Skip to main content

Über dieses Buch

This volume includes the full proceedings from the 1993 World Marketing Congress held in Istanbul, Turkey. The focus of the conference and the enclosed papers is on marketing thought and practices from a global perspective. This volume resents papers on various topics including marketing management, marketing strategy, and consumer behavior.

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complimenting the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science.​



Innovation, Technology, and Product Strategy


Product Modification Strategies Used by Food Companies for Fast Entry into New Geographic Segments

This paper examines product modification strategies and techniques used by food companies to gain entry into new geographic market segments. Interviews were conducted with international and regional companies of all sizes marketing in Asia-Pacific and included companies from Europe, North America, Middle East, and Asia-Pacific (A-P). The findings suggest that product modification has been utilised in the Asia-Pacific region.

Kaye Crippen, Christopher Oates

Marketing of Economic Development Programs – Expectations and Handling New Offerings

Development centers in a position of marketing new programs to potential users may find themselves confronted with the issue of needing to know what constitutes a reasonable response to efforts as well as how initial introduction might be best handled. Concepts relating to expectations are covered from both the source (supplier) and the receiver (user) sides. A case study is reported that apparently illustrates aspects of general expectations. Previous association with the center and on-site meetings at the prospect clients’ companies appeared to be positive elements in the successful marketing of the case study program.

Timothy Wilson

Mandated Safety Recalls in the U.S. Automobile Industry – 20 Years Experience

In an earlier study, an attempt was made to assess the macro effect of mandated auto recall on the U.S. auto industry. With the amount of information available at that time, recalls were numerically significant and increasing, the industry appeared to be relatively unaffected by their mandated imposition. Out of 248 campaigns, only 15 were 100 percent successful, and overall, less that two-thirds of all cars recalled were actually returned for inspection. Newer automobiles tended to have greater sm:cess rates as did vehicles from larger market share manufacturers. Further, there appeared to be no impact on sales in subsequent years nor did there appear to be any company particularly adversely impacted by recall practice (Page and Wilson 1976, 1979).

Timothy Wilson, Albert L. Page

Success Factors in Global Product Innovation: An Illustration from the Pharmaceutical Industry

Success in new product development is a critical management issue for many firms in high technology industries. No where is this statement more applicable than for firms in the pharmaceutical industry. This industry remains one of the most profitable among U.S. high technology industries. However, the decades of uninterrupted growth have been replaced by a period of dynamic change and instability brought about by spiralling health care expenditures, heightening generic competition, increasing R&D costs, and shortening patent lives.

Poh-Lin Yeoh, Roger Calantone

Pricing and Countertrade


Government Mandated-Countertrade in Australia: Some International Marketing Implications

Government mandated-countertrade (G M-C) is practised in Australia as offsets policy. Its objectives and implementation have been refined over recent years to recognise the inefficiency of conventional arm’s length exchange for the international transfer of technologies, skills and capabilities. Earlier formulations of offsets policy in Australia sought increased workload for local industry, whereas recent policy innovations focus on the use of beaucratic governance, created and enforced by government, to effect these transfers. Recent innovations to Australian G M-C are outlined and some marketing implications for foreign firms seeking to do business with the Australian government are presented.

Peter W. Liesch

The Impact of Eastern Liberalisation on East-West Countertrade

This paper considers the implications for countertrade (CT) of recent liberalisation of politico/economic structures in the former Eastern Bloc. Because CT is a response to market imperfections, more relaxed institutional restrictions with greater availability of information may remove the need for CT. However, orthodox trade requires mutual currency convertibility or reliable access to trade finance. Until these are established, CT is likely to feature strongly in trade with former CMEA countries. Meanwhile, lower institutional barriers will drive Western and Eastern partners toward more formal strategic alliances. The experiences of a small group of UK exporters illustrates these tendencies.

C. W. Neale, C. L. Pass, D. D. Shipley

Countertrade Experiences of Turkish Firms in USSR Markets

Countertrade has emerged as one of the most interesting and important topics of international trade during the last decade. Estimates of global countertrade transactions as a percentage of world trade, range from one percent to 30 percent (Cohen and Truell 1982). Although accurate statistics are hard to obtain, the consensus of expert opinion puts the percentage of world trade financed through countertrade transactions at between 20–25 percent (Okoroafo, 1988).

Ye§im Toduk Akiş

Countertrade as a Reaction to Lack of Liquidity

This research-in-progress is about one of the most prevalent forms of countertrade, a phenomenon which has received considerable attention in recent years. The review of the relevant literature is presented in terms of a theoretical framework similar to the one developed by Verzariu (1987). In so doing, the paper attempts to point out clearly the gaps in the literature. Since there are important differences among various forms of countertrade each countertrade deal should be examined individually (Hennart, 1990). This study singles out “international barter” as the form of countertrade to be investigated. Among the motivations for international barter, perhaps the most frequently mentioned is the lack of liquidity: “When the money game is impossible, countertrade remains the only game in town” (Samonis, 1990 p.121).

Burhan Fatih Yavas, Hamdi Bilici



Perceived Consequences of Business Product Stockouts in Canada and the U.S.A.

The perceived consequences for business buyers of being stocked out by their supplier and their repurchase loyalty on the next purchase occasion were researched using personal interviews and a mail survey of professional buyers. Lost sales and production disruptions resulting from the stockouts prompted one quarter of the buyers to abandon their supplier, but the majority returned on the next purchase occasion.

Peter M. Banting, David Blenkhorn, Paul A. Dion

Comparative Marketing Systems


Comparative Analysis of Food and Agribusiness Marketing Systems

The primary objective of this paper is a comparative examination of export orientated food and agribusiness marketing systems with specific reference to fresh fruit and vegetables. The empirical investigations comprise case studies of BELGIUM, CHILE, CANADA, NEW ZEALAND, TURKEY, and SOUTH AFRICA. A general framework for the export orientated food marketing system is described and success criteria for firms operating in such a system are proposed. Two main groups of factors underlie the performance of export orientated food marketing systems. The first group incorporates external and internal factors such as geographic location, natural resource endowments, physical and non-physical distance to recipient markets, and government involvement (externals); organisational structure and ownership of firms and objectives and motivations to export (internals). The second group of factors comprise marketing management components. Relying on these findings, seven quantitative and qualitative criteria for success are proposed.

Şafak Aksoy, Erdener Kaynak

International Marketing of Airline Services: U.S. Versus Foreign Carriers

The purpose of this paper is to discuss major criteria used for survival as well as an analysis of the future of the airline industry. Specific marketing implications such as impact on service levels, price, and distribution are also highlighted. As well, results of a survey conducted in South Central Pennsylvania on airline selection for foreign travel were presented for orderly decision making purposes by airline executives.

Erdener Kaynak, Orsay Kucukemiroglu

Models of Retail Firms in Europe

In this paper we compare the organization of the food retail firms in four European countries: France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. We verify that the differences in organization are much more important than the structural differences in Europe and we try to explain why there are different models of retail firms in different countries. We wonder whether a “best way” would possibly emerge in the future. We find that sometimes, despite the absolute differences in costs, federated systems could have better performances when retailing is growing fast.

Luca Zanderighi, Enrico Zaninotto

An Intercultural Analysis of Danish Experience with Investments in Turkey

This paper investigates the experiences of Danish investors in Turkey with the objective of identifying: (a) the patterns in internationalization process, entry mode, and partner selection criteria; (b) the nature of collaborations and specializations in management functions; (c) the perceptions about Turkish business and cultural environment that may enhance or impede future relationships.

Muzaffer Bodur, Tage Koed Madsen

Industrial Marketing


Contribution of Strategic Marketing Planning to the Performance of Small and Medium Sized Firms - An Empirical Research

Although prescriptive literature attributes a number of benefits to strategic marketing planning, its usefulness, however, is not universally accepted and there is argument as to its benefit and its likely influence on the performance of firms. While some argue that formal strategic planning is a major factor in corporate success and enhances organisational performance others challenge this view. unfortunately, the research on the effect and value of strategic planning has shown conflicting results. This study looks at the impact of strategic marketing planning on performance of the firms and how the performance variables relates to a number of other variables.

Minoo Farhangmehr

Evaluating Managers’ Perceptions of Competitive Industry Structure

Strategic group analysis portrays an industry as a few categories of firms, but researcher selected variables curtail its reflection of managerial reality. From a cognitive perspective it is shown that managers simplify their environment by grouping similar competitors. It is argued that they do not perceive industry structure in the manner proposed by economists. Interviews amongst managers in the oil pump industry showed evidence of them simplifying their environment by grouping competitors. None perceived the industry as economists suggest and more similar perceptions were seen between managers in the same firm than between different firms.

Leslie de Chernatony, Kevin Daniels, Gerry Johnson

Information Exchange in Buyer-Seller Relationships

Buyer-seller relationships on industrial markets often are characterized by a complex communication pattern. Efficency and effectiveness in such a relationship is very much dependent on the quality of the exchange of information. This paper explores the nature of the information exchange, identifying three important roles of communication; coordination, control and learning. It is shown by examples how improvements in information exchange can affect the performance of the buyer and the seller and, thus, increase the quality of the relationship.

Lars-Erik Gadde, Håkan Håkansson

Strategic Versus Opportunistic Sourcing: An Exploration

International sourcing is becoming a critical aspect of international marketing. In this article the authors discuss international sourcing from two different perspectives. First, international sourcing is done to take advantage of existing opportunities in international markets. Second, international sourcing takes place in an effort to implement a long-term corporate strategic plan. In both cases, however, international sourcing may improve the firm's competitive advantage. The authors maintain that there are eight factors behind international sourcing decisions. Results of a preliminary study are also presented.

