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2023 | Buch

Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Conference (IGGEC) 2021, Vol. 1

herausgegeben von: Arvind Kumar Agnihotri, Krishna R. Reddy, H. S. Chore

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book presents select proceedings of the Indian Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Conference (IGGEC-21). Various topics covered in this book include geotechnical engineering, earthquake geotechnical engineering, geoenvironmental engineering, ground improvement, transportation geotechnics, waste management and sustainable engineering. The book will be a valuable reference for researchers and professionals in the discipline of civil, materials, geoenvironmental engineering, landfills, hydrogeology, ground improvement and earthquake geotechnical engineering.



Behaviour of Geomaterials and Geotechnical Investigation

Sustainability Assessment of Controlled Low Strength Materials Utilizing Various Industrial Waste Materials

Controlled low strength material (CLSM) can be used as backfill material for utility trench construction. Many researchers proposed CLSM using industrial waste materials as part of the designs of these cementitious mixes. In this study, a comparative sustainability assessment of different CLSM designs that incorporate industrial byproducts is performed and compared to a conventional aggregate backfill design. This study also assessed the comparative sustainability of CLSM and conventional aggregate as trench backfill for a utility pipe installation on a roadway/drainage improvement project. The project includes 1.5 miles of utility trenching of a proposed frontage road and drainage improvement in the Chicago metropolitan area. The sustainability assessments include evaluating the environmental, economic, and social (triple bottom line) impacts of the alternate CLSM and conventional trench backfill options. A single sustainability index for each backfill design is computed using a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology and compared to identify the most sustainable CLSM design option.

Sasha Simon, Luke Zanoni, Alex Young, Patrick Hulsebosch, Jyoti K. Chetri, Krishna R. Reddy
Effect of Fiber Reinforcement on the Direct Tensile Strength of Fiber-Reinforced Black Cotton Soil

The performance of geotechnical structures is a function of the tensile strength of the soil. Soils compacted at their desired density values in various geotechnical structures face the problem of cracking due to cracking failure. Lately, the technique of fiber reinforcement in mitigation of desiccation cracking is adopted by researchers. In this study, the influence of percentage dosage of the fiber on the direct tensile strength value of black cotton soil has been investigated. Polypropylene fibers of special trilobal cross section were used. The percentage fiber content was varied as 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75% by the dry weight of the soil. The tensile strength was measured in a modified direct tensile strength test apparatus. The results indicate a rise in tensile strength and change in the failure pattern due to fiber inclusion. However, an optimum fiber content of 0.5% is observed, after which the tensile strength decreases. Due to fiber inclusion, the tensile strength increases by 67%.

Uma Chaduvula, B. V. S. Viswanadham, Jayantha Kodikara
Studies on Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash and Blast Furnace Slag-Based Geomaterial

The proposed materials were prepared by the addition of sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), glass fibre, blast furnace slag and ordinary Portland cement. The glass fibre-to-sugar cane bagasse ash as mix ratio (GF/SCBA) was 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0%. The mix proportion blast furnace-to-sugar cane bagasse ash was 10% for present study. The cement-to-sugar cane bagasse ash (C/SCBA) ratio is taken 10, 15 and 20%. The compressive strength of prepared materials was examined after 7, 14 and 28 days, respectively. The effect of add-on of mix ratio on compressive strength, density and stress–strain behaviour was studied. The experimental results indicate that the density of prepared materials was decreased with the addition of glass fibre. The compressive strength of prepared material at mix ratio, 0.6% with 20% cement shows maximum value. The stress–strain behaviour for all mix ratio was observed to nonlinear.

H. R. Nikhade, B. Ram Rathan Lal
Swelling Behaviour of Expansive Soil Reinforced with Geocell and Jute Fibres

To mitigate the effects of the problem created by expansive soils, a number of mitigation techniques are applied. Sand cushioning, chemical stabilization, belled piers, granular pile anchors, and other techniques are only a few examples. It is also possible to reduce the swelling of expansive soil by stabilizing it with randomly distributed fibres. Geosynthetics such as geocells have been utilized as reinforcement in the construction of structures such as foundations, embankments, retaining walls, highways, and so on. This research article discusses the swelling characteristics of reinforced expansive soil. The swelling characteristics of geocell and jute fibre reinforced expansive soil specimens were investigated using one-dimensional swelling experiments in a CBR mould. The geocell reinforced specimen’s swell potential and swelling pressure dropped until 0.80% fibre content and then increased at 1.60% fibre content. Swell potential and swelling pressure reduced as fibre length increased, but only until 40 mm, after which they increased for fibre lengths of 50 and 60 mm. The rate of swelling confirms the above observation. In comparison with the unreinforced specimen, the swelling behaviour of geocell–jute fibre reinforced expansive soil specimens improved. The study highlights the use of geocells and jute fibre towards the stabilization of expansive soil.

Sanjeev Kumar, Sanjeev Naval, Anil Kumar Sahu
Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil by Using RBI Grade-81: A Review

Due to rapid abrupt change in behavior of black cotton (BC) soil, a lot of engineers are worried about construction of durable as well as economical pavements laid on black cotton (BC) soil. Although BC soils are good for agricultural purpose yet these soils are not so perfect for building durable pavements. For any nation to be prosperous and developed, an efficient road network plays a vital role. For constructing a durable and efficient road network in BC soil region, the behavior of such soils should be thoroughly studied. These soils absorb water considerably and show heavy swelling due to presence of a clay mineral ‘montmorillonite’. This may lead to loss in shear strength and increase in compressibility of such soils, subsequently development to cracks in pavement. In the summer season, BC soils show significant shrinkage in its volume, leading to development of cracks. These soils depict extreme hardness and cracks when in dry state. The stability as well as performance of the pavements built on BC soils are highly influenced by the characteristics of sub grade and embankment because they serve as foundation part for the pavement. In this connection, use of a new material ‘RBI grade-81’ is frequently suggested to modify BC soil quality. RBI grade-81 may reduce the use of bitumen and aggregates and thus, it controls over emission of carbon. This may lead to eco-friendly construction practices of road. The use of ‘RBI grade-81’ may impart adequate strength in addition to durability to various layers of pavements. This literature deals with obtaining optimum quantity of the RBI grade-81 to be added with BC soil in order to alter its undesirable properties and providing it better strength. This paper also deals with some main reasons of poor condition of roads over BC soils and measures for improved construction practices with RBI grade-81.

Dharmendra Singh, Vijay Kumar
Geotechnical Investigation of Soil for Construction of a Court Building

This study has been carried out to assess the competence and suitability of the soil stratum so that the foundation and soil underneath can safely bear the incoming load of the court building without the risk of shear failure and undesirable settlements. Standard penetration tests (SPT) were carried out at the proposed site in Sikandra Rao, District Hathras, Uttar Pradesh, and thirty-five soil samples were collected at 1.5 m depth of interval up to 10.5 m depth from the five bore holes and brought to the laboratory for further geotechnical investigations. Laboratory tests conducted on collected disturbed/undisturbed soil samples include sieve analysis, hydrometer analysis, liquid limit and plastic limit, natural moisture content, bulk and dry density, specific gravity and tri-axial shear tests. The soil bearing capacity was determined by settlement and shear criteria according to the procedure laid down by the relevant IS codes. The explorations up to significant depth helped in deciding the minimum depth and type of foundation best suited in the existing situation and the safe bearing capacity of the soil. The investigations also helped in detecting the filled-up stretch or the presence of discontinuities, cavities or zones of weakness beneath the proposed foundation within the zone of pressure bulb. These were taken into account while making recommendations for safe bearing capacity and the type of foundation suitable under the prevailing soil conditions.

