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Über dieses Buch

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complimenting the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science.

This volume includes the full proceedings from the 1986 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference held in Anaheim, California.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Consumer Behavior

Frontmatter

Consumer Values on the Texas-Mexico Border

This paper addresses the importance of basic cultural values in Anglo-Americans, Mexican citizens, and residents of the United States-Mexico border. The findings indicate that different cultural backgrounds affect values, but that border residents express values which differ from both the United States and Mexican cultures. Implications for consumer behavior and marketing strategy are discussed.

Gary E. Popp, Willard B. Platzer

Dual Career Households and Consumer Socialization

This exploratory study examined differences in consumer socialization by household income type. Personal interviews were conducted with 81 children from fifty single-income, one and one-half income, and two-income households. Discriminant analysis revealed a significant function which distinguished among the three household types on the basis of children’s 1) consumer skill behaviors, 2) consumer nonskill behaviors, and 3) related media use and psychographic data. Children from dual career households demonstrate higher levels of brand differentiation, rely more on trusted stores in making purchase decisions and have higher educational goals.

Lucy L. Henke

The Concept of Convenience in Marketing: A Definition and Suggested Approach in the Study of Household Time-Savings

The concept of convenience forms an integral part of the study of the changing household.This paper suggests that clear definition is needed from the perspective of the consumer, rather than that of the researcher or the product manufacturer. Product use in a time-saving situation is often inferred based on the simple purchase of a convenience-related good, rather than actual report by the consumer.A systems perspective is adopted to relate the notion of convenience to input-output tradeoffs within the household productive process.Suggestions are given for extending these notions for future research.

Carol J. Kaufman

Consumer Research in Retrospect: An Analysis of the American Silver Market, 1750–1800

Both aggressive marketing practices and lively consumer markets have had a long history.Early luxury markets are particularly worthy of investigation because they set a general pattern for broader markets in later years.This paper analyzes the American silver market between 1750 and 1800. After first defining silver as a product class and briefly showing how it was marketed, the paper describes the market in terms of relevant geographic and demographic characteristics.The paper then segments the market with appropriate end uses and product benefits.The concluding section summarizes the findings and offers questions for further research.

Terrence H. Witkowski

Food Retailers’ Perceptions of Supermarket UPC Scanner Checkout Systems

This paper reports preliminary findings about food retailers’ perceptions of a wide range of characteristics about the Universal Product Code scanner checkout system. Food retailers comprised of two sampling frames, namely, installers and non-installers of the scanner checkout systems. Food retailers from thirty-six states responded to the mail survey. Their perceptions are anlayzed and compared.

Daulatram B. Lund

The Effect of Music on Attention to Audio Ads

The role of music in advertising is discussed and, based on a limited capacity model of attention, it is hypothesized that highly attractive music may contribute to learning of commercial message information in "noisy" environments but inhibit same in "quiet" environments. An experimental study provides support for the hypothesis. The use of music in advertising is discussed broadly and research issues raised.

Carl Obermiller, April Atwood

The Psychophysics of Price: A Critique of the Weber-Fechner Approach in Consumer Behavior

The present paper reviews the application of Fechnerian psychophysics to the study of consumer perceptual response to price. Because Weber’s Law and Fechner’s Law apply only to sensory dimensions, and are predicated upon the concepts of sensory thresholds, they cannot be applied to the study of price perception, since price is a nonsensory dimension. An alternative approach to the study of the psychophysics of price is presented which depends upon direct consumer estimates of subjective magnitude. The implications of this approach for future research are discussed.

J. Dennis White, Judy A. Vilmain

Determinants of Product Value-Expressiveness: Another Look at Conspicuousness, Differentiation, and Common Usage

This paper reports a study that examined the effects of product conspicuousness, product differentiation, and product common usage on product value-expressiveness.As expected, the results showed that product conspicuousness and product differentiation are positively related to product value-expressiveness, and that product common usage is negatively related to product value–expressiveness.

M. Joseph Sirgy, J. S. Johar, Michael Wood

Gender Stereotyping of Products: Are Products Like People?

The literature on sex-role identification is reviewed and the same framework is applied to classify products/services into gender categories.Subjects tended to perceive products along a continuum of masculinity and feminity with few products being perceived and classified as androgynous and undifferentiated.The differences in the perception of male and female subjects is discussed.It is suggested that the product user, purchaser, and promoter characteristics may be important determinants of the gender of a product/service.

Easwar S. Iyer, Kathleen Debevec

Differences in Susceptibility to Reference Group Influence on Brand Decisions: Middle Aged and Elderly Group Participants

The susceptibility to three types of reference group influence on the brand choice behavior of 94 elderly and 88 middle aged group participants was investigated for six product categories. Data for this study were collected by self-administered questionnaires distributed at regular meetings of the organizations. Significant differences in susceptibility to reference group influence were obtained at the .05 level in 6 out of 18 relationships between the two age groups. The marketing implications of these findings are discussed.

Alan J. Greco

The Black Consumer Market: Values as an Alternative Segmentation Strategy

Values, operationalized by using the "striving index," are shown to be a viable base for segmenting the black consumer market. Demographic, psychographic, and marketing behavior variables are examined to determine differences between strivers and non-strivers. These differences are then explored to suggest marketing strategies.

Miriam B. Stamps, Clint B. Tankersley

The Influence of the Situational Context on Product Usage

This study first proposed a model of the extended situational context to provide a device for integrating and extending previous findings from research into situational influences. Then, the four elements of the model were operationalized as follows, using food as the focal product:

objective situation

in terms of who eats the food;

object

in terms of the particular food item;

subject

in terms of the values held by the serving homemaker; and the criterion of

behavioral response

in terms of product usage rate. A projective field experiment supported the model by finding significant prediction of food usage from the main effects representing the first three elements, and all first order interactions.

Erhard K. Valentin, Kent L. Granzin

The Influence of Mood on Willingness to Spend and Unplanned Purchasing

This study explores the impact of mood on two important aspects of consumer behavior: willingness to spend, and perceived likelihood of making unplanned purchases. Previous research suggests that mood state plays an important role in influencing various aspects of decision-making and risk-taking behavior. The current study extends this stream of research into the context of consumer behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that affect does influence consumers, and that this influence differs for males and females.

Dena Thometz Saliagas, James J. Kellaris

An Analysis of Discriminating Criteria as a Consequence of Consumer Involvement With a Financial Service Decision

Although considerable progress has been made by consumer researchers in understanding the role of involvement in decision making, their scope of interest has been confined largely to the study of product and message involvement. In an effort to broaden the scope of interest, this paper focuses on service involvement. An empirical study is presented that identifies which criteria are the most discriminating as a consequence of varying levels of consumer involvement with a financial service decision.

Joseph J. Belonax, Lowell E. Crow

Individual-, Product-, and Situation-Specific Factors: Is Perceived Risk Affected by Their Interaction?

An exploratory study was undertaken to investigate possible interaction effects between three classes of variables traditionally identified as influencing perceived risk. The three classes of variables are individual-specific, product-specific, and situation-specific. Prior research has focused on the main effects of one of these three classes of variables, but little attention has been paid to the extent to which they interact. Results indicate that interaction effects do exist between the three classes of factors and that they influence the amount of perceived risk. Marketing strategies to reduce the influence of situational variables are suggested as a means of improving the marketing strategy for high-risk products.

