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This volume includes the full proceedings from the 1998 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference held in Norfolk, Virginia. The research and presentations offered in this volume cover many aspects of marketing science including marketing strategy, consumer behaviour, entrepreneurial marketing, international marketing, advertising, marketing education, among others.

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complimenting the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science.



Effects of Music Induced Arousal on Cognitive Responses and Store Image

How consumers’ mood, perceived waiting time and store atmosphere are affected by background music is analyzed in two shopping situations : first when they wait for the salesclerk who is expected to provide them with a service in a store (pre-service situation) and, second, once the service is performed and they wait at the cash register (post-service situation). Hypotheses derived from Zakay’s Resource Allocation Model-RAM- ( 1989, 1994) and related models, lead to test whether consumers exposed to three levels of music tempo show significantly different patterns of relations between mood, perceived store atmosphere and waiting time. The two service situations are simulated through the use of videos. Subjects (N=249) are exposed to three (pre-tested) equally pleasant music pieces the tempo of which is either low or moderate or high; the arousing effects of tempo are also pre-tested. Results from linear equations systems show two very significantly different effects of music induced arousal on store and time related thoughts and on store image. The results are interpreted in light of RAM and the service literature.

Jean-Charles Chebat, Laurette Dube, Michael Hui

The Advertising Effectiveness of Different Levels of Humor and Warmth and the Moderating Role of Affect Intensity

The responses to three different levels of warmth and three different levels of humor are investigated as well as the moderating role of affect intensity (AI). In general, high levels of humour and warmth seem to be more effective, and generate significantly more positive responses in high than in low AI-respondents.

Patrick De Pelsmacker, Maggie Geuens

An Investigation of Innov Ativeness and Early Product Adoption among Teenagers

Marketers have always been interested in the motivations and behavior of teenagers because of their perceived willingness to try new products and ideas. The primary objective of this paper is to examine teenage innovativeness across age groups and socio-economic backgrounds and to determine if they subscribe to the category of early product adoption.

Mario J Miranda, Glenn Flower

Reconceptualizing Trust: An Evolutionary Process Model

The literature has, historically, acknowledged that trust evolves between parties, indicating a dynamic state of affirirs. Yet trust has generally been operationalized as a static state of affairs within the relationship; that is, it either exists or does not exist between partners. One question that has been overlooked is how do the partners in a relationship come to trust one another or fail to trust? Perhaps even more important to an understanding of trust is the question of whether trust itself changes throughout the life of a relationship.

James M. Curran, Deborah E. Rosen

The Role of Interpersonal Trust in the Client-Consultancy Relationship: An Exploratory Analysis

As the concept of relationship marketing becomes the dominant paradigm in understanding business to business exchange, the role of trust has received increasing attention, indeed Spekman ( 1988) calls it the “cornerstone” of a strategic partnership. Trust is a word that has many interpretations. It has been considered in a number of academic disciplines, for example social psychology, sociology, psychology and marketing each focusing on the particular elements of the concept that they view as most salient. As a result, we can identify 3 broad categories of interpersonal trust: basic or fundamental trust, the personality trait that disposes an individual to be trusting; general trust, an individual’s general tendency to trust or not to trust another individual and finally, situational trust which is dependent on the situational cues that modify the expression of generalized tendencies (Dibben, Harrison and Mason 1996). Situational based trust is posited to be the most important of the trust types and is the focus for this research. In order to construct a framework for the understanding of situational based trust we firstly review the three main trust typologies described in the literature and then put forward a model of trust by (Dibben 1998) which attempts to extend the current conceptualization. This model identifies five theoretical trust types, faith based trust (c.f. Meyerson et al, 1996), dependence based trust (c.f. Lewicki and Bunker, 1996,and Murphy and Gundlach 1997) familiarity-reliance based trust ( c.f. Lewicki and Bunker, 1996), situational cue (SQ) reliance based trust ( c.f. Clark, 1993) and confidence based trust ( c.f. Lewicki and Bunker, 1996, or Murphy and Gundlach 1997).

The model is then discussed in the context of a particular business service, public relations consultants. The results indicate that there are features of the client consultancy relationship that are trust based although not all trust types could be identified. There was no evidence for faith based trust in this relationship and very little evidence of confidence based trust. Rather the client consultancy relationship appears to be reliant upon dependence based trust, familiarity based trust and situational cue based trust However, although familiarity and situational based trust both develop over time, according to the subjective perceptions of the individual client, situational based trust would appear to lead to more frequent switching whilst familiarity based trust is more likely to lead to long term relationships

Mark Dibben, Gillian Hogg

Relationship Strength in Business Relationships and its Role in Observed Relational Outcomes

Relationship marketing is not new in either business or consumer markets; however, our theoretical understanding of these relationships has grown since the early 1980’s when Berry (1983) and Dwyer, et al. (1987) focused academic attention on the potential they hold. This led to a clearer understanding that all business relationships are not the same, but differ in the degree of relationalism within the relationships. These differences in relational character may affect the level of joint outcomes achieved by each relational partner, as well as the organizational unit, according to recent research (Mohr and Nevin 1990; Varadarajan and Cunningham 1995). These preliminary findings suggest that we need a richer understanding of the critical differences between relationships, since theories developed and tested in the context of one type of relationship may not be equally valid in the context of a different type of relationship.

Angela Hausman

Offensive vs. Defensive Opportunism in Marketing Channel Relationships: An Essay on Their Ethics

The main purpose of this paper is to stimulate some discussions on the ethics of opportunistic behaviors in marketing relationships. It proposes that the cause of opportunism may have some bearing on its ethicality. The central argument made in the paper is that while of fensive or proactive opportunistic behaviors are ethically wrong, defensive or reactive opportunistic behaviors aiming at restoring exchange equity and preserving the exchange party’s freedom may be ethically permissable.

Tao Gao

Order Bias in the Application of the Servqual Instrument

Service quali1y questionnaires were administered using the same questions presented in different orders. Results indicate that questionnaire order affects both the relationships among service quality constructs and the factor structure of SERVQUAL.

Carol W. DeMoranville, Carol C. Bienstock

Theory Devewpment in Services Marketing: Transcending Service Specificity

One limitation inherent in most services research is that it is service specific. This is due to the lack of a scientific classification scheme fur services, from which generalizations resulting from empirical studies allow for the formation of theoretical principles and paradigms. This article discusses the importance of a classification to theory development, identifies the requirements fur a valid classification, and presents suggestions fur future research.

Anne T. Hale

Customer Satisfaction, Assessment, Intentions and Outcome Behaviors of Dyadic Service Encounters: A Conceyfual Model

Customer satisfaction is rated among the top goals of most organizations today. Yet, whilst it is acknowledged that customer satisfaction is important, and more and more firms are understanding the importance of building and maintaining good customer-service provider relationships in order to achieve a high level of customer satisfaction, many firms do not understand how customers arrive at outcomes, oor the interrelationships between the variables which influence these outcomes. This paper presents an integrated conceptual model, showing the interrelationships between these importance variables in a dyadic service encounter setting. In building this mode~ the paper draws from a range of concepts and models, principally from consumer behavior, services marketing and social psychology.

Janet R. McColl-Kennedy

Employers’ and Students’ Perceptions of Service Quality: Potential Problems for Marketing Educators

Reforms in the education sector have been taking place in a number of countries since early 1970s (Ginsberg et al 1991 and Lawson 1992). The refurm of the education sector in New Zealand started with the focus of achieving efficiency and increasing competition. In order to compete, educational institutions need to differentiate themselves from competitors. But what makes one service provider stand out in the mind of the consumer over the others providing similar services? Berry and Parasuraman ( 1992) argue that the success of an organization depends on the ability of the service provider to consistently meet or exceed customers expectations. Thus the measurement of customer perception of service quality becomes critical.

Mathew Joseph, Beatriz Joseph, John Ford

Managing Academic Misconduct in the Classroom: A Discriminant Analysis of Subject and Situational Differences Between Cheaters and Non Cheaters

This paper supports earlier findings that subject variables such as gender, GPA, and neutralizing attitude are significantly related to incidence of cheating among marketing students. Results indicate that in addition to having cheating deterrents in place, it is also essential to change current attitudes of students towards cheating.

Sarath Nonis, Cathy Owens Swift

Experiential Learning: The Bridge to the “Real World”

Academics are constantly faced with the challenge of how to most effectively bridge the gap from academia to the “real world” for our students. These challenges present several questions. What paradigm best enables students to learn in college? Was what was learned in the classroom meaningful to the students who graduated and started careers? When should a new paradigm of teaching be applied in the classroom? This paper describes a unique application of experiential learning and reports the results of implementing such a technique over a five-year period.

Alicia B. Gresham, Marlene Kahla, Kathleen H. Gruben

The Evaluation of Faculty Performance in Research and Service: Some Practical Benchmarks

This paper attempts to provide practical benchmarks for resolving four issues that are often contentious during the typically annual merit evaluation of marketing fuculty at US business schools. These are: (1) realistic weights for teaching, research and service, (2) consistency in the evaluation of research and service performance, (3) the issue of single versus multiple authorship and, (4) the importance given to various service activities. Specifically, the paper presents and analyzes mail survey data from chairs as well as members of performance evaluation committees of marketing departments at US business schools with and without a doctoral program. Similar data, obtained from finance faculty of the same schools, are also presented for comparison purposes.

Gopala Ganesh, Niranjan Tripathy

The Quality of Conference Programs and the Value of Conference Proceedings: Future Direction for the Academy of Marketing Science

This paper examines the attitudes of members of the Academy of Marketing Science concerning their perceptions of its quality and importance relative to other marketing and marketing-related conferences. Members’ opinions of the value of the Academy ofMarketing Science and selected related conferences in terms of quality of program, institutional financial support, and their influence on career and professional development also will be examined. In addition, findings will be presented on the future role and direction of the Academy ofMarketing Science.

Clayton Hurst, Cathy Owens Swift, Keith Jones, David Glascoff, James Grant

Tourism Marketing and Public Policy in Australia: The Case of Brand Wa.

This paper discusses the rise in importance of tourism to the Western Australian economy, and the need for greater marketing activity by government and marketing sensitive policy communities. Details of the campaign’s planning and progress to date are given, centering on the controversial role of the supermodel, Elle Macpherson.

Lance McMahon

An Application of the Dominant Product-Dominant Country Framework of Export Segmentation to the Case of Turkey

This paper seeks 1o validate the ‘Dominant Product - Dominant Country (DPDC)’ framework (Shankarmahesh and Olsen 1997) of export segmentation in the context of Turkey, an advanced developing country. The DPDC framework is a 2x2 framework which varies along two dimensioos, namely, the product’s share in the export portfolio (a percentage) and the target country’s share in the export portfolio (also a perrentage). These two percentage figures for Turkey for the years 1994-96 are fed in1o a hierarchical cluster program and the cluster solution is externally validated using the DPDC framework ..