Nadeem Akhtar, Md. Intekhab Sami, Vaqar Sultan, Zoha Khairoowala
Application of Electrical Resistivity in Site Investigation at Ground Profile

Exploration geophysics is a branch of geophysics, which deals with physical methods on the surface of earth to determine physical properties of the subsurface along with the something that deviates from what is standard, normal or expected, in those properties. Geophysical methods contain seismic, magnetic, electromagnetic, gravitational and electrical methods. This paper describes about electrical resistivity method. When precise construction is to be executed, soil investigation for knowing geology of the area is done in by using geophysical methods. Basically, in this method, there is determination of nature subsurface strata without excavation we can determine the nature of subsurface using geophysical methods. Electrical sounding method is used for this work as there are variations in subsurface strata with increasing depth at ground profile.

Swati Ganesh Sonawane, A. B. Saner, Harshal Sarjerao Desale, S. R. Joshi
A Review on Various Geotechnical and Geophysical Investigations for a Dam Rehabilitation Project

A dam is a massive hydraulic structure, built across a river to create a reservoir at its upstream for various purposes such as hydropower generation, irrigation, flood control, domestic and municipal supplies, and so on. They are major engineering structures that are designed and constructed with long-life expectancy. In India, most of the large dams are older than 25 years and require proper maintenance. To ensure efficient and safe operation of the dam, rehabilitation of dam is done. Before conducting rehabilitation activities, a detailed investigation of the dam body including surrounding soil is carried out. For embankment dams, appropriate borrow areas are identified, and disturbed and undisturbed samples are extracted. Various laboratories, as well as field tests, are performed on the extracted specimen. For concrete/masonry dams, representative cores are extracted from an existing dam. Various destructive and nondestructive tests are performed on the extracted core for assessing the existing condition of the concrete/masonry dam. For in-depth exploration, various geophysical methods are used to detect hidden defects in the dam bodies and also in surrounding soil too. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) method is the most suitable technique for detecting cracks in a dam body and also to identifying leakage zones. The main objective of this paper is to review various geotechnical and geophysical investigations carried out for a dam rehabilitation project. In this paper, numerous articles have been reviewed to discuss the various prerequisites for a dam rehabilitation project.

Harshit Srivastava, R. P. Tiwari, Vijay Kumar, Dharmendra Singh
Investigation of Geotechnical Factors Affecting Electrical Resistivity of Soil

The use of electrical resistivity (ER) in subsurface investigation has increased in recent years. Resistivity imaging (RI) is a non-destructive method and provides a continuous image of the subsurface. However, only, qualitative evaluation of the subsurface can be obtained from RI. The correlations between ER results and geotechnical engineering properties of soils have become important for site investigation using this method. The primary objective of the current study was to determine the geotechnical parameters affecting electrical resistivity of compacted clays. Understanding the influential factors will be helpful in determining the correlations between RI results and geotechnical properties of soil. The geotechnical properties of soil obtained from laboratory tests such as oven dry test and standard proctor compaction test. The effects of moisture content, unit weight, and degree of saturation on soil resistivity were investigated. Resistivity tests were conducted on the actual field on composite soil at varying moisture contents, temperature, and unit weights. The field results reveal that a higher degree of saturation results in a lower electrical resistivity. The electrical resistivity increases gradually with increasing dry unit weight of soil.

Suraj Sukhadev Vankamble, Rupa S. Dalvi
Predicting Compaction Parameters of Silty Soil by Nonlinear Multivariable Approach

The compaction parameters viz. optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD) plays a vital role in finding solutions for various geotechnical problems. These include amount of compaction energy required in pavement/embankment, strength parameters determination, reduction of soil’s susceptibility to settlement, etc. In the present study, an attempt was made to predict compaction parameters of silty soil by nonlinear multivariable approach. For developing the prediction model, various index properties of soil from the available literature were used in the present study. The properties used for the analysis were percent fines, specific gravity (G), liquid limit (LL), and plastic limit (PL). The coefficients of mathematical model were calculated for different combinations of silty soil viz. low plasticity silt, medium plasticity silt, high plasticity. Moreover, the prediction result from all combined silty soil model was found to be more practicable as its regression coefficient was calculated significantly higher for OMC and MDD.

Shivani S. Gour, Vijay V. Muthekar, A. B. Saner
Study of Arch Formation in Basalt Rock—A Case Study

The arching effect is the most universal phenomenon which exist in an underground engineering due to excavation, encountered by Terzaghi in 1943. The arch theory was widely used in the underground tunnel. A numerical investigations were performed using 3D finite element method (MIDAS GTS NX) to study the formation of arches above the tunnel roof in rock mass. In this case study, a 5-km-long-circular twin tunnel between Range hill and Swargate is being excavated by tunnel boring machine (TBM) to improve traffic system of Pune city, Maharashtra, India is consider. Rock types encountered during tunnelling are amygdaloidal basalt, vesicular basalt and compact basalt. In this study, numerical analysis is performed for prediction of arching action. Arch action is studied with the help of transfer of stresses around tunnel. Various model tests are carried out to analyse the differences of the arch action above tunnel face between dry rock mass and saturated rock mass with varying overburden depth (2D, 2.5D, 3D, 3.5D, 4D, 4.5D, 5D) “D” is diameter of the tunnel. 14 numerical models are studied in which 7 are for dry rock mass and 7 for saturated rock mass. Analysis shows that forming process of arch. Furthermore, factors affecting formation of pressure arch, i.e. overburden depth and water table effect on arch formation, are defined. Overburden depth factor has less influence on the arching action. Test results show that the arching coefficient can be decreased 10–15% by groundwater. The results obtained from this study will increase the ability to deal with similar ground conditions during tunnelling using TBM.

Tejal K. Khule, Rupa S. Dalvi
Consolidation of Layered Soils with Variable Compressibility

The distribution of consolidating load in any soil is related directly to the distribution of pore water pressure. Terzaghi’s consolidation theory that is used to define this distribution is based on some certain linearized assumptions that may or may not be reasonable in practice. The linearized equation surely may have some mathematical benefits; however, they are of slight importance when working on non-homogeneous soils. In the following study, a numerical method is developed. A finite difference approach for computing 1D consolidation in analysing consolidation problem is presented. Most software applications utilize an explicit finite difference evaluation method. While using this approach, the solution space in the problem is discretized in time and space. The same problem may also be solved implicitly, so that the excess pore pressures at all nodes are solved together at the selected time. A nonlinear formulation, involving variations of compressibility, indicated in the results is deemed essential for the behaviour that is observed. Critical investigation may be done to investigate the nature of these variations.

Deepak Kumar Singh, Chitranshu Kumawat, Siddharth Mehndiratta
1D Consolidation of Silty Clay Subject to Different Ramp Loadings

In engineering projects, soils are subjected to pre-loading and radial drainage to accelerate the process of consolidation. A comparative study for consolidation of silty clay under time-dependent ramp loadings is presented in this paper. The distribution of pore water pressure across the depth of a soil sample at various time intervals is computed numerically in MATLAB considering various ramp loadings. Finite difference method has been adopted for the analysis. Further, the characteristics of the consolidation under instantaneous loading and time-dependent loading are discussed. The results of this study present the magnitude of average of degree of consolidation of the soil at various time intervals for the respective time variant loading conditions. All of these are compared with a standard invariable load of same magnitude at those respective time intervals. Hence, the most effective loading procedure can be chosen from the results of this study which would result in the most efficacious consolidation in shortest time.

