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This volume includes the full proceedings from the 1982 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference held in Las Vegas, Nevada. It provides a variety of quality research in the fields of marketing theory and practice in areas such as consumer behaviour, marketing management, marketing education, industrial marketing, and international marketing, among others.

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complimenting the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science.



Perceptions of Downtown Attraction Factors in the Small City: A Case Study in Ohio

The perceptions of small-city business and community leaders regarding the drawing power of various downtown attraction factors are analyzed and related to perceived downtown shopping atmosphere.

Peter S. Carusone, Yitshak Dayan

Characteristics of Automatic Teller Machine users by Multivariate Analysis

This study attempts to pursue an adequate analytical determination of target market automatic teller machine user characteristics which can be used as strategic input to the marketing planning process. To this end, the Wright State University consumer panel was utilized to probe in detail both frequency and type of ATM use and specific user profiles using both Multiple Discriminate Analyses and Automatic Interaction Deduction. Further analysis was then used to develop user/non-user profiles and respondent discrimination in regard to preferences for potential ATM locations.

Yitshak Dayan, Thomas D. Dovel

Freight Consolidation Strategies for Channel Management: A Response to Environmental Change

High interest rates and inflation, combined with deregulation of the transportation industry, have significantly affected the environment within which channel decisions are conceived and implemented. In this article, freight consolidation is presented as a strategic response to these environmental disturbances.

George C. Jackson, Fred W. Morgan

Distribution Procedures—An Impediment to the Sale of Solar Products

Even the most dedicated advocate of solar energy will admit that thus far, the general public's verbalized enthusiasm for solar energy has not been matched by its actual purchases of solar equipment.

George Kress, Barry Hages

The Incidence of Eating Out: A Review and Decision Model for Managers of Fast Food Restaurants

Controversy over whether the fast-food industry is suffering from volatile economic shifts, changing family composition and life styles, or poor management has left an aura in its. atmosphere. The apparent slowdown in growth has implied that the industry is saturated. Many of its members are employing actions to counteract saturation and move back in the life cycle. A selection of decision criteria is suggested with implications which underscore the need for managers of fast-food operations to "set the stage" for new growth patterns.

Mary Ann Lederhaus

Sensory Profiling and Retailer Selection

After identifying selected characteristics of generic tomato juice, an experiment was conducted to enable a comparison of attribute ratings for generic tomato juice and two types of retail suppliers. Descriptive Analysis (QDA) techniques were used for collecting and analyzing the data. Three types of information were then plotted on appropriate polar axes: (1) ratings for selected product attributes prior to store identification, (2) changes in attribute perceptions after store identification, and (3) attribute ratings of retail suppliers after store identification. After connecting appropriate plotted points, different sensory profiles appeared in association with two different types of stores and their products. These profiles could be helpful to producers in selecting retailers who are likely to be most effective in marketing their products.

Carlton A. Maile, Nessim Hanna

Is Multidimensional Scaling (And Other Esoterica) for the Small Retailer?

The paper is concerned with the degree of use of non-metric multidimensional scaling (and, by implication, other marketing research esoterica) by small retailers. The issues explored are the value of multidimensional scaling (MDS) to small retailers, factors limiting the use of MDS by small retailers, current mechanisms available to small retailers for conducting research using MDS, and changes affecting the future use of MDS by small retailers. Several recommendations for research are included.

Robert McWilliams, Earl Naumann, Stanley Scott

Optimal Site Selection within Complex Markets: A Preliminary Solution

Although site selection has always been an important retailing decision, the selection of new sites in recent times has become more complex. The complexity of new site selection eminates from the reduction in the number of major regional malls being constructed, by the desire of many retail chains to enter smaller population communities, and the desire to maximize market share in existing markets by either opening new units or by improving assortments, employee productivity, or atmospheric elements to increase sales from existing units.

Scott M. Smith, J. Patrick Kelly

Enhancing the Power of Channel Leaders

Effective leaderships necessary to maintain efficiency and cooperation within a marketing channel. Power is the major variable in determination of the channel leader. Institutional economics provides concepts which enhance the traditional marketing concepts of power. Using a case study, the concepts of social traps, boundaries, ordering the agenda, and transaction costs are used to elaborate upon the application of the traditional power sources.

A. Clyde Vollmers

The Effect of Economic Development on the Status of Marketing Research

The quality and scope of marketing research in the less-developed countries is usually disparaged and a superior level of activity in the developed countries is implied. This descriptive study based on data from Turkey and New Zealand does not provide evidence to positively correlate the level of economic development with the status of marketing research.

A. Tansu Barker

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Attitudes of Consumers and Business People Towards Consumerism

The attitudes of U.S. consumers and business people from Long Beach, California towards current consumerism issues were compared with those of their Swedish counterparts in Uppsala. Significant differences were found not only between the two countries, but between consumers and business people as well. The present Swedish experiment of attempting to establish marketing and production guidelines through negotiations between governmental and industry authorities was also discussed.

Gary D. Klein

Development of Marketing Channels in Developing Countries the Turkish Case

This paper aims to determine and evaluate the developments of distribution channels in developing countries, especially in Turkey, and to develop some proposals. Firstly, the structure of distribution channels in Turkey is described and discussed. Secondly, major trends in both wholesaling and retailing are determined and evaluated. It is concluded that even slight improvements in distribution may cause important cost reductions.

Kemal Kurtulu§

National Marketing and Protectionism in the Post MTN Environment

The comparatively favorable reception calls for a New International Economic Order received during the seventies pointed to further export and industrialization opportunities for the developing countries. The conclusion of the Multilateral Trade Negotiations in 1979 may have ushered in a new era of international cooperation and continued the fifty year drive for free international trade expanding even more markets for the exports of developing nations. However, its emphasis on bilateral fair trade may have ushered in an era of protectionism. A correct reading of the emerging environment is critical to developing nations’ strategic planning for the 1980s.

Kevin F. McCrohan

Characteristics of Fast Food Restaurant Patrons: A Special Emphasis on Concern for Nutrition

This study investigated the relationship between patronage of fast food restaurants and personal values, attitudes toward nutrition, life style, and demographics. The results indicate that more frequent patrons express lower concern for nutrition. Conversely, as emphasis on nutrition is associated with non-patronage of these outlets, it appears management of fast food restaurants may be faced with a potential market segment that can be served through offering and communicating the availability of more nutritious fast food menus. In addition, life style and demographics werp found related to patronage.

Kenneth D. Bahn, Kent L. Granzin

An Examination of Advertising Execution Related Cognitions as Mediators of Commercial Message Acceptance

Past studies of cognitive responses to advertising messages have focused primarily on thoughts related to the product and/or the message. This study examines the occurrence of thoughts evaluating the execution of the commercial message and their relationship to message acceptance.

George E. Belch, Michael A. Belch

Children’s Self-Perceptions of their Participation in Retail Store Patronage Decisions

The authors note the relative absence of studies of children’s perceptions of their participation in retail store decisions. A sample of 121 fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth-graders tested across four stages of three product decision areas revealed sex-, age-, product-, and subdecision-specific findings implying the operation of complex variables in the child consumer socialization process.

Alvin C. Burns, Mary Carolyn Harrison

Male and Female Heavy-Users of an Apparel Product Category: A Comparison of Sex Related Segment Profiles

Many studies of market segments rely on either heterosexual or female only samples. The research reported in this paper examines male and female usage based segments for an apparel product category in an attempt to determine whether sex-specific profile differences exist. Male and female profiles were developed via multiple discriminant analysis for a variety of life style, shopping behavior, market specific and demographic predictor variables. Although differences were found in the resulting profiles, many useful suggestions are made for further research of sex-specific segments.

Barnett A. Greenberg, James R. Lumpkin

Leisure and Consumer Behavior: A “Social Indicators” Update

It is reported that Americans have revised the traditional definition of success. According to that view, wasteful materialism is increasingly being rejected along with a lifelong competition for wealth and privilege. Instead, nonmaterial standards of personal growth and development are favored. Along with such a development, there is a growing skepticism of big governmental and private organizations. There is a growing recognition that social values, attitudes and beliefs will have a decisive influence on economic growth. Growth is no longer a dominant value and increasingly the public is concerned with the price tag of growth in terms of other values that are considered important. (Conrad Taeuber, 1981: viii)

Douglass K. Hawes

The Salience of Low Price in the Marketing of Remanufactured Consumer Durable Goods

This paper reports the results of research conducted to determine the salience of low price in the marketing of remanufactured products. Members of the Arkansas Household Research Panel were surveyed, and the results are presented. Implications for marketing and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Stephen P. Hutchens, Jon M. Hawes

Black Market Segmentation Based on Black as well as White Symbols

During the latter sixties and early seventies, there was a proliferation of data amassed on the black consumer. These studies either used homogeneous observations for white equivalent comparisons or the black consumer was segmented according to income and symbolic meanings. Although the black consumer was viewed as striving for symbols representative of the white middle-class, a dichotomized black symbol was never considered. Since that time, data has not been collected on the changes in black attitudes, values and interests which reflect the socioeconomic acquisitions of blacks during the sixties and seventies. Because black culture was accepted also as a subculture during this period, the author used both black and white product symbols to measure the attitudes of a stratified sample of black consumers. ANOVA results indicate that younger, better educated blacks are more responsive to black symbols than white symbols.

Elizabeth Johnson

Product Involvement, Cognitive Dissonance and Product Satisfaction: An Experimental Study

The understanding of consumers’ satisfaction with a product/service has become an important topic in consumer behavior research. Past experimental research in this area is based on explanations offered by cognitive dissonance theory. This experimental study points out methodological problems in the past experimental research. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

Pradeep K. Korgaonkar, Ravi Parameswaran

The Relationship between Store Image and Customer Deviant Behavior: An Exploratory Study

This exploratory research paper reports an experiment, which was conducted to establish the relationship between store image and customer deviant behavior. The experiment in which 807 university students were studied provided some evidence indicating a positive correlation. Further research is recommended.

Vinay Kothari, Robert H. Solomon

Alternative Action Opportunities for the Food Industry to Better Serve the Households of the Aged and Aging

In the search for ways to improve the quality of life for the elderly, one area receiving increasing attention has been the activities of the elderly in the marketplace--especially their purchase of food items. Although food expenditures account for a significant portion of the elderly’s monthly outlay of money and time, very little is known about their specific shopping activities and problems.

Harry Krueckeberg, George Kress

An Investigation of Price-, Quality-, and Deal-Oriented Retail Market Segments

This study investigated the existence and nature of retail market segments based on shoppers’ emphasis on price, quality, and deals benefits. Five groups were found: Deal Seekers, Price Watchers, Quality Selectors, Quality Users, and Price-Quality Selectors. In general, those who seek mainly quality benefits depend on national brands and brand loyalty as selection criteria. Those who emphasize price and deal benefits are willing to take a chance with different products to reach their shopping goals. Those who want to maximize both price and quality benefits show greater concern about making the right decision than those who concentrate on price comparison when selecting products.

