nemmadi Vasudeva Rao, Jyoti Prakash Giri
Review on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Concrete Incorporating Silica Fume

Concrete is the most frequently used material all over the world. It is used in the construction of multistory buildings, highways, dams, cannels, etc. it is very important to select appropriate ingredients for further increment in the properties of concrete. Also, with increasing in industrialization, pollution in the environment is increasing. The byproducts and industrial wastes are the major cause of pollution; Silica fume that is also a byproduct of smelting process in silicon industry. As per earlier studies, silica fume has cementations properties and it can improve the strength of concrete. If we can use it as a replacement of cement, it will affect our environment. In this paper, we will cover different properties of silica fume and also try to analyze the effect of silica fume on the mechanical properties of concrete with reference of earlier research and studies in this topic.

Gurbej Singh, Kanish Kapoor, Paramveer Singh, Mudasir Nazeer
Comparative Study of Internal Curing Techniques for Concrete

High-performance concrete (HPC) is characterized by low water–cement ratio which suffers from early age cracking induced by self-desiccation and autogenous shrinkage. Conventional curing methods are not effective in overcoming the above limitation. To address the above problem, two internal creating strategies, viz. lightweight aggregates (LWA) and superabsorbent polymers (SAP), have recently been developed. This study compares the two approaches according to the literature available. Some theoretical aspects to optimize their application for usage as internal reservoir have been discussed. By selecting appropriate amount and type of internal curing, highly efficient internal water curing can be ensured. In this paper, the studies related to use of the usage of pre-soaked crushed over burnt bricks used as a replacement of part of coarse fraction of fine aggregated have been discussed. The application of the same not only improves the strength but also makes the concrete durable.

Narinder Verma, Sanjeev Naval
Recycling of Used Foundry Sand and Fly Ash in Concrete as a Partial Replacement for Conventional Ingredients

The global population is increasing at tremendous rate. So, the rapid infrastructure development is required to meet the hasty infrastructure demand. Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) is a critical component of infrastructure development. The natural fine aggregate (NFA) which is commonly known as sand, is a crucial concrete component; however, fine aggregate is in short supply due to its excessive use. Moreover, the local authorities have outlawed the extraction of fine aggregate from water bodies to protect the ecosystem. As a result, it is a critical to consider a new supply or substitute material for natural fine aggregate. The current study has designed to replace a specific percentage of natural fine aggregate with used foundry sand with this goal in mind the three experimental scenarios evaluated in this study. Scenario A: A portion of the natural fine aggregate has replaced with used foundry sand (UFS) in proportions of 15%, 25%, and 35%. Scenario B: The mass of cement has replaced with fly ash in the ratios of 15%, 25%, and 35%, respectively, while in Scenario C: The mass of natural fine aggregate and cement is replaced with used foundry sand and fly ash in the proportions of 15%, 25%, and 35%, respectively. In the laboratory, the physical properties of used foundry sand (UFS), fly ash (FA), cement, coarse aggregate (CA), and natural fine aggregate (NFA) have examined. It has inferred that 25% of natural fine aggregate can replaced by used foundry sand successfully; however, over this proportion, the compressive strength of concrete reduces somewhat, and workability decreases. Also, to achieve the desired strength, replacing 25% mass of the cement with fly ash was feasible. The overall result of robust experimentation work shows that Scenario C, i.e., replacement of natural fine aggregate (NFA) with 25% UFS and partial replacement of cement with 25% of fly ash, is a better option to achieve the desired strength with optimum cost. The study suggests that partially substituting alternative resources such as foundry sand and fly ash for traditional concrete ingredients is efficient and viable. The study's findings have a socioeconomic benefit and benefit the protection and maintenance of the natural system. The research will aid in developing a sustainable and efficient concrete mix; moreover, it will strengthen the country's economy.