Mahesh N. Shankarmahesh, Howard W. Olsen, Ceyhan Kilic

The Dimensionality of Environmental Concern: Validation of Component Measures

Based on previous exploratory research by Zimmer, Stafford and Stafford (1994), this study develops and constructvalidates measures for three dimensions of environmental concern -- Concern for Wildlife, Concern for Conservation, and Concern for Waste. These dimensions of environmental concern were assessed in a nomological network with the Ecological Impact scale developed and validated by Leigh, Murphy and Enis (1988). The resulting structural model evidenced reasonably good fit: χ



=178.9 ( p = .0003), χ


/df-=1.5, GFI=.92, AGFI=.88, RMSR=.06, SRMR=.04, NFI=.89. Predictive validity was tested using the scales in a discriminant analysis between a group of college students and the membership of a Sierra Club chapter; the scales proved capable of correctly classifYing Sierra club membership -- evidenced by increase environmental concern-- in 77% of cases. Since the structural model demonstrated good fit with a previously validated environmental construct, and reasonably good predictive ability in practical use, this scale is considered valid for research use in detecting consumer concern for environmental quality in the three general areas represented by the construct.

Thomas F. Stafford, Marla Royne Stafford

Exploring the Male\Female Earnings Gap Among Managers: A Case of Turkey

The earnings gap literature consists of many studies from various countries and occupational groups. In the field of marketing, gender-based earnings gap is an area worth exploring in more detail because interest in the formal construct of the earnings gap in this field is relatively recent. For example, Kiecker et al. (1991) is the only empirical study in this field that has investigated the earnings gap for marketing managers, marketing researchers, and advertising agency managers and found that differences in corporate level firm size, job continuity, and having a master’s degree accounted for much of the income differences.

Bülent Mengüç

Macro Issues in Marketing: A Discussion

This session titled “Macro Issues in Marketing: A Discussion” has four papers. These papers address a range of macromarketing topics such as gender issues, environmental concern, strategies for export promotion, and tourism-related marketing.

Kiran Karande

A Model of Seller-Buyer Product Development Relationships in Technology-Based, Industrial Markets

This paper develops and empirically tests a model of seller-buyer relationships during the new product development process. Our model focuses on seller-buyer interactions during NPD, which revolve around education, product knowledge generation, and joint new product development activities and how they are influenced by several situational characteristics like prior relationship history, perceived buyer knowledge, and product customization. Our model also investigates an important consequence of these activity dimensions: expectations of continuity. In general, we find good support for our hypotheses related to the antecedents. However, mixed results were found for hypotheses relating these activity dimensions to expectations of relationship continuity.

Gerard A. Athaide, Rodney L. Stump

Product Contingencies and the Locus of Entrepreneurial Knowledge in Marketing Channel Networks

Marketing theory has long studied the locus of a number of functions within a marketing system. Channel theory, in particular, addresses a number of basic questions as to which participants in a marketing channel best manage information and risk. Yet unanswered questions remain concerning which participants in a marketing channel network are most likely to be the sources ofknowledge leading to innovative and disruptively entrepreneurial actions. How do the answers to these questions depend on the locus of distinctive facets of entrepreneurial knowledge in an interorganisational system? How do dimensions of the product environment affect the locus of such knowledge? Amit, Glosten and Muller (1993) assert that “the role of the entrepreneur is to initiate uncertain environments” and, thus, “the entrepreneur is the one who assumes the uninsurable uncertainties” (p. 825). This definition, in effect, essentially construes all marketing decisions as entrepreneurial acts simply because there may be uncertainty about the probabilities of outcomes. According to Cadeaux ( 1997a), entrepreneurial actions in marketing, more properly, should only include those market transforming introductions and deletions of products and services and those selections and deselections of target markets that “create substantial shifts in arrangements of products across arrays of customers and customer uses” (p. 769). It is possible to define entrepreneurial knowledge (in marketing) as the understanding and anticipation of the dynamic effects entrepreneurial actions can have on market structure and its evolution (Cadeaux 1997 a following Dickson 1992).

Jack M. Cadeaux

Emergent Properties of Interorganizational Business Relationships: An Exploratory Case Study of Swedish Smes

This case study investigates how six SMEs use and utilize interorganizational business relationships to do business. Three significant properties off IBR:s emerge; Promise/Fulfillment, Time-Orientation and Trust. This paper maps these properties and suggests that they are socially embedded and subject to sensemaking.

Frans Prenkert

Thoughts on an Old Theme: Entrepreurship and Organisation

This paper is concerned with the concept of entrepreneurship in the large and complex business corporation with its network of management and organisational processes. Although, therefore, it fully recognises the significance of individual talents and dynamism as entrepreurship characteristics - of ten associated with charismatic, risk-bearing founders of firms - it emphasises entrepreneurship as a process and then asks where it is located.

A. L. Minkes, Gordon F. Foxall

Dealing with Periods of Tension in Buyer-Vendor Relationships

The construction and maintenance of successful relationships between retail firms and their vendor suppliers have frequently been suggested to be a source of competitive advantage for a retail organization. However, all relationships experience periods of tension that must be dealt with if the relationship is to survive and continue. This research employed a perspective and methodology commonly used in personal relationship literature to examine how successful buyer-vendor relationships deal with periods of tension.

Tim Christiansen

Anomia and Fraudulent Behavior by Retail Employees

Anomia describes the individual’s lack of integration in social life. The construct has been linked to various types of activities and concepts but no research appears to have been undertaken linking it to fraudulent behavior. The literature on anomia and fraudulent behavior are examined, measurement instruments are identified and a survey is carried out among employees of a large retail chain. The psychometric properties of the instruments are confirmed and evidence of a link is provided. The implications for managers and theory are considered, limitations are noted and directions for future research are indicated.

Albert Caruana, B. Ramaseshan, Michael T. Ewing

Risk and Return in International Retailing

Entry method strategies and operational control strategies are explored, considering the latter strategy independently of the former, isolating its unique risks. These risks are quantified in a small sample with analysis of how the same methodology could be employed in future research.

G. Scott Erickson, Therese A. Maskulka

Integration and Performance: An Examination of the Marketing/Logistics Interface

Research suggests that organizations with specialized departments perform better when they devote resources to welldefined fimctional interfuces (Galbraith 1973; Lawrence and Lorsch 1967). For example, coordination between marketing and other departments is often required to deliver high quality services to customers (Cespedes 1994, 1996; Day 1994).

Alexander E. Ellinger, Patricia J. Daugherty

Logistics: An Evolutionary Perspective, Considerations and Future Directions

The current trends in logistics are reviewed. The author posits that the forces of technology and competition are driving logistics to a more process oriented approach. A classification schema is proposed for evaluating the logistics function along the axes of physical v. non physical focus and internal v. external focus. Future directions of logistics are considered in light of these forces.

Stef G. Nicovich

Product and Packaging Disposal’s Challenges to Channels Management

As marketers have responded to society’s growing desire for more convenient, and more disposable, products, it has become clearer that marketers have insufficiently planned and anticipated the consequences of convenient, disposable products and packages. Even with such reminders of post-purchase use and disposal of products as Alderson’s comprehensive marketing theory of the 1950s and then the attention to waste disposal and recycling of the 1970s and ’80s, it is debatable whether sufficient attention is given to planning and implementing distribution systems which embrace the recollecting, recycling, and reuse of products and packaging. Giving the matter appropriate attention will be a challenging educational and retraining process, but it is a commitment which channels managers will be required to make.

James B. Spalding, Jim L. Grimm, Bennett L. Rudolph

The Effect of Culture and Language on Organizational Information Processing

The growth of global business has caused many businesses to seek channel members in various countries around the world. Establishing a functional working relationship with new channel members is a difficult process even when there is a shared language and culture between the potential channel members. When entering into a channel relationship with a new channel member with different languages, social cultures, and business cultures the process is even more difficult.

Kenneth A. Hunt, Thomas M. Rogers

Building and Maintaining Relationships with Consumers

Building and maintaining relationships with customers in consumer markets depends much more on the outcome of the consumers’ value-producing behaviours than on their prepurchase value judgements. This article therefore tries to highlight the antecedents and consequences of the consumers’ postpurchase value judgements and to make some suggestions to marketing managers who want to build and maintain sustainable relationships with their customers by making superior contributions to the consumers’ production of value.

Hans Rask Jensen

Toward an Understanding of Mature Marketing Relationship Phenomena

Much of the focus of models and studies of marketing relationships has been on relationship formation with scant attention being paid to the mature relationship. A mature marketing relationship, one which is ongoing between buyer(s) and seller(s), exists when the parties to a relationship have gone beyond formation. The initial boundaries of parties to the relationship have been established and some level of commitment exists. A key turning point in the shift from formation to maturity occurs when there has been an investment of some form (time, Personnel money) in the relationship. Yet, how these investments are managed, how parties to a relationship behave once a relationship has been initiated has not been specifically addressed in the marketing relationship literature.

Deborah E. Rosen, Elizabeth F. Purinton

The Effects of Organizational Redesign on Buyer-Seller Relationships

This paper examines the effects of organizational redesign on buyer-seller relationships. As shown in Figure I, the relationships examined are between (I) between downsizing and organizational structural changes, (2) downsizing and outsourcing, and (3) organizaticmal structural change and buyer-seller relationships. Relevant theories are discussed and a set of testable propositions are developed.

Jeffrey E. Lewin

Differentiating Services- The Marketing of Affinity Cards

Affinity credit card programs began as a market Development strategy. While these programs offer many strategic benefits and have been very successful, some industry experts suggest that such programs have cannibalized existing credit card programs. This research utilized empirical data to identifY Differences between the consumers who only hold affinity cards, those who hold both affinity and nonaffinity cards, and those who hold only nonaffinity cards. The focus of this study was on determining whether affinity cards have provided a successful venue for differentiating credit card services.

William L. James, Kelly L. Smith, Brenda S. Sonner, Charles Anatra

Conjoint Analysis as an Instrument for Marketing Controlling in Service Companies: The Example of the Mannheim National Theater

A new marketing concept was introduced by the Mannheim Nationaltheater at the start of the 1996/97 season. An empirical study attempts to detennine whether theater patrons derive a greater utility from the new concept or from that effective during the previous season. The suitability of the conjoint analysis as an instrument for marke-ting controlling is demonstrated convincingly.

Martin Ohlwein, Ralf Schellhase, Birgit Franken

Gap Analysis and Services Marketing: Does Understanding Your Customers Really Improve Sales?

Most prior research in services marketing has been strongly influenced by the GAPs model of service quality, which emphasizes understanding customer expectations. While prior work in this area focused upon understanding customer expectations, few studies dealt with the linkage between service provider understanding of customer expectations and profitability. This study attempts to extend the previous research by examining the effects of understanding customer expectations on sales of dental service providers. It also investigates the demographic and marketing correlates of sales of dental services.