Terese L. Lookinland, Gerard J. Carvalho, Kent L. Granzin

The Hispanic Consumer Segment

The Hispanic subculture is a significant component of the United States economy. Although the market offers a large opportunity for development by businesses, it has been largely ignored by consumer goods companies. This paper describes the nature of the Hispanic consumer segment and discusses marketing strategies for this group.

David L. Loudon, Claude Simpson

Consumer Satisfaction and Consumer Behavior: Evidence on the “So What” Question

Direct measures of consumer satisfaction have been proposed and studied in recent years. To date, evidence that satisfaction is related to behavior, a necessary condition for wider adoption of satisfaction monitoring, is lacking. In this article it is shown that measured satisfaction is strongly associated with product use and store loyalty.

R. Neil Maddox

Determinants of Consumer Deviance

Previous psychological research in the consumer deviance area has been largely of the "trait" variety. This study tested the predictive importance of both individually and situationally based measures on the incidence of deviant consumer behavior. The results show that while both types of variables are important, situationally determined factors offer the most vitality as predictive tools.

Michael K. Mills

In Search of the Validity and Applicability of Diffusion Theory

One of the most celebrated theories ever borrowed from the social sciences to be used in marketing is "diffusion process of innovations" theory. The theory, however, has serious problems in terms of its validity and applicability.

Sak Onkvisit, John J. Shaw

Peak Experiences: Latent Dimensionalities in Consumption Behavior

Although psychologists have described self-actualization (Maslow) as a spiritual rather than a materialistic state, there is evidence to suggest that some material possessions can lead to a "partial" form of actualization or peaking in some mode or style of living. Since this can lead to the modification of existing appeals or contribute to the development of more effective promotional programs (promotional synergies between products), a study was undertaken to investigate the phenomenon.

Kathy Pettit, John H. Hallaq

Consumer Choice of Information Processing Strategies in Disposition Decisions

Information processing strategies were investigated in a product disposition context. One hundred subjects participated in an experiment designed to test the effect of predecisional perceived risk and the functional condition of the product on the type of processing strategy selected. No significant effect of the two independent variables was reported; however, a significant number of subjects selected a lexicographic strategy. The results suggest that consumers disposing of durable goods tend to focus on the financial benefits or costs that accompany different disposal alternatives.

Nabil Y. Razzouk, Corbet Gaulden

Self-Image/Product-Image Congruity and Advertising Strategy

This article discusses the state-of-the-art of self-concept literature in consumer/market behavior, introduces an integrated self-concept model to the advertising practitioners, and shows how this model can enhance the formulation of advertising strategic effectiveness.

M. Joseph Sirgy

An Investigation of the Shopping Orientations of Recent Movers

The purpose of this paper is to determine how the shopping orientations of recent movers are different from the orientations of the population at large. Specifically, the research questions analyzed are: (1) to what extent do movers differ from nonmovers on demographics, shopping benefits desired, purchases made, and life style traits; and, (2) do recent movers form a relatively homogeneous market segment or do they conform to the general market segmentation patterns of the general population.

Maggie J. W. Smith, Jack A. Lesser

An Examination of Income Differentials on Black Buyer Behavior of Fashions

This study examines the income effect on black women shopping behavior of fashions. Black women of all income groups are extremely interested in fashions. Discount stores are frequented by those in the lower income group and specialty stores are preferred by those in the higher income group. Various types of print and broadcast media are used by black women of all income groups to find out the introduction of the latest fashions. Advertisements with black models get more attention from black women, especially those in the lower income group.

Peter K. Tat

An Exploratory Study of Products used for Enjoyment and Enhancement Purposes: II. Brand Importance, Inter and Intraclass Correlations

The relevance of maintenance and of enhancement functions as parameters relevant to persistence, loyalty or change in brand purchasing has been demonstrated by Woods and Osborne (1979) and further expanded by Woods (1980).

Walter A. Woods

Marketing an Art Event: The Case of Indiana Renaissance Fair

This study was designed to partially fill the void of marketing application to nonprofit art organizations and events. Through the use of the Indiana Renaissance Fair as a case in point, several avenues of exploration are undertaken. These avenues include both general and specific perceptions of the Fair and the inculcation of information regarding entertainment events. Specific recommendations are given.

Ugur Yavas

Perceived Risk in Store Choice in the Second Order Market

This presents the results of a study designed to investigate the impact of risk on store choice of used merchandise. A variety of retail stores dealing in used goods are examined using a perceived risk paradigm. Findings of the study show perceived risk differences between permanent and temporary used merchandise stores as well as profit and nonprofit stores.

Ugur Yavas, Glen Riecken, Maurice Clabaugh

Quantitative Tools and Health Service Industry

This paper reviews the applications of OR/MS to the Health Industry. It contrasts the successes at the micro level with the lack of fruitful applications at the macro level, and highlights the need to research the dynamics of implementation.

Venkatakrishna V. Bellur, Ramanchandran Bharath

Public Health Care Marketing in a Developing Country: The Case of Mexico

Marketing is just begining to be a useful tool for the promotion of social causes in developing nations. This is an empirical study that shows how social marketing can be used effectively to promote effective sanitary practices against diarrhea in Mexico. Personalized le


ters were used to invite housewives to a health orient


tion meeting. Those who attended were interviewed before the begining of the meeting. Their responses were compared to those who received the invitation and did not attend. Significant differences were obtained between the two groups, and the information gathered was used to plan public health campaigns.

Fernando J. Cervantes

Marketing Medical Residencies in Family Medicine

This paper examines the application of marketing to medicine in an area where marketing concepts have not previously been applied - to recruiting and retaining residents. A case example is provided to illustrate the application.

Michael R. Czinkota, Wesley J. Johnson

A Close Look at the Options in the Health Care Industry: The Marketing Audit

This paper explores the concept of the marketing audit and its applicability to the health care industry. The authors emphasize the importance of this tool for the health care administrator in light of increasing costs, intensifying competition, and more complex regulation. Examples of how the audit operates in a health care facility are provided throughout the paper.

Mary L. Joyce, Kathleen A. Krentler

The Need for Marketing Research in the Development and Diffusion of the Hospice Concept

Many new products and services fail as a result of poor marketing management and lack of adequate planning. This article identifies the market potential of a health care innovation-hospice care-and suggests several basic marketing concepts that can facilitate the development and diffusion of the hospice concept.

Debra Low, Mary Ann Stutts

Improve the Health Care Macro-System through Micro-Marketing: A Physician/Marketer’s Viewpoint

The macro-marketing system that links medical consumers, providers, regulators and payors is perhaps more complex and difficult to manage than those involved with traditional consumer or industrial products. The complexities of the health care macro-marketing system are characterized through four sectors. Sector 1 in the system is composed of the INITIATORS of medical technologies and innovation such as medical research centers, universities, and the pharmaceutical firms as examples. Sector 2, the SUPPLIERS in the system, adapt the technologies and commercialize them for application in the medical delivery systems. Sector 3, the PROVIDERS, apply technologies which are made available to servicing the needs of the consumer market. Sector 4 is the health care CONSUMER who is the recipient of the end product of the systemic output which ideally is being targeted to provide the necessary diagnosis and treatment. Some threads traverse the entire system, these are the flows of payment at all levels (the patient seldom pays) and government regulations which affect activity in all sectors of the system. The application of marketing systems’ concepts has the potential to reconcile differences in health care delivery including such dilemmas as cost containment, distribution, and equality. As such, systems thinking can help redefine the issues in light of free enterprise and governmental roles, as well as provide a basis by which the health care recipient may participate in health care to a great extent.

Richard A. Wright, Bruce H. Allen

An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships between Perceived Risk and the Experience of Organizational Buyers

This study investigated the relationships between perceived risk and job experience in an organizational buying context. Specifically, the study determined if organizational buyers with varying amounts of purchasing experience, perceived significantly different amount of risk, and considered some risk types and risk reduction strategies to be more important than others.

T. A. Festervand, W. J. Lundstrom

How Different Buying Center Members Influence Different Purchasing Phases

This research examined both the composition of the buying center and the variation in the relative influence of those members throughout purchase phases. The results indicated that variation in relative influence of several buying center members was significantly related to the purchase phase. The results have important implications for the development of effective marketing strategies.

Earl Naumann, Robert McWilliams, Douglas J. Lincoln

Personal Perceptual Factors in Organizational Buyer Behavior

Industrial buyer behavior literature emphasized the importance of personal perceptual factors. In this paper, the degree of congruence among product, self and company concepts were investigated. Differences in conceptual congruence based on size of the business firms were also identified. Implications of the research findings were discussed.

Allan C. Reddy, C. P. Rao

A Problem in Industrial Marketing Management: The Over-Under Phenomenon

Managers at all levels are called upon to give subjective estimates of the probability of occurrence of events (e.g., in PERT, in setting of sales targets, etc.). The over-under effect is a phenomenon which causes people to over-estimate the probability of occurrence of events with relatively low objective probabilities and under-estimate probabilities of events with relatively high objective probability of occurrence. Therefore, it becomes necessary for the decision analyst to know the relationship between objective probabilities and subjective estimates, and whether the favorability of the outcome may change this relationship.

Beheruz N. Sethna

Improving Risk Analysis in Unstable Political Climates

This paper presents intervention analysis as a tech -nique to forecast the rate of change in the growth of real Gross National Product in countries which have experienced unstable political climates as an indicator of marketing opportunities. Intervention models were constructed and analyzed in relation to the impact of political or intervening events in ten countries. Operational strategies appropriate to certain events and their classifications were clearly indicated.

David M. Dougherty, Christine Specter

Import Decision Making: What Factors Influence U.S. Import Managers?

International marketing is viewed by many as a subject of serving the interest of exporters and as a tool of overseas sales. Equally important is the importing side of the international marketing equation. This paper explores the purchasing behavior of U.S. import managers by identifying major determinants of their import decisions.

Kyung-Il Ghymn

Insights into the Structure and Practice of Marketing Research in a Socialist State: The Polish Experience

This paper describes the structure and focus of marketing research in the Polish socialist state at two levels of operation: (1) centralized activity, as typified by the Institute of Internal Trade and Services, the nation’s leading marketing research unit; and (2) enterprise level activity, illustrated by PREDOM/POLAR, Poland’s state enterprise for manufacturing refrigerators and washing machines for the domestic and foreign markets. By comparison with western standards, the Polish marketing infrastructure is not highly developed, and its traditions are recent. The focus of contemporary marketing research is influenced by the economy’s bureaucratic organization and resulting rigidities in marketing structures and practices, and by the interests and special competencies of the nation’s small number of specialized marketing research groups.

Robert L. King, Teresa Pałaszewska-Reindl, Adam J. Kochane

The European Economic Community: One Market, Ten Markets- or Twelve?1

This paper addresses a question that has been subject to debate for several years: to what extent can marketing strategy be standardized across the EEC-member-states, as a result of the "common" market that they have formed?