Ranjeet Sabale, Usharani Karande, Atul Kolhe, Amruta Kulkarni, Anand Tapase
A Review on Influence of Replacing Industrial Wastes with Fine Aggregate in Concrete

This research work aims an detailed review of effect of incorporation of different industrial wastes as a replacement of fine aggregate in concrete. The industrial wastes like marble waste powder, stone dust, broken Glass, and ISF slag are studied in detail in this review work. Moreover, the different industrial wastes are evaluated keeping in perspective their contribution in enhancing strength properties of concrete and their potential environmental benefits. Review of previous research studies shows that incorporation of industrial waste have a significant impact on properties of fresh and hardened concrete. The concrete manufactured using the waste materials were observed to have the strength comparable with the control mix but yielded excellent environmental benefits.

S. Varadharajan, S. V. Kirthanashri, Mohammad Samim, Bishnu Kant Shukla, Gaurav Bharti
Utilization of Fly Ash in Concrete: A State-of-the-Art Review

Next-generation green concrete may be utilized in current infrastructure and development since it is readily accessible throughout the world. Flyash (FA) is a pozzolanic material with high alumina and silica concentrations. In the meanwhile, research and development on FA-based geopolymer concrete have rapidly increased in the past decade (FAA-GPCC). Using FA in concrete improves the environment quality by lowering CO2 emissions, as well as decreasing our reliance on cement utilization. FAA-GPCC is a relatively new composite material with high initial strength and improved durability properties along with excellent environmental benefits. Concrete that is ecologically friendly and sustainable is becoming more popular in the building sector throughout the globe. Studies on clean manufacturing, FAA-GPCC durability, and the impact of FA disposal on health and the environment have increased tremendously in the past decade. In this review paper, FAA-GPCC long-term durability and behavior, as well as research development trends are discussed in order to provide comprehensive insights into FA’s potential applications as a sustainable and environmentally friendly building material.

S. Varadharajan, S. V. Kirthanashri, Neha Maurya, Prasad Bishetti, Bishnu Kant Shukla, Gaurav Bharti
Use of Waste Marble Dust and Waste Glass Powder and Bacterial Solution for Manufacture of Ecofriendly Concrete

Concrete is one of the commonly used building stones, and its production has aggravated comprehensively. This eventually has aggravated the cement production increasing the emission of greenhouse gases on enormous scale, a sensitive environmental issue in current scenario. This issue can be effectively addressed by using industrial waste like waste marble dust (WMD) for substitution of cement in concrete and waste glass powder (WGP). In this research work, cement is replaced by WMD up to 9%, and WGP is used up to 10% as a substitute of fine aggregate along with use of bacterial solution to improve post cracking behavior of concrete. The estimation of strength properties of manufactured concrete shows enhancement in strength in compression and tension. The experimental results are subjected to the regression analysis propose modified rules to estimate concrete properties. The comparison of experimental results with the equations proposed exhibits high correlation indicating efficiency of the rules proposed. The environmental impact analysis shows positive influence of WMD and WGP on environment, and results show a drastic reduction in greenhouse gas emission and particulate emission.

S. Varadharajan, S. V. Kirthanashri, Abhishek Tiwari, Animesh Jaiswal, Bishnu Kant Shukla
Study on Suitability of Sawdust as an Alternate for Fine Aggregate in Concrete

Production of green concrete had become a major research area, due to the environmental hazards caused by synthetic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of utilizing sawdust in a concrete. The mix ratio adopted to prepare concrete is 1:1.5:3 with a water-to-cement ratio of 0.55 natural sand used as a fine aggregate in concrete and the same was partially replaced with sawdust at various percent of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, and 12.5%. Two sets of concrete were produced; one set was incorporated with fly ash (10% of the cement weight), while the other set was produced with fly ash and sawdust. The concrete was produced and tested in accordance with Indian Standard-approved procedures. Many latest evidence has focused on alternate methods of identifying industrial by-products or agricultural waste products as a potential source of construction materials all over the globe. Here, the main objective of current study is to find the optimum replacement of sawdust as partial replacement for natural sand as a fine aggregate. These wastes, when used in concrete, would not only be cost effective, but will also help to create a resilient and pollution-free ecosystem, which is a need of an hour. The sawdust replacement findings show that a limited volume of sawdust (less than 10%) and 10% fly ash can be utilized as a partial substitute for natural sand and cement during concrete manufacturing, hence contributing to the waste management in the society. And, the partially sawdust replaced concrete results reveal that it can be used for load bearing and non-load bearing members.

