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2024 | Buch

Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Green Building, Civil Engineering and Smart City

herausgegeben von: Wei Guo, Kai Qian, Honggang Tang, Lei Gong

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


Über dieses Buch

The book gathers the emerging technologies and applications in various disciplines involving green building, smart infrastructure and 3D Printing, which are presented in high-quality papers of GBCESC. Moreover, by sharing knowledge and experiences around emerging civil engineering and smart city, the book aims to provide readers with an overview of the emerging trends in the fields of green building, Civil Engineering and Smart City. The topics covered include Structural Engineering, Geological Engineering, Smart Cities, Urban Planning and Design, Construction Technology, green building technology, etc. This book will be useful for researchers and professionals in designing, building, and managing sustainable buildings and infrastructure.



Civil Engineering

Experimental Investigation on Shear Connectors for Glulam-UHPC Composite Structures

The combination of glulam timber and concrete has shown to have significant potential for sustainable building design, exploiting the compressive strength of concrete and the tensile strength of timber. To improve the structural performance of timber-concrete composite beam (TCC), this paper proposed a glulam-UHPC composite beam structure that incorporated Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) material, which possessed high strength and durability. This new composite system aimed to reduce dead weight, minimize long-term deformation, and enhanced the span capacity of the structure. However, useful shear connection between the glulam beams and concrete slabs was crucial to ensure the structural feasibility of this system. To investigate the mechanical behavior of the Timber-UHPC connectors in composite structures, various connection systems were analyzed and compared through push-out tests. Results revealed that the notch-screw connection exhibited superior bearing capacity, anti-sliding stiffness, and ductility compared to pure screw and pure notch connectors. This study provided valuable insights into the design and construction of composite structures using TCC and UHPC materials, with potential applications in a range of structural systems.

Wanru Huang, Pengcheng Li, Xiaoyue Zhang
A Dynamic Detection Method for Railway Track Irregularities Combining Line-Structured Lasers and GNSS/IMU

A method combining line-structured lasers and GNSS/IMU sensor groups was proposed for dynamic detection of geometric irregularity parameters of railway tracks. 4 sets of line-structured lasers and a set of GNSS/IMU modules are mounted on a small track inspection vehicle and used to collect 3D point clouds of the track area, then through hard synchronization, the point cloud of the left and right track areas was fused with the sensor space pose parameters to obtain the point cloud model of the track area in absolute coordinates system. Use the combination of straight-through filter and cloth filter to extract the center line of the top surface of the rail and the gauge measurement reference line, then calculated the track irregularity parameters based on the filtering results. The method in our paper was verified on a test railway section. The results show that the proposed method can accurately obtain the center line of the rail top and the reference line of the gauge measurement, and can quickly and dynamically implement the five irregular geometric parameters of height, level, twist, rail direction, and gauge, and the accuracy can reach mm level measurement.

Tong Wang, Haoxuan Xu, Qingzhou Mao, Yuanbo Mu, Guangqi Wang
Seismic Performance of Bridge Piers with Pile Foundations Under Frozen Soil Conditions

In order to study the effect of permafrost on the seismic performance of bridge piers with pile foundations, a three-dimensional finite element model considering the effect of frozen soil was firstly established. Then the effects of unfrozen soil, seasonal frozen soil and permafrost on the seismic performance of bridge piers with pile foundations were compared and analyzed. The results show that the variation of frozen soil conditions has a great influence on the seismic performance of bridge piers with pile foundations. The presence of frozen soil can greatly enhance the lateral bearing capacity, energy dissipation and initial stiffness of piers with pile foundation, and can improve the deformation capacity of pile-soil system to a large extent. Frozen soil has a great influence on the distribution of pile foundation displacement. It is found that permafrost can significantly reduce the displacement of pile base, while seasonal frozen soil can significantly reduce the displacement of pile head.

Wanping Wang, Xiyin Zhang, Shengsheng Yu, Jiada Guan
Application of Big Data Analysis in Bridge Monitoring System

In this paper, bridge health monitoring and damage detection are studied. The development status of the bridge health monitoring system is investigated, especially the application of big data analysis in this field. Firstly, the steps and methods of big data analysis are introduced in detail. Then the Ganjiang River high-speed railway cable-stayed bridge is selected as the monitoring object, and the possibility of the real-time online wind field, fatigue degree, statistics, and safety evaluation are analyzed. Finally, the problems existing in the bridge health monitoring and safety evaluation system are summarized.

Xian Xiao
Design of the Stiffener Layout for Dome Structures Based on Topology Optimization

The inner steel plate of the containment dome in the nuclear power plant is commonly used as formwork for concrete pouring. After construction, the steel plate also becomes a part of the load-bearing system of the dome. To prevent excessive deflection and out-of-plane instability during construction and operation, stiffeners need to be added to the surface of the inner steel plate. In this paper, we combine the parameterization scheme based on radial basis functions and topology optimization to conduct the optimization design for the stiffener layout on the inner steel plate of the containment dome. Various loading conditions and symmetry models are employed to optimize the stiffener layout. The secondary design of the dome with stiffeners is then modeled based on the optimal results. Finally, the finite element analysis of the secondary design is performed using ANSYS to evaluate structural performance. The results of the static analysis, eigenvalue buckling analysis, and ultimate bearing capacity demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization method in the optimal design of the stiffener layout.

Yougang Wang, Dingkun Chen, Yunlun Sun, Zitong Bao, Junhong Zhang, Weipeng Xu, Liang Hong, Peng Wei
Feasibility Study of Optimization of Ultrasonic Tomography Algorithm in Concrete

Concrete, as the main material in modern engineering construction, is one of the most determinant factors of the mechanical performance in structure. To rapid evaluation of its status is essential for the structural safety. Ultrasonic tomography is a non-destructive technique that can visualize the internal defects in the concrete by reconstructing the velocity distribution. In this paper, we proposed some feasible implementations to optimize the ray-trace based tomography algorithm. The influential factors on the accuracy of ultrasonic tomography were studied using numerical models. The errors source due to the nature of ray-trace method was discussed. The corresponding be reduced in terms of solution-correction based on the benchmark for SART. Then the influential parameters (e.g. flaw size, transducer layout, and frequency) were discussed. Finally, the feasible optimization measures have been proposed and evaluated.

Lu Zhang, Chong Qiao, Shangda Jia, Hongyu Li
Static and Dynamic Analysis of Construction Catwalk of Long-Span Suspension Bridge

With the increasing span of the suspension bridge, the wind resistance design of the catwalk has gradually become the dominant factor controlling its design. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze its static and dynamic characteristics and the factors that affect its dynamic characteristics. Taking the catwalk of a long-span suspension bridge as an example, the static and dynamic analysis of the catwalk is carried out based on Midas/Civil software and cable vibration theory . The results show that the dynamic characteristics of the catwalk obtained by the finite element model are consistent with the results of theoretical analysis. The stress of various components in the catwalk meets the safety factor requirements under extreme loads. However, there are obvious low-order vibrations in the local nodes of the catwalk structure, which will generate significant wind-induced responses at high wind speeds and significantly impact construction. The research can provide a further reference for the wind resistance design of catwalks of the same type.