Sumanta Roy, Sibapriya Mukherjee
Assessment of Effective Shear Strength Parameters in Triaxial CU Shear Test

Test condition and shear strength parameters should be chosen to represent the field conditions as closely as possible. To stimulate the field condition, triaxial shear test was conducted with consolidated-undrained (CU) method on MI (inorganic silt of medium plasticity) type of soil. Laboratory specimens were remoulded at 98% of maximum dry density (MDD) at varying water content. Remoulded specimens were further saturated without any volume change with the help of back pressure system in the triaxial machine. The deviator stress vs. strain graphs and pore water pressure vs. strain graphs are plotted at incremental confining pressures (σ3) and analysed at different remoulded water content (w). The difference in deviator stress and pore water pressure obtained between the specimens at respective confining pressures seems to be very less, which suggests that difference in the water deficiency between the specimens and the consequent pore water tension is greatly reduced after saturation. The maximum stresses obtained are also employed to understand modified failure envelopes and shear strength parameters with respect to total and effective stress measurement. The total angle of internal friction (ϕ) obtained is lower than the effective angle (ϕ′), whereas cohesion (c) obtained is higher than effective cohesion (c′). The difference in the results suggests that effective stress analysis should be preferred, as it is more rational. This study helps to compare the results of total and effective stress analysis and how pore water pressure (u) plays an important role in effective stress analysis.

Suresh Maurya
Geotechnical Properties of Copper Slag, Rice Husk Ash Blended with Lime, Cement and Geopolymer—A Comparative Study

A total of 98 experimental test results have been compared on different mixes of Copper Slag (CS), Rice Husk Ash (RHA), Lime (L), Cement (C), and Alkali Activator (AA) in order to evaluate Specific Gravity (SG) and compaction properties of these mixes. Hydrated lime, ordinary Portland cement of 43—Grade were used in this study. Sodium Silicate (SS) and Sodium Hydroxide (SH) solutions were used as activators with alkali activator ratio of 2.5 SS/SH and concentration of SH 10 M (morality) solution. The SG and compaction tests have been performed using a Pycnometer and Modified Proctor Compaction (MPC) tests. Based on the experimental results mathematical models have been constructed to estimate predicted values of SG, Maximum Dry Density (MDD), and Optimum Moisture Content (OMC). SPSS software and Microsoft Excel were used to develop mathematical models and to analyze the data. The maximum value of SG obtained was 3.37 for the combination of 95% CS + 5% RHA; the minimum SG value was obtained as 2.17 for the mix proportion of 56% CS + 35% RHA + 9% AA. Compared to all the combinations the mix with 93% of copper slag, 5% of rice husk ash, 1% of lime, and 1% of cement has shown the highest value of MDD and OMC of about 2.64 g/cc and 9.86%, respectively. These combinations may be used in highway construction, as earth filling material, construction of embankments, etc. as per Indian road congress (IRC) guidelines.

Kuldeep Sharma, Arvind Kumar
Effect of Addition of Slag on Engineering Properties of Clayey Soil

Rapid urbanization has resulted in huge number of infrastructure projects across the country. Amid this urbanization and industrialization, consumption of steel has increased enormously. India is currently the second largest producer of the steel. For every tonne of steel produced, an integrated steel plant produces 2–4 tonnes of slag. Disposal of the enormous magnitude of waste in an economically feasible and environment-friendly manner has become a challenging task. This study looks into the efficient use of steelmaking slag as a highway construction material. Locally available soft clay was stabilized with steel slag fines, and experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate consistency limits, compaction characteristics and strength characteristics of different combination of mixes. The strength of clay is found to increase with the addition of steel slag and also with the curing period.

Aditya D. Ahirwar, H. S. Chore
Analysis of Bearing Capacity and Settlement from Cone Penetration Test Results at an Irrigation Project

A cut-off wall was constructed as part of a multipurpose irrigation project located in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh state in India. As the soil strength is a major concern in the design of substructures in soils, it is proposed to study the soil conditions at the site. The cone penetration test results were collected from the water resources department to analyze the bearing capacity and settlement of the soil at different locations. The analysis was carried out using GEO5 software tool considering pile foundations of diameter 1 m and depth of 10 m. From the analyses, it was observed that the bearing capacity of the pile at selected locations was in the range of 2752–4940 kN and the estimated settlements were within the allowable limits.

J. Sumalatha, J. Suresh Babu

Soil-Structure Interaction, Earthquake Engineering and Computational Geo-mechanics

Influence of Burial Depth of Soil on Reinforced Concrete Tunnel Against the Impact and Blast Loading

Underground Tunnels are a necessary segment of the present infrastructure system. The tunnel system has become an important part of the present infrastructure all over the world. With increasing use and popularity, the underground tunnels are always prone to natural and man-made attacks. Therefore, an attempt has been made to study the response of underground tunnels against impact loading as well as blast loading for different burial depths 5, 10, and 15 cm of soil. This paper highlights the influence of burial depth over the tunnel against impact loading with the mass of impactor 104 kg. Also, the paper highlights the influence of burial depth over the tunnel against blast loading of varying masses of TNT. The experiments were performed on the underground tunnels with different burial depths 5, 10, and 15 cm of soil and measured in terms of the impact force as well as deformed profile. The simulations were conducted on a semi-circular shaped reinforced concrete tunnel with 0.5 m center to center diameter, 1.2 m of length, and 0.05 m of thickness using ABAQUS/CAE Explicit software. The constitutive behavior of concrete, steel reinforcement, and soil element are defined by using the Concrete Damaged Plasticity model, Johnson–Cook Plasticity model, and Drucker-Prager model, respectively. The simulation findings were compared to the experimental results and they were found in good agreement. The major conclusions were drawn based on the impact as well as blast loading on the underground tunnels with varying burial depths.

K. Senthil, Keshav Saini, Manish Kumar
Plate Load Tests on the Ring and Circular Footings

Ring foundations are suitable for axi-symmetrical structures, like tall towers, chimneys, overhead tanks, etc. It is a common practice that designers often adopt circular footing for these structures as foundations because of limited amount of studies conducted on ring footings. However, a ring footing can be employed in place of a circular footing because of its two advantages. Firstly, ring footing behaves in a similar way as that of a circular footing, which profoundly depends on the radius-ratio (ratio of inner radius to the outer radius of the footing) of ring footing under consideration. Secondly, the ring footing will act as an economical solution because of the lesser consumption of material to produce it. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to conduct the plate load tests on surface ring and circular footings resting on sand by varying radius-ratios from 0.00, 0.30, 0.40, 0.50 and 0.60. Here, radius-ratio of 0.00 signifies a circular footing. Moreover, a comparison between the behavior of circular and ring footings is done. From the experimental results, it was discovered that the ring footing with a radius-ratio in the range of 0.30–0.40 proved to be the better option out of the used footings, when compared with the circular footing.

Vaibhav Sharma, Arvind Kumar
Analytical Study on Soil-Structure Interaction of Framed Structure with Isolated Footing Resting on Silty Sand

The traditional analysis does not consider any interaction between the soil and foundation element. It is very vital to assess the mechanism of the soil-structure interaction. Also, in usual method of analysis, the analysis of the framed structures is expected to rest on unyielding supports. The present study emphasis on the soil-structure interaction importance of three bay, three-storey RC frame and evaluated the displacement and stresses in frame and soil (the point of contact). The frame was modelled as linear elastic and the ground was modelled as linear elastic and non-linear elastic–plastic. The foundation settlement was analysed for the soils which have low stiffness, which leads to excessive settlement.