A. Coskun Samli, Carolyn Busbia, Elizabeth Davidson, John Browning

Understanding Distributors’ Purchase Criteria in International Industrial Markets: Differences between High-Involvement and Low-Involvement Exporters

Understanding the elements driving the import decision making process is of major importance to the establishment and development of exporting activities. Nevertheless, a relatively small number of studies have dealt with the issue of import decision variables. The primary focus of this paper is an investigation of potential differences in perceptions of import decision variables between importers and two different exporter groups in terms of export involvement, within the context of a specific industrial product category. Firms involved in relatively high levels of exporting appeared to have developed a better understanding of those elements influencing the import decision of their overseas distributors, in comparison with low-involvement exporters. Managerial and public policy implications are discussed, and suggestions for future research directions are outlined.

Constantine S Katsikeas, Ali Al-Khalifa

Sales Management


The Effects of a Salesperson’s Utilities on Optimal Sales Force Compensation Structures in Uncertain Environments

It has long been held that monetary rewards are the most effective way to motivate salespeople (Ford, Churchill and Walker 1981). Unfortunately, there is no general agreement concerning the level, frequency, and determinants for the distribution of this money. A majority of small business owners contacted in a recent survey report that their sales compensation plans fail to adequately motivate salespeople. A near majority report that the plans overpay poor performers (Ricklefs 1990). While most practitioners and researchers agree that a well designed plan should be good for both the company and the salesperson, the goal of defining such plans in a broad spectrum of market conditions has been rather elusive. However, poorly designed plans may not only prevent firms from reaching sales targets, but may also increase a firm’s selling costs if it overrewards, or increase turnover if it underrewards.

René Y. Darmon, Dominique Rouziès

Perceptions of Foreign Field Sales Forces: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of their Characteristics, Behaviors and Sales

The environments in which foreign sellers work is an undersearched topic in international marketing. This 14 MNC-135 subsidiary examination of managerial perceptions of foreign sales environments and behaviors was factor-analyzed. Data from 45 countries was reduced to five factors, three environmental and two salesperson stereotypes. Results suggest that there are cross-cultural commonalities among salespersons and their environments which contribute to managerial and academic understanding of international sales environments.

John S. Hill, Arthur W. Allaway, Colin Egan, Unal O. Boya

Ethical Beliefs of Sales Managers Operating in South Africa

The high visibility, importance and degree of ethical conflict associated with the sales function has resulted in increased levels of attention being paid to the area of ethics in sales. This paper presents the ethical beliefs of 377 sales managers operating in South Africa. Results reported are based on a ranking of 50 ethical scenarios with responses ranging from highly unethical to not at all unethical. Analysis of responses according to age was also performed. The authors call for company policy to address ethical issues so that deviant sales behavior can be monitored and controlled.

Nicola Susan Higgs, Russell Abratt

A Comparative Study of Sales Managers from Two Disparate Political, Cultural and Economic Environments

It is frequently asserted that the political, cultural, and economic environments in which managers work play a significant role in their managerial behavior. On the other hand, some researchers claim that the process of globalization of trade diminishes the effects of these important environmental factors. As far as could be ascertained, no studies have been conducted to test these hypotheses in the sales management area. This paper reports the findings of a study of two randomly selected groups of sales managers in two countries with very disparate political, cultural, and economic environments - South Africa and the USA. It was established that there was substantial similarity between the two groups with respect to several areas of managerial behavior.

Brian van der Westhuizen

Trust in Horizontal Selling Alliances

Relationships between perceived trustworthiness, trusting behaviors, and perceived task performance were examined in the context of working relationships between sales representatives involved in horizontal selling alliances in the Canadian computer industry. Trustworthiness was found to indirectly impact perceived task performance through mediating trusting behaviors of relationship-specific investment and communication openness. These results suggest prescriptions to improve selling partner working relationships and illustrate the utility of studying trust at lower levels of abstraction.

J. Brock Smith

Services Marketing


Understanding the UK Health Care Consumer

A Study of Management Orientation in UK Health Care

The environment for Health Care managers in the UK has recently changed due to governmnet policy demanding more accountability and an increasing customer orientation in this sector. This paper reviews the influences on these managers and goes on to describe research which assess their knowledge and skills regarding their ability to become customer oriented The paper concludes that Health Care managers are not currently have the infrastructure to react to customer needs and wants although they do acknoeledge the need for the application of marketing tecniques and skills in this field Viewed in the context of the former medical emphasis as opposed to performance/management emphasis of UK healthcare, this new environment is radically differernt and is proving a major challenge for managers in this sector.

Gillian H Wright

Marketing Strategies for Financial Instruments in Ukraine

Emerging from the collapse of the Soviet empire, Ukraine is confronted with a number of marketing obstacles in tapping global financial markets. A significant problem is overcoming the aftereffects of centuries of colonial rule which directly contributed to low awareness of Ukraine worldwide. Since Ukraine lacks a track record, apart from its Soviet past, on which to judge credit worthiness, it faces serious skepticism from investors with regard to its potential issues. Therefore, it would be wise as a first step to target friendly markets for its securities, such markets as the worldwide Ukrainian Diaspora, to establish a credit record that can be used as evidence of fiscal responsibility before the world community.

Myroslaw J. Kyj, Larissa S. Kyj

International Services Marketing: A Comparative Evaluation of the Dimensions of Service Quality between Developed and Developing Countries

During the 1980s, the international marketing of services has grown tremendously in world trade. As services are having a significant impact internationally, special attention is needed to deal with the opportunities that emerge both domestically and worldwide. This rapid growth of the service sector can be found in both developed and developing countries. With opportunities found in service industries across different countries, it is essential to understand the characteristics of services that distinguish themselves in nations under different stages of development.

Naresh K. Malhotra, Francis M. Ulgado, James Agarwal, Imad B. Baalbaki

Consumer Switching Behavior of Banking Services: A Conceptual Model

A conceptual model specifying consumer satisfaction with banking services and importance of services as the critical variables in determining likelihood of a consumer switching from a bank to its competitor. The model is further expanded to include various determinants that may jointly influence the likelihood of switching entire set of banking services. Several hypotheses are proposed in this context and a plan to test the same via a field survey is also presented.

Ajay K. Manrai, Lalita A. Manrai

Franchising and Global Services Marketing

In the past decade, the field of services marketing has been attracting considerable academic attention. This is consistent with the growing services orientation of the U.S. economy and the marketing challenges created by the changing environmental conditions, such as deregulation, in service industries.

A. Ben Oumlil

Innovation Management, Market Orientation and Performance in the Consumer Service Sector: An Empirical Research

The purpose of this study is to look at the management of innovation in consumer service firms and more precisely to define the possible relationships between the degree of refinement in innovation process, the marketing competence of the organization and the financial performance of a new service.

Frédéric Jallat

Measuring Loyalty in Travel Services: A Multi-Dimensional Approach

A multi-dimensional measure of loyalty, with a psychological commitment instrument (PCI) and purchase behavior, is used to segment three different travel services. The use of cluster analysis with this conceptualization created distinct loyalty segments in each of the three travel services sampled. Convergent and nomological comparisons of the service loyalty clusters and the related constructs of satisfaction, involvement and perceived differences in service quality substantiated the theoretical consistency and sensitivity of this measure and generated distinct attitudinal segments within the three different travel services.

Mark P. Pritchard, Dennis R. Howard

Modelling Site Location Decisions in Tourism

This paper focuses on two different approaches that can be applied to site location analysis and selection in tourism: spreadsheet models, and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Rule Based Expert Systems are also discussed. The LOCAT model (a spreadsheet-based algebraic approach) attempts to measure the total attractiveness index of a location by calculating the impact of its components (degree of accessibility, total catchment population, level of tourist product uniqueness and probability of tourist patronisation). The Analytic Hierarchy Process provides a general structure capable of representing a wide range of decision problems. It is especially effective when dealing within complex multivariate decisions and with variables which are difficult to quantify.

Luiz Moutinho, Bruce Curry

Perception of Key Management Contribution Factos to the Future Development of the Hotel Industry: A Comparative Analysis of British/Irish & Spanish Samples

For Spain the importance of tourism both national and international, does not hold any doubts for those versed in the subject. A few general figures suffice to illustrate this. In 1991 a total of 53.5 million people visited Spain, a slightly higher number than the 52 million which did in 1990, and slightly less than the 52 million of the previous year, this meant a revenue of 19,004 million dollars in 1991, 18,593 million dollars in 1990 and 16,174 million dollars in 1989. Tourism achieved a participation in the Gross Domestic Product of 8.74% in 1989. In the last few years 85% of tourists have been from Portugal, followed by West Germany with 13% and the U.K. with 12%, as the major contributors (Secretaria General due Turismo, 1991). This data should be considered with some caution because not all the people that cross the frontier can be considered as tourists, other data such as that which is provided in the input output tables of the Tourist Economy reveal the importance too of the development of the Spanish tourist market (Vid IET 1989 and Alcaide, 1984). However, in the last few years the growth and development of the industry have come into a time of crisis (Figuerola, 1991). These circumstances have been, among others, the driving force behind our study of the attitudes of hotels to their development. Tourism, in the United Kingdom has consistently grown since 1985. There has been in recent years, namely 1990, 18 million overseas tourists in the UK spending around £7.5 bn. The top five countries that visitors come from and the percentage of total visitors represented by that country are the United States of America (USA) (16%), France (13%), West Germany (12%) The Irish Republic (8%) and the Netherlands (5%) (Key Note, Market Review 1991). The similar expenditure by Britons in this time period was around £400m. Of this money 26% was spent in either (un)licensed hotel/motels onguest houses; the figures exclude spending on business trips. Domestic tourism has been the beneficiary of the Gulf War and its repercussions as well as the collapse of the International Leisure Group. The sector is therefore one worthy of investigation not only for its levels of expenditure but also for the management challenge confronting hoteliers by such a dynamic business environment. In terms of employment in hotels and catering between 1971 and 1987 there was a rise at more than twice the rate of employment in service industries as a whole (Robinson and Wallace 1983). More up-to-date indicators (Baty and Templeton) have shown a 26% increase in tourism-related employment compared with 15.8% in all service industries. Unlike Spain the United Kingdom does not have a national minimum wage with the government declining to enforce a social charter for workers. More recently Wood (1992) has highlighted the increased part-time employment, casualisation of work and the increased participation of women and young people. Such fragmentation of the workforce, the authors feel, make it difficult to operate and maintain consistent and effective programmes in training, marketing and general management skills.