Walter W. Wymer, Fay X. Zhu

A Look at Interactivity from a Consumer Perspective

U.S. homes are adopting computer mediated technology at a very high rate. Approximately 40 percent ofU.S. homes own a computer, 21 percent own a modem and 3 7 million individuals use the World Wide Web (Find/SVP, 1997; SRDS, 1996). Conservative grow1h projections indicate that 50 percent ofU.S. homes will own a computer by the year 2,000, and 22 to 31 million will have Internet access (Toner & Gipson. 1997; Krugman, 1995). The growth of technology has fostered the potential for direct marketers to “interact” with consumers via in-home technologies, and the field of direct marketing is becoming increasingly dependent on in-home technologies to reach consumers. Advocates of this type of marketing laud the ability of the computer to facilitate a more "interactive" relationship between marketers and consumers. However, despite the amount of attention that has been paid to interactive marketing, how consumers define the term “interactivity” has been investigated only on a limited basis. No studies have examined the implications that consumer perceptions ofinteractivity have on direct marketers. The purpose of this article is to illuminate how consumers perceive and interpret the concept of interactivity with respect to computer mediated technology.

Margaret A. Morrison

Travel and Tourism Purchase-Consumption Systems

A purchase consumption system (PCS) is the sequence of mental and observable steps a consumer undertakes to buy and use several products for which some of the products purchased leads to a purchase sequence involving other products. Our central proposition (PI) is that several decisions within a customer’s PCS are dependent on prior purchases of products that trigger these later purchases. A framework of purchase-consumption as it is applied to leisure travel is illustrated in Figure 1.

Robert L. King, Arch G. Woodside, Roberta M. MacDonald

African-American Consumer Attitudes Toward Domestic and Foreign-Made Products.

Thethirtytwo-millionAfiican-Americans in the United States make up approximately 12 percent of the population with a $400 billion buying power (Hudson, 1996). They purchase nearly 12 percent of all new cars, especially imports (Berry, 1991), consumer electronics (TV s, V CRs, and stereo systems) and fashion accessories (clothing, shoes, purses, and handbags).

Fred O Ede, Bhagaban Panigrahi

Advertiser Risk-Orientation and Attitudes Towards Campaign Planning in the US and Canada

This article examines advertiser risk-orientation and manager’s attitudes towards campaign planning. Advertiser riskorientation is viewed in the context of the propensity of advertising managers to engage in risk-taking. Findings are based on a survey of top advertisers in the U.S. and Canada.

Douglas West, Alan Miciak

Effects of Spanish vs. English Ads on Bilingual Hispanics: Moderating Role of Language Dominance

This paper examines the question concerning the choice of language when advertising to bilingual Hispanics. The prevalent view among advertisers serving the Hispanic market is that it is ’besf to advertise in Spanish. Such a policy assumes that most Hispanic consumers prefer communication in Spanish over communication in English. However, statistics indicate that more and more Hispanics are embracing English as their primary language of communication. Thus, some members of the Hispanic community actually prefer communicating in English to communicating in Spanish. The present paper indicates that the choice of language in advertising to bilingual Hispanics should be based on the language proficiency and practice of the target audience.

Sandipa Dublish, F. B. Seaton, H. A. Laskey

Exploring Print Ads and Web Sites Target Market and Approach Match-Ups: Interactive Video Games and Facial Cosmetics

This is a summary of the findings and a discussion of an exploratory research project used to acquire preliminary information about the match between the target audience of magazine advertisements and the corresponding Web sites listed in the ad. A content analysis based on the perceptions of the research team was used to make the comparisons. Data was also gathered on how the advertisers used their Web sites to find information about site visitors. The product classes studied were interactive video games and facial cosmetics. V mying degrees of match were found.

Sarah Jo Sautter, Jay D. Lindquist

Relationship Marketing: A Synthesis of Three Research Arenas

The relationship marketing literature has offered substantial insights, but also has been confounding. Different research streams use ideosyncratic definitions and terminology, and only tangentially merge as an integrative framework. An organizing framework is presented here to synthesize the three primary literature streams: services marketing, business-tobusiness marketing, and channels of distribution. Among the observations drawn from this endeavor are: there is no commonly accepted definition of relationship marketing, there is an absence of research on tangible consumer products, relationship marketing is reserved for important exchange partners, other marketing efforts can be mistaken as relationship marketing, and a modest amount of research has addressed the impact of relationalism on performance outcomes.

Jack J. Kasulis, Anne L. Balazs

Relationship Strategies Revisited

Based on technological alliances, reverse marketing and human relationship, relationship marketing is a strategy which aims to expand and maintain the target markets, new marketing opportunity, and to promote special relationship between sellers and buyers for mutual benefits. The strategies, thus, include customized product, effective communication, good human relationship in the global and cultural contexts, technological cooperation, and well-researched consumer and industrial database.

Samuel K. Moak

Evolution of a Virtual Enterprise: A Sociological Perspective

The concept of loosely bound but highly coordinated entities is revolutionizing the way business leaders and researchers think and behave. We examine these virtual enterprises and propose a model to explain what sociological factors perpetuate the formation and success of a network of small and medium sized manufacturers.

Brian Larson, Gary Frankwick

Actors’ Exchange Paradigms and Their Impact on the Choice of Marketing Models

Academics belonging to the IMP group and the service school of marketing initially launched the ongoing debate on whether the traditional “’marketing mix” or “4 P’s” model is outdated, incomplete, insufficient and/or limited. Most of these authors conclude that the 4 P’s model (even with a relationship dimension added to it) is inadequate and contend that the discipline needs some kind of’post marketing mix” model. Some recommend as a solution a “paradigmatic shift in marketing,” from transaction marketing towards relationship marketing. In other words, to move the domain of marketing from exchange transactions to exchange relationships. Others suggest building a “marketing continuum” in which both types of exchanges co-exist. In this continuum, however, each type of exchange is restricted either to a particular product/service category, to specific types of customers, or to certain characteristics that are assumed to be intrinsically related to either of them (atomistic, frequency, etc.).

Jaqueline Pels

The Performance of Strategic Alliances Revisited: A Conceptual Framework Using the Market Model

We propose a conceptual framework that uses the market model to evaluate the performance of strategic alliances. Even though application of the framework is limited to venture partners whose stocks are publicly traded. its use offers several insights and advantages. The framework also offers the opportunity to analyze the impact of strategic alliances on the degree of riskiness of the venture partners.

Paul Sergius Koku

International Marketing Alliances and Cooperative Games: An Application to the Oil and Airline Industries

Using constructs developed by Matthews (1994, 1996, 1997; Matthews and Korolev, 1997), alliances are seen in terms of cooperative games (Fudenberg and Tirole, 1993; Myerson, 1991;Von Newnann and Morgenstern, 1944) and bilateral monopoly (Stigler, 1966; Myerson and Satterthwaite, 1983). The paper is part of an interdisciplinary research programme in complexity, the evolution of industries and firms, statistical mechanics, and games. The theory is applied a marketing alliance between an oil major and an international airline, in a situation ofbilateral monopoly, with decreasing costs Spencer (1997). The evolution of firms is seen in terms of coalition behaviour. The alliance described, at an airport in the UK, is a partial merger of selected marketing assets; an

into plane

operation. Managers in the oil company anticipate losses from having to accept of a return below average cost in the

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operation. Losses might be considered as sunk costs (Sutton, !995), incurred in order to buy the option of enhancing the oil company’s share in a second stage of the alliance, when managers anticipate full equity partnership, in a new firm, whose business is the

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Robin Matthews, Stephanie Spencer

Evidence for Strategic Alliances and Relationship Marketing in New Zealand Industry

Strategic alliances offer real benefits for industry. This research examines the extent to which strategic alliances have been adopted by several New Zealand industry groups, and asks the question- “to what extent is this due to relationship marketing?”

Mike Beverland, Phil Bretherton

Internal Customer Orientation: Antecedents and Consequences

Market orientation contnbutes to organizational performance but what are the antecedents to superior market orientation. This paper empirically tests and establishes the relationship between internal customer orientation and market orientation. The paper informs on the antecedents to internal customer orientation and market orientation.

Jodie Conduit, Felix T. Mavondo

The Learning Organization and Market Orientation: A Study of Export Companies in the Netherlands

This study focused on the interrelations between formalisation, the learning organization, market orientation, business performance and on the possible moderating influence of the environmental variables competitive intensity and turbulence. This study was done in the context of the larger Dutch export companies. A review of the literature enabled the development of the following four hypotheses:

Paul Breman, Tev Dalgic

Competitive Strategy and Market Orientation: The Relationship and its Implications

MatKet orientation has become a central tenet of marketing. While marketing effectiveness, marketing performance, and marketing success have been presented as important endogenous constructs in the pertinent literature, market orientation has emerged as a critical topic with fertile research opportunities. However, despite the proliferation of conceptual comment and empirical research on this topic, a lacuna remains regarding the nature of association between firms’ level of market orientation and competitive strategy pursued. This paper presents the findings from a study of medium and large industrial manufacturing firms in which firms’ aggressiveness, analysis, defensiveness, futurity, proactiveness, and riskiness in competitive strategy are evaluated against market orientation. The results of the analysis are discussed within the realm of extant knowledge and a number of implications are derived for executives and future research.

Robert E. Morgan, Carolyn A. Strong

Individualistic and Collectivist Values in Business: A Retail Management Perspective in Privatizing Economies

The globalization and intensification of competition in markets have generated considerable interest in those factors affecting business performance. Among those factors, managers’ values and attitudes are important because they affect their perceptions of the world, which in turn determine the formulation of their marketing strategy. An increasing body of research identifies individualistic and collectivist values as domains which have an important impact on business behavior. However, there is insufficient understanding of the specific ways in which individualistic and collectivist values influence marketing managers. The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptual discussion of the relative influence of managers’ individualistic versus collectivist values on business practice, in the context of the privatizing economies in Central and Eastern Europe. The dynamics of the social and economic changes of transition have created a context in which traditional collectivist value systems coexist with new entrepreneurial values of a more individualistic nature. This situation makes privatizing countries ideal research laboratories for comparing marketing practices used by managers with different values and attitudes.

Simona Stan, Kenneth R. Evans

If There were a Trade War, Who Would Join the Battle?

This study explores certain influences on Americans’ willingness to purchase domestic (vs. foreign) film and automobiles within the context of the 1995 confrontation over access to Japanese markets. Results show a willingness to buy domestic related to certain attitudes toward international trade and ethnocentrism, nationalism, and cultural exposure.