Jinguo Jiang, Jihua Xiong, Feng Wang
Feasibility Study on Angle Integral Deformation Measurement Method of Inclination Sensor in Existing Railway Deformation Monitoring

In order to monitor the influence of the actual project construction on the existing subway structure, it is necessary to monitor the deflection of the existing subway structure in the construction process. At present, the total station is used to measure the deformation of the project. Practice has proved that the total station measurement method has a high cost of instruments and personnel, the layout of measuring points is difficult and easy to be damaged, and the monitoring conditions are relatively harsh. The angle integral deformation measurement method of inclination sensor is adopted for the deformation monitoring of existing railway. The method mainly uses the high-precision inclination sensor to measure the sectional angle of the existing subway structure, and then calculates the deformation of the subway structure by subsection integral deformation. This method has a mature application in the horizontal displacement measurement of deep foundation pits, but it is an innovative application in the deformation measurement of subway.

Yufeng Xu, Yongmao Tang, Gui Li, Fentao Guo, Zhuobin Huang
Seismic Response of Bridge Pile Foundation in Permafrost Incorporating Advanced Pile-Soil Dynamic Interaction Model

High-rise pile cap foundations play a crucial role in bridge engineering within permafrost regions. This study aims to investigate the seismic response of bridge pile foundations with high-rise caps during both cold and warm seasons. Initially, the existing dynamic analysis model of pile-soil interaction is enhanced. Subsequently, a dynamic analysis finite element model incorporating pile-soil interaction is established, focusing on a bridge pile foundation with a high-rise cap along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway. The seismic response of the bridge pile foundation in the permafrost region under varying seasonal conditions is analyzed. Compared with thawed active layer condition, the acceleration response at the pier top is larger, the maximum shear force and moment of the pile foundation are larger under the frozen active layer condition. After the thawing of the active layer, the pile foundation and the pier top lateral displacement of increases significantly, and the residual gap between the pile-soil increases during earthquake. The pile plastic zone length is small and mainly concentrated near the soil surface when the active layer is frozen, while the pile plastic zone length increases after the thawing of the active layer, and the severe damages occur near the freezing and thawing interface of the soil layer.

Shengsheng Yu, Xiyin Zhang, Wanping Wang, Jiada Guan
Study on the Calculation of Bending Capacity Based on UHPC Design Codes

Based on ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) codes of China, France and Switzerland, the comparative calculation and analysis were carried out. Besides, finite element analysis (FEA) is conducted based on MIDAS software. Results of FEA indicated that the maximum bending moment of the midspan section is 25084.11 kN-m. moreover, the calculation results obtained from the above codes meet the requirements of bending moment. Addiction, analysis results of codes indicate that there is little difference in the calculation of bending capacity in those codes. The bending capacity calculated by Chinese, French and Switzerland codes are 39613.3 kN·m, 38423.61 kN·m, and 41067.36 kN·m, respectively.

Lei Sun, Jianluan Li
Choice of Soil Constitutive Models in Numerical Analysis of Foundation Pit Excavation Based on FLAC3D

The selection of soil constitutive model is very important in numerical analysis of foundation pit excavation. In the process of foundation pit excavation, the stress path of soil in different areas is different. And the stress path has a significant influence on the mechanical parameters of soil. Therefore, the selected constitutive model should be able to reflect the influence of stress path. FLAC3D 6.0 embeds directly usable hardened soil model and small strain hardened soil model, which expands the application range of the numerical method in geotechnical engineering. Based on FLAC3D, the applicability of common soil constitutive models including linear elastic model, Mohr-Coulomb (MC) model, hardened soil (HS) model and small strain hardened soil (HSS) model for foundation pit engineering are studied. It is founded that the linear elastic model is not suitable for the analysis of foundation pit excavation. MC model has poor applicability for shallow foundation pit excavation, but the increase of excavation depth improves its applicability in some extent. HS model and HSS model can reasonably describe the deformation of surrounding soil and supporting structure in the process of excavation, and HSS model can consider the elastic nonlinearity in the small strain range, hence the numerical results are closest to the measured results. The results can provide a theoretical basis for selecting a reasonable constitutive model for foundation pit engineering numerical analysis based on FLAC3D in the future.

Shang Xiao, Ming Xu, Riyan Lan
Application of Endurance Time Method in the Seismic Responses Analysis of Free-Field Site

The Endurance Time Method is a promising seismic analysis technique due to its gradual increase in seismic excitation amplitude over time. It involves the prediction of a structure’s gradual transition from an elastic state to a nonlinear damage state during a single time-history calculation. The application of Endurance Time Method in soil-structure problems can significantly reduce computing time. In this paper, the Endurance Time Method is applied on the seismic prediction of free-field site. The results of Endurance Time Method are compared with that of incremental dynamic analysis. For the problem in this paper, Endurance Time Method is well applied in the seismic responses analysis of free-field site, particularly when the induced seismic intensity is small.

Wenting Li, Haozhe Xu
Compressive Stress-Strain Relationships of Wall Sheathings Used in Cold-Formed Thin-Walled Steel Shear Walls

Structural wall sheathings are commonly used in cold-formed thin-walled steel (CFS) shear walls. However, there are few reports on the compressive stress-strain relationships of wall sheathing. To investigate the compressive stress-strain relationships of the wall sheathing, 54 rectangular samples of gypsum wallboard (GWB), oriented strand board (OSB), and fiber cement board (FCB) were designed and manufactured. Compressive loading tests were also conducted, and failure phenomenon, stress, strain, elastic modulus, and Poisson’s ratio of samples were investigated. The results indicate that the failure mode of GWB is a compressive failure at the end of the sample while that of OSB and FCB is an oblique shear failure at the middle of the sample. Finally, a three-stage stress-strain model was proposed. The comparison between the test and calculated curves shows that the proposed model has good accuracy. The results of this paper can be utilized as a reference for engineering applications and theoretical research of CFS shear walls.

Song Hu, Li Zhou, Yong Huang, Chao Yin, Qingyu Zou, Yifeng Xu
Research on Impact-Abrasion Resistance of High-Strength Concrete with Recycled Rubber

To improve the impact and abrasion resistance of concrete while minimizing the detrimental effects on compressive strength caused by the addition of rubber, a novel high-density rubber concrete was designed based on the closest packing model. The influence of different rubber content on the impact and abrasion performance, as well as the mechanical properties, was analyzed. The underlying mechanism behind the impact and abrasion resistance of high-density rubber concrete was elucidated. The results revealed that the high-density rubber concrete exhibited excellent resistance to impact and abrasion. Compared to the high-density reference concrete, the impact and abrasion strength of rubber concrete initially increased and then decreased as the rubber content gradually increased from 10% to 20% and 30%. Considering both the degradation of compressive strength and the enhancement of impact and abrasion strength, the optimal rubber particle content was determined to be 10% for high-density rubber concrete.