Luiz Moutinho, Pierre Mcdonagh, Salvador Miguel Peris, Enrique Bigne

Marketing Channels


Distribution Channel Systems of Resort Hotels in Turkey

The positive influence of tourism on the Turkish economy has forced a need for improved marketing strategies to meet the increased and changing demand of international visitors. Today’s tourists no longer represent a large homegeneous market. Instead, tourism is becoming increasingly specialized as tourist’s interests divide, some becoming more discriminating in their destinations and more value conscious of travel considerations such as comfort and service. As the tourist’s behavior and tests change, so must the destinations, and marketing strategies of hotels and resort hotels be changed and updated to meet those needs. It is the main objective of this study to investigate and delineate the nature, structure and charecteristics of distribution channel systems of tourism service providers, more specifically resort hotels, in Turkey. In this study along with resort hotels other members of distribution channels have been examined and directly or indirectly critical points of Turkish Tourism were underlined.

Ibrahim Birkan

Total Quality Management in International Distribution Channels

This paper focuses on Total Quality Management (TQM) in international distribution channels. Total Quality Management has recently received much attention both in management theory and practice. For producers of goods and services that are not in direct contact with their final consumers, a critical quality question is how the quality can be secured throughout the distribution channel TQM in distribution channels cannot be limited to activities within the boundaries of each company, but needs to be extended to include all companies in the channel. We argue in the paper that channel organization partly determines the possibility of implementing TQM. A model is developed and empirically explored in the context of international distribution of Norwegian farmed salmon.

Sven A. Haugland

Industrial Networks as Governance Structures: A Framework Integrating Channels, Logistics and Pricing

As functional, spatial, and temporal interdependencies between companies are increasing, traditional command and control approaches between organizations are being challenged (Bowersox and Cooper 1991). Against this background, when organizing channel, logistics, and pricing activities, managers are faced with some fundamental questions, such as: (1) what is the level of interdependence between channel members? (2) how strong are channel relationships? and (3) are channel decisions made on the basis of pure economic analysis, or are there other forces (e.g. long term relations, level of trust etc.) affecting channel behavior? Two disciplinary orientations that can provide useful insights into the structure and performance of marketing channels and logistics are social network theory and institutional economics.

Aysegul Ozsomer

Securing Marketing Support from Channel Members: Insights from an Empirical Study

How can manufacturers foster middlemen cooperation and marketing support for their products? This paper presents empirical findings from the U.S. automobile channel to help us address this question. We argue that the key is to develop marketing programs that in turn make support financially desirable for middlemen. We explore, in the car industry, how different manufacturer strategies affect dealer profits and reactions, and how these effects vary with dealer characteristics.

Nermin Eyuboglu

International Marketing Management


Gestalt- and Network Approach -Avenues to a New Paradigm of Internationalization Theory?

The article deals with different holistic views of the Theory of Internationalization. Approaches of interest are Dunning’s Eclectic Paradigm, the gestalt approach and the network-concept. Dunning’s concept offers a wide range of interesting variables but lacks dynamic hypothesis linking dependent and independent variables. The advantages of the gestalt- and network-concepts (i.e. organizations as dynamic entities not as juxtaposition of variables, international environments as significant sets of network relationships, which change over time) could be a more promising move to a middle range theory of internalization.

Gerhard A. Wührer

Marketing in Four East European Countries

Sixty-seven managers of U.S. firms in Poland, Hungary, former Czechoslovakia, and former Yugoslavia responded to a mail questionnaire on their evaluation of the business climate in their host country. About 25% were in manufacturing, 25% in sales/marketing; 50% in basic services such as consulting, accounting, engineering, etc. They had neutral to positive feelings toward most factors in marketing except for the availability and ease of market research. The positives were surprising in view of the lack of marketing structure in the former command economies.

Gabriel F. Buntzman, Yunus Kathawala, Edgar T. Busch

Marketing Business Services to Developing Countries: An Examination of Environmental Challenges to Service Exports

Business services have been the fastest-growing U.S. exports during the 1970s and 1980s (Cundiff and Hilger 1988). They include numerous professional services such as banking, research, consulting, advertising, engineering, information and maintenance work. The majority of these services are provided by specialized personnel with unique skills. Since there is a good demand for managerial talent and expertise in developing countries (Kolde 1982), these countries become rather attractive markets for various multinational service companies. Unfortunately, some of the characteristics of developing countries create serious challenges for these organizations when it comes to exporting their services.

S. Altan Erdem

Profile of Turkey in International Tourism Market

Tourism is a growing sector in international market. Companies and countries are trying to increase their market share-income in tourism.

Jale Akmel, Günseli Kurt

Demand Estimation for Passenger Cars in Turkey

This study aims to forecast yearly sales for both domestic and imported brandnew passenger cars in Turkey by using several different regression models based on longitudinal data over the last thirty years. Having experimented on different econometric regression models including regular and stepwise regression models using both yearly and lag data, study indicates that micro marketing research data provided by market surveys on marketing related variables, including dealership, advertising and promotion, model and type availability, salesforce, distribution and payment policies especially consumer credits, play a more important role than macro variables. Thus, this study creates a new hypothesis by seriously questioning the previous macro studies done in Turkey by academic, business and government authorities.

Kemal Kurtuluş

An Exploratory Study on the Marketing Activities of Turkish Firms in the Former USSR Market

This exploratory research on 63 Turkish firms that were involved with the former USSR by December 1991 evaluates the marketing aspects of doing business with the ex USSR. Several marketing activities were evaluated in terms of importance as well as the usage levels. The “price” related marketing mix activities were considered most important, which were followed by public relations activities and sales calls. Advertising, trade exhibitions and symposia were among the activities judged the least important. Contrary to what this implies, those marketing activities that were perceived as being very important in this market were not used as much by the Turkish firms.

Yeşim Toduk Akiş

Internationalisation of the Eurofood Retail Sector with Special Reference to Foreign Market Entry Modes

Foreign expansion is gradually becoming an important option for further corporate growth in the Eurofood retail industry. The objective of this paper is to find out whether there is a correlation between the entry modes chosen by the Eurofood retail firms entering foreign markets and the macro-environmental factors of the host country markets. It concludes that; similarities or dissimilarities between macro-environmental factors of home and host markets will effect the choice of foreign market entry modes and more similarity leads more foreign market involvements by the Eurofood retailers.

Tevfik Dalgic, Harry Bloemen

Selecting International Freight Forwarders: An Expert Systems Application

The environment of international freight forwarding has witnessed drastic changesin recent years. Three sources of change can be identified in this environment: (1) the changing nature and needs of companies involved in exporting; (2) the diverse and increasingly comprehensive set of services provided by international freight forwarders (IFFs); and (3) a rapidly changing set of environmental background factors that are affecting the nature and the scope of the forwarding business.

Aysegul Ozsomer, Michel Mitri

Global Marketing Opportunities in Services for Third World Business

Services sectors of various economies in the world are fast expanding. Concurrently the world trade in services is growing at a faster rate than in manufactured products and commodities. This process is facilitated by several global developments which are progressively removing the barriers for global trade in services. This paper identifies the emerging trade opportunities in global trade in services especially for third world businesses. It also provides some strategic guidelines dealing with the supply and demand sides of services marketing.

C. P. Rao, Vinay Kothari, David Kurtz

Market Orientation Revisited- A European View

This paper is an early attempt to explain the basic macro and micro-environmental reasons why European companies have started to apply market orientation later than their North American counterparts. It commences with the explanation of the important aspects and foundations of market orientation within a historical framework and tries to evaluate and integrate separate studies from a European perspective to propose a construct of market orientation.

Tevfik Dalgic, Maarten Leeuw

Exports in the Globalization Strategies of Korean, Japanese and U.S. Firms – An Interactive Analysis

The successes of their export sectors have been key to the economic recoveries of both Japan and Korea through the 1970’s. During the 1980’s, exportation became fundamental in the establishment of their largest firms as major multinational corporations. At the beginning of the 1990’s U.S. trade officials point to America’s export sector as the outstanding performer in a generally weak economy. This study conducts mail questionnaire surveys of senior executives of the largest Korean, Japanese, and U.S. corporations to gain insights into the evolution of the international competitive strategies of their corporations. The paper uses quantitative analysis to improve understanding of how firms continuously adjust their marketing strategies in response to their interactions in export markets in an increasingly global market place.

Robert G. Vambery, Tae Yun Um

Marketing of Free Trade Zones (Ftzs) - A Comparison of FTZs in Developed vs Developing Countries

The objective of this study is to investigate the key marketing variables that discriminate between FTZ (Free Trade Zones) operations in developed versus developing countries. The discrimination between these two FTZs groupings was based upon a set of 40 variables related to the marketing concept, representing three key dimensions: (a) satisfying the industrial buyer needs (20 variables), (b) achieving the organisational goals (10 variables), and (c) integrating marketing functions (10 variables).

A. Meidan, A Al-Sanie, F A Fretwell-Downing

The World Trading System After the Gatt Uruguay Round

The paper examines the tortuous course of the Uruguay Round and investigates the reasons for its failure thus far to reach its destination after meandering for almost five and a half years. It then considers the future of the world trading system after the Uruguay Round.