Kent L. Granzin, John J. Painter

Work Force Diversity Management Strategy: A Catalyst for Global Marketing Competitiveness

This paper builds upon the literature on global marketing strategy and work force diversity management strategy to draw linkages between the two. The overall hypothesis is that work force diversity management strategies can provide a catalyst for developing effective global marketing strategies. The assumption is, a company that assertively cultivates work force diversity management strategies is better equipped to manage the issues associated with global marketing competitiveness. This, in turn, gives the "diversity oriented" company a global competitive edge over other companies.

Kendra L. Harris

Marketing Implications of Regional Integration in the Mercosur

The regional integration process, low inflation and high GNP rates for the next years, are attracting new international players in the Mercosur’s countries. The entry of new international companies is implicating the development of new products and services, innovative advertising strategies, important changes in the consumers through high value products and, new distribution channels lhat are developing a new relationship between manufacturers and retailers, through the use of high tech retail tools, and new marketing strategies, close to the concept of “one to one retail marketing.”

Marcelo Barrios

Data Quality and Database Marketing

The objective of this study is to elaborate on the role of DBM in marketing strategy, identifY data quality barriers, and to discuss ways of improving data quality. The paper is organized accordingly: (i) Marketing and DBM, (ii) Data Quality Issues, (iii) Data Quality Management, and (iv) Conclusions.

John A. Chopoorian, Omar E. M. Khalil, Mehnaz Ahmed

An Overview of Data Mining and Marketing

We present an overview of the developments taking place for the analysis of large and complex databases under the umbrella of Knowledge Discovery in Databases and Data Mining. These methods are gaining popularity as a result of traditional statistical methods not scaling up to the needs of analyzing large databases, as well as for reasons of user-friendliness, i.e., the need for the analysis to be performed by the end-users themselves, often in real time.

Shahana Sen

Exploring Text-Based Electronic Mail Surveys as a Means of Primary Data Collection

This paper reviews literature about on-line research and primary data collection using electronic mail. Response rate results from a text-based e-mail survey conducted in a metropolitan organizational market are discussed. Managerial implications and directions for further research are presented.

Theresa B. Flaherty, Earl D. Honeycutt, Deborah Powers

Integrated Marketing Communications: Conflicts of Interest, Politics and Performance

The implementation of lntegrated Marketing Communication (IMC) has received relatively little scrutiny. Nor is there much empirical evidence demonstrating the effects of IMC on performance. This paper descnbes a study of leading Australian public companies and offers evidence on the relationship between IMC orientation, politics, conflicts of interest and performance.

Michael T. Ewing, Nigel M. deBussy, B. Ramaseshan

Gender Portrayals in Modern Cigarette and Alcohol Advertisements: A Replication

This paper presents a follow-up analysis to the Reid, King, and Wyant (1994) study using the~ methods they used to study gender portrayals in modern cigarette and alcohol advertising. Students content analyzed 394 unduplicated ads from I993- I994 issues from the same II magazines years later. The analysis revealed that advertisers still view women as decorative/sexual objects and men as the bread-earners.

M. Wayne DeLozier, Caroline Lagarde, Jennifer Landura

Teenagers’ Perceptions of the Influence of Advertising and Price Versus Peers, Parents, Social Context, and Personal Choice on Their Consumer Behavior

This study examined the differences in the degree of perceived influence among teenagers regarding marketer- and nonmarketer controlled factors in the product categories of alcohol and clothing purchases. Results showed that personal choice and peer influence were crucial in both categories, especially during the pre--teen and early teen years; price was very important for current purchases; advertising was notably unimportant for alcohol but much more important for clothing.

Timothy P. Meyer, Kathryn A. Meyer, Thomas R. Donohue

An Empirical Study of Export Product Adaptation and its Antecedents for Turkish Export Ventures

Building on previous research suggesting that the degree of product adaptation is affected by export market, industry, product, and firm-related characteristics, a comprehensive theory of product adaptation in export markets focusing on the factors that detennine export ventures’ product adaptation in export markets is described. The theory is tested in a sample of 421 Turkish export ventures. Results indicate that government regulations, customer characteristics, expectations, and preferences, as the characteristics export-market environment are associated with the degree of product adaptation. Among the remaining antecedents, product type, cultural specificty and technology of export product, firm’s international competence, and the perceived importance of market potential and profitability also affect the degree of product adaptation. It is also noteworthy that these findings do somewhat change across different types of export products.

Bülent Mengüç, Tunç Erem

Antecedents of the Components of Export Market Orientation: A Study of U.S. Exporters

Although prior research efforts on market orientation have contributed greatly to our understanding of the development of this construct and its consequences, these studies have typically limited the realm of their investigations to the domestic arena; thus, the impact of different, or more potent, environmental forces of concern to international marketers have been largely ignored. The purpose of this study is to investigate the market orientation of firms who choose to operate across geographical borders (i.e., exporters) to understand if and how factors unique to the international environment may influence the adoption of market-oriented behaviors.

Judy A. Siguaw, John W. Cadogan, Gregory Harner, Sheryl Wasilewski

Gaining Competitive Advantage through Standardization and Differentiation of Services

The goal of the paper is to study the question of whether or not differences between cultural groups influence the decision of a consumer wishing to avail himself of a particular service. Therefore we have developed a semiotic extension of the means-end approach as the theoretical basis for elaborating a solution to this problem. The conjoint analysis specifies the results of the meansend analysis.

Frank Huber, Andreas Herrmann, Christine Braunstein

Adaptation of the Business Concept as a Factor in Entrepreneurship: The Case of Historically Disadvantaged South African Entrepreneurs

This paper explores the concept of adaptation, and examines whether traits commonly associated with the entrepreneurial personality are associated successful adaptation of one’s original business concept. Results are reported of a survey of historically disadvantaged South African entrepreneurs. The findings suggest that tolerance of ambiguity and an internal locus of control (positively) and risk taking (negatively) are associated with adaptation of the business concept.

Michael H. Morris, Rushieda Kannemeyer, Leyland F. Pitt

An Investigation of the Social Construction of the Entrepreneurial Personality by Means of the Critical Incident Technique

This paper introduces an alternative theoretical approach to understanding the nature of the ‘entrepreneurial personality’. It argues for placing wealth creation at the heart of entrepreneurial behaviour, and establishes criteria for distinguishing


a population of business owner-managers the entrepreneurs from the rest. As there is no psychometric tool for measuring such characteristics, a grounded methodology is suggested, termed social constructionism. This method is applied to five case studies.

Elizabeth Chell

The Influence of Managerial Disagreement on Industry Characteristics and Strategy on Small Firm Performance

Because of the potential importance of matching the finn’s strategy with the industry competitive environment, the performance of small finns, noted for the lack of formal information gathering and lack of formal planning, may suffer if there are serious differences in perceptions between presidents and sales managers. The impact of these differences may be more pronounced in volatile industries and more pronounced as the small finn grows. This study sought to empirically examine the impact on performance from differences between small finn presidents and sales managers in perceptions of the competitive environment and strategy emphasis under conditions of high and low industry volatility. The impact of these differences were also examined for finns of differing sales levels. The average level of absolute difference between presidents and sales managers in environmental perceptions has a significant negative influence on finn profitability. Industry variability and finn size does not appear to moderate this influence. The level of absolute difference between presidents and sales managers as to emphasis on growth/differentiation strategy or low cost strategy has a significant negative impact on new product success, customer retention, and relative product quality. This difference seems to be especially pronounced in situations of high variation in capital spending variability, where emphasis on growth/differentiation strategy is a significant influence on performance.

Alfred M. Pelham

Understanding Why Small Firms Choose their Advertising and Promotional Strategies: An Empirical Investigation

This study identifies considerations which underlie advertising and promotion choices in small retail firms. Major considerations include whether the strategy enhances the firm's image; past experience with the strategy; whether the strategy is affordable, and the ability to target specific types of consumers.

Judy Foster Davis

Emergence of a Virtual Enterprise: An Integrated Theoretical Framework

This paper presents a theoretical framework to explain the emergence and functioning of a virtual enterprise. We extend the literature on dynamics of dyadic relationships to a network context, and illustrate how performance and commitment are achieved in a virtual enterprise.

M. Senthil Kumar, Brian Larson, Gary Frankwick

The Impact of Lean Enterprise on Marketing Management

It is argued in this paper that marketing theory and practice has reacted largely ineffectively to many of the fundamental challenges posed by developments in other disciplines, illustrated in recent years by Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Process Re-engineering (BPR). The urgency of addressing the need for responsiveness to paradigm shifts in other disciplines is underlined by the newest cross-disciplinary challenge of this kind, which comes from the emergence of "lean thinking" and the conceptualisation of the "lean enterprise". The goal in this paper is to identify the ways in which lean thinking relates to the marketing process in terms of both conflicts and synergies, and to set an agenda for a productive and timely response from the marketing discipline to the advent of lean thinking.

Nigel F Piercy, Neil A Morgan

Strategic Groups, Mobility Barriers and Trapped Brands

The value of strategic groups and mobility barriers is illustrated in the examination of competitive behaviour in industries subject to structural changes. Similarity in brand behaviour is observed across a number of product-markets within the convenience goods industry over time. The Trapped brand group is particularly vulnerable to changing structural forces.

Brenda Cullen

An Empirical Investigation of the Influence of Non-Price Variables on Quality Tier Competition

There is a growing body of research investigating the competition between product quality tiers (e.g., national brands vs. store label brands). However, that research has primarily focused on price competition- i.e., how price changes affect brands in different quality tiers. This article tries to expand our understanding of quality tier competition by investigating the role of non-price variables. The differential impact of feature advertisements, in-store displays, and brand loyalty on different quality tiers are investigated by means of scanner panel data. The findings show that unlike the differential impact of price (which has been extensively shown to favor high quality brands over low quality brands), changes in non-price variables benefit low quality brands more than high quality brands. Managerial implications and future research directions are delineated.

K. Sivakumar, Cheryl Nakata

Managing Transaction Dependence: An Empirical Examination of the Moderating Role of Relationship Closeness on the Use of Vertical Control

This study addresses a limitation of the Transaction Cost Analysis framework, namely its narrow focus on the dependence that arises from specific asset investments as a rationale for the installation of governance mechanisms in exchange relationships. We identizy several additional components that contribute to the replaceability and rewards dimensions of dependence and consider how they arise from the underlying procurement need and decisions made by buyers and suppliers when arranging a new transaction. A conceptual model that proposes that the effect of these components of dependency on the use of vertical control is contingent on the nature of the pre-existing relationship between the buyer and supplier.

Rodney L. Stump, Ashwin W. Joshi

Promoting Interorganizational Connectivity in the Electronics Industry

The paper examines business-to-business applications of the Internet, reviewing marketing problems in forming a collaborative industrial “virtual community.” It discusses an Internet start-up venture in the electronics industry and qualitative research undertaken at the annual industry trade show. The problems developing a community of competing industrial firms are analyzed.