Nicolas G. Papadopoulos

Documentation and Logistics Issues in Exporting Firms

This paper examines documentation and logistics problems in exporting firms and identifies some specific firm and individual factors which could account for variation in both usage of facilitating agencies and exporters perception of these agencies’ contribution to the logistics and documentation process.

Stan Reid, Lee Burlingame

Television Advertising: uses of Information in the U.S. and Latin America

Critics of current marketing practices complain that consumers do not have adequate information on which to base decisions. These information deficiencies, it is argued, result in higher prices, “artificial" brand differences and a stress on product attributes that represent no real value to consumers. Further, there appears to be widespread controversy between marketers and critics as to the usefulness of information communicated through advertising, especially television advertising.

William Renforth, Sion Raveed

A Vulnerability Evaluation of U.S. Platinum Customers

The availability of adequate supplies of strategic minerals is becoming an increasing concern for customers. Countries such as the U.S. are perceived to be highly vulnerable in this respect. To determine to what extent such U.S. customers are vulnerable, the case of platinum was studied. Vulnerability criteria were identified, quantified and incorporated into a composite vulnerability index. U.S. platinum customers were rated as being rather highly vulnerable, according to tentative findings. Some avenues for further research are suggested.

Heiko de B. Wijnholds

An Experiential Approach to Marketing Education

The paper examines two paradoxes in the art of teaching. The first, vocational vs. humanisitic education is illuminated by "selling sprints" created to teach basic selling skills. The second, the process or rationalizing vs. sensitizing human behavior draws from psycholinguistics to support a proposed motto for marketing education.

Jack Atkinson

Towards Better Theory and Practice in Marketing Education: A Choice-Based, Application-Oriented Approach

The relevance of the traditional marketing curriculum as it relates to real world practice has often been challenged. This paper discusses the nature of the problem and then offers a perspective and some corresponding alternative approaches to curricula which appear useful for bridging the theory versus practice gap.

Kenneth Bahn, Michael K. Mills

Business and Nonbusiness Student Perceptions of Questionable Advertising Practices

This paper reports the findings of a study which identify student ethical evaluation of questionable yet common advertising practices. The results suggest generally that students’ perceptions may not be as negative as reported in earlier studies. There are, however, differences in student perceptions between business and nonbusiness students and between nonbusiness majors who have taken an Introduction to Business course and nonbusiness majors who have not taken such a course.

Joseph A. Bellizzi, Ronald W. Hasty

Stability of Grade Prediction Equations for Principles of Marketing

Discriminat functions were derived and used as grade prediction equations for three groups of students who had completed Principles of Marketing. The equations were compared as to the variables, the signs of the variable coefficients, and the percentage of correct classifications in a holdout sample. It was concluded that while discriminant analysis appears to be a useful technique for grade prediction in Principles of Marketing, the optimum discriminant function varies considerably among groups of students.

Bob S. Brown

Students Attribution of Success in the Marketing Principles Course

Perceived reasons for success in four evaluation methods were investigated in the case of the basic marketing course. The study involved 137 students who had completed their first marketing course. Relative importance of reasons for over-all success in the course, for success in four evaluation methods and for success in securing a job were collected. Results indicated that the series of reasons for success exhibited a stable underlying pattern of controllable and uncontrollable factors.

Emmanuel J. Chéron, Pandelis Vlahopoulos, Michel A. Zins

The Effects of Job Experience on Perceptions of Marketing Education

In this paper, an analysis of the effects of job experience upon the satisfaction of individuals with their marketing education is presented. Perceptions related to satisfaction with a particular degree, preparation for a first job and preparation for supervisory positions were included in the analysis.

Joseph P. Grunenwald, Kenneth Traynor

Evaluation in Marketing Education: The Case of the Final Exam

In this age of increased interest in accountability, marketing educators would benefit from a judicious assessment of their instruction techniques. This paper focuses on the evaluation stage in the teaching-learning processes. More specifically, it evaluates the instructional role of final examinations in the teaching-learning processes, explores some of the difficulties inherent in final exams, and proposes some means to restore their instructional value to marketing educators.

Donald W. Jackson, Nabil Razzouk, Louis H. Grossman

Marketing Ethics: Theory and Pedagogy

Theory and pedagogy for education in marketing ethics is examined. Theoretical underpinnings are developed, a case incident is presented, and a pedagogy is developed and operationalized for analyzing the case with ethical theory. Implications of the pedagogy are discussed.

William J. Kehoe

Exposing Students to Multinational Marketing Dimensions: A Dilemma for Marketing Educators

This paper, based on an exploratory research and experiences of Stephen F. Austin State University, examines the educators’ dilemma of exposing students to multinational marketing dimensions. Several approaches for providing international marketing education are analyzed critically. Key factors which affect the internationalization process are identified to provide certain guidelines.

Vinay Kothari, Mildred G. Pryor

Profile Determinants and Factors Predicting Performance of Upper-Division Students in a Two-Campus Setting

This paper reports the findings of an exploratory investigation of students attending classes at dichoto-mous locations of a university. It compares grade performance, demographic characteristics and other variables of two groups and develops equations to predict academic performance. Differences in all three variable categories were found, and a profile of the off-campus student compared with the main-campus student was developed. Academic performance was predicted by grade point average, hours worked and student status for the main-campus group and hours worked, age, sex and race for the off-campus group. Implications for decision planning for multi-site campuses are discussed

Mary Ann Lederhaus, Sally A. Coltrin

Female Student Attitudes Toward Careers in Professional Selling

This study examines the attitudes and opinions of 56 female business majors concerning a career in non-retail Drofessional selling. A large proportion of subjects were cognizant of the rewards and opportunities associ-iated with success in selling. There was, however, concern over coping with pressure to sell, long hours, women earning less than men, lack of job security, and unstable salary. The findings also suggested that many female students want to learn more about or experience first-hand the practical applications of professional selling.

Myron J. Leonard, Keith T. Stephens, Walter Gross

A Guide to Case Finding and Writing for the Marketing Educator

This exposition is a practical guide to finding suitable marketing case situations, collecting pertinent information concerning them and then constructing interesting and usable case materials for classroom and seminar instruction.

Jay D. Lindquist

Theory Applied: Experiential Teaching Integrates Student Learning With Community Needs

This paper discusses an existent course which couples theoretical learning with business application. Though many attempts have been made at such an integration, this course is unique in a number of respects. Student teams function as would actual business teams, synergistic teams are developed and students can even fire team members. The theoretical instruction is taught in the form of a complete unit, directly coordinated with the phase of work being done with a team’s business client. Resultant student/business associations are so strong and mutually beneficial that complete business cooperation is received during the entire course. Businesses fully participate in and sponsor the final course seminar, and a very high percentage of team proposals are implemented by businesses. The potentials of the method are far reaching and extensions into other courses are discussed.

Elizabeth H. Reeder

The Case as an aid to Imparting Concepts

This paper takes the stand that the case itself has the potential to be used effectively as a vehicle to impart concepts. Also included is a description of how the same case can be used in a variety of teaching situations. The entire paper is based on class-tested situations.

Beheruz N. Sethna

Direct Marketing: The Future is Now

Marketing educators have an opportunity and a responsibility to serve the economic community and their students by adding a direct marketing course to their curriculum. Virtually every individual, institution or company that has a need to communicate and promote a product or service uses direct marketing.

Richard W. Skinner

Segments in the Classroom

This paper applies a well-known marketing concept: segmentation, to the college classroom. Segments are identified using personality traits, grade point average, course evaluation and points earned in the class. By developing appropriate teaching strategies for each segment better student performance and evaluations should result in the large enrollment classes where individualized instruction is impossible.

Dale Varble

The Marketing of Personal Financial Counseling: Some Propositions

Focusing on the special problems faced by the providers of personal financial counseling, this paper develops seven propositions designed to improve marketing productivity among these institutions. The basis for these propositions is the authors’ observations of the financial counseling industry and a series of focused-group interviews among counselors as well as potential clients. The paper also presents an action-oriented methodology helpful for attracting and maintaining clients.

S. Tamer Cavusgil, Arno Kleimenhagen

Identifying Search Prone Segments in the Service Sector: A Test of a Taxonometric Approach

A major problem the service marketer faces is that the relevant research literature is laden with goods-related marketing guidelines with little attention given to services (a notable exception is Rathmell 1974). This state of affairs necessitates the selective borrowing of useful concepts and frameworks from the goods literature which are applicable to the marketing of services. Presently, a number of useful classification schemas exist in the literature pertaining to the marketing of goods which suggest important linkages between product characteristics, consumer’s search patterns, and the development of marketing strategy guidelines (for example, see Copeland 1923; Miracle 1965; and Aspinwall 1973). The use of these basic classifications in a segmentation context is readily evidenced by their almost universal acceptance in the major marketing texts.

Duane L. Davis, Robert M. Cosenza

Utilization of Segmental Analysis and Performance Measures

A mail survey of manufacturers’ marketing managers is used to examine the utilization of various segmental bases in marketing control and to examine the performance bases used to evaluate the segments. Respondents were found to rely most heavily on sales volume measures as opposed to profitability measures of performance.

Donald W. Jackson, Lonnie L. Ostrom, Kenneth R. Evans

Consumer’S Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction with a Membership-Based Service Organization

This study examines consumer’s satisfaction/dissatisfaction with a membership-based service organization, It found that initial motivations in getting a membership is significantly related to satisfaction. Also, it found a correlation between satisfaction and a display of certain behavior as a member such as carrying a membership bumper sticker on his car.

Ken Kono, Michael D. Bernacchi

Salesmen and Salesmanagers - Are they Satisfied with their Jobs?

In the 1980’s it is important that Marketing managers create an environment in which they and their employees can work at acceptable levels of satisfaction. Specifically, preceived need and job satisfaction among commissioned salesmen and salesmanagers is of major concern. Measurable variables of job satisfaction and need satisfaction must be identified and evaluated.

John P. Loveland, Eric R. Pratt

Testing the Pims Model on Longitudinal Data for Strategically Homogeneous Firms

The claims of the PIMS model is evaluated by testing the performance of a surrogate model on the brewing industry. The model is then compared to models developed specifically for that industry.

Michael H. Lubatkin, Michael W. Pitts

A New Era: Overcoming Potential Conflict between Marketing Management and MIS

To achieve organizational objectives, marketing managers must cooperate with executives from other business functions. Despite this well-known premise, many modern and profitable companies are experiencing serious conflict between marketing and other company departments. Previous writers (Kotler 1978 and Shapiro 1977) have dealt with interdepartmental rivalries between marketing and: manufacturing, research and department and public relations. These writers showed how each of these reported business functions were unique and how intergroup rivalries developed with marketing.

Richard E. Seeber, J. Donald Weinrauch, Gary Pickett

Extensions and Testing of Importance-Performance Analysis

Importance-Performance analysis is a technique for relating the measurement of attribute importance and performance to the development of marketing programs.