Kathleen A. Krentler, Angelina Villarreal

International Marketing

Frontmatter

The Growth of International Joint Ventures

Although not a new phenomenon, joint venture activity has seen tremendous growth in the international business scene during the past decade. Companies from particularly the industrialized nations have led the way in international business partnerships, motivated by a variety of reasons. By way of reviewing recent developments, this discussion paper addresses three issues: What are the long-term implications of joint ventures for national industry structures? How will the gradual move from a spirit of competition to one of collaboration affect established patterns of international competition? What types of competitive realignments between nations are likely to affect the success of current joint ventures?

Lyn S. Amine, S. Tamer Cavusgil, Attila Yaprak

Strategic Market Planning in the Irish Banking Sector

This paper analyses the basic issues in the strategic market planning process as an important part of the strategic marketing and tries to see whether Irish Banking system formally applies this concept. A mail questionnaire was used to carry out a survey covering all the banks in the Greater Dublin Area, which hosts 90% of the banks operating in Ireland. Although the main findings of the survey show similarities with earlier studies, Irish banks have shown some distinct characteristics in their approach to the strategic planning.

Tevfik Dalgic, Peter Ryan

Key Factors for Successful Marketing in Japan

The need for close politico-economic relations between the U.S. and Japan are essential and beneficial not only to these two nations, but to the entire free world. While many problems and hurdles may be encountered by U.S. firms attempting to do business in Japan, the financial rewards can be significant. This paper discusses and identifies the specific U.S. corporate experiences which reflect how these companies have overcome the many trade barriers in Japan. This paper also attempts to identify and discuss marketing management implications of key strategic factors to U.S. firms for successful marketing in Japan.

C. P. Rao, A. Ben Oumlil

Imitative Innovations: A Product Strategy From a Newly Industrialised Country – The Turkish Case

This paper attempts to underline the difference between the innovative imitations and imitative innovations; two transfer of technology mechanisms by giving examples from a newly industrialised country: Turkey. The author surveys the structures of the top 50 Turkish manufacturing companies and classifies them according to their adoption categories and innovative/imitative characteristics.

Tevfik Dalgic

Teaching Marketing in China

This paper describes an introductory marketing course taught to MBA students of the State Economic Commission, Beijing, China. The linguistic, cultural and ideological background of the students required a unique ‘hands on’ approach in a society where marketing is in its infancy.

James M Livingstone

Retail Food Distribution in a Socialist State: The Polish Experience

Retail food distribution in Poland is essentially the responsibility of a cooperative organization, SPOŁEM, rather than a state enterprise. However, SPOŁEM’s operating practices reflect traditional socialist thinking with regard to product availability, pricing, and promotion. This paper examines the status of SPOŁEM’s physical facilities, product assortment, and pricing and promotional practices, and identifies some current social and economic trends in Poland which will require SPOŁEM’s management to reevaluate its marketing practices.

Robert L. King

A Proposed Consideration for Cross-National Marketing Research

There is a growing body of research studies dealing with different cultures. Although it is widely accepted that cross-cultural differences exist, there is little empirical evidence actually documenting such differences or suggesting the particular form or pattern they take. This paper reviews some of the cross-cultural and cross-national studies and proposes some standardization of dimensions to be used to define culture. Hopefully, this would allow the development of a more coherent model of the effects of different cultures.

Nancy D. Marlow, Edward K. Marlow

Halo Effect Influences on the Japanese Product Price/Quality Relationship

The relationship between price, quality and country of origin has not been fully explored. Recent attention to Japanese management styles and quality control measures could produce a generalized enhanced belief of product quality. Research indications were that a "halo effect" does exist bolstering the pervasive image of Japanese goods. This was found even when the Japanese product was of lesser price. It was interesting that nationalism appeared to be a dominant factor when price and quality were constant. It seemed that Americans desire to purchase domestic goods, but not at the expense of perceived inferior quality.

Kip Becker

A Study of Country of Manufacturer Impact on Consumer Perceptions

This study investigates the importance of country of manufacture (COM) information to U.S. consumers when purchasing a variety of different goods and services. The impact of COM information on consumer perceptions of product quality, price and risk level are also presented. Finally, profiles of consumers sensitive to COM information and predisposed toward expanded trade with the People’s Republic of China are presented.

Paul S. Hugstad, Michael Durr

The Imported Export Market: An Investigation of Foreign Visitors’ Gift and Personal Purchases

This study was designed to investigate the "imported" export market, i.e., visitors from other countries, both as a test market for direct exports and a special sub-market in its own right. A questionnaire covering past and planned purchases, for personal use and gifts, was administered to a sample of foreign students.Comparison of past with projected purchases indicates that timing of gift purchases differs from that of personal purchases and marketing strategies should be planned accordingly.Additional findings suggest that foreign visitors may provide useful information about home markets, e.g., differences in preferences for brand names by sex.

Margaret Rucker, Susan Kaiser, Mary Barry, Debra Brummett, Carla Freeman, Alice Peters

An operational Framework for Entry Strategy in the Multinational Marketing system

This paper presents an operational framework for formulating strategies in the multinational marketing system. Using a portfolio perspective, the framework proposed here is a decision sensitive middle ground framework between two polarized approaches: 1) the highly subjective approach, and 2) the highly structured optimization approach. It includes a strategic option model, a decision making model, and a decision support system. In a tutorial fashion, the paper synthesizes past research and outlines directions for future conceptual and empirical progress.

Sejo Oh

Marketing Education

Frontmatter

Marketing in Higher Education: Myth or Reality

There are recent signs that the marketing of higher education is gaining more formal attention and that an awareness of the phenomenon is broadening. However, most of the effort in marketing has centered on the promotion and selling of programs to potential students. Limited attention has focused on the total process. There has been much controversy surrounding the use of "marketing" techniques in higher education, but the real issues are a lack of understanding - the true definition of marketing. You can’t do it if you don’t know what it is!

Harold W. Babb, Susan Giga

A Practical Application of Strategic Planning and Positioning for a Marketing Department: Start With Consumers’ Evaluations

A number of authors have encouraged the use of strategic planning in institutions of higher learning. Strategic planning and positioning strategies are based on consumer information such as the value of and satisfaction with benefits received, as well as, images of and preferences for the institution and its products. This study was designed to gather and evaluate such information and suggest how it might be used to further the planning process in a practical manner. Alumni and industry representatives from firms that hired this school’s marketing alumni were included in the sample.

Kenneth J. Burger, Sandra L. Schmidt

An Empirical Analysis of Business Students’ Attitudes Toward Marketing:Implications for Marketing Educators

This research examined business students’ attitudes toward marketing. The results revealed that while business students generally had a favorable attitude toward marketing, differences emerged: (1) between marketing and non-marketing majors; (2) by whether a student was exposed to a marketing course or not; and (3) by the sex of the student. Implications for marketing educators are presented.