Prasad Bishetti, S. Varadharajan, Bishnu Kant Shukla, Gaurav Bharti
Study on Paving Blocks Using Plastic Waste

The disposal of plastic trash in the environment is considered a major issue because of its low biodegradability and abundance. As a result, developing alternate garbage disposal technologies that are environmentally beneficial is becoming a major study topic. The use of scrap plastic in paver block manufacture is a cost-effective approach to dispose of plastic trash. Paver block pavement is adaptable, visually pleasing, practical, and economical. These blocks are simple to manufacture, transport, install, and maintain, and they may be replaced in a short period of time. This idea uses PVC plastic trash to help the environment by reducing pollution. Durability, corrosion resistance, greater heat, cold, and sound insulation, energy savings, low weight, and economic value are all advantages of using plastic in concrete. The rate of decomposition of plastic garbage is also very sluggish. As a result, the project contributes to a useful reduction of plastic waste. In this research, we combined plastic trash with fine and coarse gravel in various quantities. The paver blocks were created and put to the test, with the results being discussed.

N. H. Parikshit, B. N. Manjunath, Bishnu Kant Shukla
A Review on Applications of Steel Slag in Traditional and High-Strength Concrete

As the population is increasing day by day, the construction work and as a result, demand for raw materials is escalating. Hence, to find a way to conserve the natural resources and make use of alternate resources available in the construction sector. Nowadays, industrial waste and its disposal is becoming a severe problem in the whole world. Among the manufacturing sector, India is ranked 2nd in steel-producing countries. However, utilization of steel slag is very less as compared to developed countries and dumping of steel slag in open areas is resulting in polluting the environment. By including this waste material in the construction sector, the problems may be solved up to some extent. This paper discusses steel industry waste applications by replacement of coarse and fine aggregate in concrete at different percentages as 15, 30, 45, 50, 55, 60, and 65% and in some cases up to 100% and also discusses its effect on the environment. Also, the mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of concrete with steel slag. It was observed that the best result may be achieved at replacement of approximately 30% for high-strength silica-fume concrete. It was also observed that there are insignificant adverse effects on strength of traditional concrete when steel slag is substituted for natural aggregates up to 100%.

Uddeshya Misra, K. Senthil, Kavita Rani
The Utilization of Industrial Waste as a Stabilizing Agent—A Review

Chemical soil stabilization, the process of blending and mixing chemical additives to improve the engineering properties of the soil, has become an indispensable part of civil engineering. However, the use of additives such as cement, quick lime, bitumen as a stabilizing agents causes immense environmental and economical ineffectiveness. And thus, many of the material-producing industries and researchers are opening up to the idea of utilizing industrial waste or by-products as a chemical additive to improve soil quality which in turn will provide improved performance, lowered construction, disposal costs, and reduced environmental pollution. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of several research articles which deal with different industrial wastes containing pozzolanic characters such as Coal combustion Fly ash (CFA), copper slag (CS), Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBS), Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as a stabilizing agent. The value of several engineering qualities of stabilized soil combined in various percentages and curing times, such as the Unconfined Compression Test (UCS), California Bearing Ratio Test (CBR), Optimum Moisture Content (OMC), Maximum Dry Density (MDD), and Atterberg's limitations, will also be comparatively examined. The efficiency and effectiveness of these various industrial wastes, with or without other additives, will be compared in terms of soil quality improvement, as well as environmental and economic relevance.

