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​This volume includes the full proceedings from the 1998 Multicultural Marketing Conference held in Montreal, Canada. The focus of the conference and the enclosed papers is on marketing to various ethnic groups in both a US and global context. It presents papers on various multicultural issues across the entire spectrum of marketing activities and functions including marketing management, marketing strategy, and consumer behavior.

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complimenting the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science.​



Cognitive Risk Maps of Distant Countries - The Case of Eastern and Far Eastern Markets

China, the South-east-Asian region and some other Eastern countries have become one of the most interesting business and trading partners in the last few years. The dynamic economic development has been recognised by leading companies from the very early beginning. Nowadays the Far East markets face different instabilities and difficulties. The research focus and main interest of the study deals with the risk awareness of Austrian managers towards markets in China, Russia, South Korea, Japan and other eastern and south eastern regions in general. Comparisons are made with more traditional trading partners as reference markets in overseas and Europe. The result is a perceptional risk map, which is constructed by a MDS unfolding procedure. First results show a clear distinction between different countries and risk areas on a cognitive map in three dimensions.

Gerhard A. Wührer

Relationship Marketing Development in High-Context, Multicultural Settings: Case Studies from Ghana and the People’s Republic of China (PRC).

Relationship marketing - the process of attracting and co-operating with customers, suppliers and others through the enhancement of efforts at achieving objectives for the mutual benefit of all parties, over time (Berry 1983; Dwyer, Schurr and Oh 1987; Grönroos 1994) - has emerged as one of the dominant frameworks that guides marketing theory and practice. While relationship marketing and its numerous variates are not unique to the western world (e.g., Alexander 1987; Clark 1994; Trager 1976), scholarly attention has been narrowly focused on the USA, Western Europe and similar cultures (Ambler 1994; Grönroos 1990). With increasing globalisation and its concomitant multicultural milieu for business operations, such narrow focus presents a major impediment to the development of marketing knowledge and practice within cultures based on non-western philosophical and social contexts.

Samuel (Sammy) K. Bonsu, Pia Polsa

Guanxi, and its Benefits in the Business Context in China, Hong Kong and Singapore

In this initial investigation, the author compares Guanxi’s potential benefits in the business contexts in China, Hong Kong and in Singapore. The results indicate that Guanxi plays a key role in the business context of all three markets. Guanxi’s role in the business context is more important in China than in Hong Kong and Singapore. Also, it is more important for Hong Kong and Singapore business managers to have strong Guanxi when doing business in China than in their home market.

Yiming Tang

The Ethical Decision Making of Marketing Professionals in Taiwan

This study examined the influence of the moral intensity on ethical decision-making (EDM) between American and Taiwanese marketers. The impact of the intensity of moral issues on two important constructs of marketing ethics decisions, perceptions of ethical problem and ethical intentions, was investigated. This was the first research regarding marketing ethics in Taiwan, which instrument was adopted from Singhapakdi et al.’s (1996). As expected, American marketers got higher mean scores on all the components of moral intensity regarding the perceptually potential harm The components were magnitude of consequence, probability of effect, temporal immediacy, and concentration of effect The relationships between the moral intensity to ethical perceptions and to ethical intentions were supported both by Singhapakdi et al. (1996) and by this research. Meanwhile, the empirical findings also proved that the process of EDM, used by Taiwanese marketing professionals, really existed.

Jacob Y. H. Jou, Linda FongLing Fu, Amy YiLing Lin

Marketing to the Youth in South Africa: An International Comparison of the Aspirations of Higher Education Students

South Africa is a developing country which is attracting the attention of marketers from around the world. It is critical to the formulation of successful marketing strategy that marketers develop an understanding of the factors that will shape the consumer behaviour of South African youth. This paper offers perspectives on the career aspirations of South African youth, compared to their American counterparts, within the context of how these ambitions would shape their consumer behaviour.

Trevor L. Amos, Neren Rau, C. Richard Scott

Developing a Strategic Model for Branding South Africa as an International Tourism Destination, with Special Consideration of Multicultural Factors

Recent developments towards global orientation and communication in both the business and the individual/household sector have had strong impacts on the tourism industry. As traveling becomes easier, faster, better organised and more affordable, the competition among tourism destinations intensifies (Freyer [199S] pp.12–13; WTTC [1996] pp.8–9). More destinations become accessible and comparable in the eyes of the consumer. A high degree of brand parity is the resultant perception (Krippendorf [1987] p.22).When marketing South Africa in markets for long-haul vacations it is important to ensure that tourism will be beneficial for its society. Tourism is a key foreign exchange earner for South Africa, promising a growing potential, while certain other sources of foreign exchange appear to relatively decline or stagnate. South Africa is a relatively new destination for tourism generating countries and therefore still at the beginning of the product life-cycle. If the destination is managed wisely, there is a good opportunity, due to the acknowledged magnificent physical quality of the tourism product, to survive short-term product life-cycles, and endure as a tourism brand.

Marius Leibold, Karsten Seibert

The Applicability of the Marketing Concept to Trade Unions: A Multicultural Approach

The paper presents the application of marketing principles to trade unions in the South African Police Service. Because of the diversified composition of the South African Police Service, comparisons were made between different subculture groups. The primary objective of the study is to determine the specific needs of police trade union members in an attempt to satisfy their needs. The results indicate that with regard to the different subculture groups it appears that there are unanimity about the main reasons why police trade union members belong to trade unions which is offering collective benefits for trade union members. This is followed by taking care of personal complaints and regional benefits.

Renier Jansen van Rensburg, Johan W. de Jager

Corporate Image Communication in the South African Dairy Industry - An Empirical Survey

This paper presents an overview of the main roleplayers in the primary and secondary sections of the South African dairy industry, as well as the results of a survey on the existing strategies of corporate image development and communication in the secondary South African dairy industry. Results of the survey indicate that basic theoretical principles are not fully applied, as well as a lack of managerial commitment towards image projection. Existing perceptions of consumers about the three main manufacurers in the secondary dairy industry point towards a specific preference for the market follower. It appears that little attention has been given to the promotion of internal image, among employees in the three market leaders in this industry, and that neither the measurement of corporate image has been implemented, nor the dimensions of corporate image been identified.

Ria Hugo-Burrows, M Smit

An Empirical Examination of Effects of Franchise Systems over Independents: The Case of Turkey

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of franchise systems over independent retailers in Turkey. Franchising is one of the methods most widely used by firms when operating in national and global markets. Thus, it is important to explore the effects of franchising over the independents’ business performance. According to the findings of this empirical research, franchisees perform better in their businesses compared to non- franchisees.

Tunc Erem, Ömer Baybars Tek, Cagatay Unusan

A Reexamination of an Operational Model of Export Marketing Strategy-Performance Relationship: An Empirical Study of Turkish Export Ventures

Building upon the operational path model of Cavusgil and Zou (1994), the direct antecedents to export marketing performance are explored, and the operational model is estimated based on an OLS regression procedure. The overall results support that the export marketing performance of Turkish export ventures is positively correlated with the degree of product adaptation, price competitiveness, support to distributor/subsidiary, firms’ international competence, and commitment to the export venture.

Tunc Erem, Bulent Menguc

Culture as a Market Entry Barrier: Some Insightful Tips for the Turkish Market

This paper addresses some major issues for solving cultural problems encountered in international marketing activities and emphasizes the cultural awareness / analysis that every business should consider to enter the international markets. In this study some multicultural marketing failures experienced in Turkey by some firms have also been discussed and a new model is recommended.

Tunç Erem, Ömer Baybars Tek, A. Ercan Gegez, Deniz Börü

Cross-Microcultural Business Ethics: Ethical Perceptions Differences in Marketing among Ethnic Microcultural Groups in Indonesia

This study investigates the differences in ethical perceptions among marketing managers of ethnic microcultural groups in Indonesia The result show that there are significant differences among the three ethnic groups in terms of their ethical perception scores. This result suggests that it may not suitable to consider a nation as a culturally homogeneous cluster.