Susan M. Petroshius

Information of Use to New Doctorates Interested in Publishing in Marketing Journals

A total of 359 articles from eight marketing journals were surveyed to determine authorship of articles and the employment affiliation of the articles’ author(s). The results suggest that some institutions have faculty who favor publishing in certain journals used in the present study.

Gary L. Clark

In Search of an International Marketing Curriculum

Exploring the future is an essential aspect of any long range planning effort. In this paper, planning for an appropriate international marketing education curriculum is the objective. The author uses the Delphi Method to identify the probable future needs in international marketing education. The predictions are divided into four broad categories and related to one possible curriculum.

Gerald M. Hampton

Assessing the Topics to be Covered in Retail Courses and the Value of Selected Classes in Retail Education:The Opinions of Retail Managers

Retail managers’ attitudes should influence the design of the retail course and the designation of specific classes to be taken in preparation for a retail career. This article reports the results of a study of retail operating managers that (1) assesses their perceptions of the value of specific college courses in preparing them for a career in retailing, (2) identifies the attention which they believe specific topics deserve in the college retail course, and (3) investigates the managers general feelings about the conduct and pedagogical style of retailing courses.

J. Joseph Cronin

In Search of Excellence: A Tool for Teaching Marketing Management?

An experiment is presented in which a failing corporation is described by executive MBA students as performing well on all of Peters and Watermans’ eight principles of excellence. Implications for using

In Search of Excellence

as a teaching tool are discussed.

Michael Parent, Mark Slama

Experiential Learning: Travel Contests for Sales Management Courses

Marketing educators are facing increased pressure to create a classroom atmosphere resembling that of the workplace. Sales courses are in particular need of experiential teaching methods which will enable students to determine if they are aptitud-inally and attitudinally suited to careers in professional selling. This paper reports on two attempts to answer this challenge by introduction of an incentive travel contest to undergraduate courses in Sales Management. Theoretical background for such contests, problem areas, method of implementation, and recommendations for improvement are included.

Steven A. Ascroft

Ethical Standards of Marketing Students

This paper reports the results of an empirical examination of the ethical standards of marketing students attending a large Southeastern university. The results indicate that in many cases situational ethics do exist. In one of four tested cases, the students with more exposure to the business curriculum were more tolerant of unethical behavior. Few differences in the ethical views of male and female students were found. Some evidence did exist, however, to suggest that the ethical posture of women does change as their education level increases. These and other results are analyzed and compared to previous research findings.

Vicky L. Crittenden, William F. Crittenden, Jon M. Hawes

Student Evaluations in a Business Administration Curriculum - A Marketing Viewpoint

There are two opposing viewpoints, both well supported in the literature, concerning student evaluations of teaching performance. The first view holds that students can and should evaluate teaching performance and that the evaluation will correlate well with learning outcomes. The second viewpoint is that, while the students may be measuring something, probably satisfaction, their evaluations may differ markedly from the level of true learning taking place.

Lorman L. Lundsten

Marketing Principles: Student Attainment and Instructor Performance

The attitudes and viewpoints of professors teaching Marketing Principles are set forth and compared with those of students prior to and following study in the introductory course. Instructors of Marketing Principles appear to have relatively little impact on attitudes and views held by students completing course work. A performance grid is presented for the matching of professors to classes in an application of Fiedler’s Contingency Model for Leadership Effectiveness. Suggestions are also offered for improvements in the formating of the Marketing Principles course.

Edward J. O’Brien

Factors Affecting the Academic Achievement of Marketing Students

A study of a graduating class of seniors in marketing examined factors associated with successful academic achievement using, first, a required comprehensive examination, and second, overall GPA. A number of potential variables were investigated for their relevance to achievement, grade-related, school-related, comprehensive examination-related, work-related, extra curricular-related, and demographic. Many did not seem to be associated. Overall, academic aptitude and past academic performance seemed to be the most important predictors of achievement.

Daniel J. Brown, William G. Browne, Beverly A. Browne

Shaping the Marketing Discipline: An Analysis of Dissertations*

The value of academic activity and output has always been elusive in its measurement. Frequently, the general areas of expected performance are defined as teaching, research, and service, and contributions to each area are expected from faculty members who are good academic citizens. As far as an evaluation of the particular contribution is concerned, faculty committees and deans seek resort to proxy measures for guidance. In the field of teaching, the number of courses and students taught and the student evaluations of teachers are often used. For research, one often looks to the number of publications and the types of publication vehicles in which they appeared. For service evaluations, the number of committees on which an individual serves and the hours of time expended in the performance of service are often assessed.

Michael R. Czinkota

The Undergraduate Marketing Major: Ambivalence in the Market Place

This paper discusses present employer attitudes over the hiring of marketing majors, their perceptions of hiring marketing majors over other business majors, and perceived adequacy of current marketing programs…particularly as employers may differentiate between marketing and management programs for hiring purposes. Findings show that there is a lack of clear direction in employer's assessments of marketing programs for some hiring needs. That there may be an inability to separate functions of marketing from functions of the job leads to the conclusion that other disciplines within the field of business may also have an ambivalence in the marketplace.

Robert H. Luke

Marketing Management

Frontmatter

The Market for Products to Support Physical Fitness Activities

Physical fitness is a growing area of consumer participation, thus marketing interest. This study investigates the nature of the market for products to support this activity by distinguishing among three market segments based on expenditures for products to support physical fitness activities. The results show the segments can be characterized in terms of their patterns of relatively passive and relatively active leisure pursuits, their attitudes, and their demographics and media habits.

Kent L. Granzin, Janeen E. Olsen

Marketing Microcomputer Hardware

The emergence of the microcomputer has brought high tech marketing concepts to the fore. This entire industry is new and provides an opportunity to study marketing behavior without a lot of historical baggage. This paper will illustrate techniques used in the marketing of microcomputers. Product life cycles, the influence of technology, price, promotion, physical distribution and the selection of target markets all affect the marketing effort. Each of these influences will be examined.

Richard D. Teach, Linda L. Gregg

The Use of Price Discrimination as a Demand Management Technique in the Service Sector: The Case of Tourism

Price discrimination represents a valuable, but often overlooked, pricing tool to the marketing manager. This is especially the case in the marketing of services. This paper briefly reviews the theoretical justification and legal implications of price discrimination. The results of an exploratory study on attitudes and behaviors regarding price discrimination in tourism are summarized. Suggestions are made for further research.

Michael H. Morris, Duane L. Davis

Marketers Should Encourage Bargaining

Bargaining models suggest an optimal pricing strategy that is not necessarily consistent with the conventional theory of setting price with respect to marginal cost and marginal revenue. This paper suggests that sellers should negotiate with large accounts and should set their list prices and discount structures for small accounts in terms of the target profit derived from a bargaining model.

Ted Mitchell

The Older Retail Shopper: A Review and Directions for Future Research

The past 15 years have witnessed increased attention to the older consumer. This paper reviews the literature relating to the elderly retail shopper. The major findings of published empirical works are presented and areas for future research are identified. In the future, greater attention should be directed to the analysis of cause and effect relationships and to segmentation of the elderly market.