Mayadarshini Laishram, Davinder Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

Sustainable Infrastructure Engineering and Others

Characterisation of Microsurfacing Mix Design: A Review

Microsurfacing has gained popularity as a pavement preventive maintenance technique over the years because of its efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits. Microsurfacing is considered the most eco-friendly maintenance technique for asphalt pavement. The purpose of this research is to look at the use of microsurfacing as a pavement maintenance technique and to characterise microsurfacing mix design. Several studies in the field of microsurfacing have been done, critically analysed and summarised. But there has not been much research done in this area yet, and, most of the work conducted is targeted over the performance evaluation of microsurfacing. The review investigates the benefits and drawbacks of mix design processes, as well as improvements proposed by various studies. Several literature reviews have been examined to determine how diverse materials, such as fly ash, rubber powder, waste material, emulsion, reclaimed asphalt pavement, additives, and aggregate gradation, affect the performance of microsurfacing mixes. It is difficult to generate an appropriate microsurfacing mix because of the chemical complexity involved in the design. Following that, investigations on microsurfacing mix methodology were thoroughly analysed, and challenges in microsurfacing mix design were identified. Microsurfacing is preferred over other surface treatment because of its environment-friendly nature, and hence, environmental impact of microsurfacing and life cycle assessment of microsurfacing are also discussed in this paper. Theme of this study is to analyse the different aspect of microsurfacing mix design such as its environmental assessment, components of microsurfacing, mix procedure challenges, and its merits and demerits over other pavement treatments.

Anmol Tyagi, Rajiv Kumar, Kanish Kapoor
A Review on Microstructural Properties of Concrete Incorporating Different Mineral Admixtures

This article discusses the microstructural properties of concrete incorporating different mineral admixtures such as silica fume (SF), fly ash (FA), metakaolin (MK) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). The microstructure of the concrete mainly depends upon the inter transition zone (ITZ) and the bond between cement paste and aggregates, which effects the mechanical and long-term properties of concrete. However, appropriate addition of mineral admixture in concrete helps in improvement of their microstructure of the concrete. The research findings of various studies revealed that the addition of mineral admixtures in the concrete act as a microfiller and densify their microstructure to improve their mechanical and durability properties. Moreover, mineral admixtures also contribute to pore blocking of concrete to intensify the resistance to water, chloride and sulphate attacks. The mineral admixtures play a vital role in concrete to strengthen their microstructural properties.

Ashish Choudhary, Kanish Kapoor, S. P. Singh, Paramveer Singh
Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Metakaolin Geo-Polymer Concrete

In this present work, the mechanical properties of metakaolin-based geo-polymer concrete are worked out. It has been found out that geo-polymer concrete gives high early strength to the concrete. It has high strength, heat resistance and better performance than the ordinary Portland concrete. The compressive strength and tensile strength achieved by geo-polymer concrete are improved, whereas the flexural strength is satisfactory. This study proves metakaolin as an effective replacement of cement, and will also promote sustainable material in the construction industry.

Rashmi Pantawane, Pushpendra Kumar Sharma
Performance Analysis of the Sustainable Windows Glazing System for Built Environment

During last decade, Energy consumption has been quickly increased leaded from industry and social growth. The main objective of the research is to evaluate the impact and assessment of glass in the saving of energy consumption for buildings. Experimental work is carried with five different windows and analysis performed in view of saving potential with comparable budget for composite climate condition. The decision-making agreement is also the cost of the window beyond its benefits. Marginal increase in cost will be offset by the savings in the energy consumption. The energy consumption saving is calculated using three star air-conditioner which is most widely used in buildings. In the recent work, novel configuration are experimented and introduced to have lower heat ingress and savings in energy substantially for composite climatic conditions. It has been observed that the minor and budget changes in the design of windows make them more energy effective. With the usage of recommended configurations in the building, it is projected to reduce the building energy consumption by 17.61%. The effect of configuration can save maximum of 15 watts per hour. It is recommended that buildings should be designed using these configurations to reduce the electricity bill and have the satisfactory energy efficiency level.