Beheruz N. Sethna

Sex Differences in Attitudes Toward United Way

This study reports on sex differences in attitudes toward a particular metropolitan United Way organization found in a large sample size survey. Although previous studies with different objectives have not found major differences according to sex, several significant findings were made on variables which correlate highly with the size of the contribution. Possible explanations for the results are offered as well as a strategy to deal with the situation in future campaign group solicitation meetings.

Arthur J. Adams, Subhash C. Lonial

Perceived Risk and Voting Behavior

The purpose of this pilot study is to conceptualize the application of perceived risk to voting behavior, to measure the perceived risks voters associated with specific candidates, and determine if there is any relationship between the voters’ risk perception and their actual voting pattern.

Thomas R. Baird, Inga S. Baird, Maurice G. Clabaugh

Marketing Marketing to Voluntary Organizations

The substantial gap between marketing academics and managers in the voluntary sector could be bridged by marketing executive education to managers in voluntary organizations, by delivering MBA skillsbanks to voluntary enterprises, by academic research on the market for volunteers, by further adapting marketing concepts to voluntary settings, and by debating marketing philosophy with practitioners in voluntary organizations.

Mel S. Moyer

The Use of National Charity Telethons as a Marketing Tool

National charity telethons seem to be a successful solution to the fund raising problems of non-profit organizations while satisfying the marketing needs of major corporations. PRIME TIME EXPOSURE on television, tax incentives, public relations image-building at a fair, tax-deductible price have made telethons major events in the promotional plans of many marketers.

Walter Rosenthal

The Selling of Education

While the call has gone out for the application of marketing strategies in the college choice process, it is not clear that the student can be equated to the typical consumer. On the basis of past and primary research a descriptive theory of the college choice process is developed. Implications and future research areas are defined.

Daniel T. Seymour

A Comparison of the Cognitive Complexity of Public and Private Sector Products

This research compared the cognitive complexity of selected public and private sector products. Private sector products were found to have a significantly greater number of concrete and abstract concepts. Also, the proportion of abstract (attribute) private sector product concepts was significantly greater than for public sector products. Implications, possible explanations, and directions for future research are discussed.

James M. Stearns, Jack A. Lesser

A Comparison of Objective and Subjective Leisure Measures

Leisure researchers often use objective measures of leisure (time, expenditures or activity participation frequency), although the construct validity of these measures appears questionable. In this study, a scale to measure subjective leisure is developed, and it is compared to the objective measures in terms of construct validity.

Lynette S. Unger

Is Marketing the Answer to the Crisis in Performing Arts? Another Viewpoint and Model

This paper reviews the literature on marketing the performing arts while contrasting the viewpoints of performing artists and marketing management. Various aspects of adapting marketing principles to the arts without sacrificing quality or spontaneity are examined. An explanatory model is introduced as a guide to arts administrators.

Julian W. Vincze

Analysis Of Marketing Experiments with a Categorical Response Variable

The analysis of experimental data with a qualitative response variable is a problem confronted in many marketing research studies. This paper illustrates a methodology based on generalized least squares that properly handles a response variable that is discrete. The methodology is illustrated on several sets of marketing data and software packages that can be used for computations are noted.

Richard K. Burdick, Bruce J. Walker

Are Late Survey Respondents Worth Waiting for? An Analysis of Demographics

The issue of differences between early and late respondents in mail surveys is an important one. This importance stems from the frequent need for timely results, particularly in applied research, and the various practical economies of expense and effort associated with reduced time lags. Concern over response speed is evidenced by recent studies to determine methods of improving response speed (Cox, Anderson and Fulcher, 1974; Ford, 1967; Hansen, 1980; Houston and Jefferson, 1975; Houston and Nevin, 1977). Results of several such studies are summarized by Houston and Ford (1976).

John R. Dickenson, Eric Kirzner

Multidimensional Scaling and Product Positioning: Are Physical Product Attributes Good Predictors of the Overall Similarities Data

Past research reports have often questioned the usefulness of multidimensional scaling for marketing or positioning decisions and have concluded that this method may at best be used as a diagnostic aid. Two often cited criticisms are that (1) measures based on direct similarity judgments are themselves notoriously poor in psychometric properties, and (2) respondents do not seem to use information on all attributes of the products while comparing pairs of them. This study is designed to address these and related issues. Data was collected and analyzed on perceived similarities of soft drinks as well as on perceptions relating to similarities along specific attributes so that results could be compared. Next, the results are viewed within the context of the criticisms of MDS advanced by past studies. These issues are addressed in this study by analyzing the differences in perception of various cola drinks among consumers. The increasing competition among soft drink manufacturers and the recent entry of a new cola drink (King Cola) emphasizing price alone point to the usefulness of such an analysis for positioning decisions in the soft drink market.

Saeed Samiee, Pradeep Rau

A Test of Inducements for Stimulating Consumer Participation in Laboratory Experiments

An experiment was undertaken to evaluate the cost of obtaining and the representativeness of consumer subjects for a laboratory experiment. Results indicate that a representative subject group can be obtained through the use of particular inducements at a cost lower than that for purchasing subjects from a research firm.

Richard J. Semenik

The Effects of Direct and Indirect Semantic Cues on Consumer Price Perceptions: Some Preliminary Evidence

The manner in which price information is utilized by consumers is not well understood. This paper presents a descriptive model of the consumer price perception process with special attention paid to various types of semantic cues. Effects of these cues on price-related responses were hypothesized for two different types of products. Experimental results indicated different price-related response patterns for each product.

John R. Walton, Mansour Javidan

Effects of Outside Directors on Corporate Regulatory Compliance Decisions

This is a descriptive study to determine what impact outside directors have on a firm's regulatory compliance decisions and on its awareness of social responsibility. Three hypotheses are examined, and the results indicate that none of the three are established. The principal finding is that regulatory compliance decisions rarely come before boards of directors and that when they do, outside directors exert little influence.

Philip Baron

The Entropic Consequences of Marketing Actions: A Systems View

The concept of entropy — which refers to the continual transition of systems from order to chaos — is useful for understanding the social and ecological consequences of marketing actions. This paper develops a framework in which marketing actions can be interpreted as decreasing the entropy of certain subsystems at the cost of pervasive and global increase in entropy with potentially deleterious consequences for society and ecology.

Nikhilesh Dholakia, Steven Lysonski

Materials Recycling is a Marketing Problem

This article examines the special case of materials recycling and places it in the context of the traditional marketing process as well as the broader concept of resource recovery. Several currently operating materials recycling systems are examined for their marketing implications.

Donald A. Fuller

Social Responsibility: The New Consciousness in Retailing

This paper presents research findings which indicate that retailers have changed their opinions in a significantly positive way toward their role as socially responsible partners in the business community. This report compares results of the current study with the 1975 Dornoff and Tankersley study.

J. Paul Merenski, M. Wayne DeLozier, John C. Rogers

Warnings: The Vitiating Effect of Context

This study indicates that the context in which a warning about product dangers is presented affects disadvantaged consumers' perceptions of potential dangers.

Fred W. Morgan, William Trombetta

Brand Proliferation: A Tool of the Monopolist?

This paper considers the possibility of future restraint of trade litigation being based upon improper use of marketing techniques like brand proliferation, intensive advertising and price maintenance. The analysis involves the observation of the structure, conduct and performance of firms in potential "shared monopoly" situations.

James G. Pesek, Joseph P. Grunenwald

Marketing Conflicts and MNC’s

The marketing practices of multinational corporations in less developed countries (LDC's) have been attacked by many groups; most of these groups are located in the developed countries. These attacks are frequently warranted to some extent and have led to changes in the marketing policies of the corporations.

J. Irwin Peters

New Directions for the Consumer Movement: The Electoral Process

Arguing that the consumer movement has paid relatively little attention to an important area in our lives, viz. the electoral process, the author points out areas of dissatisfaction of the electorate and possible approaches to lessen such dissatisfaction.

Ganesan Visvabharathy

On a New Relationship between Physical Distribution and Marketing: On Doing for Marketing what it Cannot do for Itself

Physical distribution systems might become the major, differential advantage over the remaining marketing variables in obtaining profitable, incremental, and long-term sales volume. Specifically, the case study presented in this paper suggests that the market tends to recognize distribution costs and the need for the vendor to protect itself with long-term contracts, and at significantly higher volumes and in the higher margin products.

Richard P. Carr, Michael C. Gallagher

Dis-Integration and Re-Integration Strategies: Alternatives to Vertical Integration

Much has been written about the advantages of vertical marketing systems. However, very little has been written about why VMS companies might decide to "disintegrate" or "re-integrate" their corporate structures. This paper explores reasons why a company might wish to utilize the latter two strategies.

M. Wayne DeLozier, John A. Pearce

Deregulated Motor Carrier Industry -- Marketing Implications

The passage of the Motor Carrier Act of 1980 represents a major change in the transportation regulatory environment. The 1980 Act is often called a deregulation law. Some experts point out that it really involves regulatory reform or reregulation since its enactment did not free motor carriers from economic regulation. Without question, the 1980 Act has promoted greater reliance on market forces. Therefore, the marketing of motor carrier services has had to change.

William A. Dempsey, Richard Lancioni

A Comparative Study of Facility Location Solution Techniques

This paper describes and presents the results of an experiment dealing with facility location problems which differ with respect to their size -- the number of facilities and markets considered -- and the complexity of their cost functions. The research reported here describes the results obtained when examining two vastly different solution techniques and their applicability to different types of problems. It is especially useful because it deals with two questions which have received little attention to date:


Do differences in the complexity of the cost functions affect the ability of specific solution techniques to solve the problem?; and


Does the size of the problem, that is, the number of location alternatives affect the ability of a specific technique to solve the problem?

The location problems considered in this paper are simplified ones. However, it is possible to use similar research techniques to examine the effect of using various solution methods with a set of more complex problems.

Craig G. Harms

An Exploratory Analysis of the Use of Stop-Offs in Physical Distribution Systems

In recent years freight consolidation has received increased attention as a way to reduce both transportation costs and investments in inventories and warehouse facilities both of which are desirable objectives in an environment of high interest rates and inflation. Research of freight consolidation reported in the literature has dealt only with one method or technique of freight consolidation, namely, pool distribution (Masters, 1980; Jackson, 1981).1 Besides pool distribution there are several other methods which can be employed to consolidate small orders into large shipments such as multiple tenders and stop-offs to load or unload. It is the purpose of this paper to present a detailed description of stop-offs through a review of the literature dealing with stop-offs and to present the results of an exploratory analysis of the use of stop-offs in physical distribution.

George C. Jackson

A Hierarchical Attitude Model for Corporate Advertising and Market Segmentation

This paper provides a decision framework based on a hierarchical attitude model for use in the development of overall corporate advertising strategy. The authors show how consumer attitudes at various levels of an attitude hierarchy can be used in deciding whether to advertise at the corporate, product line or individual product levels for specific market segments.