R. Chaitra, R. Sridhar, B. M. Ramesh
Simulation of Load Bearing Capacity of a Single Pile in a Multi-layered Soil

This paper deals with the modelling of load-deformation behaviour of a circular footing on sandy stratum in a two-layered soil system. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the settlement and bearing capacity of a circular pile supported by a sandy soil multilayer constructed on a soft clay foundation. This article discusses the main principles of pile capacity calculations with the help of Abaqus software. Two traditional methods are used for determining pile load capacity: (1) the α method and (2) β method. The alpha technique determines the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils. In contrast, the beta method determines the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. A model generated using finite element software is utilised for numerical analysis. The findings for load settlement diagrams and bearing capacity obtained from numerical results are similar with those obtained from finite element analysis.

Pratyusha Bandaru, Hemaraju Pollayi
Studies on Evaluation of Effect of Sloping Ground on Lateral Pile Response: A Brief Review

The foundations of a structure constructed in the close vicinity of the hill slope cause concern for the engineers dealing with the design of such structures since the stability of the slope is the most important factor under such circumstances. The structures constructed near slopes are mostly supported by deep foundation (pile). The presence of slope on one side lowers the passive resistance of soil which is bound to decrease the capacity of the foundation. Moreover, the problem of laterally loaded pile foundation is more complicated as compared to the axially loaded piles. The pile foundation encountered near the slope renders the problem of laterally loaded piles. On this backdrop, the present paper reviews the various research work (experimental, theoretical and analytical) undertaken by the researchers up till pertaining to the behavior of pile foundation constructed in the close vicinity of embankment or hill slope.

Nitesh Thakur, Hemant Chore
Numerical Modelling of Coal Mine Overburden Dump Slopes: Developments and Current State-of-the-Art

With the rapid increase in the accumulation rate of coal mine overburden (OB) dumps, the geoenvironmental hazards due to their failures have taken a toll. A major segment of the standard Indian regulations laid down for the overall geometry of the OB dump is based on limit equilibrium method (LEM) without any information about the displacement of the failed slope, confining stresses, stress–strain behaviour of slope material, time factor and heterogeneity (shape and size). This paper highlights the various methodologies used in the stability analysis of coal mine OB dumps. The problem domain in continuum approaches is considered as a single continuous body, so they are unable to model the discrete particle failure in the OB dump mass, whereas in the discontinuum approaches (like discrete element method (DEM)) it is treated as an assembly of independent particles giving a better realistic representation. Using DEM, the studies on slope stability analysis of OB dumps considering the aspects of heterogeneity of particles, site and environmental factors are very limited. Though OB dump consists of heterogeneous material, the previous literature is silent on the aspect of reliability analysis. The work presented here sheds light on all the above aspects from past literature and is believed to serve as a significant contribution in knowing the shortcomings, challenges and moving towards the feasible solutions utilizing the most appropriate computational technique.

Madhumita Mohanty, Rajib Sarkar, Sarat Kumar Das, Krishna R. Reddy
Slope Stability Analysis of Highway Embankment by Using GEO5 Software

In order to prevent the change in the level required by the terrain, generally, embankments are formed using compacted soil (i.e., generally clay or rock based) are used to sustain roads, railways or even canals built over it. The following study focuses on slope failure analysis which is primarily based on site investigations and lab testing. Design analysis completed on GEO5 software that requires geotechnical properties. Slope stability analysis using GEO5 software deals with various techniques such as Bishop’s changed technique, Spencer’s method, Morgenstern-Price method, Janbu’s simplified method, and so on. Parameters such as cohesion of soil, angle of internal friction, and unit weight of soil on which slope stability analysis depends are determined in the laboratory. Geotechnical properties of soil including grain size, optimum moisture content (OMC), maximum dry density (MDD), and shear strength parameters are taken into consideration for designing and construction of high embankment up to 20 m. In the present study, the optimization aspect of slope stability with required FOS as per IRC guidelines is discussed. Highway embankment was taken and settlement analyzed for different combinations of soil stratum. The numerical modeling finished the usage of GEO5 geotechnical software for discovering the FOS. The geotechnical parameters varied for specific slope and the FOS computed.

Dharmendra Singh, Vijay Kumar
Prediction of Unconfined Compressive Strength of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Steel Slag and Cement

Rapid urbanization has resulted in huge increase in number of infrastructure projects across the country. Availability of suitable material for construction of infrastructure projects is of utmost importance for completing the projects within time and budget. This is putting a lot of pressure on naturally available resources. Demand of steel has also increased enormously due to these global processes. India is producing steel through blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route as well as electric furnace or induction furnace route. During steel refining process, 2000–4000 kg of steel slag is generated for every tonne of steel produced. Geotechnical properties of the soil can be boosted by addition of steel slag. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) is important parameter which is widely used to determine the strength of the subgrade soil. Laboratory investigation using UCS is complex and time-consuming process. Experimental and analytical study aims at developing the equation based on multiple linear regression for evaluating the strength of the soil-slag and soil-slag-cement composite mix. Equations so developed showed better prediction capacity based on coefficient of determination.

Aditya D. Ahirwar, H. S. Chore
Experimental and Analytic Study of the Uplift Capacity of a Horizontal Plate Anchor Embedded in Geo-Reinforced Sand

The foundation systems under uplift loads, in particular, should be designed in accordance with the factors that influence uplift capability. Anchor systems have recently been used successfully in structures that have been subjected to uplift force. These anchor systems are affected by soil properties, loading conditions, embedment ratio and anchor group configuration. Model tests in the laboratory were used to investigate the uplift behaviour of plate anchors embedded in cohesion-less soil media with and without geosynthetic. Many factors, including the type of geosynthetic, the area of the anchor plate, relative density, the depth of embedment, the type of soil and the area of geosynthetic inclusion, have significantly influenced plate anchor uplift behaviour. The present paper describes the methodology and experimentation on model horizontal plate anchors embedded in geosynthetic reinforced cohesion-less soil beds. Also, the analytical investigation was carried out and the results were compared. It is observed those plate anchors embedded in reinforced soil exhibit 1.4 times more uplift capacity than the anchors embedded in unreinforced soil. Inclusion of geosynthetic layer increases the effective area of anchorage.

K. B. Akbar Husain, Samirsinh P. Parmar
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of Geocell Reinforced Pavement in Hilly Terrain

The dissertation aims to perform finite element analysis (FEA) of geocell reinforced pavement using with OPENSEES software. The study uses marginal material found in Himalayan regions and StrataWeb® SW 356-150 geocell and StrataWeb® SW 356-200 geocell. Calibration data for finite element model (FEM) and material characteristics can be obtained from the literature. Additionally, triaxial test must be performed to obtain layer moduli and Poisson’s ratio. The study attempts to model cylindrical test tank consisting of subgrade, geocell reinforced base layer and base cover tested for cyclic loading. The cyclic loading represents total number of wheel passes for pavement to fail. The whole tank is modelled rather than a quarter model to improve accuracy of result. The geocell is modelled considering honeycomb structure rather than simple rhomboidal structure—the honeycomb structure needs to be solved after performing regression analysis. The soil materials either coarse sand or clay are modelled using PressureDependMultiYield02 model or PressureIndependMultiYield model, respectively. The elements, soil and geocell are modelled using brickUP elements and ShellMITC4 elements. The model takes into account pore water pressure, pressure dependence, strain rate, etc. The results clearly indicate that geocell reinforced test section has better performance than that of unreinforced test section. This is evident by rut depth reduction factor. The values of velocity and acceleration were also compared, and it was evident that they were greater for geocell reinforced test sections.