Asim Erdilek

An Application of Global Marketing Via International Locations

Strategic marketing management is rapidly becoming an important issue for multinational enterprises. Changes in the global markets are forcing these firms to rely heavily on marketing managers and marketing strategies. An international facility location (IFL) strategy is one useful approach for multinational firms, which was the focus of Pomper’s research. Using Canel’s (1991) model, this paper replicated and extended Pomper’s (1976) optimum location model. This paper suggests that multinational firms could benefit from a mathematical model in evaluating the profitability of an international location and developing strategic marketing management.

Cem Canel, David Bejou, Basheer M. Khumawala

Global Barriers to Market Entry for Developing Country Businesses

Market entry barriers are crucial environmental factors that influence firms to make market entry decisions. While the importance of barriers differs depending on the market and the type of product being marketed, their impact in international markets has continued to increase during the last decade. This paper discusses the importance and implications of ten major market entry barriers in international markets for firms from developing countries.

Fahri Karakaya, Michael J. Stahl

Export Promotion Services in the United States: Is it Time for a Serious Soul Searching?

This study examined the awareness and utilization of several federal and state governments’ export support services among a random sample of exporters in New York. Results from 159 completed surveys show significant ignorance among companies in this regard. In light of findings of this and similar studies, a number of specific policy recommendations are made to improve the efficacy of export promotion programs.

Hormoz Movassaghi, Fahri Unsal, Sammy Medina

Product/Market Portfolio, Extent of Access to Distribution Channels and Branding in Export Success Factors Research an Exploratory Study

An attempt is made in this exploratory study to assess the relationship between those factors deemed as the patterns of competition for exporters addressed to consumer markets. The factors considered are product/market portfolio, extent of access to distribution channels and branding. The study attempts to integrate and build upon the fragmented and insufficient knowledge in export success factors research. The export activities of four of the biggest food manufacturers from a developing country exporting to consumer markets have been examined in detail. The findings provide insights on several theoretical gaps and ambiguities apparent in previous research.

George M. Chryssochoidis

The Influence of Economic Factors on Export Marketing Performance: An Empirical Study of Taiwanese Computer Firms

This paper used both quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the influence of economic factors on export marketing performance. The quantitative data indicate that domestic market factors, foreign market factors, raw material restrictions are associated with export performance. The qualitative data reveal that financial factors is also related to export performance and help uncover the importance of emergent issues which were not addressed in the questionnaire, such as environmental protection.

Yaolung James Hsieh

An Empirical Analysis of Internal Determinants Affecting Exporting and Non-Exporting Companies in Turkish Textile Industry

The objective of this study is to determine, the structural differences between textile exporters and non-exporters, who are exposed to the same external environment. The focus of this paper is to compare exporting and non-exporting companies in terms of size, managerial skills (i.e.age, proficiency of foreign language and international experience), company experience, business goal, labor/technology intensity and capacity usage rate. Findings show that exporting companies differ markedly from non-exporting in terms of these criteria.

Talha Harcar

Attitudes Towards Exporting: Discriminating Firms with Low and High Levels of International Operations in Australia

This pilot study investigates attitudes towards exporting of 44 Australian export firms. Findings revealed that the most important variables which discriminate between firms of high and low levels of international operations pertain to (a) managerial responsive to exporting, (b) financial resources, and (c) standardization of products/services. Implications of the results and limitations were discussed.

Oliver H. M. Yau, Leslie R. Brown

The Competitive Strategies of Chinese Export

The Open Door Policy since 1978 in China has brought about tremendous progress in China’s economic development. Not only the reform has brought about remarkable achievements in raising the national economy, in the expansion of foreign trade, and the improvement standard of living, the free market element has been installed in this originally centrally-planned economy. The decentralisation progress of delegating decision-making power to provinces, municipalities and state controlled industries has increased the national productivity and national output to a large extent, and also has stimulated the flow of trade across the borders. This paper tries to discuss the competitive advantages of certain exporting industries like food, textile, garment and toy industries.

Chan Wing-yiu

Examining the Role of After Sales Service in International Marketing

Customer service is considered as a basic pillar of the marketing concept. One dimension of customer service is the producer warranty which basically is an after-sales service element. The patterns of warranty coverage and duration have been tried to be explained by two theories in the literature: Exploitation theory and Signal theory. This paper discusses the implications of these for the international context. A number of implications with future research suggestions are included.

Gulden Asugman, Jim McCullough

When Global Markets Get Tough: A Call as yet Unanswered

Globalization has been a corporate rallying cry throughout the 1980s, and as marketers plan for the decade ahead, they will find it more effective ‘Think Global, Act Local.” This paper provides a guide to managers of the major conceptual contributions in the literature toward understanding global advertising strategies and also suggests strategies for international marketers and practitioners.

Nejdet Delener

An Algorithm to Assess the Potential for Standardizing International Advertising Messages

This paper develops a framework for determining whether advertising messages can be standardized across national boundaries. An algorithm to help make such decisions is proposed. Globalism and the driving forces behind it are discussed to provide background. Then the issues of standardization in international marketing, and in particular international advertising messages, are discussed. The managerial applications of the algorithm involve development of an expert system based on the algorithm using the PATHBUILDER expert system development shell. Finally, recommendations for needed future research are made.

Cűneyt Evirgen, Gordon E. Miracle

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Individual Time Orientations

This paper presents a cross-cultural extension of a “


” scale, designed for capturing individual time orientations (economic time, unorganized time, orientation toward the past, orientation toward the future, mastery of time, usefulness of time and time anxiety). The scale has been tested in the case of a developing country, Tunisia, where people have a basic


culture and a

French “operating”

culture. The scale exhibits a fairly high predictive power in the sense it can predict the


culture over 70% using either the dimension or the segment level. Lastly, we introduce the concept of

“ambivalent cultural identity”

which corresponds to the fact that some individuals do not conform to the


cultural background to which they belong.

Valette-Florence Pierre, Usunier Jean-Claude

Effects of Industry Origin and National Origin on the Complexity of Alliance Agreements

The effects of industry origin and national origin on the complexity of alliance agreements is investigated. Hypotheses are formulated and tested with a sample of 598 domestic and international alliance agreements across 5 different industries. Results show that cross-industry and international alliances are far more complex than within-industry and domestic alliances. Further, such complex alliances are safeguarded against opportunism through the judicious use of equity investments.

Senjit Sengupta

Developing Country Business Strategies for Partnership in Transnational Strategic Alliance Networks

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to examine the organizational and managerial implications of transnational strategic alliances (TSAs); and, second, it attempts to identify distinct business strategies for the firms of developing countries for partnership in transnational alliances. The authors argue that the effectiveness of transnational strategic alliances involving the partners of the developing countries will depend on the ability of the partners in making appropriate strategic choices and in meeting the organizational and managerial requirements of such alliances.

Ulku Dicle, Halil Copur, I. Atilla Dicle

Country-of-Origin Effects in a Cross-Cultural Setting

The nature of the impact of Country-of-Origin (CO) on purchase behavior is far from clear. A theoretical structure of the relationships underlying CO effects is tested using LISREL and the generalizability of the findings are assessed across respondents belonging to two different cultural groups (US-born and Greece- born) residing in the US. Responses provided by US-born respondents appear to fit the

a priori

theoretical model more closely than those provided by Greece-born respondents. The complexity of the acculturation process of Greece-born respondents is offered as the likely reason for this inter-group difference.

R. Mohan Pisharodi, Ravi Parameswaran, Attila Yaprak

On the Use of Surrogates in Consumer Research: A Country-of-Origins Study

This study extends “student surrogates” research stream into the international domain. Results based on a country-of-origins study conducted in Saudi Arabia suggest that use of students as surrogates of adults should be approached with caution.

Ugur Yavas

Marketing Communications


The Status of Advertising by Attorneys: An International Perspective Provided by the Legal Literature

Advertising by attorneys in the United States has increased significantly since its legal status was clarified by major court decisions as recent as 1988. Meanwhile, professional codes and local laws which address attorney advertising have been changing in other nations. The literature of business academicians in the U.S. has addressed the American situation in some detail. However, less has been published in this literature concerning advertising by attorneys in other nations. This paper brings together relevant research findings globally as reported in die legal literature.

Robert L. King

A Comparison of American and Japanese Consumer Perceptions of Sex Role Portrayals in Advertising

Consumer perceptions of their sex role portrayals in advertising have been heavily researched since the 1970s, but few studies have extended this research into cross-cultural settings. This study compares the perceptions of American and Japanese business students. The findings indicate that: 1) Japanese students are less critical than American students, 2) Japanese females students are less critical than American females, 3) Japanese male students are less critical than American males, 4) Japanese female students are more critical than Japanese males, and 5) American female students are more critical than American males regarding their role portrayals in advertisements.

John B. Ford, Michael S. LaTour, Earl D. Honeycutt, Patricia K. Voli, Mathew Joseph

College Students’ Perceptions of Personal Selling: An Empirical Investigation

College students’ perceptions of sales as a career is a very important factor to the success of sales recruiting. Many negative perceptions concerning sales jobs have been in existence for some time. While these perceptions are becoming more positive, it must be remembered that much work has to be done in order to convince college students that sales is a desirable and respected profession. The findings of this study indicated that British students do not seem enthusiastic about entering sales as a career. This somewhat negative attitude reinforces past findings which indicated that American students consider sales to be a low-status job with little recognition. However, unlike previous studies that were done on American students, the British students in this study expressed more positive attitudes toward sales as a career.

Sammy G. Amin, Abdalla F. Hayajneh

An Empirical Investigation of Advertising Agency - Client Relationship in an Advanced Developing Country

Parallel to the rapid developments taking place in manufacturing sector, the advertising industry is also experiencing a stage of rapid development in most of the advanced developing countries, as evidenced by the increased number of advertising agencies and total billings. This paper examines present structured characteristics of Turkish advertising agencies and critically compares the role and functions of the advertising agency and client relationships in that country.