Mark J. Kay, Ralph DiPietro, Paul Scipione

Modeling Customer Satisfaction in Business Markets: Some Basic Issues Revisited

The purpose of this paper is to revisit some of the basic assumptions and issues which are currently accepted in marketing literature on customer satisfaction. The intention of doing this is to raise issues which may or may not have been considered in the early stages of the development of this paradigm. Further, not all paradigms or approaches to model customer satisfaction are being considered. The paradigm forming the basis of this discussion is Oliver’s (1980) model and a related model of Cadotte et al. (1987). Other related constructs such as Source Loyalty (Wind 1970) and Customer Franchise (Parasuraman, Berry and Zeithaml 1991) are also considered.

Parimal S. Bhagat

Strategy and the Performance of Small Business Websites

Despite the rapid success of the Web as a commercial medium, many organizations do not have an understanding of the strategic implications of electric commerce. A survey of 179 small businesses, utilizing the Web, indicated that the best performing sites had multiple objectives.

Pat Auger, Clint B. Tankersley

Compulsive Buying Behavior: Terminology and an Appucation to New Media such as the Internet

This paper examines the various terminology used to describe deviant consumer behavior and distinguishes compulsive buying from the other labels. Although most research on this behavior examines in-store purchasing, this paper recognizes the possible problem of compulsive buying behavior occurring through the use of various media, such as the Internet.

Maria Michelle Morrison

Internet Shopping: Findings from an Exploratory Study and Research Propositions

Internet shopping has received considerable attention in both the popular-press and academic journals (Ainscough 1996; Alba et al. 1997). For 1996, sales over the Internet were estimated at $560 million. However, this amount was only a small fraction of total retail sales of $2.2 trillion for the same period (Burke 1997), and it was viewed as a modest start to the predicted figures of $260 billion in worldwide retail sales by the year 2000. Peterson, Balasubramanian, and Bronnenberg (1997) argued that the grandiose predictions for Internet commerce do not account for the inherent complexity of the Internet where participants (manufacturers, channel intermediaries, and consumers) often have different interests. The perceived advantages of the Internet over more traditional in-home, direct marketing modes (e.g., printcatalogs) might vary depending on different factors. Hoffman, Novak, and Chatterjee (1996) and Peterson, Balasubramanian, and Bronnenberg (1997) suggested that there is a need for empirical studies to address some of the unanswered questions; however, they argued that the marketing implications of the Internet should not be considered in isolation, apart from other direct modes of shopping.

Joseph M. Jones, Leo R. Vijayasarathy

Communication and the Service Exchange: Confirming The Dimensions of Provider Relational Messages and Exploring their Impact on Client Satisfaction

The relationship marketing concept has received much attention in the services marketing literature. Much of this literature has focused on the role of communication in building and maintaining relationships between a service firm, its personnel, and its clients. While some of this research links relational outcomes such as trust (Berry, 1995) to service outcomes such as satisfaction and quality, no research to date has tested a valid classification of relational messages and their impact on service outcomes.

Nancy Menelly Bulkley

Internal Marketing Tactics: Is Communication Really All There Is To It?

This article examines the use of internal marketing at a tactical level within the UK financial services sector. The aim here is to identify the elements of internal marketing that are currently being utilized by financial service institutions and to show staff perceptions of these activities.

Saadia Asif, Adrian Sargeant

Capitalizing on Simulated Word of Mouth in Servicescapes: An Exploratory Study

This paper examines the effect of signs that provide information through simulated word of mouth and non-personal advocate sources on consumers' perceived veracity and perceived performance risk in the context of two service physical environments (servicescapes). The results of the exploratory study suggest that information provided through simulated word of mouth shows higher perceived veracity and lower perceived performance risk when compare to information provided through non-personal advocate sources.

Myra Mabel Perez-Rivera

Celebrate the Moments of Your Life: An Investigation of Time as a Cultural Value in American Television Advertising

The depiction of time as a cultural value has received rather limited attention in the advertising literature, despite its frequent use in message strategy. This study fills that void by offering a framework for analyzing the many ways that time is depicted in advertising. The key time elements noted were Limited Time, Marking Time, More Time, Oriented Time, and Sequenced Time.

Joyce M. Wolburg, Ronald E. Taylor

Extension and Validation of the Consumption Value Theory with Specific Reference to Shopping Centre Patronage in South Africa

The consumption value theory was triangulated with the means-end theory and it is concluded that both these theories integrate well into an extended consumption value theory. The CVT can then be considered to be theoretically validated. The validated theory was applied in the context of the patronage (-of shopping centres) decision, and it was found to extend to this previously untested decision.

Chris Jooste, Dennis Price

An Exploration of Values in Various Cultural Contexts: Discussion Leader Comments

I begin with a brief overview of the session. Subsequently, I discuss each of the papers in tum, paying special attention to potential ideas for future research. The title of the session captures the common theme quite accurately. Each of the papers investigates one or more values within the context of a specific culture. Wolburg investigates the manner by which time, an important cultural value, is depicted in American television advertisements. Jooste and Price identify five values that are used by South African consumers in deciding which shopping center to visit.

Gad Saad

Worker-Firm Value Congruence in Low-Level Service Providers: Validation of a New Research Tool

This paper discusses the preliminary development of a new six-item worker-firm value congruence measurement tool that avoids the use of controversial difference scores while providing simultaneous measurement of worker values relative to firm values. The initial application of this five-point Likert scale tool, in the study oflow-level service providers (n = 495), generated strong internal consistency ( = .75).

Philip R. Sturm, Anson Seers

An Exploratory Investigation of Responses to Survey Screening Questions: The Impact of Placement and Format

This paper presents data that examines questionnaire response bias that may occur when initial screening questions allow respondents to infer the purpose of the study. Some respondents may intentionally lie to “qualify” or “not qualify” based on their interpretation of the screening question(s), thereby compromising validity.

Myron Glassman, Nanci A. Glassman

A Comparison of Alternative Approaches for Cluster-Based Buyer Segmentation in Optimal Product Positioning Models

Using three large-scale industry-based data sets, alternative approaches to buyer segmentation were compared in the context of conjoint-based optimal positioning models across different functions of part-worth, optimal variable weights and initial seed points. Two separate criterion measures were employed for the evaluation of various segmentation schemes: (1) stability and (2) financial consequence (i.e., return) of resulting buyer segments. Implications of the results were also discussed.

Jonathan Sungho Kim

Predicting Response Inducer Effects in Organisational Respondents

Theories of response behaviour imply an understanding of the target population which has hitherto been largely ignored by practitioners. Evidence suggests that response rates vary widely across industries (Mitchell & Critchlow, 1993; Tomaskovic-Devey et al., 1994) and there is a remarkable variation in the response increases documented for similar response inducers (Duncan, 1979; Houston & Ford, 1976; Kanuk & Berenson, 1975; Linksy, 1975; Harvey, 1987; Goyder, 1982; Heberlein & Baumgartner, 1978; Yu & Cooper, 1983; Fox, Crask & Kim, 1988; Y ammarino, Skinner & Childers, 1991). For example, social-utility appeals are more effective with consumers (Jones & Linda, 1978), whilst ego appeals are more effective with sales people (Tyagi, 1989). The increasing evidence suggests that to achieve maximum response to mail surveys response inducers need to be tailored to specific populations. Current response theories and frameworks have advanced our understanding and knowledge, but their links to documented and proven changes in survey methodology are weak. Gaining information about a population's attitudes and feelings towards these constructs is not easy to achieve, and even if achievable, the problem of deciding how these attitudes precisely affect response behaviour in general, and response to specific techniques in particular, still exists. What is required is a method of identifYing which response inducers will work best within a given population. The difficult, time-consuming and costly nature of experimental investigations of each response inducer's effect prompted a search for a less costly method of adapting methodologies in the form of using attitudinal data used in conjunction with experimental results. Apart from time and cost savings, attitude measurement allows assessment of response influencers which are difficult to vary experimentally, e.g. the mood of the respondent and whether the survey arrives at a busy time. A predictive attitudinal behavioural formula of response behaviour which covered 27 response inducement techniques was developed and tested.

Vince-Wayne Mitchell

Why are Counterfeits so Attractive to Consumers? An Empirical Analysis

Brand piracy and counterfeiting have emerged as major problems for global firms. Despite increasing efforts to improve mechanisms for the international enforcement of intellectual property rights, neither companies nor governments in industrialized countries appear able to curb the increasing supply and demand for counterfeits. Estimates suggest that the value of counterfeit goods in the world market has grown by 1100% since 1984, and a decline is not in sight.

Bodo B. Schlegelmilch, Barbara Stottinger, Alexander Nill

Country-of-Origin and Brand Name Connotation: A Preliminary Conceptualization and Research Hypotheses

Marketers around the world are aware of the importance of a well thought out brand name for their products. Brand names can act as discriminative stimuli, thereby conveying information about product quality, and associated product consequences. But can a brand name bearing connotations to a foreign country influence people’s perceptions of the brand? Consider Haagen-Dazs ice-cream. In the late 1950’s, European products were considered to be of high quality. Reuben Mattus, the founder of Haagen-Dazs, came up with this name as he believed that a European sounding name would connote high quality. Although the Haagen Dazs ice-cream was priced high due to its positioning as a premium brand, it caught the public’s eye to a great extent due to its European sounding name, and the associated meanings of "European quality" (Ullmann 1993). There are several other examples of brand names bearing associations to a foreign country such as Evian mineral water, Armani clothing, and Mercedes Benz cars.

Swinder Janda

Situational Factors in Seasonal Patterns of Shopping in Cyprus: Abstract

This study represents one of an on-going series of projects that focus on shopping in different countries around the world. This Cyprus study follows other completed projects in Chile, Granada, India, Trinidad, and the United States. These studies collect data in a similar format to facilitate cross-cultural comparisons. The factors studied in Cyprus were the demographic attributes, purchase-specific behaviors, and situational variables of market shoppers in Nicosia. A distinctive feature of this research was that it explored differences in seasonal patterns of Cypriot shopping. This abstract covers the method used in the survey research and the main results.

Sydney Roslow, Tiger Li, J. A. F. Nicholls

Advertiser-Agency Relations: A Review and Synthesis of Research

The relationship between marketing enterprises and their advertising agencies is one of the most important associations in marketing. However, despite the importance of this association, and its significant role in marketing management, surprisingly little scholarly attention has been focused on issues pertaining to this relationship. This paper reviews the available academic literature on advertising-agency relationships, and attempts to provide a framework to organize research issues, and provides directions for future research.

Irfan Ahmed

Sex in Advertising: Who Dislikes it and Why?