Aman Kashyap, Vijayasri Thanikella, G. Bharat, Kranthi Kumar Kuna
Plaxis 2D Numerical Analysis of Encased Stone Column in Soft Clay

Strengthening soft soil ground with different techniques requires several tries with available material and properties of the same. Widely accepted soft ground strengthening technique is ordinary stone column (OSC), and it is encased with geosynthetic material, known as Geosynthetic Encased Stone Column (GESC). In this paper, different stone column (SC) parameters are tested with finite element method in Plaxis 2D software Version 8.6 and analyzed with load settlement observations. SC use with or without encasement is found more effective and sustainable as it provided strengthening feature. Three models of soft clay, baseline clay model, OSC and GESC, were tested with some constant variables like loading in center with same plate and water table at 300 mm from top of model. Result of increase in bearing capacity and decrease in settlement with these three axisymmetric models was compared. The selected property geosynthetic geotextile material is found suitable to encase the SC as it laterally confined SC with avoidance of bulging and improved load settlement curve nature.

Sanket S. Mudekar, Vidya N. Patil, Hemant S. Chore, Vishwas A. Sawant
Multiple Linear Regression Analysis for Predicting Unconfined Compressive Strength of Fiber Reinforced Fly Ash Stabilized Lateritic Soil

The importance of the prediction models for any of the engineering properties is due to time saving and material conservation which or else will take a lot of material and longer periods of time to determine the same through the laboratory experiments. The lateritic soil stabilized with fly ash (FA) and reinforced with glass fiber might be an effective alternative construction material in application to the geotechnical structures such as embankments, pavement sub-bases, retaining walls and structural landfills. This paper deals with the multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis to develop the prediction models for unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of lateritic soil stabilized with fly ash and reinforced with glass fibers. The lateritic soil replaced with 10, 20, 30 and 40% fly ash and added with glass fiber contents such as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3% is varied by weight of lateritic soil. In total, 17 combinations were tested for UCS at curing period of 7 days in un-soaked condition. The results obtained in the experimental investigation are used for developing the regression model using MLR analysis technique. The models thus developed were found to predict the UCS in fair to better agreement with the experimental values obtained through laboratory trials. The values of R2 range from 0.963 to 0.973 indicating the good co-relation between the UCS as dependent variable and contents of fly ash and glass fiber as independent variables.

Hemant S. Chore, Swati Yede, Bhupati Kannur, Rakesh Kumar
Prediction of Unconfined Compressive Strength of Fly Ash–Soil–Lime–Fiber System Using Multiple Regression Analysis

This study reports the development of the prediction models using multiple regression analysis for predicting the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of fly ash–soil–lime system reinforced with polypropylene fibers. The results obtained through laboratory UCS tests on different combinations of the fly ash–soil–lime–fiber system are utilized for the development of the models using SPSS software. The mixes of fly ash stabilized with 15 and 25% of soil, 10, 15 and 20% of lime contents and polypropylene fibers having 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4% were prepared and tested for their strength at curing periods of 7 days and 28 days. Six prediction models are developed. Further, the developed models are validated by using 12 laboratory trial mixes. The UCS values predicted by using these models are found to be in fair to better agreement with the actual values of UCS obtained by the laboratory results.

Hemant S. Chore, Swati Yede, Bhupati Kannur, Rakesh Kumar
ANN Model for Prediction of Compressive and Tensile Strength of Bacterial Concrete

Concrete is a popular construction material in developing nations like India. Parameters like compressive, split tensile, and flexural strength are used to assess concrete’s quality. Marble is widely used in India as a construction material. Processing of marble wastes around 30% of this stone. The marble waste powder can be disposed by utilizing it in concrete as a substitute of fine aggregate. Concrete post cracking behaviour has been improved by inclusion of marble and bacterial solution. Experimental data have been collected and used to suggest formulae for estimating concrete strength. The suggested equations correlated well with the experimental findings, demonstrating their accuracy.

S. Varadharajan, S. V. Kirthanashri, Mohammad Shahban, Bishnu Kant Shukla, Gaurav Bharti
Ring Foundation—A Review

Ring foundations support different types of onshore and offshore structures like towers, chimneys, windmills, OHSRs, etc. Numerous experimental, analytical and numerical studies were performed to determine parameters like bearing capacity factors and bearing capacity equation for ring footing and to understand the behavior of ring footing and behavior of soil under application of applied load. The main aim of the present study is to gather the information regarding behavior of ring footing under the influence of various factors like variation of inside diameter with respect to the outside diameter, stiffness of soil and ring footing, the effect of soil reinforcement and inclined and eccentric load. Furthermore, more weightage is given to numerical modeling of soil media and ring footing and comparison of experimental, analytical and numerical studies used to compute ring footings’ behavior and bearing capacity factors.

Prince Karandeep Singh, Arvind Kumar
Seismic Site Response and Liquefaction Potential for Proposed Underground Parking Site in Saharanpur (U.P.)

Ground response analysis has a significant role in planning and designing of reinforced cement concrete structures in high seismic zone as sever conditions at the surface may occur due to the amplification of seismic design coefficient as compared to the value of bedrock level. The present study focuses on ground response analysis of underground parking site proposed in Saharanpur (U.P.). One-dimensional equivalent linear ground response analysis has been conducted using DEEPSOIL (one of the techniques for ground response analysis) by using Sikkim 2011 and Uttarkashi 1999 earthquake motion. Shear modulus (G) was evaluated from SPT-N values based on available correlations. The Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) was calculated, and it has been observed that the PGA values at the ground surface are found to be more than the values mentioned in the relevant code. It has also been found that site is susceptible to liquefaction. Hence, special care must be taken in designing the multistoreyed building in the region of Saharanpur (U.P.)

Manish Bhutani, Sanjeev Naval
ANN Model for Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Irregular Steel Building Frames

The past decade has seen a surge in finding seismic behavior of buildings due to the significant number of building failures during the past earthquakes. Seismic design codes presume stiff beam-column connections, which is untrue. A stiff beam-column connection may also lead to erroneous seismic response data. This study attempts to address the flexibility of beam-column connections and suggest simpler equations for estimating fundamental time period. From analytical study it was concluded that the proposed equations findings matched the dynamic analysis closely.

S. Varadharajan, S. V. Kirthanashri, Mrityunjai Govind Rao, Animesh Jaiswal, Bishnu Kant Shukla
Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Amritsar, Punjab, India

The concept of smart city is destined to give improved personal satisfaction to residents and make their lives more secure than ever. Safety of the smart citizens cannot be confirmed without safe structures. Careful designing, planning, and execution can enhance the life span of any structure. Zone factor (Z) is one of the vital parameters analyzing the earthquake-resistant structures and can be calculated via seismic hazard analysis. In this paper, Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) for a proposed smart city, Amritsar is done by using earthquake data of size (Mw) ≥ 5 for the past 516 years. Peak ground acceleration value at bedrock level, considering the grid of size 0.025° × 0.025° and using ground motion parameter equation (GMPE) by National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is found out to be 0.414 g which is on higher side as compared to 0.24 g recommended by IS 1893-2016 part 1. The present study shows the importance of carrying out site-specific seismic hazard analysis for proposed smart cities.