Jeffrey E. Danes, Gregory D. Upah, Rustan Kosenko

Franchise Affiliation and Promotional Techniques: Competition and Comparative Performance Among North Carolina Real Estate Brokers

Franchise affiliations by real estate brokers have increased greatly in the last decade, yet little research has been directed toward the impact of presumed franchise advantages on broker competition or comparative performance. This paper, using data from a 1979 Survey of North Carolina Homebuyers, studies the effectiveness of franchise mass media advertising in creating a professional image, enhancing consumer recognition, attracting distant clients, and obtaining listings. Results indicate that franchise affiliation achieves all of the above, and that clients of fran-chised brokers are satisfied with broker services rendered. Data from a Multiple Listing Service was used to examine performance differences between national and regional affiliations. It was determined that national franchises which utilize mass media promotion tend to assist purchasers of lower priced homes, and that other franchises tend to sell significantly higher priced homes.

James R. Frew, Barbara Frew

Comparison Advertising Strategies for New Markets

Comparison advertising has become established in the United States despite a history of restrictions. An examination of how this change was accomplished suggests three strategies that may be utilized.

Walter Gross, Florence Gross

Newspapers and the Marketing Concept: An Exploratory Study of the Attitudes of Newsroom and Management Personnel

Since the humble beginnings of the first newspaper in the Colonies,

Public Occurrences

, established in 1690 by Benjamin Harris, most all of them have been guided in their operations by the social responsibility theory of the press. This notion is so basic and fundamental that it is unarguable in principle. However expressed, it means that the purpose of a newspaper is to report the news. To the professional journalist, it is much more than just a goal. It is a social responsibility based on the First Amendment of the U. S. Constitution. Perceived threats to this philosophical principle are met with fierce resistance in the streets and in the courts, but most often in the columns of individual publications. Today, the emerging application of the marketing concept in the operation of many newspapers appears as such a threat, and has evoked quite a negative reaction in some quarters. All one need do is to glance at some of the titles of recently published articles like "Supermarketing the Newspaper", “Beware the Market Thinkers", and "News Doctors" to be left with the general impression that marketing and good newspapers are mutually exclusive.

Gerald M. Hampton, Emmett Lane

The Effects of Nudity, Suggestiveness, and Attractiveness on Product Class and Brand Name Recall

This laboratory experiment found that nudity had a serious negative impact on brand name recall. This result is especially important because the degree of nudity was quite mild. Contrary to prediction, nudity had no effect on product class recall. As expected, no other significant effects were found.

Raymond L. Horton, Lauren Lieb, Martin Hewitt

Parental Attitudes Toward Children’s Advertising: Some Preliminary Findings

For a decade now the Federal Trade Commission has debated the pros and cons of children’s advertising. The Federal Trade Commission has considered a ban of all advertising on children’s programs, a ban of any commercials of highly sugared foods, and/or a disclosure of nutritional value of such products. Ironically, however, the FTC has announced that TV ads aimed at children are no longer a target of FTC restrictions

(Wall Street Journal

, 1981). These debates have prompted a tremendous amount of research concerning children’s advertising. However, the majority of this research has focused on the advertisements themselves, the children’s perceptions of the advertisements, or the effects of the ads on the children. The research underlying this paper is designed to analyze parental attitudes toward children’s advertising. The results indicate that parents have a negative attitude toward children’s advertising, and the advertising industry might want to analyze possibilities of self-regulation, even if the FTC has decided not to make restrictions.

John H. Lindgren

Advertising Decisions: A Matter of Confidence

A previously published communications model can be extended to show how buyer confidence can be utilized in making better advertising decisions. The extended model indicates how relationships between persuasibility and self-esteem, communication discrepancy, or source credibility may be altered in association with different buyer attitudes toward advertising content. It is proposed that buyers’ confidence in their own ability to evaluate message content could be used as a guide to media and target market selection, plus the development of better content and format parameters.

Carlton A. Maile, Nessim Hanna

Experimental Results Concerning the Affect of the Female Model in Television Commercials on Product and Brand Recall

This paper investigates the role of the female model in television commercials through a random factorial designed experiment. The paper is organized first to review the literature on attention and the research on sexual appeals in advertising; second, to suggest from the review several hypotheses for testing; and third, to detail the experimental research procedures. Last, the results are presented and implications suggested for advertising strategy.

Ralph B. Weller, Stanley D. Sibley, Colin Neuhaus

Investigation of Consumer Motivations for Conserving Energy

The purpose of this research is to compare motivations for conserving energy across levels of the following demographic variables: 1) income, 2) education, 3) age, 4) occupation, and 5) sex. Using a representative sample of Florida homeowners (n=734), it was found that motivations to conserve energy differed across levels of all demographic variables tested with the exception of sex. The results indicate that certain segmentation strategies would be appropriate in making energy conservation appeals to various demographic segments.

Phillip E. Downs, Douglas N. Behrman

Does Corrective Advertising Affect the True Claims?: An Experimental Evaluation

Many companies that are required to use corrective advertisements worry that the remedial messages designed to change the deceptive beliefs negatively may also affect the true claims of the company negatively. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a corrective advertisement by Listerine which contained several true claims as well as the FTC-ordered corrective statement, in an experimental setting. Findings indicate that the true claims were effective in substantially increasing the beliefs of the subjects about these claims although they appeared along with the corrective statement in the same remedial message.

Metin N. Gurol, Clifford B. Sotnick

Application of Conjoint Analysis in Assessing the U.S. Market for Electric Cars

This paper presents the results of a survey of 88 upper income drivers in Syracuse, New York to assess their views of cost/performance tradeoffs in viewing the purchase of an electric vehicle. Conjoint analysis is used to test part-utilities of different attributes of the car purchase decision. This survey of 88 upper income residents suggests that the current price range of marketed electric vehicles ($10,000 and above) makes the price/options package offered by current technology unattractive to a group which might otherwise be considered early adopters. This group would not rule out buying a limited performance EV for special purposes (commuting or shopping) but the price must be attractive by comparison with subcompact IC cars. Fear of prospective gasoline shortages does not appear to raise the demand price of the EV against IC substitutes.

Alice E. Kidder, Julian M. Benjamin, Ronald C. Shuman

The need for a Realistic United States International Airlines Policy: Is Deregulation the Answer?

The U.S. international airlines system can continue to promote American growth by functioning as a vital international transportation mode. What is needed is a critical evaluation of the present deregulatory policy. This paper reviews American international regulatory history and suggests a specific approach that might satisfy both corporate and national objectives.

L. Joseph Rosenberg

Subjective Versus Time Series Forecasts and their Combination

Forecasts of monthly product sales by a time series model are compared with subjective predictions made by marketing managers of a particular firm. For the two products considered, management’s subjective forecasts are significantly more accurate, a finding not in keeping with the findings of the great majority of previous comparable studies.

Arthur J. Adams

Input-Output Tables and Marketing Purposes: The Belgian Case

Standardized input-output tables of a country are useful in providing information to marketers. For marketing purposes, the input-output tables in the present form must be refined, include more sectors, and have to be ventilated both for industries and commodities. To assist the marketing activities, Chase Econometrics of Belgium started recently an extensive input-output program. Time only will tell whether the new approach can be of any help to marketers.

W. K. Brauers

Attitudes Towards Auto Maintenance and the Extent of Do-It-Yourself Activity

This paper provides an empirical examination of consumer attitudes towards auto maintenance, interrelationships among various maintenance tasks, and distinguishing characteristics of do-it-yourselfers. Data drawn from a national probability survey of motor vehicle owners are used to study the choice between do-it-yourself maintenance and a paid-mechanic alternative. A principal components analysis suggests that prevailing attitudes can be represented by three underlying dimensions. Several variables are also identified for profiling do-it-yourselfers.

S. Tamer Cavusgil

Structural Equation Analysis of Three Methods for Evaluating Conjoint Measurement Results

This paper applies a structural equation methodology (LISREL) to the evaluation of the results obtained from conjoint measurement. Contrary to previous work, the results indicated that




, and


give consistent evaluations of the results of conjoint measurement. The solution given by the LISREL analysis was criticized; however, following a Spearman factor analysis, the same conclusion was drawn: stress, sign, and prediction appear to be measuring the same construct.

Jeffrey E. Danes, Rustan Kosenko

Use of Quantitative Techniques by Marketing Practitioners

Marketing practitioners were surveyed to determine how frequently they used twenty-six quantitative techniques in making marketing decisions. The results revealed that the most frequently used techniques were statistical and/or financial, a finding consistent with previous research. In contrast to previous work, the current study found several highly sophisticated techniques to also be ranked high in usage. This finding should be encouraging to those who advocate greater use of the more complex techniques.

William A. Hailey, Edward J. Ryan, Jackson P. Cooke

The Keno Player as Consumer

In this paper, the gambler is viewed as a consumer having one of several basic, defineable preferences. A Keno bet is treated as a potential purchase, using a decision-theoretic approach. Various optimization criteria and the sensitivity of the strategies to different consumer utility functions are examined.

Rosa Oppenheim, Alan Oppenheim

Multiple Marketing Goals and Multiple Marketing Instruments

In this paper, the theory of macroeconomic policy is applied to the problem of achieving multiple marketing goals with multiple marketing instruments. It is shown how a rigorous analysis can validate some intuitively acceptable marketing beliefs, and how violation of the principles can lead to very undesirable results. Some major advantages of this approach are that it provides a dynamic analysis rather than a comparative-static one (i.e., it tells the manager not merely where to go, but also how to get there) and that it effectively incorporates macroeconomic principles into the theory and practice of marketing.

Beheruz N. Sethna

Characterizing Consumer Interest Through the Use of Canonical Correlation: Application for Small Business

This research investigated alternative methods to complex models of estimating consumer demand and alternative models to those currently being used by small business entrepreneurs. The alternative method that was employed in this study was canonical correlation. This statistical tool produced two significant canonical roots, describing four separate market segments based on degree of consumer interest for a new product. Results from this study suggest that, although canonical correlation may have practical application in a small business setting, it should be used in conjunction with data outputs that are less sophisticated.

Kenneth D. Bahn

Awareness, Usage, and Perception of Small Business Administration’S Counseling Programs

Small Business play a vital role in the economic well being of the U.S. To assist small business owners/ operators, federal government passed the Small Business Act in 1953. Passage of this act was responsible for the creation of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). One of the major areas of assistance to the small business owners/operators provided by the SBA is management and technical assistance. Under this program, the SBA provides both in-house and outside counseling. The in-house counseling to small business owners/operators is provided by the management assistance staff (MAS), and the outside counseling by the SCORE/ACE counselors and the Small Business Institute (SBI). Awareness plays an extremely important role in the usage of the counseling services provided by the SBA. This study was, therefore, designed to determine primarily the awareness, usage, and perception of the counseling programs and the areas in which they were used. Analysis of the data provided by 86 small businesses located in Michigan revealed that the awareness was "poor." Perception of the counseling programs was rated as "about average", and most had "never used" the available services. Counseling was mostly received in the areas of accounting, finance, marketing, and marketing research. Any attempt by the SBA to reorganize the counseling programs must investigate the reasons for not using the programs. Based on the results of such an investigation, corrective steps must be taken to design and deliver effective counseling.