Amit Kumar Dhir, Pushpendra Kumar Sharma
Strength and Flow Characteristics of Controlled Low Strength Material by Using Industrial Byproduct

The study aims to develop new controlled low strength material (CLSM) by using industrial byproduct: local pond ash collected from the thermal power plant and local blast furnace slag collected from steel industries. CLSM were made by the various mixture of pond ash, blast furnace slag, cement, and water. About 55% of water is added to make CLSM mix flowable. Cement was used from 10 to 30 % of the base material. Test were performed according to ACI229R to find out the strength and flowability of various mix in which pond ash and blast furnace slag is added in various proportions in the range of (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2) subsequently. The best CLSM mixture were selected to be the control mix for further study. effect of the various proportion of pond ash, cement, and blast furnace slag water on the engineering properties like unconfined compressive strength, flowability, density, and bleeding were studied as per ACI 229R. The obtained result shows that unconfined compressive strength, flowability, bleeding, and density made with the proposed CLSM mix met the ACI 229R requirements. In conclusion, it was found that feasibility of local pond ash and blast furnace slag for production of CLSM.

Minakshi Uchibagle, B. Ram Rathan Lal
Experimental Investigation on Fresh Properties and Optimization of Self-Compacting Concrete Reinforced with Waste Plastic

Non-hazardous waste and by-products, which are typically land filled, can be used to make concrete and other building materials. The purpose of this paper is to present a study on the performance of self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixtures prepared using fly ash, copper slag as cement filler and plastic waste, recycled coarse aggregate as fine and coarse aggregate fillers. In this paper, the flow view of self-compacting concrete is examined using the Taguchi technique. The effect of powder product, plastic waste, and also recycled coarse aggregate on the relative flow index of fresh SCC is evaluated making use of 25 combinations of concrete mixes created using the Taguchi optimization approach. The mixes were developed for a fixed water cement proportion of 0.45. In regard to the particular response qualities, specific substantial degrees of the managing variables are obtained. Because of this, a far better understanding of how the regulating variables affected the freshened quality attributes of SCC with differing levels of plastic waste content was developed.

V. Sai Neeraja, Vaibhav Sharma
Construction Sustainability in Indian Perspective-A Review

The increasing rate of urbanization has created more and more burdens on the prevailing natural building material resources. The way of planning, executing, and evaluating a construction project is varying day by day due to the effort of incorporating sustainability into construction project management. Due to the deficiency of knowledge and slighter client participation, sustainable project management has been marginally practiced in the Indian construction industries. This article attempts to review the situation of Indian construction industries in terms of the extent to which these industries are making use of sustainable tools for design and also highlight some of the key impediments in the way of endorsing sustainability in project management.

Junaid Manzoor, Pushpendra Kumar Sharma
A Sustainable Outlet for Canal Irrigation System

The present work is first time observed based on a novel idea of irrigation modules. Keeping various points in mind like; outlet theme, its requirements and challenges in Indian canal irrigation systems, the author came to a novel solution to the farmers’ problems regarding under or over-irrigation of crops. It is an Indian approach towards rigid module. Primarily, the novel device is a combination of a masonry well-constructed in the bank of a parent channel connected with flow throughout the depth of flow in feeding minor and a flexible neck tube attached with a floating object maintaining a constant head with respect to a parent channel and this way it maintains the constant discharge supplied to the farmers even in varying head during rising and falling minors in the intermittent supply of water in Indian Canal Irrigation Systems. The device was validated through the experimental observations and the results were found very exciting within laboratory conditions. This will help a lot to the suffering farmers to get rid of their usual problem of non-uniform release of water from feeding channels. This device overcomes the problem of varying heads in parent channels during intermittent supply, provides equal discharge to the farmers on their turn. It is comparatively very cheap, easy to construct, repairable and not at all likely to be tampered by the powerful farmers. It can be maintained even by unskilled labour/farmers. The device meets all international requirements of ideal modules.