Alan J. Greco

Department Store Choice and Gift Purchases: A Stepwise Logit Analysis

This study investigates national, chain department store versus small, independent department store attributes that affect store choices when making a gift purchase. Gift buying represents a significant proportion of retail sales and profits. The results indicate that consumers prefer buying clothing products as gifts in stores where they shop for their own personal consumption. Differences that affect department store choices when gift buying for a male versus a female are described. Marketing strategies to stimulate gift purchases are discussed.

David Andrus, Richard Sundheim, Wayne Norvell, Robert E. Hite

Identifying the Factors Contributing to Customers Driving Directly by a Competitor to Shop at the Host Store

This paper examines the situation in which consumers drive directly by one retail store to shop at another retail store of similar type. This group of consumers, called "by shoppers" because they drive by one store to get to another, is analyzed to see if it differs demographically from other customer groups. In addition, characteristics of the "host store" (the store driven to) and the "competitor store" (the store driven by) are analyzed to determine their influence on the "by shopper" group.

Michael M. Pearson, Glenn T. Stoops, Bob T. W. Wu

Toward More Standardized Terminology in Retail Buying

This exploratory study investigates the meanings implied by retail chain-store buyers when they use terminology that appears to be generally understood.

Peter M. Banting, David L. Blenkhorn

An Integrative Model of Market Evolution

A conceptual model of market evolution is developed by blending together several related notions from the fields of marketing, consumer behavior, retailing, and economics. The model offers answers to questions that have for years plagued proponents of the "wheel of retailing" hypothesis, as well as answers to questions of cause and motive power concerning the process of market evolution. The source of these answers is argued to lie in the work of marketing theorist, Alderson, and in the Mises/Kirzner school of "Austrian" economics.

Jerry Kirkpatrick

New Opportunities and Strategies for Businesses

Entrepreneurs and firms continuously seek opportunities for new businesses which may be exploited when a market and a product are matched with their capabilities to produce desired results (Tregoe and Zimmerman 1979). Although finding and recognizing an opportunity is largely a creative act, some strategies in pursuing opportunities are better than others. This article examines strategies for finding and evaluating opportunities by looking at newness of products, markets and technology.

A. Tansu Barker, Martin L. Gimpl, A. Coskun Samli

Identifying Competitive Boundaries: An Analysis of the Impact of Competitive Situations on Consumer’S Perceptions of Retail Stores

This paper reports the results of a survey designed to assess how consumers’ perception of a retail store is affected by its competitive position. Specifically, two questions were addressed: (1) does the traditional assumption that retail competition tends to be intertype appear to be true in practice? and (2) what advantages are gained by a retailer positioned in a "competition free" environment? Managerial implications are presented.

J. Joseph Cronin, Scott W. Kelley

An Analysis of the Impact of the Motor Carrier Act of 1980 on the Use of Advertising by General Motor Freight Carriers

The purpose of this paper is to determine if advertising in the motor carrier industry has increased since the passage of the Motor Carrier Act of 1980. A census of sixty-five common carriers was conducted through the use of a mail survey. Simple, but meaningful, dependent and independent variables were established to test several hypotheses.

Steven G. Greene, John R. Tanner, Peter Wright

The Cooperation-Control Relationship in a Franchise Channel

The relationship between cooperation in the distribution channel and member control over business policies was investigated in a franchise channel for farm implements. The results indicated that control over pricing and terms and over service capability were positively related to the perceptions of cooperation and that control over dealer operations was negatively related to cooperation. In specific, as dealers perceive to have greater (less) control over the relevant decision issues, their perceptions of cooperation increase (decrease).

Stanley D. Sibley

Strategic Interorganization Management: An Approach for Evaluating the Impact of New Technologies on Distribution Channel Structures and Relationships

Members of distribution channels for goods and services are facing a major technology-based upheaval caused by the computer and telecommunications revolution of the 1980s. So far, many of the effects of the new technologies have not been fully capitalized on by distributive institutions. Indeed, channel members lack a systematic framework for assessing new technologies and assimilating them into the vertical marketing structure, i.e., the marketing channel. The objective of this paper is to provide channel members with a framework that will allow them to assess emerging technologies from their own unique positions and perspectives. The approach is

Strategic Interorganization Management

, an analytic technique developed to improve the performance of vertical marketing systems in the delivery of service outputs desired by organizational users and final consumers. The Strategic Interorganization Management Approach involves three processes or stages.

Adel I. El-Ansary, Patricia B. Fox

Common Information Needs for Marketing Decisions: Foundation for Planning of Information Resources

Faced with the task of discovering ways of improving marketing decision making, many marketers have turned to marketing information systems and marketing decision support systems. However, the efficient and effective planning of such systems requires a foundation of knowledge concerning which characteristics of the information available need to be improved, which information is most important for marketing decisions, and which information may have an impact on several products. This study explored these issues. Results suggest that common information needs do exist across products and industries, and the the information which is most important to marketing decision makers is most deficient.

Nancy A. Haskell, James R. Taylor

Strategic Market Evaluation of Two Retail Electronic Funds Transfer Systems (EFTS)

This paper deals with research that was used to develop a strategic plan for the evaluation of two off-site electronic funds transfer systems (EFTS). Faced with a choice between automatic teller machines (ATM) or an in-store banking system (ISB), management must determine which approach will provide them with the greatest opportunity to penetrate selected target markets. Mapping the attitudinal and personal characteristics of four consumer segments by means of discriminant analysis contributed significantly to the assessment of the two systems with respect to the bank’s marketing objectives.

Stanley Arbeit, Joseph G. Glynn

The Effect of Promotion Variables and Competitive Situations on Small Retailers’ Profitability

The primary objective of this study was to explore the relationship between a select group of promotion variables utilized by small retail grocers and five retail store performance ratios (GPM, NPM, GMROI, NPROI, and stockturn rate per year).

L. Lynn Judd, Garth A. Powell, Raymond E. Taylor

An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Consumer Premium Promotions

The use of consumer self-liquidating premium promotions is widespread. However, little research has been published in this area. A large amount of data on actual premium promotions was obtained from a leading manufacturer of consumer packaged goods. Based on this information, several questions are addressed relating to: (1) sales response effectiveness over time, (2) effectiveness in attracting competitors’ customers, (e) interactions between premium prices and required proofs of purchase, and (4) findings of follow-up surveys as a way of analyzing promotion success.

C. P. Rao, Gerald Crawford

Food Coupons - Perspective and Update

It started with wooden nickels. Coupons are issued by over 2,000 manufacturers and are used by 86% of all U.S. households. Over 140 billion were distributed in 1984, with a 6% redemption rate (over 8 billion) and with an average face value over 25 cents plus an eight cent handling fee. The industry has grown consistently for over a dozen years, and is the largest single category of consumer promotion at $2.5 billion. The average household redeems about three coupons a week, with the more affluent redeeming more than lower income groups. Once associated almost exclusively with packaged goods, marketers in virtually every sector of our economy now use coupons and rebates in some form.

Lance Masters, Karen Kessinger

Comparing the Effectiveness of Advertising Appeals to the "Real" Self versus the "Ideal" Self in a Personal Investment Situation

The study considers the appropriateness of two types of advertising appeals--one directed to the "real" self, the other to the "ideal" self--and measures their relative effectiveness in promoting a personal investment,

viz

., a graduate degree program. Based upon self-concept theory and previous empirical research, three hypotheses were derived and tested using a between-subjects experimental design. Selected analyses of the data obtained from 217 subjects produced mixed results. Specific findings and their implications are discussed.