Erdener Kaynak, Orsay Kucukemiroglu, Yavuz Odabasi

The Use of Fear Appeals in Greek Magazine Advertisements

This paper examines fear appeals in Greek magazine advertisements. A total number of 3,262 advertisements were selected from a sample of 14 magazines representing various genre. Advertisements were content analyzed, on the basis of fear appeal categories and consequences. The findings indicate that advertisements use the fear appeal in 16.46 percent of the total number examined. Positive fear appeals and social consequence theme show the highest frequency of appearance with 91.06 and 79.83 percent respectively. There is also a variance in the use of various types of fear appeals, according to magazine classifications and product categories.

Yorgos C. Zotos, Steven Lysonski, Lilia Ziamou

The Changing Character of American Cigarette Advertising: Content Analysis Findings

This paper reviews all published cigarette advertising content analyses to identify common results. American cigarette advertising has become more voluminous, more visual rather than verbal, more inclined to show “pictures of health,” more inclined than other products to show people, inclined to feature young looking models, and to use themes of independence and autonomy that appeal to the young. The likely consequence is that the audience experience serves to bias judgments of the young about the proportion of adults who smoke, about the social acceptance of smokers, about the healthfulness of smoking, and about the independence characteristic of nicotine addicts.

Richard W. Pollay

Cigarette Advertising in India - An Exploratory Study

The study examines cigarette ads in the print media to find out i) How the cigarette advertisers communicate effectively under the existing regulations, ii) The emerging ethical and legal issues and iii) The implication for public policy. Subjects were drawn from user, potential, and vulnerable segments. Laddering was used to explore values- consumption linkage. A content analysis of ads along with correspondence analysis indicated the impact of the ads. Though social factors dominate the early stages, passive learning is initiated by self identity in the print medium. Social education through emotive or rational appeals may be more effective than restriction on media or smoking.

Sipra Mukhopadhyay, Sonal Kureshi

Scope of Marketing Communication in a Developing Nation: An Empirical Analysis of Managerial Practices and Perceptions

Despite the growing importance of marketing and marketing communication, there is a dearth of information on the state of marketing communication practices in India-both in the Western and Indian literature. This study attempts to augment and enhance our understanding and knowledge in this neglected area of international marketing. It is likely that greater insight into the characteristics of Indian marketing communication and promotional practices will enable multinational and local marketers to use more effective and competitive communication programs.

Madhav N. Segal, Ralph W. Giacobbe

The Medium is Not Always the Message : The Case of “Total Paint Buses”

High media visibility and creativity do not always guarantee success. A new, unconventional concept in media, “total paint buses”, lends support to this fundamental assumption. Not only does message effectiveness vary considerably, but perceptual vigilance and combined awareness appear to be restricted to a younger audience whose attitudes towards the new concept are more positive and innovation proneness is higher. Consequently, our results prove that the medium is


always the message !

Christian S. Dussart, Didier Gruson

A Critical Assessment of the Frequency Question and its Ability to Provide Valid Measurements of Readership Figures: Lessons from a Study Involving a Voice Response Based Panel of Respondents

The paper presents a new way of gathering data: A panel of respondents is instructed to perform a daily call to a voice response computer (VR) which has been programmed to pose pre-recorded questions regarding media contacts yesterday (day-after recall). Respondents are then providing answers using the buttons on their push-button phones i.e. they push the numbers of the titles read - these numbers figuring on a list containing approx. 50 titles which has been mailed to the respondents. The paper describes how the voice response technology might be used for media research purposes. The paper also discusses the construct validity of a frequently used readership measurement. The study involved indicates a considerable disagreement (low convergent validity) regarding readership reported when comparing data which were gathered (1) using continuous measurement (VR-method) with data gathered using the so-called (2) frequency question (mail-interview). Some crucial questions regarding a popular way of measuring readership are raised. Implications for advertising strategy are discussed.

Marcus Schmidt, Morten Jansen, Søren Sten Hansen

Information Content Analysis of TV Advertising - The Spanish Case

Atter analyzing the information content of 477 ads aired by the two main Spanish TV channels we found that not all ads provided objective information, but that the proportion of informative ads and the amount of information carried by them seems to be greater than in other countries of our economic environment. There were no significant differences in informative content between the two channels, but there were differences with regard to product categories advertised. Future research could be directed towards expanding the categories for information analysis of TV ads given their continued presence in the life of the average consumer.

Enrique Bigne, Marceio Royo, Antonio C. Cuenca

An Application of Means-End Analysis in a Cross-Cultural Context

The role of values in creating effective mass communication in a cross-cultural context is briefly reviewed. In particular, the laddering process relating product attributes ta ultimate life goals is examined. Within this framework, a means-end analysis of automobiles is conducted for samples of Anglos and Hispanics. Results show that the primary and secondary means-end chains are different for the two groups. The impact on mass communications to the two groups is discussed.

Ali Kara, H. A. Laskey, F. B. Seaton

Effect of Colour in Advertising: A Comparative Study of British and French Advertising Creative Executives

This paper offers a conceptual framework which integrates all those variables that historically have been considered independently in the use of colour in advertising literature, with data pertaining to the importance attached by creative executives. The study examines this question in relation to particular product categories and across cultures (Britain and France). Cluster analyses are performed on the data to develop a taxonomy of colour effects objectives in advertising. The findings suggest that British and French advertising creative executives attach similar importance to different effects of colour use in print advertising per product category, apart from the case of specialty goods.

George G. Panigyrakis

Relative Positioning of Self Image Projective Products Across Europe: A Content Analysis of Print Advertising

A relative positioning schema was developed for self image projective products within the context of advertising standardization and localization. Advertising for three self image projective products (perfume, cosmetics and women’s apparel) were content analyzed in the


editions of U.K., Germany, France, Spain and Italy. The research objective was to analyze advertisements according to the relative positioning schema proposed for these products over a four month period. Managerial implications and recommendations for Euro-marketers/advertisers of these products suggest that perfume ads are positioned with an emphasis on image and universal themes that lend themselves to a standardized approach. Apparel advertisements satisfy experiential needs through an outward demonstration of the product and a stylized, culture specific approach. Cosmetic advertisements are positioned to satisfy functional needs through greater use of information based advertising.

Victoria A. Seitz, J. S. (Vic) Johar

A Cross Cultural Comparison of Selected Effects of Language on Consumers’ Attitudes and Intentions

This paper illustrates and compares the differential responses of Puerto Rican and non-Hispanic United States consumers to English language and Spanish language print advertisements. Respondents from the two populations respectively evaluated one of two versions of messages [English-Spanish] for four hypothetical consumer products. The analysis examines subjects attitudes toward the test message, the brand, and their intention to respond to the advertisement. The findings from this cross-cultural comparison indicate that both domestic and international marketers need to be more aware of consumers’ foreign language proficiency.

John H. Holmes, Dale N. Shook

Preferences for Promotion Programs

A Study Of Japanese Consumers

The stud’s primary objective was to obtain information about Japanese consumer’s attitudes towards various promotion programs. This information will enable promotion planners to make more objectived ecisions regarding the allocation of promotion dollars.

James S. Gould

Art Sponsorship and Promotion Strategy: An Investigation of Firm Characteristics that Relate to the Choice of Spronsorship as a Tool in the Promotion Mix

This country specific study investigates a set of firm characteristics as discriminating variables that influence the choice of art sponsorship as a tool in the promotion mix. Data were gathered from 110 sponsoring and nonsponsoring companies in Turkiye.The results indicate that company size, tangibility of product, market type, capital structure and the decision maker’s position in the company are variables that have considerable discriminating power between the two groups of companies.

Sema Sakarya Tapan

Emergence of the European Community


Europe 1992: The Impact of Regulatory Forces on U.S. Global Financial Marketing

Several industries will be greatly affected by the changes in Europe especially the financial services. These new changes have made smaller financial institutions reconsider their options of globalizing their services while larger corporations are concerned about their marketing strategy in order to maintain a competitive advantage in Europe. These forthcoming changes and their implications are of great concern to U.S. banks which have invested or plan to invest in Europe. This paper attempts to explore these changes and their implications for U.S. banks and also suggests strategies for the global marketers.

Nejdet Delener, Herbert Katzenstein, John S. Manna

Developing Effective Marketing Strategies for Europe Now and in the Future

Since United Europe is a very large market, it provides new challenges as well as opportunities to American firms. It is necessary to predict certain behaviors after 1992 and evaluate the opportunities they may create. Based on market conditions, a series of four key strategies are discussed which are likely to help American firms succeed in Europe now as well as in the future.

A. Coskun Samli, Julius Polymeneas, Donna Sutton, Kristen Jones

Pricing Conditions in the European Common Market: An Empirical Cross-Country Analysis

Pricing is a critical issue for firms operating in Europe. A structural analysis of the pricing conditions in three industries in six EC countries is performed and the implications for pan-European pricing are discussed. The analysis reveals that existing structural differences between countries are too large to be ignored. However, the internationalization of the retail industry across Europe is putting increasing pressure on consumer goods firms to align their prices. Finally, two strategic approaches to deal with this dilemma are presented.

Hermann Diller, Imaan Bukhari

The Viability of Pan-European Marketing

Changes in the European Community present opportunities for marketers. A unification effort (EC92) will ease the exchange process. There are economies of scale and cost efficiencies to be gained. However, the target market must be reanalyzed. European consumers must be segmented by other means than geographic. Mass marketing and niche marketing may both be used to reach the new Euromarket.