Pushpendra Kumar Sharma
Effect of Self-healing Concrete on Modular Structure

Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials, from building foundations to bridge constructions. Because the tensile strength of the concrete utilised is one-tenth that of the compressive strength, it cracks easily when stress is applied. Self-healing concrete is a material that may manufacture limestone organically to mend fractures that occur on the surface of concrete structures as a result of environmental factors. Bacillus bacteria are introduced to the concrete components, coupled with calcium lactate, a calcium-based nutrition, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus. In concrete, these self-healing compounds can remain dormant for up to 200 years. The addition of oxygen during the bacterial conversion of calcium lactate to limestone for crack repair is a plus. Oxygen is a vital ingredient that aids in the corrosion of steel and enhances the durability of steel reinforced concrete structures when bacterial activity has depleted the oxygen supply. Bacteria enhances tensile strength, water permeability, durability, and compressive strength of concrete. All concrete structures develop cracks of varying sizes, which must be manually filled, reducing the construction's lifespan. Self-healing concrete (SHC), on the other hand, is a revolutionary building material that solves all of these problems and is undoubtedly the material of the future.

Gaurav Bharti, Atul Singh, Bishnu Kant Shukla, S. Varadharajan, S. V. Kirthanashri, Prasad Bishetti, Amit Tripathi
Evaluation of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant in Rural Areas

The potable water which is supplied to the consumers in India is managed by the local and statutory authorities. In the isolated/rural areas, where the potable water is not easily available, the rainwater can also be stored in rainwater tank and the further it can be used as a raw water, i.e., plantation, construction activities, washing, etc. In this research paper, the evaluation of domestic wastewater has been considered using traditional sewerage treatment plants. The parameters which are considered by taking care of domestic waste are pH, Temperature, Total suspended solids (TSS) Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). Results show the effectiveness of the treatment plant where the process found suitable to process the gray water and make it usable. During the experimentation part, it has been found that Aerobic organisms are inoculated into wastewater treatment units. Due to the presence of biochemical oxygen demand, the microbes utilize the organic components of wastewater and reduce the toxicity.

Jaspreet Singh, Janaki Ballav Swain
Evaluation of Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete Using Metakaolin: A Review

This review paper discusses the concrete performance with the incorporation of metakaolin (MK). Metakaolin is mainly used as partial replacement of cement to enhance the mechanical and durability characteristics of concrete. This review paper summarizes the effect on mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and elastic modulus of concrete using MK. Moreover, durability properties have also been discussed such as water permeation, chloride attacks, and sulphate attack on concrete with the addition of MK. The fineness of MK densifies the microstructure of the concrete which decreases the porosity of concrete and increase their mechanical strength. Moreover, MK act as micro filler in concrete to boost pore blocking which enhances the resistance to water penetration and chemical attacks on concrete. The inclusion of MK is an inventive footstep to intensify the overall performance of concrete.

Nirvesh Singh, Kanish Kapoor, Mudasir Nazeer, Paramveer Singh
Utilization of Agricultural Waste for the Sustainable Production of Clay Bricks

Burnt clay bricks are one of the most ancient construction materials used in masonry work. The rapid use of clay for the production of clay-based bricks has led to cause serious problems related to the environment as it reduces the amount of natural clay. Researchers have used several waste materials that have similar characteristics to the natural clay for the replacement of clay for the production of waste-based clay bricks. Adopting that approach the problems associated with the reduction in the natural resources and disposal of such waste materials can also be minimized. The current experimental study aims to use an agricultural waste that is produced during the harvesting process of rice, i.e., rice straw. The effect of the addition of rice straw in the form of ash on the mechanical and durability performance of clay-based bricks has been evaluated by replacing the clay content of the mix with different proportions (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% by weight of clay) of ash. The results of the study have revealed that the rice straw ash can cause a positive effect on the overall performance of bricks when compared to the controlled bricks.