Nikhil Bhatti, Sanjeev Naval, Gagan Deep

Ground Improvement and Transportation Geotechnics

Effect of Sand Blanket Reinforced with Geogrid Over the Stone Column in Compressible Clay Soils: 3D Numerical Study

The present study is on stiffening the soft cohesive soils with a sand blanket, sand reinforced with geogrid layer and reinforced with geotextile encased stone columns (GESCs). The three-dimensional numerical investigation was conducted on sand reinforced without and with a geogrid effect. And below the sand bed, the ordinary and encased columns are studied. The circular footing (uniform distributed load) rests on a multi-layered soil model. The significant parameters investigated through these models are load improvement factor (LIF), bearing capacity improvement ratio (BCR), settlement reduction ratio (SRR), modulus of subgrade reaction and stiffness improvement ratio. From the results, it is evident that sand bed with ordinary stone column and GESC cases gives a considerable improvement. The percentage of improvement in the case of sand bed reinforced with geogrid layer followed by GESC installed is 148% than the untreated cohesive soil. This study is useful for highway subgrades and raft slabs that rest on soft cohesive soils to control total settlement and non-uniform settlement.

Sudheer Kumar Jala, Sudhanshu Sharma, Aijaz H. Bhat
Use of Chitosan Biopolymer and Fly Ash to Enhance Mechanical Properties of Soil

For the stabilization of expansive soil, chemical stabilizers like cement and fly ash are more often used. But chemical stabilizers are not eco-friendly. Therefore, an attempt is toward an eco-friendly and sustainable additive possessing efficient property to replace such chemical additives. Thus, biological additive like biopolymers is studied. Biopolymer like chitosan is widely used in geotechnical concern giving effective strength gain results. In the present study, an optimum dosage of chitosan (CS) is found out performing UCS test by increasing chitosan of 0, 0.01, 0.0125, 0.025 and 0.05%. Then, the fly ash (FA) was amended to the soil by weight of 15, 20, 25 and 30% to find out the right amount that may provide strength characteristics. Laboratory tests like unconfined compressive strength test (UCS) and direct shear test (DST) are performed for dry condition curing of 0 day, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days on clay soil, chitosan treated clay soil and fly ash amended clay soil. Results are compared between treated and untreated soil. Strength gain is achieved in stabilized soils with respect to an untreated BCS due to increase in cohesion of clay. Numerical model was tested using Plaxis 2D to analyze the settlement characteristics of the stabilized soil. It showed that the chitosan treated soil with 20% fly ash replacement (CS-FA) provided good results.

Rohan M. Shinde, Shweta G. Jambhulkar, Rupa S. Dalvi
Analyze of Subgrade Soil Behavior Blended with Phosphogypsum and Fly Ash as Additive

A road/pavement is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance like motor vehicle, cart, or bicycle. The quality of roads dictates the economy of a country and hence the quality of our lives. Road transport of India covered more than 60% of the freight and 80% of the passenger road traffic. Roads are mainly used for the transport of goods and passengers. Village roads are dangerous for the basic connectivity for the upliftment of the social and economic condition of the rural area. Such roads provide access to employment, means of transporting agricultural produce and access to health care and social services. In transportation engineering, subgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road, pavement or railway (US: railroad) track. It is also called formation level. The term can also refer to imported material that has been used to build an embankment. For this present project work silty—sandy soil samples have been collected from different changes of newly constructed Kadapa-Renigunta express highway, Andhra Pradesh, India. Every soil samples have been collected from 15 cm. below the existing ground surface. The sample of fly ash has been collected through Thermanl power plant, (NTPC, Ramagundam). Several physical, as well as engineering properties tests, were done as per the necessities of IS-Codes. Output of the test results has concluded that soil stabilized with fly ash and phosphogypsum, the C.B.R. and UCS results are significantly more compared to without treated soil. Tests point toward that soil mixed with 30% FA and 6% PG may be used as an improved subgrade material. As the subgrade thickness reduced so the construction will be economic.

Priyanka Saha, Vidya Sagar Khanduri
Evaluation of Deviator Stress of Lime-Alccofine-Stabilized Fly Ash from Ultrasonic Pulse Wave Velocity

The paper presents the correlation between the deviator stress and ultrasonic pulse wave velocity of fly ash stabilized with 6% lime and 2% alccofine content. Unconsolidated undrained and consolidated drained tests were performed on 7, 14, and 28 days cured specimen subjected to confining pressure of 49.1–196.2 kPa. The test results revealed that peak deviator stress of the mix increases with the increase in confining pressure for all curing period. Similarly, the improvement in initial tangent modulus and secant modulus was seen with the increase in curing period and confining pressure. Whereas, with the prolongation of curing period, an increase in the cohesion and decrease in friction angle of the mix were observed. An empirical relationship between the deviator stress of the mix and ultrasonic pulse wave velocity, confining pressure, and curing period was proposed and found satisfactory.

Rakesh Kumar Dutta, Jitendra Singh Yadav
Strength Behaviour of Dredged Soil Stabilized with Cement and Fly Ash

Any wastes that are produced by human activities that are solid in nature are categorized as solid wastes. In this research, solid waste was produced by dredging Kashmir’s renowned Dal Lake. Dal Lake in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, produces a significant amount of dredged dirt, presenting severe health and environmental issues. Concerns about the environmental impacts of dredging and disposal, as well as the growing scarcity of appropriate disposal locations, have increased the need for dredged material characterization. As such, the purpose of this research is to describe the waste material produced by Dal Lake by examining its different physical and mechanical characteristics. Dredged material was collected from the Shalimar site, which is located within the Dal Lake catchment, for the purpose of conducting various field and laboratory tests to determine field density, soil classification, compaction characteristics, and strength parameters such as unconfined compressive strength and direct shear test. The findings indicate that dredged material is mostly composed of silt, clay, and sand, and that strength characteristics indicate that dredged material cannot be utilized in its natural form as building and foundation material. As a result, appropriate and practical treatments should be applied to dredged material in order to enable its use in geotechnical applications.

Razia Sultan, M. Y. Shah
An Experimental Study on the Effect of RBI Grade 81 Additive on the Engineering Properties of Clayey Soils

This article focuses on the study of influence of RBI grade 81 stabilizer on the improvement of the expansive soil properties with an emphasis on the micro-level analysis of the treated soils. The soil samples were treated with various dosages (2, 4 and 6%) of the stabilizer and cured under controlled conditions. The improvement in the treated soil properties in terms of effectiveness of dosage and effectiveness of curing periods was studied. An attempt has been made to understand the soil behavior and the efficiency of the stabilizer by comparing the laboratory test results with the micro-level analysis. The test results indicated reduction in free swell index of the soil samples and a significant increase in the strength parameters of the treated soils. The addition of RBI 81 stabilizer resulted in the improvement of about 500% and 300% in the UCS values for samples 1 and 2, respectively. The CBR values obtained from treated soil samples were observed to be around 50% for both the soils in soaked condition. The swell potential of the treated soil samples was reduced by 80% for both the soil samples.

Manisha Gunturi, P. T. Ravichandran
A Study on the Effectiveness on the Polyethylene Strips in Cement-Treated Soil

This paper presents the study conducted on the locally available clayey soil using plastic strips with and without cement. Low-density polyethylene obtained from shopping bags was cut into strips of aspect ratio (AR) 4 and 2 (length/width ratio). The plastic strips were uniformly mixed in the soil sample by adding 1, 2, and 3% by weight of the soil. The samples were tested for unconfined compression test. In order to compare the improvement in strength of the soil, a constant value of 2% cement was added along with the plastic strips. The cement-treated samples were cured for a period of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days prior to testing. The test results for untreated and treated soil samples with and without cement were compared. The samples treated with plastic strips showed slight improvement in the UCS values on comparison to the cement-treated soil samples. A maximum of 10 fold and 18-fold increase in the UCS values compared to untreated soils were observed for soil samples treated with plastic strips of AR2 and AR4, respectively. Similarly, the cement-treated soils showed better results than the soils without cement treatment. The UCS values of cement-treated soil samples was found to be 28-fold and 32-fold for AR2 and AR4, respectively.