John H. Holmes, Timothy M. Calvin

Attitudinal and Behavioral Response to Comparative Advertising: An Experimental Field Analysis

Contrary to the widespread international practice of comparative advertising, most communication-effects studies have found its relative effectiveness equivocal. The author uses an attitudinal and behavioral response approach in a field study to examine the differential effects of comparative and non-comparative advertising. Results suggest that, while no differences in the relative effectiveness are found on attitude measures, comparative advertising excels at the behavioral criterion.

Z. S. Demirdjian

Black and White Children’s Responses to Television Commercials

Children ranging in age from eight to twelve years were exposed to a short videotaped commercial in order to test for differences in the way in which black and white children respond to such advertisements. The results indicated no significant racial differences for product attitudes, recall, or product selection. Implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

Joseph H. Miller, Thomas Lipscomb

The Effect of Source, Message, and Media Credibilities on the Perception of Overall Advertising Credibility

Subjects were asked to rate the overall credibility of personal computer print ads designed to represent high and low credibility combinations for the variables of source, message, and media. A three-way interaction was found, and the compensatory effect of manipulating credibility levels for each of the variables was studied. Creative and advertising testing implications of the findings are discussed.

Jacques A. Nantel, Dennis L. Rosen

Latent Structure in Print Ad Subjective Strategy: A Suggested Method for Advertising Strategy Study in Marketing Education

Subjective message strategies for ads in women’s consumer magazines were examined using a content analysis method. The data was then subjected to a factor analysis to explore latent components underlying the subjective portion of the ads. Five unique subjective components emerged from the analysis. The exploratory study indicates that print ads have unique components. The study of subjective print ad strategy can be enhanced by understanding the nature of the components of an ad. This can facilitate the learning/instruction process.

Karen Blotnicky, Nathan D. King

Marketing Of Services

Frontmatter

Characterizing Market Segments for a General Aviation Airport

This study investigates the relationship between awareness, attitudes, intentions, media habits, and demographics and the frequency of flying during a one year period. Multiple discriminant analysis is used to profile market segments based on services offered by a general aviation airport. Awareness was found to have the least predictive power and intentions to use specific services was the most useful in characterizing market segments.

Kenneth D. Bahn, Akshay Rao

Adoption of New Services – Consumer versus Organizational Buyer Attitudes and Intentions: An Exploratory Study

This paper examines the attitudes and intentions of two very diverse segments of the market, general consumers and organizational buyers, towards new services proposed by a general aviation airport. Data were collected from 800 households and 200 businesses to test differences. These differences related to the degree of positivity of attitudes and intentions towards the new services.

Kenneth D. Bahn, Akshay Rao, Richard Werbel

Assessing the Impact of Transit Marketing Changes

This study’s main focus in on the inability of the transit industry to assess the impact of marketing changes. A two-stage process was required to address this problem. First, appropriate performance measures that will be sensitive to changes in the transit system were obtained. Secondly, a research design was developed to isolate the role the marketing program had in shifting those measures. This study illustrates how a technique – intervention analysis – can be used to measure the impact of changes to a transit system.

John J. Considine

Decision Criteria for Hotel Selection Segments

Travelers reported how they had chosen their hotel for a specific trip. The trip specific choice groups were compared with the respondent's usual method of hotel selection by multiple discriminant analysis. Business and pleasure travel segments emerge as being different not only in reason for travel, but also in their method of choosing a hotel. Business travelers were more inclined to have chosen the hotel where the convention was being held or to let the secretary make the reservation. Pleasure travelers seemed more inclined to go with a friend’s recommendation, or to have stayed there before. A second dimension of hotel selection emerged relating to the use, or nonuse, of a travel agent.

William J. Quain, Peter W. Hermann

The Influence of Attitudes on Nurse Recruitment

The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data as a basis for the development of a nurse recruitment program. Quantitative measures were designed utilizing Fishbein’s Expectancy Value Model and assessed using Chi-Square Analysis, and Facotr Analysis. Fishbein’s Model provided a list of attributes, identified by the nurses as being of highest importance when making an employment decision. Further, the model represented the degree of importance the nurses attached to each respective attribute. Cross tabulation of the data was performed through Chi-Square Analysis in order to examine the interrelationships among the attributes. The use of factor analysis provided a means to evaluate the attributes in terms of their synergistic effects when communicated to the nurses as a unified set. Also identified in the study were the information sources most influential in the nurse’s employment decision. In conclusion, from the perspective of a nurse recruiter, internal and external recommendations were made to successfully attract potential employees.

Rebecca M. J. Yates, Lynn M. Schultz

The Professional Service Provider and the Client: A Different Type of Exchange Relationship

The paper compares and contrasts the exchange process and resulting interactions of a professional and client with a typical commercial exchange relationship. Unique aspects of the relationship are discussed that highlight the need for further research and development of a "client" behavior model.

Kenneth E. Crocker

If it Feels Like the Flu, it Must be Time to go to the Bank: Consumer Perceptions About Alternative Health Care Providers

Urgent care centers and hospital satellite clinics have emerged as competition for traditional providers of primary health care in recent years. Sears and other financially integrated consumer firms will pose an even greater challenge to traditional practitioners as economic forces in health care shift profitability from service delivery to financial integration. Exploratory analysis of consumer reactions to receiving primary health care from retail firms suggests potential market shares and marketing strengths.

David Karns

A Framework For Consumer Behavior Analysis in Dental Care Marketing

Expanded opportunities and related choice behavior make it imperative that an indepth knowledge of consumers be gained by providers of dental care services so that more effective marketing efforts can be designed and implemented. In view of these perspectives, this paper is concerned with investigating the dental consumers’ perceptions and satisfactions in relation to providers of dental care services.

C. P. Rao, L. Joseph Rosenberg

Dyadic Performance in a Nonprofit Service Setting: The Importance of Matching

Within the broad area of marketing of nonprofit service organizations, the matching of volunteers to clients within social service agencies has received no attention in the marketing literature. Three theories were successfully applied to matching in a direct-service setting.The theory of referent power, based on an analogy with the buyer-seller dyad, was used to predict success in a volunteer-client dyad.Additional theories were Schutz’ theory of compatibility and Bierman’s model of interpersonal facilitation.

Irene M. Thorelli

Implementing the Marketing Concept: A Case of Change Management

By combining a strong cultural emphasis and an external orientation dictated by implementating the marketing concept, a firm can improve its chances of being successful over the long run despite changing environmental and competitive situations. This paper focuses on providing an overview of the change process as it relates to strengthening a firm’s culture and implementing the marketing concept.

Danny R. Arnold, Louis M. Capella

Market Segmentation in the Collegiate Basketball Market

This study investigates the characteristics of three market segments based on patronage in the collegiate basketball market and provides suggestions for marketers who operate in this market. This research gives special recognition that this "semi-professional" product competes with the true professional offering in a number of markets. Those segments investigated were non-attenders, low attendere, and high attendere. They were characterized in terms of their general market orientation, interests in leisure pursuits, opinions about the competing product, professional basketball, and demographics.