Yuancong Liu, Jiangfeng Dong, Yi Xu, Qingyuan Wang, Dekun Peng
Structural Force Analysis and Service Condition Monitoring of a Port Door Machine

Based on the service state of the port door machine, the structural force characteristics are analysed from multiple angles, the optimal online real-time monitoring solution is designed and the real service state of the door machine is given based on the monitoring data. According to the field working condition of the door machine, six typical service conditions of the door machine are summarised according to the wind load, boom extension and lifting weight. The finite element method is used to establish a refined model of the door machine, and the structural stress performance of the door machine under the six operating conditions is analysed comprehensively to find out the weak points of the structure so as to determine the optimal sensor arrangement, and then realise online real-time monitoring of the health information of the working stress and strain of the door machine. The degree of influence of different loads on the stresses of the door machine was obtained. The results show that the most influential load is the self-weight load of the door machine, followed by the crane load of the door machine, while the wind load has less influence on the strain, and the dangerous cross-section of each member of the door machine is located at the member joints. The strain values of the members of the door machine did not exceed the permissible strain of the material according to the actual measurements. The strains in the actual monitoring corresponded to the simulation results, and the monitoring data of all parts of the door machine fluctuated steadily, with no abnormalities in the structural health status, effectively ensuring the safe and stable operation of the door machine.

Wei Sun, YaYa Gao, PeiXuan Yan
A Novel Self-Recovery Tri-stable Damper: Design and Analysis of the Energy Dissipation Performance

Mechanical metamaterials with the natural material engineered can give them properties and functions, which are not available in any existing materials. Recently, the mechanical metamaterials have already become a cutting-edge research topic and are widely used in many fields such as electronics, biology, medicine etc. In this paper, we introduced the concept of the mechanical metamaterials to the damper design for seismic resistance in civil engineering. A novel self-recovery tri-stable metal damper (SRTMD) was proposed, which takes fully advantage of the elastic deformation to realize the ability of self-recovery. Tri-stablility consists of two bistable elements (BE). The detailed design of BE and SRTMD was described in the paper. The mechanism was illustrated theoretically. Further, the energy dissipation performance of SRTMD was evaluated numerically. The results show that the proposed damper has an excellent capability in energy dissipation and post-earthquake restorability.

Hongyu Li, Xiangxing Zeng, Liling Xie, Lu Zhang
Effect on Autogenous Volume Deformation of Concrete Mixed with Magnesium Oxide and Polyethylene Fiber

In order to explore the effect on autogenous volume deformation of concrete mixed with magnesium oxide (MgO) and polyethylene fiber, this paper measured the autogenous volume deformation of concrete different admixtures of magnesium oxide and polypropylene fiber revealing the mechanism of compounding in concrete. The results showed that the compounding of MgO and polypropylene fiber has a significant effect on the autogenous volume deformation of concrete, and the more obvious with the increase of mixing amount. It was revealed from the experimental point of view that the cracking effect of concrete compounded with MgO and polypropylene fiber can be effectively improved, which promote the application of panel rockfill dam.

Shaolian Yan, Weiwei Li, Tijiang Fu, Ziyu Song, Xue Luo, Guigang Jin
Research on Critical Technology of Cable Hoisting Construction of Large-Span Bridge

Bridges are important nodes in the transportation network, and the rationality of design and the safety of construction should be paid more attention to. Erecting the main cable strand and hoisting the main girder are important links in the construction of suspension bridges, which will affect the quality and efficiency of the whole construction. To research the critical technology of cable hoisting construction, a truss-steel suspension bridge is investigated. The main cable of the research object is carried out by the Prefabricated Parrel Wire Strand (PPWS) method. And, the erected catwalk system then undertakes the main girder hoisting process. The lineshape and cable length are calculated based on the parabolic theory, and then the tractive force required for the main cable erection is also obtained. The force analysis of carrier cable, hoisting cable, and haulage cable of the catwalk cable hoisting system has been conducted, which ensures the safety of the system. The results show the tractive force of the main cable construction is mainly affected by the reverse tension and gravity. The mid-span sag between the portals will affect the tractive force of winches. Reasonable design can ensure the bearing capacity of the cable when hoisting the main beam. In the discussed study case, the successful application of the cable hoisting system can prove a method and reference to similar construction.

Jihua Xiong, Jinguo Jiang, Xu Liu, Pengcheng Li
Numerical Simulation Analysis of the Influence of Recharging Wells on the Settlement of Buildings Surrounding Deep Foundation Pits

In the process of excavating the deep pit, due to the change in groundwater level, will inevitably cause uneven settlement of the surrounding buildings. To prevent such uneven settlement and to protect the safety of surrounding buildings, recharging methods are often used in the project. In this paper, with the engineering example, the finite element software is used to simulate the deep excavation dewatering and recharge process, and the influence of different recharge volumes, different lengths of recharge wells, and recharge wells with different positions on the settlement of buildings is studied. The results show that the greater the amount of recharge, the better the control effect on building settlement, but the excessive amount of recharge will lead to the uplift of the surrounding soil of the building. With the same amount of recharge, the longer the length of the recharge well, the smaller the settlement of the building. The recharging well can restore the water level lost at the building due to dewatering. The larger the amount of recharge, the longer the length of the recharging well and the more the water level is restored. When the recharging well is between the building and the dewatering well, the settlement control effect of the recharging well is the best.

Caihaiduojie, Haifeng Tian, Xugang Yin
Meso-Scale Study on Dynamic Shear Property and Size Effect of RC Beams Reinforced with CFRP

A three-dimensional mesoscale numerical analytical model for studying CFRP reinforced RC beams was developed using the ABAQUS finite element numerical calculation platform. The heterogeneity of concrete material and the interaction between rebar/CFRP and concrete was considered. Different strain rates were studied to explore the size effect behaviors and shear failure. The conclusions show that: 1) with the increase of the strain rate, the shear bearing capacity increases, and with the increase of the beam height, the nominal shear strength decreases; 2) increased strain rate can result in RC beams reinforced with CFRP having greater nominal shear strength, while it can also result in diminished size effect behaviors; 3) the nominal shear strength was predicted, a formula that considers both the size effect and the strain rate effect was proposed.