Venkatakrishna V. Bellur

Small Business Export Strategies

This paper examines the information sources and strategies used by a group of small companies to determine and expand their export markets. The average firm used three different sources of information, with satisfaction levels of twenty-five to ninety-one percent. Respondents also gave their perceptions of six marketing mix variables with respect to enhancing their success in exporting. Product quality was felt to be most important and advertising least important.

William S. Sekely

The College Town: Small Business Opportunity or Pitfall?

Small businesses often fail due to poorly conceived marketing strategies. In other cases, overly-optimistic estimates of market potential foredoom an otherwise good marketing plan. This may be frequently the case in college towns. Entrepreneurs, might erroneously believe that the town can support a wide variety of businesses because it has a large student population.

Gerald U. Skelly, Milton M. Pressley, William J. Lundstrom

Some Insights into the Effective Promotion of Gift Certificates: Behavior and Media Characteristics of Department Store Gift Certificate Purchasers

Gift certificates are a potentially profitable element in the product mix of the retailer. This research extends knowledge about gift giving behavior and provides department store managers with insights into effectively promoting gift certificates.

Ronald J. Adams, Mary Ann Lederhaus, John M. Browning

The Role of Marketing in Economic Development

Most writings on economic growth have focused on industrialization and increasing industrial productivity. This traditional approach neglects the role of marketing in stimulating economic growth via increasing productivity in all sectors of the economy and in integrating segmented markets in developing areas. Marketing by integrating the large rural sector into the national market converts a static system into a dynamic system.

Tuncer Arif

Investors’ Perceptions of Full-Service Versus Discount Security Brokerage Firms

Over the past several years, discount brokerage houses have experienced rapid growth and development. It is estimated that the discount brokers1 market share has experienced a 55% to 65% annual growth rate since 1975. This event has been made possible by the relaxation of the previously fixed commission schedules and the introduction of price and service competition into the securities business. Instead of discount competition encouraging the full-service brokers to cut their commission rates to attract individual retail investors, the "Mayday" decision resulted in higher charges to the small investor. The full-line firms stress the continued importance of "brand" identification, and they feel that this gives them a competitive edge.

Harold W. Babb, Robert T. C. Cone

Prizm: A Geodemographic Market Research and Planning System for Estimating Relative Sales Potential

Marketers have for decades been using systems for segmenting consumers based on their individual demographic characteristics, such as age, income, sex, race, etc. The reason is simply that some demographic segments offer higher potential for sales than others. Similarly, it has been evident to marketers that there are pronounced differences in sales potential from one metro market to the next.

Harold W. Babb, A. James Wynne

Sales Management Control Systems: An Information Dependent Model

An information-dependent view of management suggests that the sales management style, whether bureaucratic, professional, or output-only, depends upon the quality, quantity and kind of information available about the marketing environment. While writers generally agree on the techniques of sales management and the environmental variables involved, the linkages of contingency selection are unclear and call for research.

Ronald D. Balsley

New Product Criteria in Retail Chains

This study suggests that the small, relatively unknown supplier has a better chance of having his new product adopted by one of the larger chain operations, since they tend to be relatively more willing to adopt new it ems.

Peter M. Banting, David L. Blenkhorn

Hispanic Consumer Behavior: A Review and Analysis

As of 1979, the U.S. had the fifth largest Hispanic population in the world(19 million), according to the U.S. Dept. of Commerce. By 1985 it is estimated that His-panics will be the largest minority group in the U.S., and many predict that by 1990 the Hispanic population will be 25% of the U.S. population. The buying power of this market is enormous. Recent studies have shown that they buying power of Hispanics in New York City is $6 billion, while in Los Angeles and Orange Counties it is $4 billion.

Thomas J. Beggs, Michael K. Mills, Surja Tjahaja

Whatever Happened to Consumption in Marketing Theory?

A research in progress paper which explores the treatment of consumption in the marketing literature and poses a model of a broadened concept together with implications to marketing thought.

Martin L. Bell

Slogans: An Historical Perspective on their Effects

The birth of the slogan dates back to the start of history itself. Today, the slogan remains visible in virtually every segment of society, attesting to its unique staying power. As much as the slogan has been able to influence people throughout the ages, however, very little research has been conducted on the topic. Of the substantive material that does exist, most focuses on slogans used by advertisers, with a few minor exceptions found in the political slogan area (e.g., Sherif, 1937), The purpose of this paper is to trace the empirical work which has been conducted in the area of advertising slogan effectiveness.

Richard F. Beltramini, John P. McDonald

Marketing Oriented Strategies for Physicians: The Coming Competition in Health Care Delivery

This paper examines dramatic changes that are taking place in the health care industry with respect to the coming competition between health care providers. Strategies are developed for physicians to better market health care and to survive within the changing environment.

Roger D. Blackwell, Wesley J. Johnston, Monica E. McKay, Brian McNeeley

The Webb-Pomerene Associations’ Saga

In order to promote U.S. exports via the Webb-Pomerene Associations the Webb-Pomerene Act of 1913 must be revised, U.S. manufacturers must abandon their do-it-yourself attitude and the Associations must improve their marketing "mix".

A. D. Cao

Pedagogical Model for Introducing Promotion Budgeting

This paper presents a useful teaching tool for introducing the basics of promotional budgeting

David C. Carlson, Paul K. McDevitt

Applying the Marketing Concept to Nurse Recruitment Strategies

Although it is recommended that nonprofit organizations adopt a marketing orientation, little is known about how well these organizations succeed. This paper analyzes the area of nurse recruitment to see whether hospitals have adopted a marketing orientation. This study analyzes the organizations’ actual performance by measuring newspaper want ads.

Helena Czepiec, David Wixon

Programs as Products Assessing Television for the New Technology

Since programs will have to be marketed as products under the new TV technology (cable systems, subscription TV, satellite communications, home video systems), it will become necessary to assess viewers’ perceptions and evaluations of them-in addition to their likelihood of viewing them. Moreover, viewer segments will need to be portrayed in far richer terms than the traditional demographic profiles.

Teresa J. Domzal, Ronald J. Dornoff, Jerome B. Kernan

Response Rate Stimulants in Mail Surveys: A Potential Source of Sample Composition Bias

Users of mail surveys are continually searching for ways to increase response rates without adversely affecting total survey costs, but it is possible that higher response rates are sometimes achieved at the cost of decreased


of response and/or increased sample bias. This paper studies return envelope style as a response stimulant. While recognizing the trade-offs between higher response rates for stamped return envelopes and lower total costs for business reply return envelopes, this study asks if response quality and sample composition are affected. Response quality was not differentially affected by return envelope style. However, an important difference in the age composition of the different groups of respondents


detected. It appears that the middle categories of age (41–ars) may resist returning questionnaires in business reply return envelopes to a greater extent than in stamped return envelopes. More research on this question is needed. No differences in sex, marital status, occupation, education or income were detected.

David W. Finn

College Athletics as a Marketing Tool: Impact on Benefactor Generosity

In this paper the different types of marketing activities practiced by universities are outlined. Among these is the operation of the athletic program which can generate funds in a number of ways, perhaps even by eliciting greater gift-giving by university patrons. Results are presented from a pilot study designed to assess the plausibility of this hypothesis.

John F. Gaski

Negotiations in Turn-Key Projects a Cross-Cultural Study

Turn-key projects are becoming increasingly frequent in international business. In these projects negotiation process is of particular interest. In this paper a model has been developed for the investigation of the important factors in negotiation process. This model has been utilized to describe and analyze two case studies.

Pervez N. Ghauri, Finn Wiedersheim-Paul

Shopping and Leisure Activity Patterns within the Elderly Consumer Segment: The “Young-Old” and “Old-Old”

Consumer research generally confirms that the elderly are less active consumers and shoppers than young adults. But the single-category treatment of older consumers does not provide insight into just when their life-space contraction begins, how rapidly it develops, and how extensive and varied are its effects on consumer lifestyles. The consensus of gerontological research seems to be that approximately 75 years of age marks the transition point into advanced age. Unfortunately, there has been very little investigation of the effects of aging on actual consumer behavior. Particularly lacking is detailed information on shopping and other consumption-oriented leisure activities and how these patterns and their accompanying lifestyle and socioeconomic status change with chronological aging. Compounding the problem, as Bernhardt and Kinnear (1975) point out, most of the existing studies of elderly consumer behavior use quite small samples and unrepresentative "captive audiences" of a single elderly residence or attendants of a single senior center.

Peter L. Gillett, Richard A. Scott, Duane L. Davis

An Examination of the Decision Process Leading to Energy Conservation

Increasingly, government, corporate, and independent organizations are seeking to advance the practice of energy conservation. Their efforts to promote energy-saving behavior may be seen as marketing programs to move consumers of energy from a state of being unaware of the need for conservation, through a sequence of intermediate states in a cognitive decision process, to an output stage of having selected a set of energy-saving behavior alternatives.

Kent L. Granzin

Organization Development in Marketing - Three Errors and how to Avoid them

This summarises a paper studying three errors of organization development (OD) in marketing that I have found particularly significant in determining the success or failure of the firm. OD encompasses all sorts of methods for a firm to develop its strategy, its organizational structure and its working climate. Each error is defined below and consequences and remedies will be spelled out. The paper is based on case studies in thp Nordic Countries and research reports and books from Scandinavia, the UK and the US.

Evert Gummesson

An Export Marketing Model for Less-Developed Countries: A Case Study of Turkey in Light of the Japanese Experience

Less-developed countries (LDCs) rely heavily on export marketing to obtain foreign currencies necessary for economic development. Several new developments in the theory of international trade have been incorporated to form general guidelines for an export marketing model for LDCs. The model also incorporates some of the features of the successful Japanese export strategy. Its usefulness is illustrated by applying it to Turkey, and LDC which could greatly benefit from an increase in export marketing.

Metin N. Gurol

Marketing a Predominantly Black University

Non-profit organizations can use marketing research to gather data as a base for designing their own marketing strategies. One predominantly black state university conducted a survey to determine what had attracted students to the university. The quality of academic programs was found to be the first attraction for most students, with being predominantly black, the second attraction. The main reason for choice of business as a major was the job opportunities.

Metin N. Gurol

Quality Marketing Education and a Book Rental System: Can they Coexist?

A predominantly black university with an AACSB accredited business school has a book rental system which was initiated in 1957. The adopted books must be used for at least three years in each course. This paper reports the results of a survey which measures the student's knowledge, attitudes, intensions and behavior with respect to the book rental system and how it affects their education process.

Metin N. Gurol

Marketing for Non-Profit Institutions: A Case for Industrial Demarketing

Non-profit institutions by nature are generally less concerned about the increasing costs of their required resources. Therefore, demarketing must focus on an organizational need which is not related to monetary considerations. This paper discusses a demarketing.program. directed to non-profit institutions.