Yaksh Kakkar, Rajwinder Singh, Mahesh Patel
Future of Sustainable Landfilling Through Bioreactor Landfills: A Review

The study is inspired for minimization of expanding environmental pollution due to the unplanned waste management practices in order to conceptualize the influencing elements that may intervene in equipping bioreactor landfill operations worldwide. Bioreactor landfill concept is believed to change the future of all nations to achieve a sustainable waste management policy, particularly in developing nations, which are posing a significant threat to the biosphere due to their indiscriminate waste management practices. However, the outlined design framework of bioreactor landfills through reported experimental investigations and mathematical modeling simulations is found insufficient to standardize the design and operational procedures by the current study. Moreover, the persisting intrinsic factors and challenges that can arise during the implementation phase of bioreactor landfills in developing countries have not been addressed yet. This study aims to provide a critical review of the state-of-the-art and practice of bioreactor landfills in perspective of optimizing the current challenges in bioreactor landfill concept and design for attaining global environmental sustainability in waste management practices. Thus, guidelines were suggested for developing countries to overcome various site constraints. Furthermore, various geotechnical challenges and reported testing procedures in BL systems are critically synthesized in this review.

Kamran Ilahi, Arvind Kumar Agnihotri
Smart Dynamic Concrete as Pavement Material

Study reports the preliminary laboratory investigation on the strength property of smart dynamic concrete (SDC) in respect to check its viability as a pavement material. Fly ash an industrial waste is used in the study to partially replace the ordinary Portland cement and its effects on compressive strength of the SDC is envisaged. The strength properties of the SDC with FA up to 50% as cement replacement has been studied by compressive strength test. These tests have been conducted after curing periods of 7 days and 28 days. The results show that 28 days cube compressive strengths of SDC mixes with up to 20% of fly ash as replacement to OPC satisfies the requirement (40 MPa) as pavement materials for normal concrete roads. All other combinations with compressive strengths above 30 MPa can be used for concrete pavements in rural roads.

Bhupati Kannur, H. S. Chore
Strength Evaluation of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Mortar by Using Ground-Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Ordinary Portland Cement

This study discusses the effect of incorporation of ground-granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in the fly ash-based (FA) geopolymer mortar (GPM). The sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions were used to activate the GPM mixes. For all the mixes, the alkali/binder ratio, molarity (M), and SS/SH ratio were kept constant at 0.45, 12 M, and 2, respectively. Both the ambient and heat curing was studied to discuss the properties of GPM. In the fresh properties, the flow was calculated. For calculating the mechanical and durability properties like compressive strength at three, seven, and twenty-eight days, water absorption and acid attack were calculated for 28 days of curing. The compressive strength of GPM containing 20% GGBS improved significantly at twenty-eight days of curing at both ambient and heat curing.

Abhishek Sharma, Kanish Kapoor, Paramveer Singh
Sustainable Technique to Reduce Sea Pollution During Boring Operation

Rapid growth of construction projects in sea increases the water pollution in all over the world. It will be mandatory to adopt innovative and sustainable techniques during construction activity. In offshore and marine piling work, the polymers and bentonite are using during boring operation to prevent cave in condition. Bentonite is the highly colloidal suspensions which have excellent suspensive waterproofing and lubricating characteristics. Moreover, polymers are very long molecules mainly made up of plastics, rubbers, thermoplastic elastomers, adhesives, foams, paints, and other sealants. After usage bentonite (VINIMUD P40) muds, before disposal can be treated with oxidizing agents in order to be sure that any trace of active material has been eliminated. The most popular products used for treatment of the vinyl polymer muds, are sodium hypochlorite (bleaching agent) and oxygen peroxide. Disposal of bentonite/polymers after using it into the sea, pollutant the sea environment, which may be harmful for living organisms inside sea. Hence, it is essential to reused and disposed it ecofriendly. A new methodology was adopted to fulfill this requirement. In this approach, cutting in casing/liner in the form of window are used to collect bentonite/polymers in tank. Also, after storage, bentonite/polymers will be reused for next operation. Moreover, mud wastage coming from borehole will also be disposed at suitable dumping places.

Hitendrabhai S. Dewangan, Aashish A. Mehta
Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Conference (IGGEC) 2021, Vol. 2
herausgegeben von
Arvind Kumar Agnihotri
Krishna R. Reddy
H. S. Chore
Springer Nature Singapore
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