Ron A. Schaeffer, Anne L. Balazs

Strategies of Firms in the Era of Integration

The objective of the study is to examine the changes of international strategies of firms, especially the changes of so-called “Eurostrategies”. This research is a follow up study to the two earlier investigations. In all three studies Porter’s strategy frameworks were utilized.

Uolevi Lehtinen, Rainer Vallius

The Implications of Europe 1992 on U.S. Companies: An Empirical Study of New York Manufacturers

This study was conducted to find out the perceptions of New York exporters on developments related to EC 1992 and how those changes might affect their marketing strategies. Although a large number of respondents felt that the EC market was very important for the future of their firms, they were concerned about potential tariff and non-tariff barriers. Close to half of the firms studied were in the process of preparing for the post-1992 period. Expanding agent/distributor network was found to be the most preferred method of penetrating the EC market and/or increasing market shares there. The executives in the sample were a great deal more optimistic about the issues related to NAFTA. Many felt that NAFTA will make their firms more competitive both at home and in overseas markets including the European Community.

Fahri M. Unsal, Hormoz Movassaghi, Sammy Medina

European Integration: A Consumer Perspective

This paper deals with those effects of European integration that are reflected in the lives of European consumers. The aim is to categorize these effects and to see how they affect consumer welfare in a typical European country. The data base is formed by a qualitative analysis of personal expert interviews and literature. It was found that the economic effects of integration have been greatly overestimated and simplified in consumer studies of integration in the past. Moreover, from a consumer’s point of view, European integration is increasingly a question of consumer policy and welfare, including environmental and cultural issues, rather than a question of competition and prices only.

Timo Ranta, Liisa Uusitalo

European Integration and Developing Countries: A Survey of International Students

In this exploratory study, we report the attitudes of international MBA students form the developing nations about their concerns over EC 1992 program and the measures they would advocate to their governments for appropriately responding to the EC 1992 developments. The results of the study indicate student concerns involve detrimental effects on their countries’ exports and the unfavorable marketing environment in the EC markets. To mitigate those effects, the students expect their governments undertaking long range export promotion programs and developing political linkages with the trading partners in EC. The paper discusses theoretical underpinnings of the findings, providing directions for the future research.

Gul Butaney, Abdolreza Eshghi, Vineet Gandhi

Buyer Behavior


Country of Origin Effect for Taiwanese-Made Personal Computer Products in Australia

The focus of this study was on Australian consumer perceptions towards Taiwanese personal computer hardware products. This comparative analysis is conducted, with reference to personal computer products originating from seven countries.

Muris Cicic, Jiin-Jang Tsai, Paul G. Patterson

An Examination of Preference Structures of Japanese and Non-Japanese Customers for Bank Branches in an Era of Transition

The banking industry in Japan is going through an unprecedented transition toward liberalization along with deregulation by the Ministry of Finance. Preference structures of the Japanese customers for bank branches were examined in the present research using conjoint methodology and then compared to those of the non-Japanese customers. It was found that non-Japanese customers generally have larger utilities (i.e., part-worths) than the Japanese customers and that two samples have different importance weights for the attributes of a bank branch. Implications of the study and directions for future research are discussed.

Jonathan S. Kim, Koichi Ichitsubo

Predicting Video Camera Adopters based on Personality Traits, Socioeconomic Variables, and Expectations about the Rate of Technological Innovation

The theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers 1983) has attracted the attention of marketers because of some strong implications for successful new product introduction. Since the innovators, according to this theory, are expected to play a crucial role in the diffusion process, especially the early research in consumer behaviour focused on identifying the characteristics of the adopters of various types of innovations (for example, Boone 1970, Dickerson and Gentry 1983, Gatignon and Robertson 1985, LaBay and Kinnear 1981, Taylor 1971, Rogers 1983). Although some variables such as higher income and education, younger age, greater social mobility and venturesomeness, higher social participation, higher opinion leadership, and more experience with other products in the same or related product category seem to characterize the innovators (Gatignon and Robertson 1985), a major conclusion of this stream of research has been that the concept of “innovativeness” is not generalizable across different product categories, but the profile of the consumer innovators vary from one product category to another (Dickerson an Gentry 1983), and therefore, any attempt to identify the characteristics of the innovators needs to relate them to the nature of the innovation itself.

B. Kemal Büyükkurt, Catherine O’Farrel

Psychological Time Perspective Differences: A Look at Young Malaysians and Americans using the Fast Scale

Research was conducted on the psychological time perspectives of Malaysian and U.S. students to better understand the differences between the two groups and to provide the bases for a discussion of consumer behavior and future research implications. The “FAST” test, suggested by Settle and Alreck (1991), was the four dimensional measurement tool used. It was found that differences in psychological perspective exist in such areas as future/past orientation, sense of boredom, activity levels, need to plan/schedule and staying with a task until done. Consumer behavior and future research implications are offered.

Jay D. Lindquist, Paul M. Lane, Carol F. Kaufman

A Model of Consumer Decision Making Under Severe Time Constraints: First Empirical Test

A model for predicting decision making under severe time constraints—panic decision making (PDM)—is presented and its eight structural factors are empirically tested for last minute Valentine’s Day gift purchases. The U method was used to test for bias in the classification rates and the results support the overall model. Hypothesis testing for the influence of the model’s structural factors, as well as testing for the stability of the coefficients, was accomplished by examining the signs of the total structure coefficients from 20 random subsamples. The majority of the hypotheses were supported.

William M. Strahle, E. H. Bonfield

An Empirical Evaluation of Decision Heuristics in the Process of Evoked Set Formation

This study investigates the consumer’s use of five heuristics (conjunctive, disjunctive, lexicographic, linear additive, and geometric compensatory) in the evoked set formation regarding beer brands and fast food outlets. By using a decomposition approach in determining the consumers’ choice heuristics, it was found that the conjunctive heuristic is the most often used decision model in the evoked set formation for the two product classes.

Michel Laroche, Chankon Kim, Takahashi Matsui

Self-Monitoring, Social Approval of Appearance and Conformity of Asian-American and Anglo-American Women: Implications for Consumer Behavior

A study of the differences in self-monitoring, the need for social approval of appearance, and conformity in appearance between Asian- and Anglo-American women was conducted. It was found that Asian-American subjects were significantly lower in self-monitoring but significantly higher in need for conformity in appearance than the Anglo-Americans subjects.

Karen Kaigler-Walker

The Effect of Psychographic Variables on Consumer Satisfaction

This study attempted to identify why some people are more satisfied with a mall than others. This study found two preliminary results. First, discriminant analysis indicated that a “value seeking group” is more prone to be satisfied with its decision for selecting a mall than a “social shopping group.” Second, the shopping profile psychographic variables can easily identify which consumers are more likely to be satisfied with the same kind of service or product than others.

Soo-Young Moon

Schematic Discrepancy and Product Involvement among Light and Heavy Users

Previous studies have verified that the extent of schematic discrepancy affects product evaluations. The present study defined self-schema as the formation of a cognitive representation of one’s personal attributes. Product-schema was viewed to encompass not only product features but also the personal attributes of the stereotypical user. It was proposed that higher consumption would be related to higher product involvement and lower self-product discrepancy. The findings showed that there was more congruity between the self-schema and product-schema of Heavy Users, as compared to Light Users. An unexpected discovery was that the association between the extent of schematic discrepancy and the level of product involvement was related to consumption levels.

Corinna T. de Leon, Jan Selmer

Country-of-Origin Effects as a Function of Personality Variables1

This study uses conjoint analysis to examine consumer evaluations of profiles of automobiles varying according to four informational cues : country of origin, brand name, price and level of service. Based on survey data collected among French Canadian and French Belgian male consumers, the results indicate that personality variables (striving for Excellency, tolerance of Social Risk, belief in the Price-Quality relationship) interact significantly with the cues. The interactions signal opportunities for personality-based segmentation in the elaboration and implementation of marketing strategy for global products.

Alain d̍Astous, Sadrudin A. Ahmed

Personality Traits and Country-of-Origin Cues: Evaluating Consumer Predispositions to Seek Country of Origin Information

This study attempts to utilize personality traits to identify consumers most likely to seek and use country-of-origin information in the product evaluation process. In this regard, a number of personal- ity variables are assessed and differences are noted between individuals rating low and high on the respective variables with regard to their country-of-origin information search activity.

Harold Babb, Dana-Nicoleta Lascu, Elizabeth Vann

Forty Shades of Green towards a Classification of Consumer Greenness

This paper reviews previous market research into green consumer behaviour in the United Kingdom. A series of longitudinal studies into purchasing patterns for environmentally friendly products in Northern Ireland is presented. By means of these studies the breadth and depth of commitment of the green consumer is identified. It is our opinion that this provides a more accurate classification of the green consumer in the United Kingdom than has been compiled before.

C. A. Davies, A. J. Titterington, A. C. Cochrane, M. E. Cowan

The Identification of Pan-European Segments: An Application of Means-End Analysis in a Cross-Cultural Context

This article aims to show the potentialities of means-end chain analysis for cross-cultural research. By means of the tandem use of correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, this work attempts to uncover the major

attributes → consequences → values chains

for perfume purchases which may exist among four European countries (France, Italy, Germany and Switzerland) . The results, although still exploratory, lead to the identification of four potential targets which are either pan-European or specific to some of the studied countries.

Valette-Florence Pierre, Rapacchi Bernard

A Cross-National Comparison of Selected Effects of Language and Country of Origin on Consumers’ Attitudes and Intentions

The present investigation intends to directly compare and contrast the differential responses of French consumers to United States consumers in terms of their attitudes toward advertisements, the brands advertised, and their intention to respond. More specifically, participants from the two countries will participate in a 2x2 between subjects experiment and respond to one of four versions of advertisements for two hypothetical products. The only differences across the respective test messages are the language in which the headline and body copy are written [French-English] and the products' country of origin [United States-France]. Analyses will indicate possible interaction effects between language and country of origin as well as possible main effects for either language or country of origin as well as show comparison? between subjects from the two countries.