S. M. Halfhill, David S. Halfhill

The Use of Dummy Variables to Evaluate Promotional Programs in the Automobile Industry

A dummy variable in a regression model was used to represent a manufacturer (company name, image, reputation, and promotional activities). The coefficient of this variable became a measure of the premium paid for a particular manufacturer’s automobiles.

John H. Hallaq, Kathy L. Pettit

Marketing Information Systems: Potentials for Health Care Facilities

Health care professionals have largely resolved the question of whether to market their services using techniques developed in the profit sector. The question has now become one of how to do it in the most efficient manner. At the same time, hospitals have invested heavily in sophisticated data processing equipment used largely for patient care and accounting purposes. 1he hardware capacity now vastly exceeds the current and projected software capability.

Thomas J. Hayes, Roy D. Adler, Elizabeth Hansen

Criminal justice agencies VS. Type a marketers of stolen property

Type A fences are dealers in stolen property that operate legitimate-appearing businesses. They handle only stolen goods that are compatible with their legitimate specialized product lines. Law enforcement agencies should implement special “fence management” programs to deal with these fences more effectively.

Robert F. Hoel, Ted Roselius

Small Claims Courts: A Remedy Often Overlooked by Consumers

Consumers have several avenues of recourse to resolve dissatisfactions with the products or services provided by businesses. This study indicates that consumers are unfamiliar with the availability, practices, and procedures of the Small Claims Courts.

Robert E. Holmes, T. J. Halatin, Jack D. Eure

Some Considerations in the Evaluation of Industrial Sales Training Programs

Careful evaluation of sales training programs has never been more important. The continuing impact of inflation on the cost of industrial sales activities and training programs dictates that increasing attention be devoted to their evaluation. This paper presents a discussion of some considerations in the evaluation of industrial sales training programs.

Stephen P. Hutchens, Jon M. Hawes

Marketing Research: Family Income Levels and Enrollment Strategies

In times of impending enrollment declines Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) seek ways to control the situation. Marketing Research can provide needed insights. High School seniors from families with different income levels were asked their perceptions and enrollment strategies were evolved from the response patterns.

Loren B. Jung, Van D. Psimitis

Bank Patronage Decision: A Canadian Study

There is some evidence that all over the world both the academicians and the managers of financial institutions are expressing interest in marketing as a legitimate banking activity. There are a number of factors which account for this global interest. One of the most significant is that over the past decade the demand of consumers and businesses for banking services has literally exploded. As consumers’ income increased and businesses grew, so did their demand for the variety of services offered by financial institutions.

Erdener Kaynak, Ugur Yavas

Consumer Perceptions of a Product - The Micro-Wave Oven - An Analysis by Selected Socio-Economic Variables - Implications for Marketing Strategy

The study examines consumers’ perceptions (both owners and non-owners) of the micro-wave oven as a product in an effort to determine why this product has such a low degree (10% of American households in 1980) of market penetration. An investigation is conducted to determine if there are any significant differences between owners and non-owners based on selected socio-economic variables, i.e., age, sex, marital status, family multiple employment status, number of individuals in household, occupation and family income.

Algin B. King, Joyce P. King

A Framework for an Empirically Based Public Policy Decision Model…An Integrated Research Approach to the Prescription Drug Industry

The authors’ contend that problems associated with consumer legislation can be attributed to the


perspective utilized in their development. Thus, a public policy decision model is proposed which emphasizes empirical market testing as a key input to the decision-making process. Specific reference is made to the model’s potential use in evaluating such legislation as the FTC’s proposed Generic Drug Substitution Model Law.

R. Eugene Klippel, Max L. Densmore, Robert L. Anderson

Environmental Planning and Control for the 1980s as Perceived by Supermarket Executives

This study examines supermarket executives’ perceptions of the problems confronting them in the 1980s, A survey including 134 chains was undertaken to determine anticipated adjustments resulting from rising energy costs, spiraling inflation, and high interest rates. The executives placed emphasis on reducing energy costs associated with operating stores, more stringent inventory control measures, and increasing the number of lines carried to encourage one-stop shopping.

Myron J. Leonard, Keith T. Stephens

The Role of Consumer Travel Time as it Relates to Shopper Type, Store Image, and Future Purchases

The purpose of this research is to analyze the role of shopper traveling time on retail store patronage. Two primary questions of the research are (1) how well do shopper type, store image, and future purchasing behavior explain store traveling time, and (2) what are the relationships between travel time, shopper type, store image, and future purchase behavior. A structural model will be developed and validated which characterizes the interrelationships of the four types of variables in the development of store patronage. The research attempts to offer additional empirical testing of the conceptual models of consumer behavior developed in marketing.

Jack A. Lesser, Robert J. Sedlacek

An Investigation into the Roots of Salesforce Alcoholism

Research on abusive drinking behaviors of marketing and business students was conducted. Preliminary results support the business manager premise that abusive drinkers are attracted to sales careers. While the research is supportive of management views, there is need for greater analysis in the area of the causes of sales-force alcoholism.

Larry S. Lowe, Richard Ayres, Patricia Bowen

Determining Consumer Preferences for Sales Promotion Techniques via Conjoint Analysis

This article reports the findings of a systematic study involving conjoint analysis, undertaken to evaluate some hypothetical sales promotion techniques for a specific consumer product (beer) catering to a special market segment (students). A fractional factorial design involving three sales promotions at three levels each was undertaken and the ranked preferences of the respondents were analyzed using Kruskal’s MONANOVA algorithm.

Daulatram B. Lund, Allen E. Smith

Toward Promotion of the Marketing Planning Process

A survey was conducted to determine whether a lack of executive agreement with published theory is a significant impediment to field implementation of formalized marketing planning in various sized firms. There was substantial agreement regarding the adequacy of published statements about the nature of formalized planning.

C. A. Maile, A. H. Kizilbash, G. Miller

Advertising and Economic Development: A Cross National Analysis

Two socially based theories of economic development are examined for their efficacy in explaining variations in advertising expenditures across countries. Statistical analyses support the viability of both theories, but Parsons theory of evolutionary universals performs somewhat better than Lerner’s model of modernization.

William C. McBride, Grady D. Bruce

A Marketing Analysis of Housing and Neighborhood Dimensions Among Black Consumers: A Case Study

The focus of this study is to develop a marketing plan to increase the amount of home ownership in the Church Hill area of Richmond by middle-class black consumers. Focus group interviews and a telephone survey were employed to determine the target markets’ attitudes, priorities, and intentions regarding housing and neighborhood factors.

Dennis R. McDermott

More about the Avoidance Hypothesis in Store Loyalty

This paper relates to the controversy centering around Lessig’s contention that store loyalty may be established more out of avoidance of certain stores than attraction to others. The specific concept studied by the authors relates to acceptance and rejection sets of stores. Two hypotheses are tested. H


: The consumer’s evoked set of stores is likely to contain stores in which the consumer would plan to shop


stores in which the consumer would avoid shopping. H


: Consumers’ attribute evaluations will be significantly different between the acceptance set and the rejection set of stores, being more favorable toward the acceptance set of stores.

M. Alan Miller, John E. Swan

Pacific Basin Small Business Needs Assessment

Specific purposes of the Pacific Basin Small Business Needs Assessment Study were: (1) To inventory and understand the small business needs of the Pacific Island communities of Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, Kauai, Guam, and American Samoa with regard to the desire for additional information and services categorized as accounting, marketing, finance, management, personnel, and other. (2) To gather demographic information related to organizations engaged in or serving small business in the Pacific Island communities studied.

Brenda J. Moscove

On the Transfer of Technology and Management Know-How

Technology transfer and creation as a tool for economic development has gained increased importance after World War II. The countries that were successful in technology creation also became the world’s most advanced countries and transferor of technology; whereas other nations unsuccessful in their attempts tried to catch up with their counterparts by means of technology transfers. Those nations that were successful in adapting and absorbing the incoming technologies began to improve existing technologies and create new technologies. Therefore, one of the prerequisites of domestic technology creation is the success achieved in adaptation of imported technology. By increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of technology transfers, the technology base may be widened and a greater number of countries should be able to enjoy its merits.

G. M. Naidu, Metin Togay

New Directions for Non-Profit Service Marketing: Case for Community Hospitals

Marketing concept is often a neglected idea in most of the community hospitals. A careful mix of marketing strategies may benefit all segments of patients in the community. To this end a swing-beds concept is developed providing opportunity for long-term care.

Jay Nathan

Impact of Media on the Effectiveness of Corrective Messages

The medium through which a firm transmits corrective messages to consumers deceived by its previous advertisements may influence how effectively such messages eradicate relevant residual advertising deception. Conceptual literature and empirical results supporting this conclusion are respectively reviewed and discussed in this paper.

Japhet H. Nkonge

Prediction of Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking Intentions: A Test of the Mediational Adequacy of the Ajzen-Fishbein Model

The objective of this study is to test the mediational adequacy of the Ajzen-Fishbein (1975) model. Triandis has proposed a competing model for the prediction of intentions. Intentions are predicted by the person’s affect (A) toward the behavior, social factors (S), and the value of perceived consequences (C), according to the following equation:

BI = W


A + W


S + W




$${\text{BI = W}}_{\text{1}} {\text{A + W}}_{\text{2}} {\text{S + W}}_{\text{3}} {\text{C}}{\text{.}}$$

As with the Ajzen and Fishbein model, the relative contribution of the three components is determined by multiple regression procedures.

Richard W. Olshavsky, Michelle Bensenberg, Eric Corty, Steve Sherman, Laurie Chassin, Clark Presson

Techniques for Improving Direct Mail Advertising Exposure

This study summarizes the results of more than 135 proprietary, direct mail advertising tests. Herein, these tests are referred to as Mail Ad Exposure (MAX) tests. The techniques that have been subjected to MAX testing include: (1) mailings of ad reprints, (2) self-mailers (mail with no envelope), (3) polybags, (4) closed envelopes, (5) die-cut (window) envelopes, (6) mailers in a series, (7) news letters, (8) dimensional mail, (9) samples, (10) cassettes, and (11) tubes.

Roger O’Neill, Milton M. Pressley

Health Care Marketing by Hospitals: Comments and Case Study

Marketing concepts and techniques which have been successfully used by business firms for years are only now receiving recognition by members of the health services profession as ethical management tools(MacStravic, 1977) The issue is complicated by the fact that nonprofit organizations dominate the organizational structure. The financial dependency on donor support by nonprofit clinics and hospitals mandates administrators to include these donors in their need satisfying functions. In many instances the satisfaction of contributors changes the mix of services which are available to the patient (Kotler, 1975).

Roger Peterson, R. Rodman Ludlow

Implications of the Growing Hispanic Market upon Marketing Planning in the 1980s

This paper finds important demographic differences between Hispanics and other Americans. Although Hispanics depict strong cultural values, these values appear to be similar to those of other Americans. The marketing implications of these findings are explored.

Anthony C. Petto

Market Share Analysis of U.S. Export Trade

The continued trade deficits of U.S. are causing major concern. U.S. trade performance vis-a-vis its major trading partners, namely, E.E.C., and Japan was analyzed for the period of 1974 through 1977. Market shares of U.S., E.E.C., and Japan were computed for 120 countries and their relative trade performance in world markets was assessed.