The use of sex in advertising continues unabated, public outcry against it notwithstanding. Although some sex in ads might sell, as advertisers obviously believe to be the case, the questions are, how much sex is too much, and what kind of consumer would like sexual content in advertisements? This research examines these two questions, with consumer data from a study where consumers were shown an ad with either low or high sexual content. Results show that while the ad with high sexual content was uniformly judged to be ethically more unjust (compared to ads with low sexual content), the adverse effect on attitude toward the ad is not obtained for all consumers. Our results show that it depends on the sexual liberalism of the audience and on whether or not the use of sex is considered manipulative. Our research suggests that advertising professionals should assess sexual liberalism of their target audience and use sex only within the requisites of the communication task.

Banwari Mittal, Walfried M. Lassar

Exploratory Findings on the Attitudinal Effects of Super- and Poor-Levels of Direct Consumer Premium Desirability

Direct consumer premiums are one of the fastest growing and most important elements in the consumer sales promotion mix of U.S. packaged goods manufacturers (Blattberg and Neslin 1990; Shimp 1997). Direct consumer premiums are the most frequently used form of "nonmonetary" consumer sales promotion (Belch and Belch 1995). By definition, direct consumer premiums are package-related, free bonus items offered by manufacturers to consumers when they pay full price for a promoted product. Consumers receive direct consumer premiums as with- or near-pack incentives at the time of purchase. Strategically, direct consumer premiums are used to help introduce new products, to dislodge entrenched market leaders, and to generate higher consumer inventories of promoted products.

Joseph M. Jones

A Framework for Category Management Relationships

This paper draws on research into category management (CM) within the UK food channel. It provides a conceptual discussion of the issues of CM relationships in a strongly competitive and concentrated environment. The context of the relationships includes a limited choice of partners and a past history of long term adversarial relationships. To some extent manufacturers are obliged to enter these relationships because of shift in the balance of channel power to the retailer. However, both retailers and manufacturers expect mutual benefits. The author argues that expectations of control, anticipation of satisfaction and trusting behaviour rather than trust are relationship facilitators. Commitment, satisfaction and cognitive trust are proposed outcomes of successful relationships.

Sandra Hogarth-Scott

Vertical Control and Performance: The Role of Power, Relational Norms and Transaction Cost Analysis in Distribution Channels

Marketeers have argued that organisations are concerned with vertical control along the marketing channel to avoid competition and to improve perfOrmance by rationalising costs arising from both production and market search. The general proposal offered by this study is that within the transaction cost framework, the existence of relational norms between the trading parties :facilitates control over business operations. This vertical control, in tum, enhances performance of the dyad.

Phillip Samouel, Leyland Pitt, Pierre Berthon, Arthur Money

The Role of Proctorship for Independent Sales Representatives: Influencing Effective Inter-Organizational Relationships

Independent sales representatives work in heterogeneous sales environments, have little direct managerial influence, great responsibilities, and are faced with the role of self-management to achieve both supplier and self-desired outcomes. An adaptation of a previously proposed schema of control, proctorship, is presented. Introducing the complexity of controlling independent sales representatives.

Renee J. Fontenot, Kathleen H. Gruben, Timothy B. Palmer

Antecedents to Loyalty in Agency-Client Relations: The Impact of Long-Term Versus Short-Term Relationships

Both marketing theory and practice have experienced a paradigm shift toward relationship marketing, a concept that encompasses more collaborative, long-term relationships between supplier and client (Morgan and Hunt 1994). Collaboration is the process by which partners adopt a high level of purposeful cooperation to maintain a trading relationship over time. The successful relationships appear to be those where an overall balance of benefits is realized by member companies. Marginal success is often a result of the buyer and/or supplier abusing power or lacking a commitment to preserve the relationship (Nowak 1997).

Judith H. Washburn, Linda I. Nowak

Is Sales Training Effective? Putting Two Hypotheses to the Test.

Two hypotheses on sales( related) training were put forth and tested in a wholesale market, linking training budget and training time to three measures of sales effectiveness. The hypothesis on time spent on training was confirmed to a certain extent This study raised some questions about the applied self-monitored effectiveness criteria and the influence of the typical market studied (staid paper wholesale merchants).

Jack J. R. van Minden

An Investigation of the Selling Situation and Customer-Oriented Selling

This study examines whether product type and customer type influence the degree to which salespeople practice customer-oriented selling. Three hypotheses are tested using a national sample of 402 salespeople. Findings indicate that product type and customer type do not affect customer-oriented selling performance.

Theresa B. Flaherty

Effects of Salesperson Attractiveness on Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality: A Conceptual Framework

This paper addresses service situations in which the salesperson is also the service provider. A conceptual framework is presented that is used to explore the impact of salesperson attractiveness on consumer perceptions of service quality. This paper builds upon the growing stream of service quality literature by exploring the variables which moderate the attractiveness- service quality relationship. Key managerial and research implications are discussed.

Christopher D. Hopkins, Kaushik Mitra, Brian T. Engelland

Conjugal Sales Agents: Copreneurs or Selling Teams?

This preliminary study identifies factors responsible for the conjugal sales agent arrangement in the residential real estate industry. It was found that such arrangements occur due to factors internal to the couple, rather than strategic market considerations, suggesting that they more closely resemble copreneurs than selling teams. Implications for future research are discussed.

Derek N. Hassay, Robert M. Isotalo

Marketing Planning, Market Orientation and Performance: An Empirical Study of Australian Organisations

Market orientation is the goal for several organisations today. The closer organisations are able to move towards being market oriented, the greater is their ability to develop superior customer value and compete successfully (Narver and Slater 1990; Jaworski and Kohli 1993; Greenley 1995). Recent literature on the market orientation of the firm has focused largely on (1) the performance benefits of being customer focused and the various conditions in which market orientation will flourish (Narver and Slater 1990; Kohli and Jaworski 1993; Greenley 1995; Diamantapoulos and Hart 1993); and (2) key attributes of market oriented firms such as reward systems, interdepartmental dynamics, involving human resources.

Sue Pulendran, Richard Speed, Rob Widing

Identifying the Barriers to Market Orientation: British Retail Companies

Marketing theorists and practitioners have for many years extolled the value of developing 'market orientation'. However, while theoretical advances have been made in recent years, the barriers to the development of market orientation are relatively understudied. This paper presents the findings of qualitative and quantitative research which suggests associations between both the manner and types of management behavior and market orientation. The paper presents a series of conclusions and implications for theorists and practitioners.

Lloyd C. Harris, Nigel F. Piercy

Strategy, Market Orientation, or Environment: Relative Influence on Small Manufacturing Firms

This study’ primary objective was to compare the industry environment impact with the impact of firm strategy and market orientation culture on small manufacturing firm performance. The extent of market orientation has a greater impact on small manufacturing firm performance, than the direct or indirect impact of the particular industry environment and strategy selection. Emphasis on growth/differentiation strategy has a significant impact on small firm profitability. Industry characteristics have a minimal impact on small firm performance and minimal moderating impact on the relationship between strategy and performance. Possible explanations for this weak influence include small firm adaptability and the limited range of small firm strategic options. The study suggests that strong performance requires more than an appropriate match of strategy to the environment since there is a higher correlation between growth differentiation strategy and environmental turbulence in the lowest profitability group, compared to the highest group. But, there is significantly higher correlation between growth differentiation strategy and market orientation in the high profitability group, compared to the low group. The results suggest that firm culture and competencies that affect implementation of firm strategy are more critical determinants of relative small firm performance than the match of strategy and environment.

Alfred M. Pelham

Conceptualizing Store Choice Processes Using Perceived Risk

Gaining competitive advantage in retailing requires knowledge of the attributes consumers use to discriminate between stores and of why those attributes are important. Although many store image studies (e.g. Kelly et al., 1967; Lindquist, 1974; Hallsworth, 1987) have defined discriminant attributes, none has attempted to explain how these attributes lead to the satisfaction of personal grocery shopping motives. Previous store attribute classifications have largely been done from an organizational or operational viewpoint rather than that of customers. Here, we propose a new, more comprehensive patronage preference model which utilizes perceived risk to link store attributes and shopping motives. Current piecemeal and category-based approaches to understanding store image cannot offer insight into the question of why consumers view certain attributes the way they do. The attribute-based approach to store image has been criticized for failing to capture the richness of the store image which is believed to be a picture, but is generally measured with a list (Keaveney & Hunt, 1992). We agree with Keaveney & Hunt’s ( 1992) assertion, but argue that the simplified overriding dimensions on which a store is remembered and judged are the risks involved, which can operate at the category level. This needs-motivations-goalsrisks linkage has not been fully explored in the literature, despite its usefulness in understanding perceived risk's role in consumer behaviour in general, and shopping behaviour, in particular.

Vince–Wayne Mitchell

The Interactive Effect of Presentation Format and Brand Usage on the Effectiveness of Retail Price Advertisements

This study examines the impact of %-off and $-off formats on consumers’ responses. Results reveal that the optimal savings presentation format depends on the desired response and on brand usage. This finding underscores the importance of segmenting the market based on user status when planning retail price advertising strategies.

Rajesh Chandrashekaran

A Cluster Based Typology of ‘Sale’ Shoppers’ Motives, Images and Beliefs

Previous research on shoppers’ motives, images and beliefs has given limited attention to the special context of sales, in spite of their commercial importance in many sectors of retailing. From a survey of over 1,000 ‘sale’ shoppers, PCA is used to identity motive, image and belief factors. Cluster analysis then identifies three distinctive categories of ’ sale’ shopper.

Peter J McGoldrick, Erica J Betts

An Analysis of Emotional Appeals Used by Global and Regional Cosmetic Advertisers

According to Mueller (1991), there are 4 traditional theories that explain advertising effectiveness. One of the most frequently used is the economic theory. In it, consumers are viewed as rational humans, who will make purchase decisions rationally. The basis for their decisions will be the information they receive from advertisements. This theory has provided the conceptual framework for much of the work done in the area of advertising effectiveness.

Sally Sledge

Firms’ Marketing Mix Effectiveness and Modes of Entry in the Host Countries

The theoretical underpinning of this paper is that the modes of entry adopted by firms investing overseas depend on the effectiveness of their marketing mix. These modes range from simple exporting and licensing to more advanced ones such as joint ventures and setting up wholly-owned subsidiaries. Applying the theory of internationalization of the firms from a marketing perspective, this study posits that the higher the level of marketing mix effectiveness of firms, the more likely they will commit to more advanced modes of entry. This relationship is tested using data from a survey of firms in Australia, Singapore and Hong Kong. Results from a polychotomous regression analysis, treating the entry modes as an ordinal progression, revealed that product quality, design, price competitiveness, language skills and multinationality contribute to the propensity of firms to choose more advanced entry modes. However, country differences among firms are found in the areas of advertising and reputation.