John H. Holmes, Karen McPhail



Success Factors for Japanese Convenience Stores

Seven Eleven Japan (SEJ) , a franchised convenience store chain, combines several factors to produce world-class strategy. SEJ’S success factors include their franchise arrangements; an intensive distribution system; computer technology supporting “Tanpin-Kanri” with Graphic Order Terminals and an Integrated Services Digital Network; and a combined marketing and promotion system. The corporation’s continuous emphasis on customers dominates their achievement of extraordinary standards with single-item product management. SEJ represents a country-specific example of an integrated service management and marketing enterprise.

Linda M. Delene, Gail L. Stautamoyer, Toshiyuki Sasaki

Electronic Shopping Service: Crucial Customer Considerations

The introduction of electronic shopping service in various countries failed to receive the enthusiastic response forecasted by proponents. The road to success for the service cannot depend on technology alone. Equally important is a customer driven approach. The emphasis must be on understanding potential customers and attention should be focused on their reactions early in the stage of design and development. This will ensure that the design incorporates features which will reduce or eliminate customer anxiety, difficulty or frustration. Valuable insights can be gained from research in the field of human computer interaction.

Huat-Tatt Gan, Chow-Hou Wee

The Role of International Retailing in Marketing and Economic Development

There has been a great deal of discussion on how foreign direct investment can contribute to economic development in less developed countries. Most of the discussion however has focused on foreign direct investment in the manufacturing sector. Simultaneously there have been substantive contributions made on improving the distribution channel system. In the latter, recommendations have often been directed at how local firms can improve their effectiveness and efficiencies. Much less attention has been directed at how established international retailers can make contributions in developing countries. This paper explores how multinational retailers, through appropriate involvement in developing countries, can make positive contributions to further economic development.

Mushtaq Luqmani, Zahir A. Quraeshi, Frank Gambino

Shopping Behaviour of Different Age Groups: How Different are They?

A study of 482 shoppers of three different age groups showed that there were some differences among older, middle-age and younger shoppers. However, despite such differences, there were in fact more similarities among these shoppers in their approach toward shopping and actual shopping behaviour. In particular, except for differences caused by lower income and mobility, the older shopper behaved very much like any other shopper.

Chow-Hou Wee

Utilization of Distribution Channels for Market Entry: The Case of Turkish Textiles and Apparel in Germany

One of the most fundamental decisions in international marketing revolves around the selection of the market entry strategy based on various distribution alternatives available in the foreign market. The basic concern of this paper is to outline (1) the distribution channel network in Germany for textiles and apparel, (2) the channels used for the distribution of Turkish apparel in this export market.

Zeynep Bilgin

Reactions to Dissatisfaction in Marketplace: Complaint Styles of Optimist and Pessimist Consumers

A conceptual analysis indicates that the learned helplessness paradigm is a promising explanatory framework to study consumer complaint behavior. The major proposition of this model is that consumers with pessimistic attributional styles choose passive means of dealing with dissatisfaction experiences in the marketplace. In addition, the study investigates differences in reactions to dissatisfaction with services versus tangible products. Initial empirical findings generally support the learned helplessness proposition. Results also identify significant differences between complaint actions of those who are dissatisfied with a service versus a product. Practical implications and future research needs are discussed.

Emin Babakus

Hong Kong Retailers: The Effects of Perceived Environmental Hostility on Operational and Strategic Planning Processes

The purpose of this paper is to explore how Hong Kong retailers who do formal planning, versus those who do not do formal planning, perceive the present and post-1997 marketing environments. Planning implementation is also analyzed against several demographic factors. Camillus and Datta (1991) posit that organizations have felt the impact of unprecedented environmental uncertainty and how organizations cope with increasing dynamism and turbulence is probably the most important determinant of future success.

Lisa A. Phillips, Brenda J. Sternquist

Ethical Perceptions of Retail Managers in Australia, Singapore, South Africa and Zimbabwe

This study examines the ethical perceptions of retail managers in four countries; Australia, South Africa, Singapore and Zimbabwe. A literature review of retailing ethics and cross-cultural studies of ethics was completed. The questionnaire used for this study was developed from previous studies. The results of this study suggest that retail managers are more ethical than retailing students, and that retail ethics perceptions differ in the four countries studied.

Russell Abratt, Nicola Higgs, Deon Nel

An Analysis of the Retail Sector in the Russian Federation

Changes in Russian retail capacity and productivity are reviewed, and comparisons are made with members of the Commonwealth of Independent States and other nations. The data suggest that the Russian retail sector will require substantial new investment to meet the increased consumption demands anticipated from the market reforms that have been Initiated. Such investment is unlikely in the foreseeable future.

Donald F. Dixon

Marketing and Development


An Evaluation of the Role of Marketing Programs in the Development Process: The Case of Eastern Europe

Marketing has a vital role to play in the economic and social changes of a nation. In this paper, the focus is on the relevance of marketing in establishing the national economic and social goals in the context of the Eastern European economy. Furthermore, the attempt is made to demonstrate the usefulness of the marketing approach to solving the macroeconomic social problems facing the region. Several barriers to marketing in Eastern European countries are enumerated, and emphasis needs to be placed on removing the barriers and promoting changes that will allow marketing to best perform its critical function of stimulating economic growth.

A. Ben Oumlil, C. P. Rao, Allan C. Reddy

Windward Islands’ Marketing and Development: Implications for Canadian Trade

Marketing should be at the forefront of development in all nations including the Windward Islands, West Indies. There is a desire in these small islands to emulate Singapore, which appears to be a shining example of marketing and development. However, an important obstacle to their achievement appears to be the decline in developed countries’ aid and attention to them. This is happening at a time when Developed countries are exerting pressures on them to maintain democratic governments and practices. The attitudes and actions of those developed countries present Caribbean leaders with great barriers and challenges for charting courses in marketing and development.

Lionel A. Mitchell

The Efficiency of Channels of Distribution in a Developing Society: The Case of Nigerian Distributive Sector

This study presents the results of an investigation on the effects of liberalization of trade channels on marketing activities in Nigeria. The study was based on a survey of the distributive trade sector of the Nigerian economy conducted in two commercial cities in Nigeria. The purpose was to evaluate the role of marketing in the development process in Nigeria, and also to examine the future role of marketing in developing countries, especially sub-sahara countries, as they enter another decade in search of solutions to their economic problems.

Joseph Fola Aiyeku

Economic Development: Strategic Considerations on Project Portfolios

Universities have the potential to be a positive factor in economic development, and small business development centers have been established in many US universities to capitalize on the potential that may exist in this area. A model is introduced that permits strategic analysis of development portfolios in such centers. The issue of portfolio balance is discussed from an experiential base. Particular attention is paid to platform projects, which exist between derivative and breakthrough projects, and the potential they have for economic development. Although the treatment apparently presumes an existing portfolio, similar considerations would exist for establishing an initial strategic portfolio.

Timothy Wilson

The Impact of Transforming Eastern Europe on Foreign Investment Strategies

Estonia from the Perspective of a Foreign Service Company

This paper deals with the impact of East European transforming markets on foreign investment strategies. Entry strategies by two Finnish service companies into Estonia are discussed in order to examine how service companies with previous international experience enter the markets. It is acknowledged that the entry strategies may be implemented differently from the entry strategies elsewhere in industrialized or developing countries. Furthermore, it is argued that decisions to enter the transforming markets require more country-specific empirical research to indicate the reai state of the transforming East European markets.

Kari Liuhto, Pasi Hellman

The Importance of Total Quality Marketing in Export Growth

This paper analyzes the importance of “total quality export marketing” for developing countries. After brief reviews of the literature on quality and export marketing, the paper examines Turkey, a country that has developed considerably in the last decade as a result of many liberal economic policies. At present, however, Turkey finds itself competing for export markets against other industrializing countries that are, like Turkey, good sources of labor-intensive products. Unless Turkey makes the customer the focus of its export marketing efforts to achieve global competitiveness, it may not be able to continue its export success.

Nurhan Geçgil

Developing Nations’ Marketing Dilemmas are Impairing the Global Economic Development

The marketing dilemmas faced by the developing nations are not only a threat to their individual development schemes but also set barriers to the economic development on a global scale. The double standards inherent in their economic policies are contrary to the universally accepted rules of the global markets. This situation combined with the complexities encountered by such nations in global integration is a handicap for their global competitiveness. This paper attempts to analyse the marketing dilemmas witnessed in Turkey and proposes some research topics for matters in the interests of the political decision centres that are responsible for the formulation of the development strategies in the context global trends and marketing.

Hasan Tekeli

Exploring the Relationship between Consumer Productivity and the Socio-Economic Development of LDCS

The socio-economic development of less developed countries can be accelerated by employing strategies that are designed to improve consumer productivity. Consumer productivity is defined as the ratio of total utility obtained by consumers to the total resources (i.e. financial, mental and physical) spent by consumers. The paper explores ways in which the government and business can improve consumer productivity to achieve national development goals.

Zoher E. Shipchandler

Consumer Marketing


The Role of Turkish Woman In Family’s Consumption

The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the wife in Turkish families during the purchasing process and to research whether the employment situation of the wife has any influence on this role. In this study the purchasing process consists of: the determining stage, the deciding stage, and the buying stage. This study shows that the wife has an important role in the first two stages. In the third stage the wife’s importance diminishes to equal decision making or to the husband’s decision. The statistical analysis that was carried out indicates that the decision maker variable (wife-husband-together), and the employment situation of the wife variable (working wife-housewife) are independent in the first two stages. and dependent in the third stage.