Dong Li, Bo Yang, Jiangxing Zhang, Liu Jin, Xiuli Du
Experimental Investigation on the Interfacial Bond Failure Between FRP Bars and Sea Sand Concrete

The interface between the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars and sea sand concrete (SSC) is to connect the two materials, and the interfacial bonding performance (IBP) is crucial for the load-bearing capacity of structural members. To investigate the impacts of different factors, including bar type, bar diameter, and concrete strength, on the IBP between FRP bars and SSC, pull-out tests are performed on twenty-seven specimens.Based on the thick-walled cylinder theory, a semi-empirical model of interfacial ultimate bond strength at ambient temperature was proposed. The results show that the early interfacial bond strength of FRP bars-SSC specimens is slightly higher than that of steel rebar-SSC specimens. The profile of ribs has a greater impact on the IBP than the bar type and bar diameter. During the pull-out process, the surface of FRP bars is severely worn, and some fibers on the bar surface undergo brittle fracture, resulting in a reduction of interfacial bond strength. The interfacial bond strength estimated by the proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental results.

Ben Yang, Chunheng Zhou, Zihua Zhang
On the Finite Element Modelling of Long-Term Behavior of Pre-cracked RC Beams Strengthened with FRP

The principal objective of this paper is to numerically study the time-dependent behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beam externally bonded with an FRP system considering concrete pre-cracking and FRP stress-lagging. Load-sustaining experiments were performed on seven specimens with different loading paths before strengthening. Based on the authors’ previous study, an advanced finite element (FE) model was presented. The FE model included the time-dependent behaviors of materials and the bond-slip response between concrete and steel bars. From the results of the FE model, the time-dependent deflections and strains were reasonably predicted, as well as the gradual cracking of concrete along with time. The complicated changes of structural stress/strain with time were investigated. Also, the sensitiveness of FRP-concrete interfacial creep on long-term deformation was discussed.

Weilai Yao, Tao Sun, Yuanxue Liu, Junru Ren, Rui Mu, Xinlei Cheng, Yixin Lei, Binghong Li
Simulation Analysis of Reflection Crack Propagation Path of Asphalt Overlay Under Coupling Load

At present, the widely used scheme in the cement concrete pavement reconstruction and extension project is to add asphalt surface layer. It is urgent to elaborate the spreading principle of reflection crack. In this paper, the typical asphalt overlay structure of an urban road reconstruction and expansion project in Nanning, Guangxi is taken as an example. Combined with the theory of fracture mechanics, the plane strain model is established by ABAQUS software to analyze the changes of stress, strain field and expansion path of each reflecting crack propagation step under coupling load. The results show that the stress and strain field of the crack tip increase with the upward expansion of the reflected crack, and develop rapidly in the late expansion period. The crack propagation Angle decreases with the crack propagation. The expansion path tends to extend upward on the side without load, and the path gradually deviates from the side under load with the expansion of cracks, and the extension length also increases gradually.

Qinshou Huang
Environmental Disturbance Analysis and Control in the Excavation of a Foundation Pit Near a Building Structure

This study focuses on the analysis and control of environmental disturbance resulting from the excavation of a foundation pit in proximity to an airport hotel. The research aims to investigate the impact of pit excavation on the hotel structure, surrounding ground, and the behavior of the pile support system. The settlement pattern indicates that the hotel structure experiences greater settlements on its southern side, near the excavation site. Moreover, the excavation of deeper layers leads to a noticeable rise in the ground level, with the bottom of the negative first floor exhibiting higher elevation compared to the negative ground floor. These observations highlight the need for careful consideration of excavation depth and unloading effects during construction. Furthermore, the study examines the displacement and deformation characteristics of enclosure piles. It demonstrates that the perimeter pile wall experiences convergence towards the excavation pit, particularly at the bottom and near the top of the piles.

Xitao Lin, Fan Mo, Yuebang Cui, Jinli Xie, Gui Huang, Hailin Cheng, Zongli Gao, Shiying Lu, Qianwei Xu, Hui Yan
Topology Optimization Design of Liquid-Cooled Radiator Based on Variable Density Method

Liquid-cooled radiator has the advantages of high heat exchange efficiency and uniform temperature distribution, which makes it widely used in the thermal management system of electronic equipment. The structure of the cooling channels in the liquid-cooled radiator is a significant factor affecting the cooling performance of the radiator. In order to improve the comprehensive heat exchange efficiency of the liquid-cooled radiator, this paper uses the topology optimization method to design the layout of the flow channels. The variable density method is employed to study the problem of heat transfer maximization. Moreover, the effects of the pressure difference and heat generation coefficient of heat source on the optimization results are investigated. The results show that in the optimization design, with the increase of the pressure difference or the heat transfer coefficient of the heat source, the flow channel structure becomes more complex, and the amount of heat transfer of the radiator is increased.

Kaixun Jia, Bin Zhang
Simulation Analysis of Long-Span Single-Tower Hybrid Beam Cable-Stayed Bridge

The bridge in Foshan is a single-tower hybrid beam cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 268m and a tower height of 151m. The arrangement of the main bridge spans is (65 + 75 + 268) meters. Using the finite element simulation analysis method, the deformation, stress, and cable forces of the main bridge structure under permanent, variable, and combined loads were calculated. The results indicate that the deformations, stresses, and cable forces of the structure in the permanent load condition are within a reasonable range, satisfying the requirements of construction control. Under combined loads, the compressive stress on the upper surface of the concrete main beam near the main tower is relatively high. It is recommended to reinforce the reinforcement or take structural measures based on the direction of compressive stress in that area. The deformations, stresses, and cable forces at other locations are within a reasonable range and generally meet the design requirements.

Tonghui Jiang, Jiading Yang, Dequan Zhu, Yufeng Xu, Mengyang Zhu
The Influence of Multi-level Loading on Cracking Behavior of Sandstone with a Single Flaw

Underground engineering rocks are highly inclined to cyclic loading caused by various engineering activities such as earthquakes, excavation or blasting. Understanding the process of crack evolution in rocks under cyclic loading is crucial for assessing the stability and safety of engineering structures. Multi-level cyclic loading and unloading tests on flawed sandstone with varying flaw inclinations was conducted to investigate the crack propagation behavior under complex loading conditions. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique was utilized in tracking the process of cracking. According to results of the test, during the multiple cyclic loading levels, crack propagation was observed to go through two stages, i.e. stable propagation and unstable propagation. The behavior of cracks in these two stages was influenced by the number of cyclic loads and the upper limit stress of loading.

Yuxin Li, Pengzhi Pan, Shuting Miao, Yujie Feng
Study on Seismic Damage Mode and Key Construction Damage Mechanism of Highway Pile-Plate Structure

The seismic design concept based on performance for bridge structures is an important direction for the continued improvement and development of bridge seismic design specifications. One of the key aspects is to choose reasonable indicators for defining and quantifying the seismic performance level of bridge structures. In this article, the Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) method was used to simulate the entire earthquake damage and failure process of a rigid frame bridge with a high pier. The findings reveal that, in sleeve-type and bolted-type connection pile-plate structures under far-field and near-field seismic motions, different prefabricated pile positions and joints carry the same seismic force during the earthquake process. However, under far-field and near-field earthquakes, the state of the prefabricated pile pile bottom and connection structure differs under different Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels.