Manisha Gunturi, Goutham Sarang
Shear Strength Characteristics of Marble Dust-Lime Stabilized Marine Clay

Marine clay has a low load capacity and changes volume dramatically as an effect of water content. It may need to be treated before it can be utilized for road construction. Many types of waste materials are accumulating, and environmentalists are concerned for how to safely dispose of them. India’s vast industrial network generates millions of metric tons of industrial wastes each year. The marble business produces marble dust as one of its products. The study is to examine the effect of marble dust as a stabilizer. First, an optimum value of marble dust (20%) was determined on the basis of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) properties of mixtures of marble dust and soil (marine clay). Then, lime was mixed up to 10% by weight with an increment of 2% in the optimized mixture (marine clay–marble dust). To examine the properties of Marble dust-Lime Stabilized Marine clay, various experiments such as Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS), Triaxial Tests, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed. The results obtained from the laboratory investigation, it is observed the ideal marble dust-lime proportion for the best stabilization effect is observed to be 4–20%.

B. Manjula Devi, H. S. Chore
Evaluation of Bagasse Ash in Stabilization of Pavement Sub-Grade

India is one of the biggest countries, also called the “Indian subcontinent.” It is the second most populated country in the world. For managing such a huge population, the government provides many services, appropriate means of transportation being one of them. When a development’s sub-grade is discovered to be weak, it must be treated or stabilized to meet the project’s needs. The availability of waste materials from agriculture and industry, as well as the necessity to use this material in the field of road construction rather than typical stabilizing materials, has fueled research into sugarcane bagasse ash soil stabilization. Sugarcane bagasse ash provides a number of engineering advantages that make it an excellent stabilizer material. The goal of our project is to assess the potential benefits of bagasse ash as a sub-grade layer stabilizer material.

Riddhi H. Jethwa, Sharmeen S. Momin, B. Manjula Devi, H. S. Chore
An Experimental Study on the Strength Behaviour of Black Cotton Soil Stabilized with Industrial Waste Material (Zinc Slag) for Pavement Construction

Depletion of natural resources for construction material, abundant generation of industrial wastes, disposal problems and their environmental impact have resulted in a continuous research scope for reuse of industrial wastes for sustainable engineering practice. Among these practices, the utilization of industrial wastes from metal processing industry for pavement subgrade stabilization has gained significant global importance. Present research aims at investigating the potential of one such material zinc slag (ZS) in altering and enhancing the strength properties of black cotton soils (BCS) for possible pavement applications. Different dosages of ZS (25, 50 and 75%) and cement (3, 6 and 9%) are administered to the black cotton soil. The mechanistic performance of these stabilized soil–slag mixtures in the form of CBR and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) values has been observed and used as an indicator to investigate the suitability of these mixes as pavement subgrade and subbase roads having traffic intensity up to 5 msa. The proposed layer thicknesses due to the increased CBR/UCS values is calculated to meet the IRC: 372018 guidelines. The IITPAVE analysis is used to quantify the fatigue and rutting strains at perilous locations in the pavement during the desired service life.

Mohini Patel, P. S. Prasad, Pranav R. T. Peddinti, Vijai Kumar Kanaujia
Effect of Resilient Modulus on Inverted Base Pavements—A Theoretical Study

Inverted base pavement is a new type of pavement structure in which a good quality unbound granular aggregate base (GAB) layer is placed between a stiff cement treated base (CTB) layer and bituminous concrete (BC) layer. Inverted base pavements are being used in many countries due to its various advantages. The major advantage of inverted base pavements over conventional pavements includes thinner BC layer as compared to conventional pavements. Therefore in this paper, an attempt has been made to model an inverted base pavement section using finite element software and predicting its response by varying the resilient modulus of different layers. Though the response of pavement depends on both layer thickness and resilient modulus, this study is limited to study only the effect of resilient modulus on pavement performance. The approach of the study is to develop finite element model using ABAQUS software followed by validation of results of base model in IIT_PAVE software and then to study the response of a typical inverted base pavement using ABAQUS. By varying the resilient modulus of layers, total of 13 cases were considered in this study. The results indicated that BC modulus significantly affects strain values at the bottom of BC layer, GAB modulus affects the BC layer on its surface as well as at the bottom of BC layer and also the subgrade, whereas CTB modulus significantly affects the vertical strain in the subgrade and hence can be used to prevent excessive deformation problems in inverted base pavements.

Swagata Mishra, Pratik Jaiswal, D. Sitarami Reddy
Identification and Analysis of Factors of Delay in Road Construction Projects

Delays are frequent in any civil engineering projects including the road projects. Project delays can result in cost overrun, time overruns, quality issues, etc. In this study, a national highway road project has been considered. A total of probable 90 delay factors were recognized and were characterized into nine foremost categories. A questionnaire was prepared, and it was filled by 101 respondents. Relative importance index technique has been used for the analysis of questionnaire data. The top and base 15 delay factors were recognized. The top five delay factors were found to be: consequence of sub-surface circumstances (rock, water table, soil, etc.), design related clashes/faults, provide the furnished site to the contractor, scarcity of skilled labour, resource allocation related delay, etc.

Bishnu Kant Shukla, Vaishnavi Bansal, S. Varadharajan, Gaurav Bharti, Aparupa Shenoy, Udit Kumar Singh, S. V. Kirthanashri
Effect of Curing on Strength of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Marble Dust

Marble is a versatile material used to enhance the artistic value of structures, sculptures, and monuments. Utilization of marble is not only restricted to traditional applications like internal and external walls and claddings, flooring work, but also includes non-traditional applications such as paint and agricultural lime. In India, Rajasthan accounts for 89% of the marble production of the country. There are almost 4000 marble mines in state of Rajasthan. During the mining and finishing operations, a substantial amount of marble waste is generated in order to obtain a well-finished product. In existing study, effort is made to assess the usefulness of marble dust for stabilization of clayey soil. Parameters like compaction characteristics, strength characteristics are assessed through experimental work. Laboratory investigations were carried out to assess the effect of curing period on strength of different combination of mixes. Test results indicates that the strength of composite mix increases with increase in proportion of marble dust and also, with the curing period.

Aditya D. Ahirwar, H. S. Chore
Analysis of Bagasse Ash with GBFS as a Cement-Treated Sub-Base

Flexible pavements are easy to maintain, can be opened to traffic in a very short time, it also has a smooth surface, better riding comfort, low noise, short construction period, low cost and convenient maintenance. India, as the world’s seventh-largest country by land, to serve its people, it requires a vast network of structures and highways. This imposes undue pressure on limited resources, in order to practise sustainable development and rather necessitates the use of industrials by-product (IBP) and locally available materials. The industrial by-product of sugarcane industry and steel plant are bagasse ash (BA) and granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), respectively. To understand the possibility of these materials as cement-treated sub-base materials (CTSB), various physical, chemical analysis and permeability tests conducted on different proportion of these materials. From the strength characteristics, 60% of BA and 40% of GBFS found as an optimum combination and can be used as CTSB material for low-volume roads.