Slamet S. Sarwono, Robert W. Armstrong

Ethical Issues in Ethnic Segmentation and Target Marketing

In light of increasing diversity in the marketplace, marketers more than ever are using ethnic segmentation and marketing to reach various consumer groups. While some companies have become increasingly sophisticated in marketing to ethnic consumers, others’ attempts have misfired and created much controversy, calling for a closer examination of the validity and potential pitfalls of ethnic segmentation and marketing. This research analyzes the ethical issues associated with ethnic segmentation and marketing, and explores managerial implications for devising effective and socially responsible marketing programs.

Geng Cui

The Myth of the Monolithic Minority: The Renewed Call for Effective Segmentation of African American Consumers

While effective segmentation strategies have been developed for targeting the majority market, African American consumers have either been included in general market segmentation, or regarded as a separate, monolithic whole. This paper utilizes an historical/sociological approach to examine diversity among African Americans, and advocates research that explores the diverse segments among African American consumers.

Lydia A. McKinley, J. R. Smith, Kimball P. Marshall

Multicultural Value Perceptions: Comparing Evidence from Egypt and France

The perceived value scale of Kantamneni and Coulson (1996) is administered to a select sample of respondents in Egypt and France. Results from the study suggest that as different cultures, Egypt and France require differential marketing efforts. This study uncovers the dimensions of perceived value in both the Egyptian and French cultures.

S. Prasad Kantamneni, Kevin R. Coulson

Alternative Trade Organizations: An Emerging Distribution System for Less Developed Countries

Alternative trade, fair trade, and cooperative trade are all terms for an exchange of goods based on principles of economic justice, especially for the poor and powerless in the less developed countries. Numerous organizations, called alternative trade organizations, import farm products and handicrafts from these Third World nations and market them in the (over) developed countries.

Ali A. Nazarian, Nabil Y. Razzouk, Barbara J. Rood

The Influence of Values on New Product Adoption: A Cross-Cultural Study

An innovation can be defined as a creation by a business firm directed to a particular social system. Since its diffusion in the market largely depends on its adoption by consumers, one may also describe innovation not as an essentially technological phenomenon, but rather as an event of a psycho-social nature because those are the keys to its success or failure.

Naoufel Daghfous, John V. Petrof, Frank Pons

The Impact of Collectivism and Individualism on Customer Expectations

This conceptual paper examines the impact of culture upon customer expectations. Two specific cultural syndromes - collectivism and individualism - are identified. Propositions are then offered as to the impact of these syndromes upon four sources of expectations: explicit promises, implicit promises, word-of-mouth, and past experience.

Jeff W. Overby

The Role of Sales Promotion: A Multi-Cultural Comparison between Australia and Portugal

The study examines the claimed objectives and actual sales promotion techniques used in two countries, in consideration of the explanations for why sales promotion is used. Both studies found that to some degree, sales promotion is claimed to be used for brand enhancement, but in reality is used for competitive purposes. This was more strongly in evidence in the Portugal study. There is uncertainty as to why competitive motivations are not claimed, but the authors suggest it may be related to the way managers wish to be perceived (proactive rather than reactive). A definition of sales promotion that accomodates the research findings is also included, together with some recommendations for management.

Sandra Luxton, Pedro Quelhas Brito

The Importance of Bonding in Business Protocols. A Comparison Between United States and Chile

This study is concerned with the way in which national culture, depicted by the work-values of an organization’s members, influences the business protocols to the extent that they became appropriate and acceptable behaviors to business people from different cultures. Business protocols refer to the set of behaviors that are most salient in intercultural business interactions, specially in the first encounter between two cultures. Specifically this paper discusses the business protocols related to Bonding and Friendship. Different cultures place different values in the need for establishing and maintaining bonding with the clients for the success of the business relationship. Bonding relates to the boundaries that the culture establishes as appropriate when developing friendship with clients. The protocols of Bonding includes the following issues: gift exchange, establishing relationships, friendship, and loyalty.

Angelica C. Cortes

The Role of Nature in the Nostalgic Experience of the Japanese

Thirty Japanese respondents provided detailed descriptions of eighty nostalgic consumption experiences. Nature themes common in Japanese culture are prevalent. Elements of nature are mentioned as direct triggers for nostalgia and as important details of nostalgic sentiments. The findings have implications for product management and the standardization-specialization debate in international advertising.

William J. Havlena, Susan L. Holak

Bridal Consumption as Gift-Giving Ritual

The objective of this paper is to explain the multiplication process of wedding formats by interpreting consumer consciousness and behavior in bridal consumption gift giving rituals. The result indicates the changes in gift giving rules that support the invitation system of wedding receptions.

Chieko Minami

Transactional Network for New Products: A Case of Die and Mould Industry in Japan

This paper explores the importance of the die and mould manufacturers for new product developments. There needs the cooperation and arrangement in transactional networks. This close relationship is one of the «design-in» systems. This study is based on the interview-based research on the die and mould manufacturers in Japan.

Hisao Fujimoto, Yohei Sasakawa, Yasuhiko Kubo

Tell Me What You See and I will Tell You Where You Come from : A Cross-Cultural Research on Western and Eastern Children’s Memorization of Advertising

The paper describes the work that has been carried out with 7 year-old children in three different countries. It was shown that the educational program has an influence on the responses that children give when their advertising memorization is measured. Depending on the culture, some kids are more likely to provide richer responses when using verbal methods, while others present better performance when dealing with non-verbal ones.

Eliane Karsaklian

Media Revolution in a Multicultural Society: A Study of Effectiveness of TV Commercials on Indian Consumers’ Attitude and Behaviour

Only eight years ago India had

only one TV channel Doordarshan

, owned and controlled by the Government of India. But today over a hundred cable and satellite channels cater to the varying regional tastes, language and cultural preferences almost in every part of the country. TV viewership has increased phenomenally over the years. 74.1% of Urban and 35% of rural households are exposed to TV programmes. The number of TV households increased from a mere 6.8 million in 1985 to 55 million in 1996.


he total TV viewers exceed 450 million people in India. The share of expenditures on TV advertising has gone up from a mere 12% in 1985 to 26% in 1996.

S. Neelamegham

Using Three Antecedent Factors to Predict Latin American Attitudes Toward Advertlsing-in-General

Drawing on data collected in three countries, this study finds that a three-antecedent-factor framework provides better predictions of attitudes toward advertising-in-general, at least in Latin America, than does an alternative cross-national model recently proposed by Durvasula et al. (1993).

Victor R. Dávila, José I. Rojas-Méndez

The Relationship Among Export Strategy, Strategy Implementation and Export Performance in LDC Export Ventures: A Philippine-Based Study

This paper evaluated the role of strategy implementation in determining export performance in the context of export ventures in a less developed country. The findings indicate that the link between export market strategy and export performance is mediated by strategy implementation.

Agnes T. Banzon, Felix T. Mavondo

Macro Environmental Context of Marketing Strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Preliminary Review

With a population of over 600 million people, Africa is reputed to be one of the fastest expanding markets but very little is known about how its marketing environment is unfurling compared to other continents of the world. Most of the studies on the dynamics of marketing in Africa have largely ignored the institutional framework within which marketing activities take place. There is a limited knowledge about the direction and thrust of changes and their likely impact on the marketing process. This paper is devoted to exploring the marketing environment in Africa.

Sonny Nwankwo, Alphonso O. Ogbuehi, Joseph P. Aiyeku

Racioethnic Differences in Consumer Decision Making Styles

There were differences among White, African-American, and Hispanic consumers on: recreational; impulsive; price conscious; and confused by overchoice consuming. This research suggests that due to the changing demographic composition of the U.S., marketing strategists need to continuously examine possible racioethnic differences in the decision making styles of their consumers.

Shawnta S. Friday, Lori M. Zalka, Meredith Downes, Susan R. Perry, Karen Paul

African American Consumers’ Use of the Internet: Implications for Marketers

A survey was conducted in the Spring of 1998 consisting of 254 students enrolled in business courses at Florida A&M University. The objective was to get a sampling of how the students felt about using the Internet and World Wide Web for educational and business research. The research determined that students use the Internet to read on-line newspapers and magazines while infrequently purchasing the printed material. Their perceptions and attitudes on using the Internet to purchase products where based on limited experience and a lack of trust in buying over the Internet The students stated an increase in their Internet usage with a reduction in their leisure time and social life.