Xiaoming Liu, Feng Xue
Free Vibration and Tension-Bending Coupling Behaviors of Sandwich Panels with Novel Tri-Chi Honeycomb

The triangular chiral honeycomb is inspired by the anti-tetra chiral design and consists of fully triangular cells, which is a novel structure that exhibits a negative Poisson’s ratio. In this study, the effective plate properties of sandwich panels with triangular chiral honeycombs (SP-TCH) are evaluated using the variational asymptotic method. Based on this, a two-dimensional reduced-order plate model (2D-RPM) is developed. The accuracy and effectiveness of the 2D-RPM is verified by comparing its analysis of the tension-bending coupling and free vibration of SP-TCH against 3D finite element (FE) model results.

Minfang Chen, Yifeng Zhong, Irakoze Alain Evrard, Xiaoquan Liu
Research on Construction Scheme for a Four-Span Continuous Slanting Heterotypic Stay Cable Arch Bridge

The complex shape of heterotypic stay cable arch bridge have led to challenges in structural analysis and construction. This paper, based on the Echeng Bridge project in Huizhou City, introduces a bridge construction scheme. Finite element software is used to simulate the construction process. The analysis results indicate that the stress, deformation, and cable forces in the bridge during the construction process meet the requirements specified by materials and regulations. The proposed bridge construction scheme is considered feasible, and the simulation analysis results can serve as theoretical reference values for bridge construction monitoring. The findings provide valuable insights and guidance for future similar bridge construction projects.

Yufeng Xu, Zihui Li, Zhantao Zhang
Study on Seismic Reduction Effect of Friction Pendulum Isolation Bearing in Curved Beam Bridge with Variable Height Pier

This paper investigates the seismic response of curved beam bridges equipped with friction pendulum isolation bearings through nonlinear time history analysis. Various influencing factors are considered, including different bearing schemes, friction coefficients, and slide radii of the friction pendulum isolation bearings. The results demonstrate that the use of friction pendulum bearings significantly reduces the internal force and displacement responses of the curved beam bridge. The effectiveness of isolation is closely related to the location and number of bearings. For curved beam bridges with variable height piers, the friction pendulum bearings exhibit better isolation performance in the tangential direction compared to the radial direction. Both the friction coefficient and slide radius of the bearings influence the seismic response of the curved bridge. The influence of the friction coefficient on the seismic performance of the bridge is more pronounced compared to the slide radius of the bearing. The selection of an appropriate friction coefficient not only controls the internal force of the bridge but also mitigates the displacement response.

Jiada Guan, Xiyin Zhang, Xingchong Chen, Yongliang Zhang
Experimental Study on Direct Tensile Properties of UHPC

This article studied the direct tensile properties of UHPC with different ratios and found that after reaching the maximum tensile load, the load gradually began to decrease and all showed a decrease in load fluctuations, with a certain strain hardening effect; As the crack width of the specimen increases, the load begins to steadily decrease. With the same ratio, as the cement strength increases, the initial cracking strength of UHPC increases by 65% and the tensile strength increases by 14%; The initial cracking strength of UHPC using cement from different origins did not change, but the tensile strength slightly increased; With the increase of fiber content, the initial cracking strength of UHPC increased by 39%, and there was no significant change in tensile strength.

Huiqing Xue
Attitude Adjustment Technology of Rectangular Pipe Jacking

The factors that affect the posture control of long distance and large section rectangular pipe jacking are very complex, including engineering geological factors, errors of pipe jacking supporting facilities, difficulties in controlling the posture of pipe jacking during the jacking process, etc., which greatly increases the construction risk of long distance and large section pipe jacking. Suzhou Cheng Bei Road Comprehensive Pipe Rack Project is a long distance and large cross-section rectangular pipe jacking construction project. In the process of pipe jacking and launching, aiming at the attitude control during jacking, this process has taken comprehensive control measures, including reinforcement and precipitation during the starting process, drainage during construction, axis control, deflection control, attitude control during jacking and launching, and “bump prevention”.

Jiangsheng Xie, Hongbin Guo
Numerical Study on Performance of Single-Keyed Epoxy Joint of Ultra-high Performance Concrete (UHPC) Under Combined Shear and Torsion Load

Under the vehicle load, segment joints are subjected to coupling effects of bending, shear, and torsion, while epoxy joints are mainly subjected to a combination of shear and torsion, making them more prone to failure. In this study, to investigate the torsion-shear performance of single-keyed epoxy joints of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), a refined finite element model (FEM) was carried out considering the effect of confining pressure in this study. The results of FEM indicated that the increase of confining pressure can effectively improve the shear-torsional load capacity of the epoxy joints. Whereas the increase of confining pressure has little effect on the improvement of stiffness. However, in view of the high confining pressure (when the confining pressure is greater than 18 MPa), the damaged surface of the specimen changes from the root of the male key to the feminine key.

Zhe Li, Yun Shen, Lei Sun
Simulation Analysis of the Construction Process of a Hybrid Girder Cable-Stayed Bridge with Profiled Towers

In order to study the mechanical state of the construction process of the hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge with profiled towers, this paper takes a bridge in Foshan as the research background, which is a 200 m main span hybrid girder cable-stayed bridge with 125 m high main towers and a span arrangement of (200 + 68 + 46) m. The research method of finite element simulation analysis is used to calculate the mechanical state of the main bridge structure under load. The results show that: the main tower under permanent action and combined action are maintained in a reasonable range, the structure under permanent action and combined action into the bridge state of the main beam stress, main beam deformation and cable force are located in a reasonable range, for the development of construction plans to provide effective reference value.

Tonghui Jiang, Jiading Yang, Dequan Zhu, Yufeng Xu
Calculation and Analysis of Embodied Carbon Emissions in Open Cut Foundation Pits

In order to achieve the goal of "double carbon" in China, to provide data support for energy saving and emission reduction of foundation pit projects, to solve the problem of complicated and tedious process of quantifying greenhouse gases in foundation pit projects, to improve the engineering quality of foundation pit projects, and to increase carbon emission as one of the evaluation indexes of foundation pit projects, this paper establishes a modular calculation method of embodied carbon emission for foundation pit projects based on the whole life cycle theory. Based on the whole life cycle theory, this paper establishes a modular calculation method for the embodied carbon emission of foundation pit projects, considers the characteristics of "temporary" foundation pit projects, defines that the embodied carbon emission of foundation pit projects includes carbon dioxide generated in the building materials production stage, construction stage and transportation stage, and calculates the carbon dioxide emissions of two open-cut underground stations and one open-cut interval of the western section of Beijing Railway Line 11 (Winter Olympic Branch Line). Carbon dioxide emissions were calculated for three foundation pit projects in the western section of Beijing Railway Line 11 (Winter Olympic Branch), and the embodied carbon emissions of foundation pits were analyzed from three levels: element level, module level and phase level. Considering the influencing factors of excavated earth volume, backfilled earth volume and number of bored piles, the main influencing factors of embodied carbon emissions of foundation pit projects were analyzed.