Benjamin Tan Lin Boon, Tan Wee Liang

Across-National Comparison of Consumer Environmental Attitudes Representing Five Major Regions of the World

This study examines the attitudes of consumers toward various environmental issues. The environmental issues include attitudes toward general consequences of environmental condition, attitudes toward human-nature relationship, attitudes toward science and technology, and attitudes toward local environmental problems. The consumers in this study represent five major regions of the world, including America, Arab League Nations (excluding Saudi Arabia), Europe, Saudi Arabia, South-Asia , South-East Asia and others.

Shahid N. Bhuian

A Strategic Perspective on Green Packaging: Concerns and Actions

The purpose of this study was to examine how firms are reacting disposable products and green packaging. As consumer's concern for environmental safety assumes greater importance, so will the interest in green packaging. As stated in the

Small Business Report

“Green can be converted into gold” by organizations adopting green packaging. The scope of consumer consciousness in green packaging can be seen by the popularity of Earth Day, movements like Green Peace, federally sponsored EPA environmental safety programs, environmental legislation passed by various states and more recently, various efforts to restrict certain forms of packaging. The success of green packaging depends primarily upon the attitudes of consumers expressed in their buying patterns. Are consumers willing to pay a little more for green packaging? Companies fear falling behind their competition because of the additional expenses of green packaging and therefore ask themselves three questions: (1) Is the risk of more expensive green packaging worth taking?, (2) Can the cost of green packaging be reasonably contained?, (3) Can additional expenses associated with green packaging be re-couped in a reasonable time? Some firms have resisted green packaging, including the recycling symbol itself. Five identified problem areas are: ( 1) symbols and definition of green packaging terms, (2) the high cost of investment expenditures, (3) mixed signals and information presented on whether or not a “solid waste” crisis exists, ( 4) governmental bias of accepted options of product recycling and reusing leading to satisfying governmental regulators rather than seeking solutions for positive long term effects on the environment and (5) most importantly to many companies, the unpredictability of consumer buying patterns.

W. Wossen Kassaye, Madison Holloway

Marketing of Ideas in Social Marketing: A Case Study

This study attempts to explore the differences and relationships between social marketing and marketing of ideas, using, as illustrations, examples from a governmental institution with a new program in Brazil called Procel. The study establishes differences between orthodox marketing (business marketing), social marketing and marketing of ideas.

Marcos Cortez Campomar

Distorted Representations of Ethnic Minorities in Consumer Advertising: Effects and Consequences

The diversity of ethnic minorities in many technologically advanced countries is increasing, and the actual number of people in each group is growing. However, marketers in different countries are responding at different paces to the cosmopolitan composition of their societies. By international standards, Australian advertisers have been slow to recognize the communication challenges and opportunities of a modem multicultural society. Representations of non Anglo-Saxon groups in Australian advertising are often based on distorted and inaccurate stereotypes. One possible repercussion of such distorted representations is that Australian audiences may form an inaccurate view of specific cultural groups. To test the effects of distorted representations of ethnicity on consumer attitudes, an experiment using pre and post-treatment questionnaires was conducted. Two television advertisements were selected, each featuring a specific ethnic group. Following the completion of a pre-test questionnaire to ascertain perceptions on that cultural minority, one advertisement was shown to each group. A post-treatment questionnaire was then administered. Results confirm that both advertisements had a significant and negative impact on attitudes towards the ethnic group in question.

Michael T. Ewing, Nigel M. de Bussy, Karen Faries

Regulating Commercial Speeches on the Internet in Taiwan: A Survey of Advertising Professionals About Web Advertising Practices

With the popularity of the Internet and the World Wide Web, on-line shopping via the Internet has created a brand-new environment for advertising professionals. Current time-insensitive pricing model has also made the Internet a more attractive medium than conventional media. In spite of all these claimed benefits of advertising on the Internet, an important, but often ignored, issue is what impacts that web advertising will have on existing national and international advertising practices and regulations. In this paper, I would look into the attitude and perception of advertising professionals toward Internet advertising and its regulations in Taiwan.

Chung-Chuan (Kenneth) Yang

The Influence of Prior Experience on Amount of Search and Serach Correlates: A Study for Computer Serach Behavior of Industrial Firms

We have been recently witnessing in marketing a growing interest in the study of organizational search behavior (e.g., Bunn 1994; Dholakia et al. 1993; Doney and Armstrong 1996; Heide and Weiss 1995). As Moorthy et al. (1997) have argued, understanding consumers' information search behavior is crucial to firms' strategic decision making. Correspondingly, empirical research on individuals' information search behavior has been a long tradition in marketing (Beatty and Smith 1987; Newman 1977; Punj and Staelin 1983; Sirinivasan and Ratchford 1991; Urbany et al. 1989). Similarly, Johnston and Lewin (1996) argue that in order to succeed in business-to-business markets selling firms must possess an understanding of customer firms’ buying behavior. They also claim that such an understanding in organizational buying may be difficult to achieve because organizational buying behavior, as opposed to individual consumers' behavior is often a multiphase, multi person, multi departmental, and multi objective process. This dynamic and intricate process frequently presents sellers with a complex set of issues and situational factors that directly and indirectly influence buying firm behavior (Johnston and Lewin 1996).

Bülent Mengüc, Nimet Uray

Modeling Operationalized Measures of Customer Loyalty

How can customer loyalty be operationalized and measured? The marketing literature has taken several approaches to understanding the basis of customer loyalty. Oliver (1997) defines loyalty as “a deeply held commitment to rebuy or repatronize a preferred product or service consistently in the future, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behavior” (p. 392). Brand loyalty, service loyalty, vendor loyalty, and store loyalty have each been studied and some attempts at operationalized measurement have occurred.

Stephen H. Craft

Examining the Testing Effects of Repeated Measures of Attitudes

The author presents findings from an exploratory study that provides insights for future research on the possible “testing effects” of repeated measures of attitudes. This research uses an experiment with multiple measures of attitudes over a relatively long time period. It also uses multiple control groups to detect whether student subjects try to appear consistent and not change from their initial self-reports of attitudes.

Joseph M. Jones

Accurate Research Results? A Social Desirability Bias Investigation

When marketing researchers construct scales to measure attitudes and/or behavior, we are hoping to elicit consumers’ true feelings or actual behaviors with regard to some phenomenon. When individuals respond to surveys, however, a variety of factors influence the accuracy of their responses. Their particular mood at the time, the topics and ideas which are uppermost on their minds, their ability to understand the questions, their motivation to take the survey seriously, etc. Issues of questionnaire design and wording often address these concerns: how to design and word a survey to overcome these problems. One issue which has received less attention than others is social desirability bias. Social desirability bias refers to the tendency of respondents to provide answers which present them in a favorable light, regardless of their actual attitudes or behaviors.

Kathleen S. Micken, Dianne B. Eppler

Online Reevaluations of Attribute Information in Sequential Consumer Choice

Much of the literature that has looked at reevaluations of attribute information has assumed that they occur postdecisionally. For example, Svenson and Benthorn (1992) showed that individuals reevaluated attribute information postdescisionally in order to "protect" the chosen alternative (i.e., to increase its attractiveness). The current work investigates such reevaluations as they occur during a decision (i.e., online) as opposed to post-decisionally. Specifically, three issues are addressed: 1) when do online modifications occur (e.g., close to the end of the search process; when alternatives are poorly differentiated?), 2) does the pattern of reevaluations suggest the occurrence of a motivational bias, namely that most reevaluations favor the currently leading alternative? 3) which attributes are chosen for reevaluation, e.g., the most important attributes vs. those that are most undifferentiated between the competing alternatives?

Gad Saad

Using Uncorrelated Conjoint Choice Designs in a World of Correlated Beliefs

In the real world of consumers’ experience, brand names are often correlated with perceived product quality, as well as prices. Not surprisingly, consumers act upon these beliefs in their daily purchase decisions by using brand names to "chunk" information. In conjoint analysis, however, consumers are typically presented with an orthogonal world, where attributes such as brand, quality and price may be uncorrelated. There is concern that the simplifying strategies that are appropriate in a correlated world are eventually adapted after exposure to an orthogonal one, such as that experienced in conjoint analysis tasks. However evidence is mixed concerning failure of orthogonal conjoint designs to predict choices when attributes are correlated.

Colleen Collins-Dodd, Joel Huber

Sales Promotions: A Multiple Intervention Time Series Approach

The sales promotion data resulting from multiple marketing strategies are usually autocorrelated. Consequently, the characteristics of those data sets can be analyzed using time series and(or) intervention analysis. This paper considers the cases in which multiple interventions and the uncertainty of future interventions exist in the system. In addition, this study utilizes a set of real sales promotion data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Francisco Fernando Ribeiro Ramos

Useful Information Exchange in New Product Development: Differences in Definition

In spite of the improvements made in information sharing between functional areas, organizations continue to experience difficulties linked to less-than-effective information sharing. The importance of more than simply sharing information is demonstrated in a study by Rise, et al. (1990). These researchers found instances where increased communication between functional areas was dysfunctional. The desired outcome is not to simply increase the sharing of information, but rather to increase the usefulness of information shared. According to Schrage (1990), information sharing between people with diverse, specialized backgrounds result in innovative solutions and innovative products. Schrage envisions information sharing as a much richer process than communication or teamwork. Information sharing results in the creation of value that maximizes the creative inputs of each member of the group involved. As stated by Schrage (31):

Jeffrey C. Strieter, Clint B. Tankersley

An Integrated Model of Type of Commitment and Trust on Quantitative and Qualitative Outcomes of Negotiation

The belief that trust and commitment have a positive influence on negotiations is pervasive among negotiation researchers (Fischer & Ury, 1981; Raiffa, 1982). Researchers have tested direct effects of trust and commitment on negotiation outcomes as well as mediated effects (e.g. of cooperation) and moderated effects (e.g. of information sharing). Further, outcomes have been measured in terms of some tangible currency of exchange (Rubin & Brown, 1975) or in relational terms (Anderson & Narus, 1990). Parallel streams of research in this area continue in the fields of marketing and management.

Parimal S. Bhagat, Frank L. Jeffries

The Effects of Salespersons’ Perceptions of Customer Trust on Selling Behaviors

This paper examines the role of salespersons’ perceptions of the level of customer trust on selling behaviors. Recent empirical studies have confirmed the importance of trust in developing buyer-seller relationships (Morgan and Hunt 1994). This study examines the degree to which customer oriented selling, adaptive selling, and bargaining behaviors of salespersons vary with customer trust. Given that selling behaviors directly affect salesperson performance, the effects of salespersons’ perceptions of customer trust on selling behaviors are likely to have significant managerial implications.