Kent L. Granzin, Janeen E. Olsen

Is the Marketing of Art Exhibitions Economically Justifiable?

As art museums are in the nonprofit sector, they are oftentimes perceived as economic drains. However, as is demonstrated in this research, museums also have a major economic impact when they present major art exhibitions. The economic contribution of an international exhibition on one region is estimated to have been approximately $18 million, and was considered to have been an outstanding success, economically as well as culturally.

James A. Brunner, J. Marc De Korte

Evaluating the Demand for a New Service

Many service organizations contemplate the introduction of a new service for which the demand is uncertain. Surveys may be used to forecast reactions of the market. This case study of a credit union’s introduction of share draft accounts indicates that some types of survey information may be useful in predicting adoption of new services.

Daniel J. Brown

Profiling the Users of Automated Teller Machines

Automated teller machines that are capable of handling most routine banking transactions are now widely available. This innovation in the exchange process has not been adopted as quickly as many had expected, however, and a minority of bank customers currently utilize this service. This paper examines the characteristics of consumers who have used ATM’s and presents a profile of this segment.

Dale L. Varble, Jon M. Hawes

Applying Lovelock’S Services Classification System to Residential Alternative Long-Distance Telephone Services

Lovelock’s system for classifying services is applied to alternative residential long-distance telephone services in an attempt to better understand those services. Other services organizations are identified that are similar to these services along each of the dimensions suggested by the classification system. In addition, marketing insights and implications are offered for each analysis matrix.

William E. Warren, David L. Loudon

Bank Customer Contact Personnel: Training Needs and Issues

Customer contact personnel in banks face increasingly difficult jobs because of the changes that are taking place in their industry. In recent times, customers have become more and more frustrated with the inability of the customer contact person to successfully explain the myriad new products that financial institutions are offering. At the same time, the financial institutions are becoming increasingly concerned with the inability of its customer contact personnel to successfully cross sell these new products. This paper addresses both sides of the issue, and offers training solutions for the banks.

John H. Lindgren, John M. Gwin

Research Methodology

Frontmatter

Power and Effect Size in Sample Size Selection for Proportions

In experiments with three or more treatments in which individudal test of differences in treatment proportions are to be made, the question arises of how to determine individual treatment sample sizes that will minimize sampling costs while controlling for power and effect size. This general sample size selection question was formulated as a continuous convex programming problem. Optimal sample sizes were obtained with less than one minute of run time for a formulation of a sample size selection problem under typical experimental research conditions.

Norman T. Bruvold

Questionnaire Inclusion in a Second Mailing: A Matter of Time and Money

Previous researchers have concluded that the enclosure of a questionnaire in a second mailing has little impact on the overall response rate. However, previous studies have failed to include the timing of the second mailing as a moderating variable. The experiment reported here presents findings which show that the effectiveness of enclosing a questionnaire in a second mailing is moderated by the length of time between the original and second mailing.

P. Greg Bonner, Dennis J. Scotti, Alan R. Wiman

Simultaneous Optimization of Questionnaire Length and Sample Size in Marketing Research: A Matrix Sampling Approach

This paper introduces the Matrix Sampling Approach for optimal research designs in Marketing Research. Specifically, the paper presents models for a simultaneous optimization of both questionnaire designs and corresponding sample sizes for each design, using the matrix sampling methodology. The first model incorporates no overlap, which the second does. Solution procedures for both models are indicated, and simulation results presented to illustrate the use and implications of the models. The models are then applied to a known data base, and empirical findings indicate the timely usefulness of this joint optimization process in data collection procedures.

Ram Kesavan, Oswald A. J. Mascarenhas

Issues With Computer Aided Interviewing Systems

This paper examines the emerging techniques associated with computer aided interviewing. The methodology is viewed as a management information system, and experienced based guide lines are offered for the design of the research project which will utilize CAI. Characteristics of good software are presented with the hope that this will aid in software selection and development. CAI has received limited methodological research in the marketing literature, so several issues are presented in the hope that such research will be stimulated.

James D. Larson, Richard L. Schwaller

An Application of the Analytical Hierarchy Process for a Consumer Choice Problem

Various approaches such as conjoint analysis, logit, probit, and elimination-by-aspect models have been employed to solve marketing problems that involve the selection of an alternative. The present paper uses the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1980). The major distinction of this approach is that it structures any complex, multicriterion problem hierarchically. The model employs pairwise comparisons using the subjective scale developed by Saaty. The pairwise c-mparisons are done in terms of which one element dominates another. These judgments are then expressed as integers. This approach is illustrated in an application to the prediction of consumer choice behavior. Guidelines for strategic implications are provided.

Nick Bahmani, Rajshekhar G. Javalgi, H. Blumburg

The Application of Exploratory Data Analysis in Marketing: An Introduction to Selected Methods

This paper introduces the family of techniques called exploratory data analysis.Unlike classical confirmatory statistics which rely upon strict distributional assumptions, parameter estimation, and hypothesis testing, EDA adopts an informal method of data examination designed to explore the structure of the data.Three representative EDA techniques are introduced and applications to marketing data sets are presented.

Armen Tashchian, J. Dennis White

A Comparison of Metric and Non-Metric Methods for Multidimensional Analysis of Marketing Survey Statements: Does the Method Really Metter?

In this study the objective is to examine evidence for the relative effectiveness of factor analysis and multidimensional analysis of marketing survey data.

Joseph L. Balloun, A. Ben Oumlil

Alternative Approaches for Examining the Temporal Stability of Parameter Estimates in a Marketing Model

The temporal stability of estimated parameters in multiple regression marketing models is important if the model is to prove useful in making economic inferences and in developing marketing strategies. OLS estimates are potentially distorted in the presence of collinear data sets that typify marketing models; consequently, any underlying temporal stability present may go undetected. This paper investigates the temporal stability of parameter estimates by comparing the results obtained from OLS, ridge, and latent root regression techniques in the presence of ill-conditioned data. Ridge regression provided improved individual coefficient stability and slightly greater predictive accuracy beyond the original estimation period.

James S. Moore, Zoher E. Shipchandler

Sales Management And Industrial Marketing

Frontmatter

Purchasing Tasks: A Classification Schemata

In a 1973 article, Kotier outlined and explained an all inclusive set of demand situations or "demand states" of continuous order which the marketing manager may face. These states of demand were: Negative, No, Latent, Faltering, Irregular, Full, Overfull, and Unwholesome. Using parallel terminology, this article shows how Kotier’ s construct can be broadened to include the states of purchasing management.

George W. Wynn, David P. Campbell

Assessing Attitudinal Congruence in the Buying Center

Although the concept of multi-person buying centers is widely recognized, industrial marketing researchers still rely primarily on survey data supplied by a single company informant. This paper reports on a study which shows that buying center participants have varying beliefs about variables which are central to a purchase decision: This study lends added weight to the importance of studying more than one informant per company when strategy is based on understanding buyer behavior.