Lianjin Tao, Kaiyue Sun, Xu Zhao
A Design Method Based on 3D Printing for the Integration of Human Computer Dynamic Interaction and Digital Sculpture

The continuous popularization and application of computer 3D modeling and 3D printing technology in the field of art design has improved and changed the traditional design and production mode to a certain extent. In order to solve the shortcomings of the existing research on human-machine dynamic interaction of 3D printing and digital sculpture, this paper discusses A3D digitalization, the mainstream technology of 3D printing, human-machine dynamic interaction and traditional sculpture making, and briefly discusses the image preprocessing and human-machine interaction and digital design software of 3D printing based on human-machine interaction. In addition, it designs the technology of human-computer interaction information extraction, visual interaction key frame selection, equipment operation and 3D printing body structure digital molding technology. Finally through the concrete experiment analysis. The results show that the average inter-frame distance error of the key frame sequence extracted based on the visual interaction method is the smallest. The calculated frame spacing error is as low as 0.029. The minimum error of manual extraction was 0.557. The minimum X-means clustering error is 0.047. Therefore, it is verified that the integration method of human-machine dynamic interaction and digital sculpture based on 3D printing designed in this paper has high practical value.

Zhen Zheng
Study on the Mix Proportion of Waste Marble Powder-Ground Granulated Furnace Slag-Based Alkali-Activated Ultra-high Ductility Concrete

The engineered cementitious composites (ECC) has an ultimate tensile strain more than 300 times that of regular concrete, making it highly promising for improving the seismic energy dissipation capacity of buildings, repairing damaged structures, and bridge expansion joints. However, the high CO2 emissions associated with the use of high cement content in ECC contradict the low-carbon and sustainable development principles of the building materials industry. In light of this, this paper investigates the use of solid waste-based alkali-activated cementitious materials to replace cement to prepare ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)-waste marble powder (WMP) -based alkali-activated ultra-high ductility concrete (AUHDC), achieving high-value utilization of solid waste and low-carbon preparation of ultra-high ductility engineering materials. This study assesses the key parameters of the WMP percentage in the precursor mixture, sand ratio, thickener content, and fiber composition on the tensile properties of AUHDC through uniaxial tensile tests. The results indicate that the ultimate tensile strain initially increases and then decreases with increasing WMP percentage in the precursor mixture, and it increases with increasing sand ratio. The thickener content does not significantly affect the ultimate tensile stress and strain, but the flowability decreases with increasing thickener content. The ultimate tensile strain of AUHDC with 2% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber and 2% polypropylene (PP) fiber is much lower than that of 1% ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) + 1% PP fiber and 2% PE fiber AUHDC. The ultimate tensile strain of AUHDC prepared with a WMP percentage of 50%, sand ratio of 55%, thickener content of 0.1%, and 1% PE + 1% PP fiber is 7.4%, which is 700 times that of regular concrete, and the ultimate tensile stress can also reach 6.2 MPa.

Yi Zhang, Ruihao Ren, Binyu Mo, Rongcun Mu, Ting Huang, Bing Liu
Effect of Waterborne Epoxy Resin on the Shrinkage and Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Material

Due to the drawbacks of high shrinkage and lots of cracks, geopolymer material shows poor brittle performance. The waterborne epoxy resin is added to address these issues for geopolymers. The shrinkage and mechanical properties of modified geopolymers with aqueous epoxy resin at 10 wt %, 20 wt %, and 30 wt % are investigated in this paper. Furthermore, SEM is used to evaluate the effect of resin on the hydration process of geopolymers. The results show that the shrinkage and toughness of modified geopolymers with waterborne epoxy resin are reduced and improved, respectively. The shrinkage of the geopolymer with 10 wt% epoxy resin is reduced by 25% in 28 days compared to that of the control, with the flexural strength increasing by 17.5%. Simultaneously, the bonding strength at the concrete interface is higher than 2.0 MPa. This paper describes an efficient method to optimize the brittleness of geopolymers.

Huachong Cai, Hanqing Liu, Xiongfei Liu, Yaoyao Wu
Preparation and Performance Study of Slag-Waste Marble Powder Based Alkali-Activated High Performance Concrete

In this study, ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and waste marble powder (WMP) were used as precursors to prepare slag-waste marble powder-based alkali-activated high-performance concrete (SWAHPC), and the effects and rules of different alkali activator modulus (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8), Na2O dosages (4%, 7%, 10%), and WMP content (replacing 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40% of GGBS) on the performance of SWAHPC were investigated. The results showed that excellent working performance and strength grade not lower than C85 high-strength concrete can be easily prepared when the WMP content does not exceed 40%. With increasing alkali activator modulus, the compressive strength of SWAHPC showed an increase followed by a decrease, while the flexural strength showed a decreasing trend, and the setting times and fluidity all exhibited an increasing trend. With increasing Na2O dosage, the compressive strength of SWAHPC showed an increasing and then decreasing trend, while the flexural strength showed a decreasing trend, the setting time showed an increasing trend, and the fluidity showed an increasing and then decreasing trend. With increasing WMP content, both the compressive and flexural strengths of SWAHPC showed an increase followed by a decrease, the setting times showed an increasing trend, and the fluidity showed a decreasing trend. The optimal values for the alkali activator modulus, Na2O dosage, and WMP content were 1.6, 7% and 25%, respectively for the compressive strength.

Xiaofang Deng, Weixin Lin, Hongtao Li, Yuanju Li, Yunhao Weng, Bing Liu
Effect of Sintering Temperature on Properties of Regenerated Sintered Sheet Brick

In order to study the effect of sintering temperature on the performance of recycled shale bricks, in this paper, a total of 8 groups of mix proportions were designed by changing the proportion of shale, waste shale brick powder, and waste concrete powder to prepare recycled sintered shale bricks. The sintering temperature was increased at a rate of 1 ℃/min to 900 ℃–1000 ℃, and performance tests were conducted with the requirements of the “Test Methods for Wall Building Bricks” (GB/T 2542–2012). Results of test indicate that when the sintering temperature of the brick is 1050 ℃, the minimum amount of waste mixture can be used to produce regenerated sintered shale bricks with excellent strength and density. By reducing the sintering temperature and increasing the content of waste mixture, the thermal conductivity of recycled sintered bricks can be improved. In practical applications, waste mixtures can be added and the sintering temperature can be adjusted according to actual engineering requirements to further encourage the recycling and utilization of construction waste.