Mahİr NakİP

A Strategic Framework for Analysing Negative Rumors in the Market Place: The Case of Wash & Go in Denmark

The author proposes a classification system for the analysis and curbing of negative rumors in the market place. The classification system is useful for marketers as it does not only indicate the potential of a rumor to spread, but also suggests the response strategy appropriate in a specific rumor situation. To illustrate the relevance and applicability of the classification system the article will refer to an example recently seen in Denmark: the case of Wash & Go.

Jan Møller Jensen

Buyers’ Perception of the Price-Quality Relationship: The Turkish Case

This study is contrived to evaluate the perceived price-quality connection in Turkey, which is among the world’s industrializing nations. Data was collected in Istanbul, Turkey and analyzed using the Factor Analysis Techniques in the SPSSX routine. The study findings indicated that the price-quality relationship shows formations based upon socio-economic patterns, economic foundations, and value structure of a particular country. The interdependence of price and quality will motivate consumers to be particular about their choice and persuade manufacturers to produce and sell high quality products. Market success will depend upon how well price and quality are connected and how positive an opinion consumers have in this process.

Ugur Yucelt, Nadeem M. Firoz

Analysis of the Image of Japanese Life Insurance Companies

As the Japanese life insurance industry expects severe competition among the companies as well as from the foreign companies due to the regulation by the Ministry of Finance, adopting marketing orientation is becoming increasingly important to protect the current customer base and to reach to the new customers. Corporate images of major life insurance companies were examined using a multidimensional scaling technique. It was found from this study that the corporate images of life insurance companies are affected mostly by the size of the company, along with the amount of advertising expenditure, the size of the salesforce and the number of office branches.

Jonathan S. Kim, Saburo Katsuki

“The Key Mediating Varibales Linking Marketing Strategy and Profitability: A Study of Indian Textile and Clothing Industry”

The authors argue that investment-intensity and gross margin rate act as mediating variables between marketing strategy elements and profitability. On the basis of multiple regression analysis, they develop results which go counter to the current theory that the effect of marketing strategy elements (e.g. product quality) on profitability is direct. They offer insights into the appropriateness of market share-building as a means of raising profitability in different situations and suggest the need for a trade off between market share building and maximising gross margin rate in order to achieve greater profitability.

M. Joseph Sirgy

Are Grocery Brands Involving?

This paper identifies how consumer involvement measuring techniques can be adapted for use with fast-moving consumer goods. The discussion opens with a review of the recent theoretical developments in involvement and their applications in a number of different product areas. A contemporary measuring device is identified from the extant literature and applied to grocery products. The researchers report on a data reduction step which enabled us to eliminate over one third of the measured items without apparent loss in reliability. Using this modified approach, significant differences in the levels of involvement were found across grocery product categories. The managerial implications of these results are discussed and further uses of the measuring device suggested.

Simon Knox, David Walker, Charles Marshall

International Trade and Business Strategies


Unilever: A Marketing Giant

This descriptive study looks at Unilever, a multinational corporation headquartered in two European countries, and how it markets so many different brand names in various parts of the world today. From our research, this is a task which probably only Nestle can beat. The sheer complexity of producing so many different types of products, and having so many brands, makes this a unique marketing study.

Charles R. Patton, Karin Holstius

Global Strategy and Local Management: How Does It Work?

This study examines productivity and participatory management systems in similar plants located in five different countries. Likert’s System 4 theory was used as an instrument to measure the extent of management participation within the foreign subsidiaries. All five plants engaged in identical operations that were designed and implemented by its U.S.-based owner. Each of the plants, however, were managed by host nationals. The data indicated that the degree of participation differed widely between the Italian, Mexican, Spanish, American and English plants. The data did not support Likert’s contention that participation and productivity are linearly related. Rather, it appears that the management systems in each of the plants reflects the expectations of the local society and may not be directly related to productivity.

Tom Morris, Cynthia Pavett

International Facility Locations: A Competitive Marketing Strategy for Multinational Enterprises

Market orientation is rapidly becoming an important issue for multinational enterprises. Changes in the market place are forcing these enterprises to adopt market-orientation strategies that give them competitive advantages. Using international facility locations is an approach well suited for gaining competitive advantages. This paper develops a mathematical model to help multinational enterprises design a strategic location plan in the global economic system. The model developed here can be used to evaluate tha profitability of international locations among several alternatives.

Cem Canel, David Bejou, Basheer M. Khumawala

Strategic Alliances: A New Way Forward for Business Education

Strategic alliances are proposed as an important way for business schools to face the challenges of a “new world order” that includes intensified competition, changing educational requirements and increasingly global marketplaces. Partnerships between individual business schools, and between business schools and corporations, on a regional, national, and international basis are suggested.

Philip A. Dover, Aydin Muderrisoglu

Marketing Differences Between High and Low Performing Firms

As the pressure to cut costs and thereby increase profitability mounts, all aspects of a business will come under close scrutiny. Marketing managers will need to undertake a thorough analysis of their various activities to determine which to retain, which to reduce, and which to eliminate. In most cases, the activities which are shown to positively impact performance will be the ones which will be continued. This study investigated high and low performing firms in order to determine which marketing variables were associated with higher performance. It was found that market research and product quality were emphasized by high performers. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Ven Sriram



Awakening The Sleeping Giant: Market Oriented Reforms in Brazil

The 1990s are seeing a business revolution taking place south of the Rio Grande border (Baker et al. 1992). Latin American countries are making strong efforts to recuperate the ground lost in the 1980s, the “lost decade.” The inward economic growth model pursued by these countries show clear signs of exhaustion in the 1980s, with Latin American economies lagging behind South East Asian tigers.

Raul de Gouvea Neto

Wastes Exchanges: Marketing Intermediaries Bridging the Gap between Economic Development and the Natural Environment

A two-pronged problem faced by developing economies, particularly those of Central and Eastern European, is building an economic infrastructure based on free-market principles to rejuvenate their fractured economies while simultaneously upgrading many of their practices in mining, agriculture, manufacturing, forestry, energy generation and transportation to reverse the rate of degradation of their natural environments.

M. B. Neace

The Price of Peace: Adjustment Strategies for Reductions in Defense Spending in the United States

All wars command a great many people and resources, affecting the nature and structure of the economies of the countries involved. The conclusions of wars free these quantitities of people and resources for other uses, again affecting the nature, structure and growth of the economies of their countries. Such was the case after World War II and such has been the case in the aftermath of the Cold War.

Avraham Shama

A Comparison of Marketing Profiles Between Profitable and Unprofitable Greek Manufacturing Firms

This paper examines how the attitude towards marketing, the organization of marketing and the practice of marketing differ between profitable and unprofitable companies. The data were collected by means of personal interviews with the Marketing Director of 40 profitable and 30 unprofitable Greek manufacturing companies. The findings show that profitable companies differ from unprofitable ones in all three aspects of Marketing that were examined.


George J. Avlonitis, Athanassios Kouremenos, Spiros P. Gounaris

Spectators as Consumers - The Motivating Forces

This paper attempts to understand sport spectators as buyers of a product in traditional marketing terms. Research on spectators and their behaviour patterns has been neglected by marketers, but has been extensively researched by sociologists and psychologists. The findings in this paper are based on a survey of 493 spectators. Information was collected on their attendance record at games and their loyalty to the product.

Sean de Burca, Teresa Brannick, Tony Meenaghan

Regional Economic Development: The Structure of the Public and Private Contributions

As McKee established in his article on Area Economic Development (1989), the marketing of geographic areas to industry is in the domain of macromarketing, in that such marketing involves marketing systems, and the interaction of such marketing systems with society. In stating this he follows Hunt (1983). Accordingly, we approach this subject as one akin to business-to-business service marketing, and not economics or planning or geography of a regional persuasion.

James Beckman

Consumer Sentiment Toward Marketing in Austria and Some Exploratory Cross-National Comparisons

The paper gives empirical evidence that a widely used scale of consumer sentiment toward marketing could be transfered in another national context without losing its reliability and validity. Based on reactance theory first exploratory cross-national comparisons are made between the USA and Austria as well as Hong Kong and Australia.

Hartmut H. Holzmöller, Bernhard Hafenscher

Marketing Research


Reducing Questionnaire Length by Incidence Sampling: Balanced Incomplete Block Designs Versus Random Sampling of Questions

The length of a questionnaire is sometimes a major source of concern for marketing researchers because long questionnaires may affect the rate of response to a survey, prevent the researchers from using a quicker or less costly interview method such as a telephone interview, and generate noisy data due to respondent fatigue and boredom. Incidence sampling, that is, sampling of the questions as well as the respondents, has been suggested as a way of dealing with these potential problems. The researcher simply partitions the original questionnaire by selecting samples of a set of questions and then administers each partition to a sample of respondents.

B. Kemal Büyükkurt, Meral Demirbağ Büyükkurt

Purchasing Management


Negotiation Styles Among American Purchasing Managers: An Empirical Study

This study explored the negotiation styles among American purchasing managers to determine the most dominant one. Further, the study examined relationships between purchasing manager’s negotiation styles and selected personal and organizational characteristics that affect negotiation process. The results of study revealed that the collaborative style is the most dominant one. It was also found that there are significant relationships between purchasing managers’ negotiation styles and certain personal and organizational characteristics.

Abdalla F. Hayajneh, Sammy G. Amin

Public Policy and Marketing


The Marketing Roles of the Government and the Firm in the Development of a High-Technology Industry In Taiwan

The stagnant global economy during the 1970s made it difficult for Taiwanese firms to experience growth. Following a similar approach used by Japan, in 1979, the Taiwan government selected the information industry as a “strategic” industry to undertake a structural change in its economy. By 1991, the total output of the information industry reached $6.9 billion. This achievement would not have happened without extensive marketing efforts from the government and the private sector.

Tung-lung Chang


Weitere Informationen