Paul D. Boughton

Decision Participants’ Pre-Purchase Risk Perceptions for an Industrial Innovation

This paper investigated the heterogeneity in decision participants’ pre-purchase risk perceptions in the adoption decision for an industrial innovation. Decision participants’ perception of six dimensions of risk were assessed. The decision participants were the members of supermarket buying committees, and the innovation adoption decision concerned the Universal Product Code scanner checkout system. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to test the differences in perceived risk across decision participants grouped on the basis of organizational hierarchy, functional area, industry experience, age, and education. The implication of the analyses for industrial marketing strategy is briefly discussed.

Daulatram B. Lund

On the Theoretical Interpretation of a Multiple Request Influence Strategy in an Industrial Marketing Setting

Several authors have proposed the foot-in-the-door behavioural influence strategy as an industrial marketing/personal selling communication strategy. There is a fundamental difference between the industrial marketing setting and the pro-social charity and questionnaire survey settings in which the strategy has been empirically tested. This paper discusses the shortcomings of the predominant self perception theory interpretation in the industrial marketing setting, and proposes a person commitment/obligation paradigm as an alternative theoretical interpretation.

Harrie Vredenburg

The Equity/ Expectancy Framework Interfaced With the Psychological Contract to Describe the Salesperson Motivation Behavioral Process

This paper offers a conceptual model of the salesperson behavioral process. On the basis of equity/inequity theory and expectancy-valence theory, specific relationships between different cognitive variables are identified. Psychological contracts are introduced as a means to further the development of the motivational process. Implications from a managerial perspective and future directions for research are also discussed.

Ramon Avila

The Role of Organizational Climate Conditions in Enhancing the Desirability of Salesperson Rewards

This paper examines how salespersons’ perceptions of organizational climate affect their desirability of available extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. Since climate can be controlled by the organization, desirability of rewards can be increased by appropriately adjusting organizational factors. Results indicate that a number of organizational climate dimensions do influence the importance that salespersons attach to various rewards.

Pradeep K. Tyagi

Sales Force Satisfaction and Planning Activity

Considerable previous research indicates that salespeople are generally dissatisfied with their jobs, and that at least some, if not most of this dissatisfaction occurs as a result of job or role-related issues. This article proposes that one way the individual salesperson may attempt to moderate the negative effects of role characteristics on satisfaction is through active participation in the process of planning.

John M. Gwin

Self-Ratings and Managerial Evaluations of Salespeople’S Performance: A Comparison

Studies involving the evaluation of performance of salespeople tend to rely on salespeople’s self-reports as the measure of performance.The studies assume that self-ratings are highly correlated with managerial ratings of performance.This paper discusses several issues that researchers should consider in drawing managerial inferences from self-reports.The paper suggests that although self-ratings and managerial ratings may not be interchangeable, the former may be useful in identifying inaccuracies in salespeople’s perception of the appraisal system.

Yao Apasu Florida, Seth Buatsi

Research In Progress

Frontmatter

The Use of a Political Framework in International Marketing

This paper addresses the need for American Multinationals to develop a political decision framework for situations such as South Africa. It recommends several variables that should be used in such a framework.

David M. Ludington

Does Countertrade Help Small Business Exports?

Countertrade has rapidly grown to one-third of all world trade. A survey of Florida countertrade firms showed that 81 percent were small businesses. Half of the countertraders reported a high level of satisfaction, while one-quarter reported serious problems such as delivery delays, delays in finalizing agreements, and product quality. The results suggest that small businesses have a comparative advantage in countertrade and can, with experience, use it successfully to overcome foreign exchange scarcity and to enter new markets.

William Renforth, Constance Bates

Swedish Firms in South East Asia Their Effects on the Local Industries

One of the major problems for the Newly Inudustri-alised Countries (NIC) in South East Asia is to create a balance between the foreign firms, their establishments, and the local industries. A very little research has been done which analyses the effects of these foreign establishments on the local industries. The effects of Swedish establishment on the local industries, in these countries, have not been studied before. The study would analyse the Swedish establishments in Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia, that how these establishments have effected the local industries. The theoretical background of the study is the research already done in Uppsala, inter-organisational theory, transaction cost theory and the network approach. Data collection is to be done by interviewing ten Swedish firms and their subsidiaries.

Pervez N. Ghauri

International Expansion of the U.S.-Based Franchisors: Opportunities and Problems

This paper describes a research in progress on the international business involvement of the U.S.-based franchising firms and the opportunities and problems associated with their international franchise operations. The preliminary findings of the research will be presented at the conference.

Nizamettin Aydin, Madhav Kacker

Students’ Perceptions of Faculty Evaluations

The focus of this paper is student-teacher evaluations, which are generally an important input in the determination of a faculty member’s teaching. Findings from this study indicate that the students do appear to know the purpose, do exercise their privilege, but they are not entirely serious in carrying out their re-sonsibility.

Sivayya Kolla, Beheruz N. Sethna

A Systems Approach for the Use of Live Case Studies

As a means of creating a realistic situational application for marketing research theory, many professors have opted for the use of client-sponsored projects. This concept has been discussed by a number of authors (Santos and Jensen 1985; Prestly 1983; Jones 1982; Humphreys, 1981; Browne 1979). Gilberto de los Santos and Thomas D. Jensen, in particular, have utilized this technique at both the graduate and undergraduate levels. Although this concept has been tried by a number of professors, it has been rejected by many as too time consuming. One reason for this rejection is the difficulty encountered in organizing the project and the classroom instruction. For this reason, a systems approach was designed to assist in the organization of all activities associated with the client-based activity.

Jim Finlay

The International Marketing Course in the AACSB Schools*

The present study examines the AACSB member schools with respect to the International Marketing course. It is based on an analysis of the responses of 384 schools and relates the frequency of offerings to the number of other international business courses regularly offered, number of other international business courses not regularly offered, number of professors having an interest in international topics, number of students for the present academic year (1984–85), and, growth of the student body during the last three years. The study examines separately the graduate and the undergraduate levels of instruction for this course.

John Thanopoulos

Impact of Marketing Trends on Retail Employee Perceptions of Organizational Climate, Job Satisfaction, and Job Motivation

A study was performed to determine the changes which occurred in employee perceptions of organizational climate, employee satisfaction, and motivational benefits offered by retailers during the period, 1969 to 1977. Results indicated a significant improvement in employee satisfaction, a partial improvement in employee perceptions of motivational climate, and almost no improvement in motivational benefits offered by retailers.

Jack A. Lesser, Martin L. Schwartz

New Product Evaluation an Application of a Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approach

The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used successfully in a new product evaluation case study on a New Jersey food processing company. It led to a clear quantifiable decision to go with one of five proposed products. Briefly, AHP structures any complex, multi-criteria problem hierarchically. Five major criteria (gross margin, capital investment, consumer preference, competition and line capacities) were structured by which potential new products were evaluated by key company personnel. In this manner, it organized intuition and logic into a framework for objective decision making. The model seemed both reliable and efficient given the number of key personnel involved.

James W. Beck, Nick Bahmani

Methods For Estimating Price-Quantity Relationships: A Pilot Study Utilizing a Survey Technique

This paper presents a brief review of some of the major studies dealing with the construction of price-quantity relationships. A pilot study is presented that utilizes a survey-technique to illustrate the feasibility of generating price-quantity relationships.