C. P. Rao

A Credit Scoring Model to Evaluate the Credit Worthiness of Credit Card Applicants

This research develops a discriminant model which identifies good and bad bank credit card risks.

John C. Rogers, Conway T. Rucks, Shawne Swindler

The Portrayal of Men vs. Women in TV Advertising

This paper reports the results of a content analytical study of 644 prime-time TV ads to determine the present role of women vs. men, and to see if the roles of women have changed. Results indicate a greater awareness of working women in diversified occupational roles and more women are used as product representatives yet the stereotyped housewife role is still predominant.

John K. Ross, Larry Patterson

Development of Consumer Typologies from Appropriateness Ratings

This study was designed to determine whether consumers could be grouped on the basis of their perceptions of the appropriateness of various food-use combinations, and, if so, whether these categories replicate across subject sets. Results indicate there are at least three, and possibly five, stable people groups vis-avis food attitudes.

Margaret H. Rucker, Howard G. Schutz

Developing Alternative Retail Marketing Strategies: An Evolutionary Orientation

This paper maintains that there are four key retail marketing strategies. These are: mass retailing, differentiating, segmenting and positioning. Positioning is considered to be one of the most widespread retailing strategies. At the present time it is only gaining momentum. It is likely to follow the patterns product marketing has been setting. Product marketing strategies have included positioning as one of the key alternatives for a decade or so. It is maintained that retailing follows product marketing strategies with a time lag of 5 to 10 years.

A. Coskun Samli, Douglas J. Lincoln

"Tofi Management, Inc.": An Experiential Exercise Regarding the Long-Term Implications of Some Technological Innovations

There have been some technological developments during the past few years, which will have a significant impact on marketing and management practices only a decade or two from now. This exercise is intended to provoke thought and discussion about the long-term social and managerial implications of such innovations. The case is one that captures the interest because of its unique setting, and induces lively discussion. The debriefing session at the end of the exercise is used to create awareness of the different points of view that emerge during the discussion.

Beheruz N. Sethna

Value Analysis for Small Manufacturers

The four-step value analysis process presented is designed specifically for smaller businesses. The purpose of the process is to provide a simplified, but practical, format for performing value analysis. The primary contributions of this approach include


of tasks and providing a more efficient way of thinking about requisitions.

Garry D. Smith, Danny R. Arnold

A New Projective Technique to Measure a Personality Characteristic: Applications in Marketing

This paper describes a theoretical model of human behavior which helps to isolate a factor which has been shown to predict a quality of human behavior associated with the cooperativeness, friendliness and positiveness of interpersonal behavior. It's called the Others Concept and can be applied to various marketing functions.

A. Edward Spitz, Karl Zucker, Peter R. Burzynski

Promoting with Cents-off Coupons in the Early 1980s

The number of coupons almost doubled between 1976 and 1980 amounting to some 90,6 billion coupons issued in the latter year. The purpose of this study was to review the State of the Arts for coupon promotions and then to identify relevant promotion recommendations for the future.

Keith T. Stephens, Harold W. Fox

The Impact of Interviewees’ Demographics on Interviewers’ Perceptions of their Task Performance1

Age, sex, race, education and income are examined as possible determinants of interviewers’ perceptions of interviewees’ task performance. Race, education and income are found to have significant effects on the perceptions of white interviewers.

Roobina O. Tashchian, Armen Tashchian, Mark E. Slama

Targeting Public Relations Activities

This paper examines traditional definitions of Public Relations (P.R.) and who the “publics” or targets for P.R. activities have been. An explanation of “publics” to encompass the “stakeholders” is suggested as a universal definition and operational guide in order to pinpoint the appropriate groups which should be targeted for P.R. activities.

Julian W. Vincze

An Empirical Based Study on Becoming a Published Marketing Educator

It is axiomatic that many marketing educators are be-seeched to do publishable research. In numerous institutions, a professor’s educational responsibilities fall in the domain of teaching, community/university, and research. The admistration and type of collegiate institution will usually dictate the degree of emphasis for each responsibility. With certain academic pressures of AACSB requirements, promotion-tenure requirements, job mobility or security, merit pay, and an advanced technological society, published research requirements may be either an opportunity or nemesis for many marketing professors. To make it more palatable, it is essential for academicians to learn and adopt the "tricks of the trade" of becoming published-especially in referred journals.

J. Donald Weinrauch, Marvin G. Adkins, J. Kenneth Matejka

Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation in Graduate Management Education

This paper presents a general theory of strategic management defined in any institutional setting as a process of resource deployment based on the managerial assessment of organizational needs. The theory is applied to the specific case of strategic competition in the graduate management education industry through use of the concepts of product differentiation and market segmentation from marketing science. The strategic competition among graduate management programs occurs in significant degree along these two dimensions. We argue that there are four basic models of graduate management education. These models are different strategies for image formation and faculty management, built around curriculum design as the central linchpin.

Duane Windsor, Francis D. Tuggle

Attitudes of Business Leaders Toward Colleges of Business

The increase in demand for business administration courses has had quite an impact upon colleges and universities throughout the nation. As the demand for business administration courses has skyrocketed during the past 20 years, the increase in resources available to business college administrators has generally not kept pace with the ever-increasing number of students. Terminal degree granting institutions are graduating only about 760 new business doctorate holders a year, down 250 from 1975. The result has often been larger classes and less opportunity for students to receive individual attention from their professors. Parallel to the development of this problem has been the considerable change taking place within the business disciplines themselves. Disciplines such as management, marketing, finance, economics, and accounting have made major advancements over the past 20 years, and these changes have created additional problems for college of business administrators. Administrators have been forced to keep a watchful eye on business curricula to keep them current. Courses that were appropriate 10 years ago may no longer be in the 1980’s. As these trends merge in the 1980’s, business college administrators need guidance from leaders to evaluate the effectiveness of current programs and to plan for programs to meet the future needs of the business community.

Robert Carter, Larry Patterson, Robert Swerdlow, Edward Walker

Major Consumer Markets Based on 1980 Census Data

Criteria for defining the boundaries of consumer markets were established in an earlier paper. Since that time several changes have been made in SMSA’s, SCSA’s and NECMA’s and 1980 census data are available. In this paper new rankings of the major consumer markets are established based on the revisions and the new data. Growth rates for these major markets are examined and the size of 1985 major markets are estimated.

Ernest F. Cooke

Immovable Property Act, (1981) of the Bahamas: a Commentary

The Government is implementing a new land policy. As a matter of policy, the Government has decided that Bahamian land will not be sold to foreigners. It is envisaged that there will Be exceptions to this policy when land is to be used for residential purposes by approved residents, and then only so much as is necessary for that purpose, and also where land is to be used for approved industrial or other developmental purposes having regard to the contribution that may be made to the development of the Bahamian economy and in accordance with Bahamian development goals. Although discretion is allowed in a wide area, land’ may not be sold to foreigners in the following cases: (A) Where land is adjacent to or near existing settlements or towns in the Family Islands as this will stand in the way of future expansion of such settlements; (B). Where land is b.eing sold or otherwise transferred by gift, will, ancestry or otherwise to a foreign government or agency except to the extent that foreign governments having diplomatic relations with the Bahamas will be allowed to acquire land sufficient for their needs; and (C) Where large tracts of land, islands and cays are being sold to foreigners except where prior approval for land use and economic development have been obtained.

John M. Dyer

Sensory Profiles of Generic Tomato Juice a Qda Comparison

An exploratory study was conducted to enable comparing consumer perceptions of the relative importance, plus ideal and actual levels, of selected product attributes. A preliminary experiment was designed to measure these perceptions regarding generic tomato juice associated with two different types of retail suppliers. As part of a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) technique utilized in collecting and analyzing the data, graphical profiles of actual and ideal ratings were plotted on polar axes arranged in ascending order of attribute importance. Results were interpreted to indicate that consumers may perceive generic products to exceed ideal requirements regarding attributes of lesser and greater importance when they are associated with discount food stores and conventional supermarkets respectively.

Nessim Hanna, Carlton A. Maile

Perceived Risk: Its Effects on Installment Credit Buying

This article reports the findings of a field study designed to identify and measure the relationship between consumers’ perceived risk and their propensity to finance the purchase of automobiles, furniture, and major appliances. The results based upon personal interviews with 171 men and women indicate that risk perception as measured by Kogan and Wallach’s “Choice Dilemmas Procedure” had a significant impact within each product category. A discussion of the findings and the study’s implications are presented.

John H. Holmes, Jeffrey D. Shore

Consumerism: A Neglected Aspect of Marketing Planning in Developing Economies

The wave of consumerism had been a felt need but not a worded phenomenon in Turkey until 1970. Because of the prevailing sellers’ market conditions and the preoccupation with production problems, consumer issues and consumer related problems were not addressed to. The present paper discusses several consumer related issues in a developing economy and proposes the establishment of voluntary consumer associations to overcome consumer problems.

Erdener Kaynak

The Working of the Anti-Monopoly Law in India: an Exploratory Study and some Comparative Insights

Comprehensive antimonopoly legislation is still a rarity in the Third World countries. India is one of the few Third World Countries which has a fairly elaborate law relating to monopolies and restrictive trade practices. This paper examines the working of this law by analyzing 29 cases decided in the first four years the law was in operation. Conclusions are drawn about the scope and manner of application of India’s anti-monopoly law and its impact on competitive practices. Broad comparisons are made with the antitrust laws of developed and developing countries. The problem of what is an appropriate industrial and competitive policy for Third World countries is placed in a perspective.

Rakesh Khurana, Nikhilesh Dholakia

Impact of Students’ Perceived Organization Antisocial Behavior or Job Choice

This study examines the impact of marketing students’ perceived organization antisocial behavior on their job choices. It examines criteria for job choice and organization antisocial actions that hinder recruiting of students.

Robin T. Peterson, Donald A. Michie

An Empirical Examination of Variations in Conjoint Solutions

The article discusses some basic methodological issues pertaining to alternative approaches of collecting conjoint data. An attempt is made to empirically examine and statistically evaluate conjoint measurement solutions. The findings indicate significant differences and are in sharp contrast to earlier findings.

Madhav N. Segal

Product Life-Cycle Extension: The Polyester Staple Experience

Innovation, according to the definition used in this paper, deals with the introduction of any new products and services within a product line. It has been a primary growth contributor to the synthetic fiber industry, and affected the theoretical product life-cycle paths of many fibers (Yale, 1965). An earlier study of nylon filament uses had shown that consumption of this fiber had grown over the years as a result of its continuous entry into new markets (Yale, 1964). As time passed, some of the existing nylon markets lost their significance. If it was not for the continuous addition of new markets, nylon would have reached maturity some years earlier. Growth of nylon, and for that matter of most products, relates to the cumulative effect of entering new markets, while some established markets are diminished or lost. In other words, products grow through a life-cycle extension process.

Jordan P. Yale


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