Bing-zhang Huang, Guang-feng Li, Li-hua Pan, Yu Zhang, Bang-biao Huang
Research on Crack Control Method of Girder End Anchorage Zone Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

A new, contemporary post-tensioned prestressed concrete I girder is created for a hydropower facility to accommodate larger loads in services. The increased transverse tensile loads caused by the enhanced I-girders with more tendons, however, have raised the possibility of girder end cracking. In this study, solutions for controlling cracks on the targeted girders were investigated. A modified finite element analysis model was used to simulate girder end behaviors and investigate effective crack management approaches. Two solutions were investigated: altering the girder's anchoring end section and enhancing the reinforcement. The findings indicated that the girder end cracks, which included horizontal cracks under the anchorage plate and inclined cracks at the upper corner of the anchoring plate, followed predictable patterns. Excessive tensile stresses generated by the various tendon tensioning sequences, as well as excessive initial tensioning control stresses, all contributed to the cracks that formed during the prestress tensioning procedure. The first method could not fundamentally eliminate the appearance of cracks, while the second method modifying the reinforcement could control the appearance of cracks.

Tongyi Wang, Jinjian Gu, Jianrong Xu
Optimization of Optimal Pre Maintenance Timing Decision for Asphalt Pavement Based on Matter Element Analysis and Combination Weighting

With the increasing number of highways in China, the demand for highway maintenance is rising. Selecting the right timing for maintenance is crucial. This study uses matter element analysis to determine the best preventive maintenance opportunity for asphalt pavement. Factors such as maintenance costs, benefits, energy consumption, and carbon emissions are considered. The entropy weight method and Analytic Hierarchy Process are used to assign weights to these indicators, improving the rationality and reliability of the decision-making process. An actual maintenance case in Gansu Province is analyzed and verified. The research results indicate that the traditional method with the lowest cost suggests 2021 as the best maintenance time. However, the matter element Decision model shows that pavement maintenance starting from 2020 achieves the maximum comprehensive benefit across all indicators. This multi-indicator model provides a comprehensive and reasonable approach for decision-making in asphalt pavement maintenance timing, optimizing the management level of pavement maintenance.

Ying Li, Qiangnian Li
Research on Reinforcement Cage Connection Techniques for Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles

In this study, various techniques for connecting reinforcement cages in cast-in-place concrete piles are being investigated with the aim of enhancing their overall structural integrity and performance. The traditional method used for connecting steel bars in construction is through overlap. However, there are several issues associated with the overlap or welding shear splicing of steel bars, including insufficient overlap length, poor welding quality, increased labor costs, and joint failures. To address these challenges, a new technique for splicing steel bars is being researched. The focus of the study is on two main aspects: the tendency of loosening at the coupler connection area and the difficulty in aligning the two connected steel bars. To tackle these problems, the use of a shape memory alloy self-repairing coupler for steel bars is proposed. This innovative coupler has the capability to strengthen the connection between the steel bars and the coupler, improve the quality and speed of the connection, and also offer real-time monitoring and recoverable advantages.

Haijun Wang, Weiqiang Chen, Hongjun Lv, Wenxian Yang, Minting Zhong
Study on Hole Cleaning Construction Technology of Bored Cast-in-Place Pile

Bored pile is a fundamental construction technique widely employed in modern engineering projects, including high-rise buildings, highway bridges, and other infrastructure constructions. Within the bored pile construction process, hole cleaning plays a critical role. By optimizing the hole cleaning procedure, it is possible to ensure hole quality, improve construction efficiency, reduce environmental impact, and enhance construction safety. This paper focuses on large pile diameters or super long pile foundations as the research object and presents a detailed introduction to the air lift reverse circulation secondary hole cleaning method. The construction parameters for air lift reverse circulation hole cleaning of large pile diameters and super long pile foundations are optimized through pile tests, offering a new perspective on hole cleaning construction for super long and large diameter bored piles.

Xuefeng Shi, Weiqiang Chen, Hongyan Sun, Shuqiang Cao, Peng Sun, Xingpei Wu
Design and Experimental Study on a Novel Direct Measuring Force Device for Rod-Cable Structure Bridge Cables

Able force testing plays an important role in the daily maintenance of cable-stayed Bridges, which is conducive to ensuring the safe and stable operation of cable-stayed Bridges. A novel direct measuring force device for cable forces based on Newton's third law is presented in this paper. The installation method and experimental platform construction method of the measuring device are described. The experimental results show that the designed measuring device has the advantages of compact structure, lightweight, low operating strength, no electricity requirement, and is suitable for on-site operation. Moreover, the detection method does not need to change the installation and connection relationship of the cables, and can detect the cable force without affecting the normal use of the bridge.

Jinggan Shao, Tingdong Shang, Genshang Wu, Wei Liu, Le Bo, Xuling Liu
Effect of Embedded Filament Fibers on Mechanical Properties of 3D Printing Cement-Based Materials

3D printing technology has special printing process, could not print both cement-based materials and steel bars in practical engineering, affects the mechanical properties of concrete. In order to solve the problem, three kinds of embedded filament fibers (Basalt filament fiber, Glass filament fiber, and Polyethylene filament fiber) are selected to add into the cement mortar to improve the bond and hardness strength of ITZ, which could be characterized by compressive test, flexural text, and bond strength test, and study the influence rule of different embedded filament fiber on the mechanical properties of 3D printing mortar by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that all of the three kinds of embedded filament fibers can significantly improve the compressive strength, flexural strength, and interlayer bond strength of the 3D printed mortar, and the three kinds of fibers can have good bond with cement mortar. The Polyethylene fiber is the best, improving the flexural strength, compressive strength, and interlayer bond strength of the printed mortar by 36.4%, 29.9%, and 36.1%, respectively.

Weihong Li, Xuhao Chen, Yaoyu Wang, Detian Wan, Nan Li, Fenghai Ma
Frictional Rotation Performance Study Based on Non-Standard Bolt Hole Nodes

In order to study the frictional energy dissipation of steel structure nodes under the condition of small rotation, a frictionally rotatable node is proposed based on non-standard bolt holes, which can effectively increase the energy dissipation capacity of the node and reduce the damage of the node, so that the node can better meet the current requirements. The seismic performance of the node is studied by means of quasi-static test and finite element analysis. The displacement-load hysteresis curves and skeleton curves of the node were obtained by varying the size of the bar holes, the number of bolts and the position of the curved holes under different parameters, and the hysteretic performance, failure mode and energy dissipation mechanism of the joint are analyzed, which provides a basis for further research on non-standard hole joints. The results show that the length of the energy dissipating slip section of the node depends on the size of the flange bar bolt hole, the magnitude of the slip load is directly influenced by the friction between the plates, and the node can effectively achieve energy dissipation during frictional rotation, which can effectively prevent the premature failure of the connecting welds of the joint plate.