Charles Evans, Darlene Johnson

Smart Shopping and the African American Consumer

Since the early 1960’s, for many disciplines in the academy, the cognitive skills of African Americans has been a sensitive, if not taboo, subject Arguably many well intentioned researchers and theorist in marketing have shied away from exploring the full behavioral components (cognitive and affective) of the African American consumer. Few major marketing journals have published much about the African American consumer, let alone tackle issues in the cognitive realm, Indeed, much of the work published has predominantly dealt with African American shopping patterns, response to advertising mediums and layouts demographics, social-economic issues (e.g., Do African Americans pay more? Are they treated differently by retailers and dealers?). Relegating research and conceptualization to African American’s activities, interest, opinions, and attitudes concerning marketing strategy at the omission of studying African American’s cognitive marketplace skill levels, is intellectually dishonest and, worst yet, deprives thoughtful marketing academics, practitioners, and even public policy analysts important theoretical and empirical ground for analysis and decision making.

Homer B. Warren

An Evaluation of Museums’ Service Quality and Effect of Demographics: Differences Between Egyptian and Foreign Visitors

The primary objective of this research study is to determine whether there are differences between Egyptian and foreign museums visitors’ evaluation of service. The results indicate that such differences exist, taken into consideration their demographics.

Naeim H. Abougomaah, Farouk Shaaban, Mohamed A. Shell

Organizational Culture and Services Management in Canada, Mexico and the United States: An Empirical Study of Commercial Banking

The service management perspective as described by Gummesson (1994) and Grönroos (1992) is based on the concepts of relationship marketing and service quality. This perspective is a client-centred approach dependent on managerial processes and a service culture which foster the development and maintenance of the firm-client relationship. Commercial banking is a professional services business characterized by the relationship between the account manager and the business client Although North American commercial banks seek long-term relationships with their business clients, these same clients gave bureaucratic inflexibility (Canada) and poor service (Mexico) as the principal reasons for terminating the relationships with their banks (Paulin et al. 1998). The purposes of the present research were to determine the type of organizational culture present in North American commercial banks and to relate these findings to a services management perspective.

Michèle Paulin, Jean Perrien, Ronald Ferguson

International Travel Preferences of Graduating Students

Graduating students represent a potentially viable segment of international travel. The changing demographics of international travel would indicate that students represent a growing proportion of international travellers. Recent estimates that this segment constitutes 20 percent of all international travellers despite the substantial size and economic significance of the student segment of the international travel industry, little is known about the characteristics of this portion of the industry – the patterns of behaviour and motives of students travelling overseas – or how they plan their travel. A review of the literature has revealed very few studies exist on international travel by students. This paper provides further insights into the discrete market of graduating commerce students. The sample comprised both local and regional students from Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Hong Kong.

Frederick A Frost, Tekle Shanka

The Effects of Individualism-Collectivism Orientation on Brainstorming: A Comparison of Canadian and Taiwanese Samples

Little research has investigated cross-cultural differences in brainstorming performance. The current work addresses this paucity by exploring differences between Canadians (individualists) and Taiwanese (collectivists) along five dependent measures: (1) number of generated ideas; (2) originality of the generated ideas; (3) number of negative verbalizations during the brainstorming sessions; (4) the valence of the negative verbalizations; (5) self-perceptions of performance. As predicted, the Canadian sample generated a greater number of ideas, uttered a greater number of negative verbalizations, yielded more valenced verbalizations and were more confident regarding their perfomance. Contrary to expectations, the Taiwanese provided more original ideas.

Gad Saad, Louis Ho

Context-Dependent Ethnic Identity and its Impact on Product Evaluations

Researchers recognizing the influencing role of an individual’s ethnicity on consumption related behavior have treated ethnic identity as a unidimensional construct with ethnic group identification and majority group identification on the opposite ends of the continuum. The implication of such a conceptualization is that identification with either the ethnic group or the majority group is accompanied necessarily by the rejection of the other. This research work proposes ethnic identity to be composed of at least two dimensions- one corresponding to the identification with the ethnic group and the other relating to the identification with the majority group. The basis of this conceptualization is borrowed from Tajfel’s (1981) work on social identity which uses multiple group memberships that combine former affiliations with new ones to explain the development of an individual’s social identity. It is therefore, particularly helpful in understanding how immigrants’ social identities change as a result of living in a new country and coming in contact with different social group(s). Given the high educational and occupational status of ‘new immigrants’ (mainly Asian Americans) to the United States, a model favoring cultural pluralism is likely to emerge. The new immigrants accept the institutional arrangements and value system of the American society and participate actively in the educational, economic, and political institutions, thus contributing positively to the American society. But, they see no conflict with the larger society if they maintain their culture, religion, customs, and festivities. Mehta and Belk (1991) have supported this view by putting forth that the immigration decision is voluntary and often job related which leads to maintaining good relations with the dominant culture. At the same time, the immigrants’ prestigious occupations and intellectual resources gives them the ability to retain their cultural identity.

Sangeeta Singh

Asian American Consumers and their Price Sensitivity

The United Way (1992) predicts that the population of minorities in the United States is expected to increase so that by the Year 2000 one in three Americans will belong to a minority. Of these minorities, Asian Americans are the fastest growing minority group (Gardner, Robey and Smith 1989) which is argued to become the third largest ethnic minority in the US.(United Way 1992). Despite this important subculture emerging in the U.S. market little evidence appears in past literature on studies of Asian American consumers. The overall purpose of this study is to add to our understanding of Asian American consumers by exploring their sensitivity towards one key aspect in marketing: price.

Rajneesh Suri, Mayuresh Kelkar, Rajesh V. Manchanda

Cultural and Language Effects on the Perception of Source Honesty and Forcefulness in Advertising: A Comparison of Hong Kong Chinese Bilinguals and Anglo Canadians

The first objective of this research was to examine how Hong Kong Chinese (HKC) and Anglo Canadians differ in their perception of the honesty and forcefulness of a message source in an informational advertisement Another aim was to examine the reaction of bilingual HKC subjects to an advertisement and questionnaire administered in the second language as well as the native language. A number of studies point to the Chinese as being more sensitive to a message source and to assertive and argumentative sales "pitches" than North Americans. This should translate into a more negative perception of the honesty of the source as well as a greater perception of forcefulness in the ad for the HKC, in contrast to their Anglo-Canadian counterparts. On the issue of language effects for bilingual HKC subjects, some research points to an accommodation effect, with HKC exposed to the English language treatment responding more like English subjects than HKC exposed to the Chinese instrument (Ralston, Cunniff, and Gustafson, 1993). Other work (Grosjean, 1992) would imply that response to advertising copy and cues would be influenced by cognitive structures developed while learning both languages. Thus, a "hybrid" perceptual pattern very different from both cultures would be expected.

Roy Toffoli, Michel Laroche

The Asian-American Healthcare Market - Problems and Prospects

On the basis of an exploratory research study, this paper highlights certain healthcare opportunities and challenges which the rapidly growing Asian American community in the United States creates.

Vinay Kothari, Madison Payai Kothari

Community Policing in a Multicultural Community Environment: Marketing Issues for a Police Service, with Specific Reference to South Africa

The South African Police Services (SAPS) is in the process of transformation towards a community policing model. Strategic partnerships between the community, police service, business and other stakeholders are likely to play an important role in this process. This article explores the theories of crime and responses to crime in South Africa, and the philosophy of community policing and the need for marketing skills. The need for both internal and external marketing is emphasized, and the adoption of a political-economy model to underpin a macro-marketing approach to community policing is suggested.

Marius Leibold, Berhanu Mengistu, Wolfgang Pindur

Cross - Cultural Differences in Psycho-Social Aspects of Physical Appearance and Clothing Behaviour Affecting Consumer Behaviour in South Africa.

Cross-culturally South African women appear to experience biopsychosocial differences with regards to body-image, identity, clothing behaviour and self-consciousness. The aim of this study was to compare attitudinal and perceptual differences toward physical appearance and clothing behaviour. The results provided evidence of notable relations between the variables within a marketing perspective.