B. Manjuladevi, H. S. Chore
Strength Characteristics of Copper Slag and Lime Stabilized Clayey Soil

Flexible pavement is multi-layered structure which helps in distributing traffic load over wider area of subgrade. Stability of pavement depends on strength of the subgrade soil. Non-availability of suitable material for construction of pavement is one of the major reasons which hampers the completion of the highway construction project. The disposal of waste generated in various industries like steel and copper is a major environmental and ecological issue. These waste materials can be used effectively in pavement construction because they have the potential to improve the strength of the subgrade soil. Utilization of such material to enhance strength characteristics of the subgrade soil will not only help in reducing pavement thickness but also will provide substitute for conventional material either independently or as stabilizer. Locally available soft clay was stabilized with copper slag and experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate consistency limits, compaction characteristics and strength characteristics of different combination of mixes. The strength of clay is found to increase with the addition of copper slag up to 30%. California bearing ratio (CBR) of various mixes increases with addition of lime.

Aditya D. Ahirwar, H. S. Chore
Influence of Fines Content on the Strength and Compaction of the Poorly Graded Soil

This paper is aimed to study the effect of fines content on the compaction and strength aspects of soil. Fine soil (Kaolin clay) and coarse soil (sand) were used in this paper. The fines content was varied as 0, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, and 100%, by weight of the mix. To study compaction characteristics, modified proctor compaction test was performed. To study the strength aspect, CBR tests were carried out. From the test results it was discovered that the optimum moisture content (OMC) of the mix kept on increasing as the fines content was increased in the mix. Moreover, the maximum dry unit weight (MDUW) first increases up to the fines content of 30% and then starts decreasing, after adding more fines to the mix. In addition to this, CBR values also show increasing trend until the fines content reaches 30–35% and then it starts decreasing, afterwards. This trend of CBR was similar for both the un-soaked and soaked samples.

Vaibhav Sharma, Arvind Kumar, Pritesh Patel, Dheeraj Kumar
Modification of Engineering Properties of Soil Using Waste Materials: A Review

In recent decades, changes in lifestyle, industrialization, urbanization, migration, etc., affected the ecosystem of the earth due to the generation of post-consumer wastes. The amount of waste generation is leading to a huge challenge for the disposal of wastes. The direct dumping of wastes in water bodies and land created a major impact on ambient. A refined analysis was carried out based on studies available on the effect of natural and synthetic waste materials on the geotechnical properties of soils. This paper presents the review of various types of wastes used as an admixture with soil and its behavior. Looking to the problem of waste dumping, one of the potential use of wastes in developing country is to utilize wastes in ground improvement looking to the large-scale infrastructure construction. The addition of wastes in different amount, form, etc., shows the significant modification in the properties of virgin soil.

Alka Shah, Tejas Thaker
Suction Analysis at Soil-Geocell Interface for a Clayey Soil

The soils of the Greater Himalayas are predominantly found in Leh and Ladakh, Lahaul and Spiti, and Uttarakhand's upper ranges. The humidity regime is erratic. The arid zone begins from Baralacha pass in Lahaul and extends throughout the Spiti valley in the Himachal Pradesh district of Lahaul and Spiti. The purpose of this study is to establish the suction value of soil taken from the arid zone of the Spiti valley during various freezing–thawing cycles, taking into account the climate variations of the Spiti valley. The most basic and important parameter that impacts the behaviour of an unsaturated soil is suction. Before doing further tests such as shear and permeability, it is critical to know the suction value of an unsaturated soil. In a nutshell, it is the negative pore water pressure in partially saturated soil expressed in terms of water column height. The study employed the filter paper method as a cost-effective way to assess suction. It is the only approach that can determine both contact and noncontact suction. To get a wide range of suction, soil specimens were treated to 0, 1, 3, and 5 freezing–thawing (F-T) cycles for various degrees of saturation, and soil freezing characteristic curves (SFCC) were developed for all F-T cycles. For each SFCC, the data obtained from the experiments revealed the best fitting values using the Fredlund and Xing model.

Bhavita S. Dave, Chandresh H. Solanki, Atul K. Desai
Potential of Coconut Shell Powder on Geotechnical Characteristics of Stabilized Soil

The area around Karnataka is mostly comprised of lateritic soils and many irregular lateritic hillocks. It consists of lithomargic clay sandwiched between the weathered laterite which is located at the top and hard-granitic gneiss beneath it. These soils are structurally unstable and are highly prone to erosion. A lot of engineering problems such as foundation problems, subgrade problems, erosion and slope stability problems are being faced due to the presence of these soils. Therefore, this kind of soil is not much stable and could not be used directly for heavy construction work. So far, various attempts have been made to stabilize the engineering properties of these type of soil using different materials. Fibers like nylon, polypropylene strips and agents like cement and lime were also used. Due to the addition of above substances and modifiers, it usually improves the bearing capacity and strength characteristics of the soil mass. In some cases, the liquid limit also drastically decreased. With the introduction of reinforcements like coconut shell in the backfill, several parameters of the retaining wall system may be improved; for example, the use of reinforcements in soil in the form of geotextile or geogrid reduces the lateral earth pressure. In this study, we have compared the variation in properties between natural soil and soil stabilized with coconut shell. Coconut shell was reduced to sizes of 2–4.75 and 4.75–10 mm and was used at different percentages up to 10.

Pratik Ranjan Yadav, Mahesh Patel
Unconfined Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Soil–lime-Fiber System

The objective of the present study was to investigate the strength of soil-fly ash-fiber-lime system. More specifically to study the effect of different materials such as soil, fly ash, lime, and fiber on the strength of the system in terms of unconfined compressive strength (UCS). The combinations of fly ash stabilized with soil by 15, 25, and 10, 15, and 20% lime added with polypropylene fiber contents of about 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% were prepared and tested for their strength at curing periods of 7 and 28 days.

Bhupati Kannur, Hemant S. Chore, Swati Yede
Bearing Capacity of Geocell Reinforced Model Fly Ash Slope

A bulk utilization of pozzolonic material in the geotechnical construction is in demand for sustainable infrastructural development as it is economical, and further, it also reduces pollution. This paper focuses on the experimental investigations of only fly ash and single geocell-layered fly ash with slope angle β = 45° and footing edge distances (De = 1B, 2B, 3B. This is done in laboratory and with model instrument. From the experiment, load and settlement are measured, and from this data, load-settlement curves are reported. Ultimate bearing capacity of reinforced fly ash slope with geocell is compared with unreinforced fly ash slope by using load-settlement characteristics for slope. Test results show that load carrying capacity increases with increase in footing location from crest of the slope in all cases. Also, there is ample increase in bearing capacity with addition of single geocell reinforcement at first location of geocell layer (Z/B = 0.30). The study demonstrates bearing capacity improvement with the inclusion of geocell reinforcements.

Vidya N. Patil, Hemant S. Chore, Vishwas A. Sawant
Unconfined Compressive Strength of Clayey Soil Stabilized with Marble Dust

Marble is used to enhance the artistic value of structures, sculptures, and monuments. In India, Rajasthan accounts for 89% of the marble production of the country. There are almost 4000 marble mines in state of Rajasthan. During the mining and finishing operations, a substantial amount of marble waste is generated in order to obtain a well-finished product. In existing study, effort is made to judge the usefulness of marble dust for stabilization of clayey soil. Parameters like compaction characteristics, unconfined compressive strength are assessed through experimental work. Laboratory investigations were carried out to assess the effect of curing period on strength of different combination of mixes. Test results indicates that the strength of composite mix increases with increase in proportion of marble dust and also, with the curing period.

H. S. Chore, Anurag M. Khadse, Aditya D. Ahirwar
Proceedings of Indian Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering Conference (IGGEC) 2021, Vol. 1
herausgegeben von
Arvind Kumar Agnihotri
Krishna R. Reddy
H. S. Chore
Springer Nature Singapore
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