Subhra Chakrabarty, Diane T. Oubre, Robert E. Widing, Gene Brown

Interfirm Trust and Dependence Asymmetry

Recent empirical work in channels has produced only weak support for the argument that “as the interdependence asymmetry increases, conditions become more aversive to the development of trust or commitment” (Kumar, Scheer, and Steenkamp 1995 p. 350). The more powerful party is expected to behave opportunistically and exercise power and punitive actions forselfgain in asymmetrical dependence structures (ibid). To elicit a partner’s cooperation, the more powerful party does not need to cultivate its partner’s trust or commitment because it can use its relative power to the same effect. For the less powerful firm, trust and commitment would be impractical, too, because “such sentiments render it more vulnerable to its partner’s opportunism” (ibid, p.350).

Nermin Eyuboglu, Sungmin Ryu, Sharon Smith

Relationship Marketing Strategies in the Life Insurance Industry: A Revised Framework and Across-National Comparison

Relationship marketing has been widely researched in the past decade in western society. Unfortunately, its examination in eastern society is limited. Given different cultural backgrounds between eastern and western societies (Hsieh 1994) and the possible influence of culture on marketing strategies, relationship marketing frameworks tested with data collected in western society may not be appropriate when applying to eastern society. To solve this problem, this paper intends to establish a revised relationship marketing framework that is more appropriate for eastern society. This paper examines the relationship marketing strategies employed by life insurance firms in Taiwan and Southeast Asian Countries. The results indicate that some of these relationship marketing strategies are different from those that are only tested with western firms. Furthermore, even within Asia, the emphasis of relationship marketing strategies between firms in Taiwan and in Southeast Asia is different. The former cares more about communication with customers whereas the latter mainly utilizes personal relationships as their primary relationship marketing strategy. Both CUSTOMER ORIENTATION and COMMUNICATION strategies are related to marketing performance.

Yaolung J. Hsieh

Emerging Roles of the Industrial Salesforce in an Era of Long Term Relationships

The industrial salespersons play extremely important roles in selling their firms' offerings to the industrial buyers. Typical roles performed are, seller of products, order handler, service provider, information manager, participation in conferences or meetings, facilitator in management of new sales, entertainment of buyers, and establishing of relationship with distributors (Anderson 1992; Belasco 1966; Buskirk and Buskirk 1992; Christian 1962; Futrelll993; Moncrief 1986). The conceptualization of these roles has remained relatively invariant over the past three decades except for the delineation of roles and increased emphasis on service. These roles were conceptualized with a competitive view of the buyer-seller market (Arndt 1979; 1983). According to the principles of Economics, in competitive markets exchanges between buying and selling firms are carried out under the autonomous decision processes of firms and the market forces guide the allocation of resources and rewards to them through "invisible hand." In short, these roles were developed to enable selling firms to compete with buying firms for the yields of sales transactions. Little or no emphasis was placed on the management of long term relationships with buyers rather, buyer cooperation is assumed to emerge from the extent of its dependence on the seller.

Varinder M. Sharma

Relationship Marketing: Viewing the State-of-the-Art Across Perspectives

Relationship marketing has emerged as one of the dominant frameworks guiding marketing theory and practice. Yet, recent evidence suggests that there is no consistency in efforts at theory development in the field to date. There are several reasons for this diagnosis. First, relationship marketing has been examined from various perspectives within the field of marketing. While it is understandable that relationship marketing would focus on different issues in different contexts (e.g., services versus channels versus business-to-business markets) no synergy has developed among the various findings. Second, as a result of the compartmentalized approach, key constructs such as trust, equity, and commitment, have been operationalized many different ways. Again, this fragmentation leads to an incomplete picture and findings of limited practical application. Third, most of the scholarly research, regardless of perspective, has focused on relationship formation and not relationship maintenance, redefinition and dissolution. The primary purpose of this paper, therefore, is to develop a general theoretical framework for examining marketing relationship development as a dynamic process over which relationships continue to evolve. The proposed framework is based on the premise that the nature of dominant influencing constructs--trust, equity, and commitment, for example--change as a relationship develops, and that the relative importance of the dimensions of each construct may vary at different phases of a relationship.

Deborah E. Rosen, Sammy Bonsu, James M. Curran, Elizabeth F. Purinton

Manufacturer-Supplier Relationships

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship that trust and commitment have on long-term orientation in manufacturer-supplier relationships. We propose that trust leads to commitment in manufacturer-supplier relationships and that both trust and commitment produce a long-term orientation by the seller firm. Our premise is that when manufacturer-supplier relationships are characterized by sufficient levels of trust and commitment, a long-term orientation will follow.

Les Feldman, William C. Johnson, Art Weinstein

Communication and the Service Exchange: A Coorientational Approach to Predicting Service Encounter Satisfaction

While service encounters are known to feature interdependence of provider and client behaviors, little research exists that measures the underlying processes of service satisfaction at the dyadic level of analysis. This research describes and tests a causal model predicting service encounter satisfaction using dyadic data collected from service provider-client exchanges completed in a variety of service industries.

Services are generally characterized as intangible, perishable, co-produced, and heterogeneous (Lovelock, 1981 ). These four characteristics generate information demands on both the provider and user as they seek to determine what the customer needs and how best to deliver a service to meet those needs. This information demand is even greater with complex services because complex services lend themselves to customization and allow the provider flexibility in determining the service output (Lovelock, 1983). This process has been described as a negotiation between service providers and clients. This research proposes that a number of variables influence the communication that takes place during this negotiation. These variables include: include client risk perception, service complexity, and perceived relational messages. The product of the messages shared between provider and client are treated within a coorientational framework (McLeod and Chaffee, 1973). The main purpose of communication, as viewed within this framework, is to achieve a perceived symmetry, or consensus, in the cognitive states of two people regarding some particular object. This model captures the interdependent nature of the service provider-client interaction by viewing each person’s behavior as a function of his/her own cognitions and his/her perceptions of the other’s cognitions. The model assumes that two people communicating are motivated to coorient on the object attributes. It is hypothesized that satisfaction will be greatest when provider and client are cooriented on what the service involves and how it should be delivered.

Nancy Menelly Bulkley

Rural Outshopping Behavior: Another Look at Orientations and Social Influences

The author presents findings from a mail survey that investigates frequent consumer outshopping behavior (i.e., why certain consumers often shop in distant, out-of-town retail areas), outshopping-orientations, and the effects of family and friends on outshopping behavior. The present study extends previous work on two outshopping-orientations (recreational and economic), and uses the theory of reasoned action as a model to examine the impact of important other people on retail patronage (Evans, Christiansen, and Gill1996; Fishbein and Ajzen 1975; Lumpkin, Hawes, and Darden 1986; Stone 1954).

Joseph M. Jones

Purchasing Decisions and the Employment Status of the Wife

This study considers the relative influence of husbands and wives in purchasing decision-making behavior for various product categories. This study attempts to develop a more accurate description of decision making in families. Comparisons are made between families based on the employment status of the wife.

Dayton C. Pegues

Retail Expansion into International Markets: The Case of United States Retail Chains

Retailers in mature retail markets are increasingly turning their attention to international expansion as a means of future growth. While the pace of retail store internationalization has been somewhat slower in the U.S. than in other parts of Westem world, industry reports provide evidence of an increased interest of U.S. retail chains in their store chain presence outside domestic borders (Deloitte & Touche, 1998).

The purpose of this study is to investigate current retail store expansion activities into international markets, and to examine two key dimensions of international retail strategies: entry modality and market selection. Research questions are framed within the context of theories focusing on determinants and the nature of international business involvement, which have been applied to the specifics of the retailing industry. More specifically, internationalization process perspective (Cavusgil1984; Johanson and Vahle 1990; Perlmutter 1969) and the eclectic paradigm (Dunning 1988) served as a basis for this investigation.

Data is currently being generated via a mail survey from retail chains' executives who assume the role of key informants. Two respondents, i.e., executives with strategic responsibilities for retail chains' expansion, are identified from each of the top ranking U.S. retail chains based on various criteria. Mail survey data collection procedures follow the guidelines set forth by Mangione (1995) and involves four consecutive mailings. Once the data collection phase is completed, the data will be analyzed via tobit/probit analyses, logistic regression, principal components factor analysis and descriptive statistics to examine retail chains' international retailing activities, characteristics of retail chains and their market entry strategies.

This study addresses many practical and conceptual deficiencies that currently exist in the area of retail internationalization. The outcome should prove useful for retail practice and new knowledge development of an industry, which faces major competitive challenges in the forthcoming millenium. As noted by retail analysts, these challenges are primarily related to the changes in the use of interactive technology and increasing globalization of the industry (Schultz 1997).

Irena Vida

Managing Customer Roles in Service Organisations: An Australian Perspective

The management of customer roles is a topic which attracts considerable discussion (Zeithamel & Bitner, 1996; Baron & Harris, 1995). Some professional and other complex services rely heavily on customer input in the service delivery process (eg. builders, architects, interior decorators, doctors). It could be argued that customer inputs could be optimised by effective management of customer roles.

Jane Westwood, Mathew Joseph

Customer Value Audit in International Business Markets : A Strategic Marketing Tool

Implementing the customer driven firm is a going concern of management in many business markets of today. Knowing where value lies for the customer has become critical for a supplier, as satisfied customers lead to more customer loyalty and retention, positive word-of-mouth, a stronger competitive position and, ultimately, higher market share. Many researchers have investigated the value construct mainly in consumer markets. Research on B-to-8 markets, however, has been limited. This paper presents the results of an exploratory study on the contribution of the value construct to marketing strategy development and implementation in international business markets. In this research project, we first assess the complex value construct through a literature review. We then develop a multiple-item measure of customer value and illustrate our approach by the marketing strategy development project of a major chemicals manufacturer in international markets. We finally discuss how the Customer Value Audit (CV A) can be linked to marketing strategy development and implementation.

Samir Chacour, Wolfgang Ulaga

Establishing Cross-National Equivalence of the Customer Satisfaction/ Dissatisfaction Construct

Customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction (CS/D) is considered to be a determinant of repeat purchase behavior and brand loyalty (e.g., Oliver & Linda 1981). As such, it has been widely used in the design and management of defensive marketing strategies which seek to retain existing customers (Bloemer & Lemmick, 1992). There are many difficulties which are associated with the understanding and use of CS/D when it is considered as an input variable in the design of international marketing strategies. These difficulties arise from problems concerning whether or not CS/D is an equivalent phenomenon cross-nationally.

Nina L Reynolds, Antonis C Simintiras

An Evaluation of the Marketing Competitiveness of the Us and Japan in a Comparative Framework

Recent US business editorials extol the competitive posture of the $7-trillion-a-year American economy, emphasizing the positive affects associated with the nation’s rising productivity rankings. Is the United States truly in the midst of an enviable period of maintainable economic growth, with an effective, purposeful and guiding trade policy, or is it destined to watch as mercantilist countries practice carefully crafted methods of managed trade, hampering continued US growth?

Robert G. Vambery, James W. Gabberty


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