Ann-Marie Lo Castro, Lourens Schlebusch, Mike Davies

Measuring Multicultural Consumer Attitudes Towards Money

This study compared attitudes towards money amongst a multicultural sample of consumers in the Eastern Cape. Results showed significant differences between various groups. Implications are that more attention should be paid to educating consumers on personal money management and saving behaviour, should the country wish to increase its economic growth rate.

Gabriel G Rousseau, Danie J Venter

High and Low Optimum Stimulation Level Consumers: Differences in their Characteristics, Living Standards, Lifestyle Interests and Product Choice Behaviours

The optimum stimulation level (OSL) of a representative sample of 3493 South Africans was measured using Steenkamp and Baumgartner’s new shortened Change Seeker Index. The study measures populations not previously the focus of OSL research. Age, employment status, education, home language and gender emerged as antecedents of OSL. Although living standards measures are used widely in marketing strategy in South Africa, the results suggest that only 4 of 17 living standard measures are OSL antecedents. The results suggest important differences between high and low OSL respondents concerning the number of brands used in nine product categories, the usage of financial services products and in lifestyle interests. The strong link between OSL and lifestyle interests suggests an urgent need for further research.

Steven M. Burgess, Mari Harris

Consumer Attitudes Toward Importation and Purchasing of Foreign Made Products: A Study of Young Estonian Consumers

This research investigated consumer attitudes toward importation and purchasing of foreign made products, and examined potential sources of consumer ethnocentrism. The results, based on a sample of young, urban respondents in Estonia, revealed rather non-ethnocentric attitudes. While international brand awareness and age were found to be significant determinants of ethnocentricity, gender was not a significant predictor of the phenomenon.

Irena Vida, Vandana Shah Plassmann

Application of the Ethnoconsumerism Paradigm to the International Advertising Debate for Russia and the Newly Independent States: A Matter of Convergence?

It is postulated that ethnoconsumerism is a useful tool for determining the existential underpinnings to consumer decision making within a given culture and is most valuable when applied to emerging markets. The deeper understanding of consumers provided by this approach supports adaptation of international advertising in Russia and the NIS, and other markets of low convergence. The implications of this paper’s findings is that future research should be directed towards ascertaining the determinants of convergence and their relative weighting’s, because the degree of convergence is a key factor in the international advertising debate. This may enable the rate of change of the degree of convergence for societies in transition to be measured. There would also appear to be future opportunities for theoretical development to be carried out on the characteristics (e.g. slope, shape, and linearity) of the proposed convergence curve itself.

Nicholas Constantine Mangos, Max Smith

The Impact of Communist Ideological Legacy on Culture in Central and East European Countries: Marketing Implications

Cultural differences influence the marketing process as it entails customer satisfaction in a specific cultural context This paper aims at identifying the key unified aspects of the impact of communism on culture in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), the current state-of-art, and the implications for Western and local marketers in the region. Those are studied in the aspects of consumer behavior, product and brand development, distribution, marketing communications, and their impact on doing business in CEE.

Marin A. Marinov, Svetla T. Marinova

Consumer Decision-Making in Modern Muslim Households

We examine the roles of husbands and wives in contemporary Muslim households in Turkey. In contrast to a widely-held assumption that Muslim husbands are the family decision-makers, we find many shared decisions. The nature of the family structure–nuclear or extended–also appears to be related to shared vs. gender-specific decisions.

Mara Alexander

A Comparison of American and Thai Managers on Some Important Marketing Ethics Variables

In the present era of globalization, while many aspects of business practices throughout the world have pretty much been standardized, this has not been true for the principles and practices of business ethics (Vogel 1993). Variations in ethical attitudes and behavior among marketing and other business managers from different nations are evidenced in many empirical studies conducted in the last decade (e.g., Graham 1985; Becker and Fritzsche 1987; Dubinsky

et al

. 1991; Singhapakdi

et al

. 1994). This study compares American business managers with Thai business managers in terms of corporate ethical values (Hunt, Wood and Chonko 1989), personal moral philosophies (Forsyth 1980,1992), perceptions of ethical problem and moral intensity (Jones 1991) in marketing, and perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility (Singhapakdi, Kraft, Vitell, and Rallapalli 1995). A self–administered questionnaire was used as the data collection method Managers enrolled in executive MBA or special MBA programs from public and private universities throughout Thailand were selected as target respondents for the Thai group. For the American group, a mailing list of US practitioner members of the American Marketing Association (AMA) was used as the sampling frame. In order to have more balanced samples between the two cultures, a sample of part–time MBA students from a Mid–Atlantic US university was included with the American group.

Anusorn Singhapakdi, Somboon Salyachivin, Busaya Virakul, Vinich Veerayangkur

Marketing Ethics and Moral Philosophies: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Business Students from United States and New Zealand

This study compares business students from the United States and New Zealand regarding their perceptions of the ethical problems, perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility and their personal moral philosophies. Using four marketing ethics scenarios, the results of the study show that, in case of three scenarios, there are no significant differences between American business students and business students from New Zealand. Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ) was used to measure idealism and relativism, the two basic dimensions of personal moral philosophies of the two groups.

Kumar Rallapalli, Mathew Joseph

Ethics of Future Business Managers: The Influence of Beliefs and Values on Ethical Attitudes

Academic cheating is a common problem on today’s college campuses. It is a problem in which many students participate. This research is designed to study the beliefs and value orientations of students related to cheating. The focus is to attempt the determination of which types of personal values dissuade students from contemplating cheating and which personal values are prevalent in those who engage in academic misconduct.

Mohammed Y. A. Rawwas, Hans R. Isakson

Asian Americans’ Perception of Direct Salespeople

The purpose of this study is to compare perceptions of direct salespeople among Chinese, Filipino and Japanese shoppers. Data (N=590) were collected via a questionnaire from a convenience sample of 1,000 respondents. Our research shows that Asian Americans generally have negative perceptions about direct salespeople except for a few situations. Implications for marketing and practice are discussed.

Foo Nin Ho, Steven Koon-Ho Ng

Direct Selling in the Rainbow Nation - Retaining the Distributor!

This paper investigates the key reasons for the high reported levels of distributor turnover, using a case study research method. The study was carried out in South Africa and involved an investigation of a variety of predictor variables which the literature suggested had the capacity to influence distributor retention.

Pumela Msweli, Adrian Sargeant

Category Management: Is it the Answer to Gobal Competition in the Food Industry?

The evolution of alternative format stores has attracted consumers by offering larger package size and the one-stop shopping approach. The grocery industry must remain on top of all trends in order to compete. Specifically, Category Management is a concept that has been adopted by firms in this industry to gain a competitive advantage not only at the national level, but at the global level as well.

A. Ben Oumlil, Rebecca Wells, Steffani Scheurich

Retailing Culture: Cross-Cultural Theoretical and Empirical Issues in Museum Gift Shop Practices

This research has two separate but related goals. First, a review of the retailing literature over the past decade regarding research which focuses on cross-cultural and ethnic topics will be done to establish the dominant


perspective which is characteristic of that body of knowledge. Within this research perspective, researchers tend to choose topics and measures that have been studied, operationalized, and validated in one country, and to replicate the study in another cultural context Cross-cultural replication has its own methodological issues (Douglas and Craig, 1997; Costa and Bamossy, 1995; Douglas, Morrin and Craig, 1994; van Raaij, 1978), but the main difficulty with these studies is the presumption often made regarding the relevance or centrality of the construct or theory in another cultural context The paper then goes on to introduce the theoretical notion of


(Venkatesh, 1995) as a more appropriate and relevant perspective for carrying out cross-cultural research in consumer behavior and marketing. Ethnoconsumerism is the study of consumption from the point of view of the social group or cultural group that is the subject of study, and it advocates examining behavior on the basis of the cultural realities of that group. This notion goes beyond the


perspective, which refers to taking the subject’s point of view in strategies of data collection. Ethnoconsumerism argues for the deeper development of knowledge constructed from the culture’s point of view with respect to all aspects of production and consumption. In terms of research, this perspective pleads for more cultural insights at the conceptualization stage of the study from the culture’s point of view, as well as in matters of sampling, methods of data collection, and interpretive issues of data analysis.