Daulatram B. Lund, James C. McConnon

Retail Advertising and the Formation of Store Price Impressions

Price is among the most important consumer store choice criteria (e.g., Arnold, et al 1983); but how do consumers form

perceptions

of a store’s prices, and what role does advertising play in this process? This paper presents a series of research propositions on this important topic.

Anthony D. Cox, Dena Thometz Saliagas

Consumer Satisfaction With the Automobile Industry

In this study recent car buyers ’ satisfaction with the automobile industry is examined. The satisfaction literature is reviewed and Lundstrom and Lamont’s discontent scale is adopted for the data collection. The findings suggest that buyers are generally satisfied with car manufacturers but dissatisfied with car dealers’ service departments and their selling techniques. The respondante also felt that there are too many styles and types of automobiles to choose from. Specific sources of discontent are identified.

Vinod K. Thukral, Ravi Parameswaran

Positioning: Another Look

The Positioning concept introduced over ten years ago, is not clear or well defined. Professionals in marketing frequently refer to Positioning but rarely use it in a universally understood context. Academicians tend to apply the term hand-in-hand with classical Market Segmentation and Product Differentiation or occasionally use Positioning to describe spatial models and clustering techniques related to forecasting and new product development. Advertising agencies sell Positioning as an innovative technique to be used to psyche consumers into believing what the marketers wants the person to perceive about his product, particularly compared to other products. Recognized marketing authorities either interpret and relabel Positioning relative to their own theories, ignore or deny its existence as a new or innovative concept, or loosely apply it to a myraid of marketing related situations. Determining Positioning’s place as a strategy begins with a look at the evolution of the term and its relevance to well-established concepts.

Susie Simon, Ernest F. Cooke

Moderating Effect of Excellence on Prediction of Voting Intentions1

The study examined the moderating effect of Excellence personality scale on the cognitive consistency between attitude and bahavioral intention. Analysis showed that respondents who scored high on Excellence had a stronger correlation between attitude and intention to vote for an energy supply measure than respondents who scored low. It is, therefore, speculated that Excellence has potential as a segmentation variable for marketing complex, high involvement policy issues.

Sadrudin A. Ahmed

Applying Market Research to a Service Organization: A Case Study of the United Way of Greater Richmond, Virginia

The United Way of Greater Richmond, Virginia recently sponsored a market research project designed to assess the public’s general perceptions of United Way, importance ratings of tasks and services United Way performs, knowledge and attitudes regarding United Way’s performance, donation-related behavior and motives, and demographics. The data, based on 1,120 completed employee questionnaires from 15 major employers, are analyzed relevant to United Way’s future marketing efforts regarding market segmentation, product and service offerings, and promotional or educational programs. Key differences regarding potential and existing contributors to United Way are highlighted based on a profile of those aged 35 or over compared to those under 35.

Dennis R. McDermott

The Effect of Actual and Perceived Time Availability on Voluntarism

This study investigates the relationship between actual time availability and perceived time availability to hours volunteered on an individual level of analysis. A direct relationship was hypothesized for both variables, given that time is the currency one pays for the rewards of volunteering. Neither hypothesis was supported, with actual time unrelated and perceived time negatively related to voluntarism.

Lyaette S. Unger

The U.S. Market for Computer Services

This paper reports on the results of a major survey of the U.S. computer services industry which is one of the largest and most important service industry in the nation. The key forces, both economic and technical, which affect the industry are identified. Major marketing opportunities and specific niches are still available as the industry is fragmented. Four major segments exist; data processing; software; professional consultancy; and turnkey systems. While end users’ needs are quite diverse, competitive strategies for creating new customers and forging loyalty bonds with existing ones can be implemented. Extent of interaction with clients, degree of customization, and pricing methods are key variables.

Andrew C Gross

On Improving Measure Quality by Alternating Least Squares Optimal Scaling

This paper presents a discussion of principal component analysis by alternating least squares optimal scaling (PRINCIPALS) and its application to measure development.

Greg J. Lessne

Attitude Scales: Should We Systematically Ignore Position Labeling and Order Effect?

The use of scales to measure attitude strength and/or polarity is an accepted practice in marketing as well as other social sciences. Often these scales are systematically reversed by shifting the polarity labels. Scales may also be presented alternatively with other types of scales. This paper presents an empirical study of the effects of these practices.

Robert C. Greene

An Efficient Method for Developing Tailormade Semantic Differentials for Specific Small Business Content Areas

Small business researchers are in need of means of developing scales for inclusion in semantic differential questionnaires that are high in validitv. Some researchers utilize generalized scales, but these may not be appropriate for a particular population under study or object that is evaluated. A technique exists that can provide indices of validity with a minimum expenditure of time and effort. This manuscript indicates how this technique can be employed by small business managers and researchers.

Robin T. Peterson

An Assessment of the Equality of Semantic and Perceptual Relationships Between Two Scaling Formats

This research extends the comparison between the Stapel and Semantic Differential scaling formats to include multiple objects, interitem covariance matrices, interpretation of extracted factors, and perceptual spaces. It is recommended that the methodologically simpler Stapel scaling format not be substituted for the Semantic Differential scaling format when the purpose of a study is to either identify and interpret the dimensions of a semantic space, or to describe the location of the objects in a product space.

Taylor E. Little

The Impact of Alternative Rating Procedures on the Measurement of Store Image: An Experimental Study

This study examined the effect of two different rating procedures on the measurement of store image and on the magnitude of the halo effect present in the ratings. One rating procedure required subjects to evaluate alternative objects, one at a time, on various attributes. The other rating procedure required subjects to evaluate all stores on one attribute, then all stores on another attribute and so on until all attributes were exhausted. In addition, the impact of familiarity of the stores on the halo effect was examined. Specifically, the following hypotheses were investigated:

Bob T. W. Wu, Susan M. Petroshius

The Effect of Appeals on Survey Follow-up Mailing Response Behavior

The purpose of this study was to test the effect of five different appeals on follow-up mailing response rate, response speed, and response completeness. Analysis of variance results indicated that the effect of different appeals was statistically significant on response speed, but not on response rate and response completeness.

Allen E. Smith, Daulatram B. Lund

Components of Job Satisfaction Related to Intentions to Leave: A Study of the Purchasing Profession

Research has related job satisfaction to employee turnover in the purchasing profession. However, little research has been done to establish which aspects of job satisfaction contribute to this turnover. This research reports on a survey of almost 400 purchasing executives nationwide and establishes a link between intention to leave and the components of job satisfaction.

James R. Lumpkin, Lawrence B. Chonko

Competitive Session Papers Addendum

Frontmatter

The Environment - Organization Interface: The Impact of Operating Environment on Distribution Arrangement of Firms in Developing Economies

It has been suggested that an effective marketing strategy is one in which organizational arrangements and practices are matched with environmental opportunities. Despite the importance of marketing in the third world nations’ quest for development, few researchers have investigated empirically the appropriateness of existing marketing strategies. Furthermore, previous research has failed to establish the nature of relationship between the environment and the design of the channel for distribution of most products in developing countries. This paper examines the channel of distribution for household appliances in Nigeria, and assesses the extent to which the organizational structure of the firms is influenced by the environment in which they operate.

Rowland C. Chidomere

Backmatter

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