Gary J. Bamossy, Janeen A. Costa

The Marketing Relevance of Cultural Diversity: A Framework for Understanding Ethnicity and Acculturation.

There is a conceptual challenge in establishing a basis for identifying, comparing and aggregating ethnic groups for marketing purposes. Ethnic group boundaries need to be established before any consideration about their marketing relevance can be made. To this effect, this paper presents a framework for examining the importance of ethnicity, involving three dimensions: ethnic origin, ethnic identity and ethnic intensity. The purpose of the framework is to provide a conceptual understanding of how these dimensions develop within the acculturation process, particularly in a culturally diverse society. The relevant literature on ethnicity and acculturation is reviewed as a basis for developing a construct for ethnicity, and relating it to acculturation. The conclusion advocates the need for a dynamic framework for assessing the marketing relevance of ethnic groups and the need for further research using such a framework.

Guilherme D. Pires, John Stanton

Is Reported Ethnicity Affected by the Language of the Questionnaire?

During the 1980s, marketers realized the importance of both self-reported measures of ethnic identity and of the impact of the situation upon felt ethnicity. However, research on the impact of the language(s) of the research instrument upon these measures is contradictory.

Mara Alexander

Ethnicity in Survey Research Methods: The Changing Consumer Demographics and Implications

This paper examines common methodological problems encountered in consumer research of ethnic minority populations. Problems with respect to category construction and population focus, establishing conceptual, functional and measure equivalence, dealing with sampling issues, as well as establishing data collection equivalence are discussed. Specifically, conceptually and methodologically based suggestions together with suggestions for sampling and data analysis are delineated for dealing with some of the concerns in consumer research with ethnic minorities. Ethnocentric and reporting considerations are also addressed. These suggestions are offered in the spirit of encouraging further consumer research in minority populations.

William K. Darley, Jerome D. Williams

The Criterion Problem in Cross-Cultural Research

This paper postulates some conceptual frameworks that have presented researchers of cross-cultural issues with some methodological problems. Herskovits (1948), Kluckhohn and Stodtbeck (1961), Hall (1960), Triandis (1972), Hofstede (1980), and more recently Nasif et al. (1991), Brake et al. (1995), and Lachman (1997) have all given researchers a deeper understanding of culture. This paper reviews their contributions, among others and exposes some recommendations for the operationalization of the illusive variable ‘culture’.

Luis Ortiz

Multinomial-Logit Modeling of Mexican-Americans’ Choice Among International Home-Improvement-Center Retailers

Experimental design utilizing current information-efficiency methods allowed the multinomial-logit modeling of home-improvement-center retailing choice among 105 Mexican-Americans in a major metropolitan area of the US (Stokes, Davis, and Koch 1995). The same research design was implemented with a comparison group OF 117 from the dominant culture in the same metropolitan area.

Mark Peterson, John Wurst

Bueno, Bonito, Y Barato: A Content Analysis of Print Advertising in Hispanic Women’s Magazines

Three hundred and eighty six (386) full page ads in Hispanic women’s magazines were content analyzed using Resnik, Drugman, and Stem’s 1977 Model of Classification of Information Cues. This paper summarizes the findings and implications of this analysis. The results indicate that Hispanic ads were quite informative, in fact more informative than their English counterparts.

Nabil Y. Razzouk, Risa E. Dickson, David Enriquez, Emesto M. Reza

Hispanic Acculturation: Does the Acculturation of Hispanic Consumers Follow the Assimilation Paradigm of Other Ethnic Groups in the U.S.?

The main objective of this research is to explore the acculturation process characteristic of Hispanic consumers. Studies of various ethnicities in the U.S. have generally concluded that immigrants follow the assimilation process, one in which they will give up practices associated with their homeland and progressively adopt those of the host country (Gordon 1964; O’Guinn and Faber 1985). More recent studies about Hispanic acculturation in the U.S. have hypothesized that Hispanics do not fit the assimilation paradigm (Lieberson and Waters 1988; Penaloza 1994). Some authors have adopted the ethnic-resilience theory (that focuses on ethnic solidarity, in-group cohesiveness, and culture reassertion as means to avoid assimilation and protect the group against discrimination) to explain some behavioral patterns among the Hispanics (Porter and Bach 1985).

Arturo Z. Vasquez-Parraga, Sergio Alonso, Humberto Valencia

The Development of Mutual Trust in Cross-Cultural Business Negotiations

The purpose of this study is to provide insight into how mutual trust develops in cross-cultural industrial business negotiations. A theoretical framework is provided that identifies a set of constructs proposed to influence the development of mutual trust in business negotiations. This framework conceives the development of mutual trust as a social interaction process in which verbal, paraverbal and nonverbal behavior of each partner are interrelated. The results of an empirical study designed to validate the established framework are presented.

Thomas Waichhofer, Hans Mϋhlbacher, Michelle Bergadaa

Brand Managers and Industrial Service Suppliers in Pharmaceutical and Other Fast Moving Consumer Goods Companies

This paper investigates the way that brand managers in the pharmaceutical and other fast moving consumer goods industries, view their relationships with service providers. In particular, it analyses the perceived allocation of their working time and the level of contact with their interfaces. The results indicate that there are differences in the development of the examined relationships.

George G. Panigyrakis, Cleopatra A. Veloutsou

Strategy for Integrating Diversity into Business Curriculum

The importance of teaching and integrating diversity into business curriculum has increased in recent years. In spite of this however, many institutions are still confused as to how much of diversity and multiculturalism should be incorporated into their curriculum. This paper presents the result of a survey from 200 Universities across the United States.

Joseph F. Aiyeku, Sonny Nwankwo, Alphonso Ogbuehi

Getting the Most Out of Trade Fairs in International Marketing

Firms involved in international marketing make use of many types of promotion methods to enhance sales and their perceived image. Trade fairs can be an effective way to gain exposure and enhance potential sales overseas. Despite the growth in international trade fairs in recent years, there are potential problems and at times they are not a very good way to spend the promotion budget Good strategy and tactical planning is necessary, however, to take full advantage of the possibilities that international trade fairs have to offer. Many U.S. firms do not utilize international trade fairs as effectively as their European counterparts. This article offers market managers some guidelines for getting the most out of trade fairs in international marketing.

A. Ben Oumlil, William F. Lewis, J. Paul Merenski

Product-Country Images in a Latin-American Multi Cultural Context

This article presents the results of a survey of 440 male consumers carried out in Mexico (240 respondents) and Chile (200 respondents). The results show that consumers put more emphasis on country of origin of consumer products than on brand names and that Chileans give more importance to brand name than Mexicans. Mexican consumers seem to show a higher home country bias in their product-countiy evaluations than Chileans. Chileans were more favourable towards Western countries and Mexican towards newly industrializing countries.

Sadrudin A. Ahmed, Alain d–Astous, José Rojas

How Culture Affects Attributions, Fairness and Willingness to Purchase

The cultural dimension of individualism/collectivism affects causal attributions of adverse outcomes such as price increases: sellers are blamed less by collectivist Hispanics than by individualistic Anglos. The difference, however, is negated by collectivists’ lower evaluation of the seller’s fairness. There is consequently no difference in their willingness to purchase.

Sarah Maxwell

3M: A Critical Thinking Tool for Multicultural Marketers

This paper argues that research and conceptualization about multicultual marketing should be transformed into easily operable tools for multicultural marketing practitioners. Relative to the area of marketing strategy development, the author has performed such a transformation by creating a practical marketing strategy tools that enhances critical thinking skills.

Homer B. Warren

Effective Strategies for Ethnic Segmentation and Marketing

Many marketers have attempted to garner the market potential among ethnic minorities in the US, who have experienced tremendous growth in population and purchasing power. While more marketers are using ethnic segmentation and targeted marketing to reach these consumers, some have grown increasingly concerned with the impact of differentiated marketing on organizational efficiency and marketing performance. This research examines the costs and benefits associated with ethnic segmentation and marketing mix differentiation, and discusses managerial implications for improving marketing performance.

Geng Cui, Pravat Choudhury

The Emergent Racioethnically Diverse Salesforce: It’s Existence and Challenges

The work force of the US is becoming increasingly racioethnically diverse (Fine, 1995; Friday, 1997). There is a void in the research with respect to the documentation of the racioethnic diversity in the salesforce. This paper contributes to the limited research addressing the challenges organizations face as a result of members of various racioethnic groups entering the salesforce.

Shawnta S. Friday, Roscoe Hightower, Earnest Friday

Global Sales Manager Leadership Styles: The Influence of National Culture

Applying the most effective leadership style (participative, supportive, directive, or achievement-oriented) in specific cultural environments can provide global sales managers with powerful tools for managing their diverse salespeople on a world-wide basis. This conceptualization seeks to advance our current understanding of sales manager leadership by developing hypotheses for future testing to suggest the appropriate leadership style to use in different cultural settings.

Rajiv Mehta, Rolph Anderson

Developing Managers Who can Manage and Lead Sales Forces in Multicultural Markets

Today’s salespeople must be trained to sell in multicultural markets, yet those largely responsible for sales training, i.e., sales managers, also need multicultural training. The limited literature on sales management training indicates that most sales managers receive little or no training, and rarely does the training cover multicultural markets. Unless sales managers receive sufficient multicultural training, their sales forces and their companies will have difficulty competing globally in the 21st Century.

Rolph Anderson, Rajiv Mehta

Students’ Attitudes Toward Selling: A Multicultural Comparison

This paper presents the findings of a multicultural study of college students’ attitudes toward selling. Building on previous research, the study concludes that there has been a somewhat positive shift in attitudes toward selling, but students still do not feel that selling is a preferable marketing career choice.

Sylvester O. Monye, Eugene M. Johnson

Seniors Housing and Long-Term Care: The Impact of Ethnicity, Age and Location

Estimates of supply and demand are fundamental to market and feasibility analysis yet the seniors housing industry lacks this data for different states and ethnic market segments. The existing national studies extrapolate current trends and consequently reflect the need to provide for the current population of users— overwhelmingly older white females. The ethnic mix of the population is changing and the change differs markedly by state. Nursing homes, care facilities and related health finance policies are regulated on a state basis. Therefore, understanding the need for senior housing at the state level by ethnic group is important to private sector developers and investors as well as public sector policy makers. This paper reviews earlier research and includes: 1) the use of long term care by ethnic group; 2) information on age and the use of long term care; 3) studies on the use long-term care by state. The research shows the presence of ethnic differences between Blacks and Whites, significant variation by state and regions in seniors’ use of nursing homes, board and care, and home health care. The paper proposes a new approach to the problem, and outlines a methodology using a new data source, the AHEAD data, to estimate the need for market driven seniors housing.

Michael A. Anikeeff, Ven Sriram

A Comparison of White and African-American Attitudes Towards their HMO

The purpose of the study is determine whether there is a difference between African-Americans and Caucasians in the overall satisfaction and the satisfaction with certain aspects of the service with their health maintenance organization (HMO). Race is not a factor in satisfaction with an HMO.

Marshall M. Friedman, David Paul, Santosh Choudhury

The College Nurse as a Marketer of Aids Preventative Behaviour in the Canadian Context

College nurses act as marketers of AIDS preventative behaviour by utilizing key marketing tools in a personal selling context: 1) role of expert and confidante; 2) uncovering of student needs; 3) development of targeted message strategies; and 4) design of promotional programs. This role was demonstrated in a qualitative study conducted among college nurses in Montreal, Canada.

Lea Prevel Katsanis, Suzanne E. Mhanna

The Use of Web Sites for Direct to Consumer Information on Prescription Drugs: Effects and Implications

This paper looks at the use of Web sites for providing direct-to-consumer information in countries where prescription drug advertising is illegal. The growth of this phenomenon and possible effects are examined using Sweden as a case study.

Lynda M. Maddox

Ethnic Evaluations of Advertising: An Examination of the Interaction Effects of Strength of Ethnic Identification, Media Placement, and Degree of Racial Composition

Numerous advertising studies have examined the influence of human models on audience evaluations of advertisements. One particular area of focus has been on the attitudes among audiences towards ads of varying degrees of racial composition (i.e., ads containing all black models, all white models, or integrated ads featuring both races). The overwhelming majority of advertisements from the samples of past studies were drawn from media catering to mass, general audiences with little attention given to advertisements in racially-targeted media. There has been no general consensus as to how black or white audiences view advertisements featuring models of different racial backgrounds. However, most studies have focused on how members of the


population view ads containing ethnic-minority models in general audience media. What has not been addressed in as much detail is how elhnic-minorities who are now being heavity targeted through media, view advertisements featuring majority models, particularly when these ads are placed in media which are racially- and culturally-specific. Advertisers spend approximately $865 million annually to reach African-American consumers, thus, there should be some understanding of how blacks respond to these advertising efforts. A major question left unanswered is, “ Is there any difference in how ethnic minorities view and ad featuring a model from the majority population (e.g., a white model) placed in general audience media (e.g., People Magazine) as opposed to racially- targeted media (e.g., Ebony Magazine)”? Given that ethnic minorities are being targeted, now more than ever before, through television programming as well as print publications, it is likely that the particular media in which ads are placed will have an impact on their evaluations of the ads.

Corliss L. Green

Marketing Fast-Food to African-American Consumers

Although food eating habit is one of the consumption practices that are culturally determined, fast-food consuming behavior and preferences of African-Americans are little researched. Paper examines patronage frequency, and the criteria used by African-American consumers to evaluate service quality in fast-food restaurants. Factors that determine their patronage frequency, and evaluation criteria are also examined.

Philemon O. Oyewole

Advertising to Create Brand Equity

In the 15th centuiy, a


(rice wine) brewer filed a plagiarism claim against his competitors. This is considered to be the first recognition of brand equity in Japanese history. In Japan, however, the concept of brand identification is viewed from a very different perspective than in Western nations.

Toshio Yamaki

Advertising Creative Strategies in Asia: A Cross-National Comparison of TV Commercial Expressions Among Thailand, Singapore, United States, and Japan

The objective of this study is to explore the similarities and differences of Asian advertising expressions fay utilizing various measurements of content analysis. Prime time TV commercials of four countries—Thailand, Singapore, USA, and Japan—were collected and analyzed from the viewpoints of visual, auditory, and message elements. No consistent similar patterns were found among these four countries' advertising. Implications for global advertisers were advanced.

Hiroshi Tanaka, Hiroe Suzuki, Yumiko Umetsu, Fumie Tanaka, Mariko Yasue, Yoshiyuki Sodekawa

A Comparison of Factor Analytic and Tree Analytic Approaches to Segment Japanese Consumers

This paper compares the efficiencies of the two techniques of consumer segmentatioa One of the techniques is based on factor analysis and cluster analysis. Another is based on a decision tree. After a brief review of segmentation approaches, the objectives of the study are presented, followed by the methodology and the results. Finally, marketing implications of the study are discussed.

Hirohiko Asano

Application of Causal Analysis Method to Product Test Results Among Japanese People

This report presents case study results to apply “Path Analysis” to “Cause & Effect Relationship” among attributes in product test This shows a way of thinking concerning the treatment of problems to be considered through the analysis of product test results, such as “Way of Analyzing Perceptions & Evaluations by product attributes” popularly used in product tests, “Occurrence of Correlation by External Factors” and “Choosing Variables”. They were obtained based on product test results of Instant Coffee.

Hideo Goto, Koji Nakamura

Invariance in Italian and Greek Multidimensional Ethnic Identity: Some Implications For Food Consumption

Rather than assimilate, members of ethnic groups in multicultural environments have reportedly experienced a more complex and multifaceted form of adaptation (Lambert and Taylor, 1988,1990). Some have thus not only (a) acquired the skills and/or traits which have enabled them to function within a majority or host culture but have also (b) retained aspects of their cultures of origin. The former facet has been referred to as


and the latter has often been labelled

ethnic identity

(Keefe and Padilla, 1987; Mendoza, 1989; Phinney, 1990). These processes have been presented as correlated facets of a broader process that is referred to as

ethnic change

(Keefe and Padilla, 1987; Laroche, Kim, Hui, and Joy, 1996). The focus of this paper is on ethnic identity. It has been found to impact many aspects of life which include consumption behavior (e.g., Schaninger, Bourgeois, and Buss, 1985; Wallendorf and Reilly, 1983). Nevertheless, the process by which individuals maintain ties to their ethnic group generally remains an enduring issue (Phinney, 1990,1996) and must be further investigated before a substantive theory of culture and consumption can emerge.

Michel Laroche, Chankon Kim, Marc A. Tomiuk

Are There any Differences Between the French Versus English-Speaking Sales Managers?

French-speaking managers control the daily activities of salespeople more than English-speaking managers who delegate more authority and provide much less guidance. French-speaking managers provide more training, spend more time with their people and provide more feedback.

A. Tansu Barker

Using Diversity To Enhance Export Performance

The following paper examines the relationship between diversity measured in this paper as immigrants and export attitudes. After analyzing the results of interviews and attitude questionnaires administered to 76 managers, it was concluded that diversity is associated with more advanced export attitudes. Given the positive relationship between these attitudes and export performance, this paper has found a potential tool for enhancing firms’ export performance.

Jonathan Calof

A Comparative Study of American Tourists’ Perceptions of Canada and Mexico as Travel Destinations

Tourism marketers know that the perceptions and images that consumers have of a travel destination play a significant role in their destination choice processes. Thus, it is incumbent on tourism marketers to ascertain what past/potential travellers think, associate with, or believe to be true about the region. This study offers insights into some Americans’ perceptions about travel to both Canada and Mexico.

Lise Héroux, Nancy J. Church

Decision Making and Lifestyle Influence on the Korean Purchase Process for Jeans

This study examined whether differences exist in the search, pre-purchase and purchase behavior of four distinct lifestyle groups (price conscious, fashion conscious, self-confident and information seeking consumers) among Korean College students. Personal interviews were used to collect data. The results indicate that lifestyle does affect search, pre-purchase and purchase patterns.

Nancy L. Cassill, Martha R. McEnally, Heesun Booher

Service Quality Factors Influencing Choice of an Educational Institution: An Indonesian Perspective

Reforms in the education sector have been taking place in a number of countries since early 1970s (Ginsberg et al 1991 and Lawson 1992). The reform of the education sector in New Zealand started with the focus of achieving efficiency and increasing competition. In order to compete, educational institutions need to differentiate themselves from other service providers. But what makes one service provider stand out in the mind of the consumer over the others providing similar services? Berry and Parasuraman (1992) argue that the success of an organization depends on the ability of the service provider to consistently meet or exceed customers expectations. Thus the measurement of customer perception of service quality becomes critical.

Mathew Joseph, Beatriz Joseph, Earl Honeycutt

Doing Business Research in Vietnam: A Story

Doing business research in Third World nations is never easy and Vietnam is no exception. This article highlights some of the trials and tribulations of the authors firsthand experiences in Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City). Time and patience maybe the two primary requirements for success.

William T. Ryan

The Country of Origin: A Category-Based Process

As many companies move towards internationalization and trade barriers disappear, international marketing research becomes more important Early research investigated what kind of product


(i.e. stereotypes) consumers (primarily North American) held toward various products from different countries (Cattin et al. 1982; Nagashima 1970; Narayana 1981). The majority of the studies indicated that consumers revealed source-country-related biases towards products imported from foreign countries

in general

. However, the main focus of the early COO studies investigating the images of the COO was on the



Hanjoon Lee, Chankon Kim, Thomas Ford

The Influence of Selected Factors on the Perceptions of Small Business Practitioners Regarding Firms of Attorneys

This paper represents an exploratory study establishing the relative value attached by small business in Sourth Africa to certain factors, inter alia advertising and location, pertaining to firms providing legal services. Awareness of the importance of these factors will assist legal firms to improve service delivery thereby improving profitability.

Madèle Tait, Mark tait

Trends and Issues in Multicultural Business Communications in South Africa - An Exploratory Perspective

This article probes the possibility of diminishing business miscommunication in South Africa, by focussing on an awareness of the barriers to effective multicultural marketing and management communication. Business communication is defined as consisting of management as well as marketing communication. The results of a pilot survey on existing business communication strategies in one of the largest provinces in South Africa, is discussed. This had led to some pointers towards a more comprehensive research project, with the ultimate aim of providing a three-tier model for effective multicultural internal and external marketing communication strategies in a post - Mandela South Africa.

Ria Hugo-Burrows

Religious Beliefs and Practices Affecting Marketing by Health Care Organizations in a Multicultural Community: A Preliminary Investigation

Different religious beliefs and practices in multicultural communities could have a considerable effect on health care organizations. It is a fact that many communities are characterized by multicultural and multireligious compositions, especially in certain parts of the world. Health care organizations, such as hospitals, clinics and care centres, have been experiencing increasing demand for differentiated services and related marketing activities, in line with the multireligious demands of their markets. To some extent this matter can be addressed by way of target or niche marketing practices, but in large health care organizations management inevitably has to accommodate various needs due to multicultural differences in religious beliefs and practices.

Marius Leibold, Brian van der Westhuizen

The Growing Importance of Frozen Convenience Pre-Prepared Meals: A Western European Perspective

This paper conveys the more significant trends of the Western European frozen convenience pre-prepared meals market, which is the culmination of a primary and secondary research study conducted in Belgium, England, France, Germany and Sweden. These trends served as a basis for the decision whether to expand internationally within the Western European frozen portionable convenience pasta market, which countries to enter and the construction of an appropriate marketing mix.

Elmarie Venter

Organizational Culture in a Professional Business to Business Service Context: Implications for Business Performance and Long-Term Relationships in Mexican Commercial Banking

Paulin et al. (1998) previously reported that the higher Mexican business clients assessed the strength of the relationship with their banks (relational norms): the higher were their judgements of satisfaction and service quality, the more they were inclined to recommend the bank and the account manager to colleagues and, the less likely they were to switch banks. However, over 50 percent of the business clients of three commercial banks in Mexico City indicated that there was at least a 50–50 percent probability that they would change banks within the next year and that poor service was the principal reason given. Despite an expressed strategy to develop long-term relationships with business clients, commercial banks in Mexico and Canada (Paulin et al. 1997) do not have the most appropriate processes and organizational cultures for being client-oriented according to a service management perspective (Gummesson 1994; Grönroos 1992). However, this is only a one-sided view of this business-to-business relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the possible link between the organizational cultures of the client companies and their assessments of the bank’s effectiveness and their likelihood of switching banks.

Michèle Paulin, Jean Perrien, Ronald Ferguson

Global Business Partnerships and Sourcing Strategies

Global economic integration is happening rapidly in an unanticipated manner, whether it be through the ongoing formation of partnerships, alliances, co-production agreements, joint ventures, or other tools among leading firms (Ehrlich, 1997). One of the most notable business trends in recent years has been the surge in alliance formation. Globalization, escalating R"D expenses, shortening product life cycles, and convergence of technologies are often cited as important factors that contribute to this phenomenon (Hwang 1997). Strategic alliances represent a means for eager firms to pursue their individual strategies despite limited ressources in some areas. Even though strategic alliances are becoming increasingly important in today’s intensified competitive international business setting, they can, however, present a paradox because, by definition, strategic alliances involve the cooperation between two or more firms. Still, these firms are not necessarily after a quick solution to their ressource shortcomings, not are they impatient in their actions. Strategic alliances require, as they typically acknowledge, a long term viewpoint; a willingness to invest in a relationship (Lorange " Roos, 1993).

A. Ben Oumlil

The Portrayal of Blacks in Business Publication Advertising: A Late 90’s Extension

This paper extends, through 1997, a content analytical study of blacks in business publication advertising. The purpose of the study is to determine if the changing numbers and roles of African Americans in the industrial purchasing process are being reflected in business advertising. Results indicate subtle changes in frequencies and portrayals over the past decade.

Thomas H. Stevenson

Impact of Culture, Sex and Presence of Children on Household Time Use

There is increasing interest in time and consumer behavior. Time is a critical component of consumption activities and the relevance of time as an important variable in explaining consumer behavior is widely recognized. The notion of “time buying consumer” (Berry, 1979) – concern with time and its relation to every day life - is becoming a reality with dual-income couples and with fast paced life-styles. For example, it was reported in newspapers recently that in a recent survey for the Hilton Hotels, Professor Robinson had found that high paying executives (both male and female) are willing to take a pay cut in order to have a day&s free time per week.

Jean-Charles Chebat, M. Ven Venkatesan

Cross-Cultural Similarities and Differences in Customer Expectations for Extended Service Transactions in Multinational Markets and their Reflection into Advertising Content

In this study, business customer expectations in multinational markets were elicited in terms of attributes, consequences and personal values and their reflection in advertising was assessed. Hypotheses related to cross-cultural similarities and differences in these expectations were presented. Similarities were predicted on the basis of universality of certain marketing cues and of market-segment expectations. Difference hypotheses were derived from cross-cultural variations in degree of individualism/collectivism and economic ideology (Protestant Work Ethic vs Eastern). In-depth interviews were conducted with 92 frequent business customers of luxury hotels from North American (USA and Canada), Asian-Chinese (Mainland China and Hong Kong) and Asian-Indian (India and Pakistan). Cross-cultural similarity was observed for the importance of price and company/brand image and for business-segment consequences (e.g., saving time) and values (e.g.,accomplishment). Cross-cultural variation in expectations for business-segment attributes was observed with variation in service offerings. As expected, individualist-oriented attributes (e.g. private spaces) were given more importance by North Americans while Asians emphasized collectivist-oriented attributes (e.g., public spaces). Collectivist values (e.g., belonging, responsibility) emerged only in Asian cultures. Economic ideology differences were also confirmed: Consistent with basic PWE values, the most important consequence and its attribute antecedents expected by North-Americans (i.e., work-related attributes leading to a worry-free stay) reflected centrality of work and austerity while for Asians, the corresponding primary consequences (i.e., design and atmospherics attributes putting them in a good state of mind) were geared toward more balance in life, a basic tenet of Asian work philosophy. Cross-cultural similarities and differences observed in customer expectations were only moderately reflected in advertising content Theoretical and managerial implications of the results are discussed.

Laurette Dubé, Amitava Chattopadhyay, Bernd H. Schmitt, Ehsan ul Haque, Sangman Han

The Impact of Cultural Values on Meanings Intended in Self-Designed Print Advertisements

This study is built on the theoretical foundation of McCracken’s (1987, 1989) cultural meaning transfer model of advertising, and examines the meanings intended in self-designed print advertisements for a fictitious brand of athletic shoes. In reflection of the impact of individualism in the Western cultures, the majority of self-designed ads from the Canadian sample put more emphasis on brand meanings in terms of managing one's consumption-related problems or sensory gratification and less emphasis on social brand meanings such as group membership and prestige. The implications and limitations of the findings for cross-cultural communications in advertising aie discussed.

Lianxi Zhou

The Impact of Acculturation on the Adoption of New Products in Cosmopolitan Markets

A conceptual framework incorporating values, acculturation, length of residence as well as price and perceived novelty is proposed to account for the degree of innovativeness in culturally-heterogeneous and cosmopolitan markets. Research hypotheses were tested in Canada and France among three distinct cultural groups, using available new product innovations for each country. Results for neo-consumers confirmed the impact of conservatism, acculturation, price and length of residence on innovativeness. In both countries, neo-consumers with a high cultural assimilation and a low level of conservatism were found more innovative than national consumers low in conservatism.

Naoufel Daghfous, Emmanuel Chéron

Integrated Advertising of Self Image Projective Products Using the Relative Positioning Model in Global Markets

A relative positioning model was developed for self image projective products within the context of global advertising. Integrated advertising with a combination of an image appeal and a direct response statement can create significant synergies. Using the relative positioning model, the advertiser/marketer can plan the appropiate integrated advertising strategy.

J. S. (Vic)

Region Equity and Wine Purchase Decisions: Does The French Cachet Sell Chardonnay?

American wine consumers reported purchase likelihoods for several fictitious wines based on brief verbal descriptions in an information display table. The information in the table was organized according to either region of origin or wine variety categories. Results indicated that the French Chardonnay had a higher purchase likelihood when the table also included a Texas Chardonnay rather than when it included a California Chardonnay. Moreover, the purchase likelihood of the French Chardonnay was higher when the wines were organized according to region rather than variety categories, whereas the reverse was true for the Texas Chardonnay. The purchase likelihood of the California Chardonnay was unaffected by the organization of the information in the table.

Charles S. Areni, Thomas E. Muller

Cross-National Comparisons of Sales Force Control Systems: A Proposal For an Integrative Perspective

Since Anderson and Oliver’s (1987) work has been published, a growing number of researchers are studying sales force control systems and their consequences on various aspects of a salesperson’s attitude, cognitions, behavior and performance (e.g., Cravens et al. 1993; Babakus et al. 1996; Challagalla et al. 1996; Oliver and Anderson 1994, 1995; Stathakopoulos 1996). According to their conceptual framework, sales management has to decide on the nature of salespeople supervision, evaluation and reward depending on a philosophy based on the control of behavior or outcome. According to them, a behavior-based sales force control is a strategy involving considerable monitoring and managerial direction, as well as subjective evaluation methods and high levels of fixed compensation. An outcome-based system, on the other hand, entails little supervision, straightforward evaluation methods and high levels of incentives. In essence, the first system shows salespeople how to perform, assuming that the adopted procedures will allow them to reach the desired objectives. The second system is mostly focused on salespeople results, and pays little attention to the way their performance is achieved. Contrary to Anderson and Oliver’s (1987) original predictions however, recent empirical evidence (Oliver and Anderson 1995) tends to show that sales management choice of a control system is not positioned on a continuum which end points would be outcome or behavior control. It would rather appear that the control system is non linear. Indeed, besides pure forms of outcome or behavior control systems, a hybrid type of control -including elements of both outcome- and behavior-based systems- seems to represent a significant share of governance modes (see Table 1). As additional empirical results appear to be rather scarce, it is interesting to note that, to the best of our knowledge, no other study has ever investigated salespeople management systems outside of North America.

Anne Macquin, Dominique Rouzies

Student Preferences for Sales Careers in Great Britain

This study examines sales and marketing career perceptions and preferences of graduate business students in Great Britain. Management consulting and marketing management were preferred as career paths, while few respondents selected industrial or consumer product sales. Negative descriptors such as, boring, stressful, and pushy ware utilized to describe sales. Findings and implications for sales and marketing managers are presented.

Earl D. Honeycutt, John B. Ford, Irvine Clarke

Developing two Types of Social Distance Scales to be Used in the Host-Guest Relationship Context.

The world is becoming increasingly accessible to most of its population, with travel times decreasing. In this context the earth is getting smaller and because of our accessibility to vastly different countries; cross-cultural contact is becoming more predominant. One area of human interaction where cross-cultural contact is prevalent is tourism.

Maree A. Thyne, Rob Lawson

Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures: Shopping for Prestige in Australia

This study compared the shopping patterns of two types of consumers within that Australian population—those conditioned by collectivist societies (Asian-born) and those conditioned by an individualist society (Australian-born). We hypothesised that consumers from collectivist societies are more prone to express their individuality and identity through the material acquisition of prestige goods than consumers from an individualist society. Data from the Roy Morgan Research syndicated survey of consumers were examined for three types of consumer behaviour: stores patronised for clothing purchases, stores used for the purchase of furnishings, and type of car currently owned. The findings indicate that Australian consumers originating from collectivist cultures have a stronger tendency to patronise prestige stores and drive upscale types of cars than Australian consumers who were born in their individualist nation. This pattern of consumer association with more prestigious stores is quite apparent even when income effects are held constant

Megan Cleaver, Myung-Soo Jo, Thomas E. Muller

Cultural Marketing for Asian Tourism into Australia

The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an empirical analysis of cross-cultural models. These models have been developed to determine which cultural differences between Asian tourists and Australian hosts are potential predictors of Asian tourist satisfaction with cross-cultural tourist-host contact

Yvette Reisinger, Lindsay Turner


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