Qikai Liu, Yueguo Zhang, Xuyu Cheng
Fragility Analysis of Pier-Tower-Girder Fixed Cable-Stayed Bridge Subjected to Near‐Fault and Far‐Fault Ground Motions

The cable-stayed bridge (CSB) with a tower-pier-beam fixed system has gained wide recognition due to its aesthetically pleasing design, excellent wind resistance, convenient construction, and relatively lower cost. A pier-tower-girder fixed cable-stayed bridge (CSB) is constructed using the OpenSees nonlinear finite element model, and the bridge tower response under near-field (NF-GMs) and far-field ground motions (FF-GMs) is analyzed. A probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM) is developed for cable-stayed bridge tower subjected to both NF-GMs and FF-GMs, using the peak ground velocity (PGV) and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The CSB tower’s fragility curves for each section are obtained, and the fragility median points of each pylon section under various seismic excitations with slight damage are further contrasted. The study indicates that utilizing PGA as the measure of ground motion intensity, the lower portion of the bridge tower experiences the initial damage when subjected to GMs. Furthermore, in comparison to FF-GMs, CSB tower demonstrate higher vulnerability to damage when subjected to NF-GMs.

Wei Xia, Qiliang Si, Nailiang Xiang
A Brief Review on Compression Strength Prediction Models of Alkaline-Activated Slag Concrete

In the present construction sector, alkali-activated slag (AAS) concrete is classified as green concrete. However, it is still infrequently used because site engineers and workers have little expertise with the mix proportion of this novel material for achieving the appropriate concrete strength compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. Experiments and tests are thus required to determine an optimised AASC design mix for a specific design strength. A strength prediction model would be a valid way at this early stage to estimate the characteristic strength of concrete at different mixing ratios and to produce an optimised AASC mixing ratio with the desired concrete strength. As a result, developing a reliable approach to forecast concrete strength is critical. This paper summarises the prediction of concrete compression strength of AASC. The prediction model using the artificial neural network method is thoroughly explored. The determinants alternating AASC strength have also been highlighted for further study. Overall, a trustworthy concrete strength prediction model should be developed for use in the construction industry.

Yeong Huei Lee, Yee Yong Lee, Siaw Fui Kiew, Yie Hua Tan, Cher Siang Tan

Green Building

Energy Performance Optimisation of Low-Rise Lightweight Steel-Frame Houses by Evolutionary Approach

China is in the process of expanding its stock of low-rise LSF buildings in suburban and rural areas. This construction system is underused compared with most developed countries, but the number of low-rise steel-framed residential buildings is projected to increase due to the current national policies promoting rural green steel-framed houses. The building envelope is the most influential design factor in energy performance, and to better understand the effects of design decisions, this article investigates its optimisation by jEPlus + EA (EnergyPlus simulation manager for parametric + Evolutionary Algorithms). The objective functions are to minimise heating and cooling needs. The variables describe the main envelope components of a low-rise lightweight steel-frame house. The results confirm a significant potential for energy saving in comparison to different benchmark specifications and demonstrate the effectiveness of the method tested in the study.

Yang Yang, Marco Cimillo, Xi Chen
CFD Analysis of Thermal Comfort Condition Inside Malaysian Traditional House

It is crucial to ensure safe, healthy and comfortable indoor air conditions in buildings. Indoor thermal comfort is an essential aspect of sustainable architecture and is also the key to maintaining a safe indoor environment. The use of natural ventilation has been increasingly recognised as an energy-efficient method to establish thermal comfort. This study is to analyse the thermal comfort condition inside the traditional house using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software, ANSYS FLUENT and to compare the results with the thermal comfort recommended by ASHRAE standards. Previous studies of thermal comfort in hot and humid climate countries like Malaysia. The developed CFD model was validated by comparing experimental and simulated data. The experimental data are compared with the simulation results, which are in good agreement. From the results obtained, the confidence level is up to 99%. A series of simulations are also conducted to determine the air temperature and air velocity distribution inside the traditional house. The results show that the indoor air temperature of a traditional house is between 27.35˚C and 27.60˚C, and the air velocity is between 0.20 m/s and 0.68 m/s which are all within the thermal comfort range of ASHRAE standard. The obtained results indicate that the traditional Malay house's design effectively provides natural ventilation for thermal comfort. In addition, the research result will provide a reference for the modern architect to design houses with local architectural design characteristics.

Joristine Wong Yun Tong, Nur Hasyimah Binti Hashim, Yeong Huei Lee, Yee Yong Lee
Numerical Analysis of Improvement Effects on Summer Outdoor Thermal Environment Around Enclosed Teaching Buildings in the Hot-Humid and Less-Windy Climate

Outdoor thermal environment around teaching buildings affects students’ comfort and building energy consumption, especially in summer. This paper focuses on a teaching building with enclosed arrangement in a hot-humid and less-windy climate and analyzes the thermal environment in outdoor spaces around the building. The measurement results showed that average air temperatures and MRT (mean radiant temperature) in six outdoor spaces are higher than the ambient temperature by around $$1\,^\circ {\text{C}}$$ 1 ∘ C and $$6\,^\circ {\text{C}}$$ 6 ∘ C , respectively. Thermal improvement strategies for reducing surface temperatures in the analyzed spaces were proposed based on measurement results. A thermal simulation tool (ThermoRender) was used to quantify the improvement effects of the proposed strategies on the thermal environment. Simulation results revealed that the average values of MRT were reduced by $$1.0\,^\circ {\text{C}}$$ 1.0 ∘ C to $$5.1\,^\circ {\text{C}}$$ 5.1 ∘ C . It is noted that the reduction of received solar heat through sunshade devices and tree shading is an effective way to improve outdoor thermal environment, which can be considered as design guidance for creating a comfortable outdoor thermal environment around enclosed teaching buildings in the hot-humid and less-windy climate.

Xuexiu Zhao, Yigang Li
Accounting for Carbon Emissions During the Building Phase of Academic Buildings

This work adopts the carbon emission accounting model developed for the teaching building in the buildingization stage and accounts for the carbon emission of the building in accordance with the construction list, using the construction of a concrete structure teaching building as an example. The calculated results indicate that the manufacture of building materials is where the majority of the carbon emission in the buildingization stage occurs, with less carbon emission occurring during the building’s construction and transportation phases. The research also suggests three measures for reducing carbon emissions during the building phase: maximizing the use of building materials, minimizing travel distances, and improving construction techniques.

Jie Gao, Shenqi Gan
Research on Measurement and Optimization of an Old Building in Wuxi Based on Ultra-low-energy Consumption and Energy Saving Transformation

In order to improve the indoor heat and humidity environment of existing residences and reduce the total energy consumption of buildings, this paper takes an ultra-low-energy consumption reconstructed building in Wuxi as an example, and studies the influence of ultra-low-energy consumption reconstruction on the indoor heat and humidity environment in different spaces and the total energy consumption of heating and cooling through quantitative measurement and analysis and simulation verification with software. The analysis shows that the change range and fluctuation frequency of indoor heat and humidity environment can be reduced by increasing the thermal insulation performance of the external envelope, improving the air tightness of the building and reducing the thermal bridges, especially for the south room, and at the same time, the local heat accumulation in the room can be improved and the cooling and heating load of the building can be reduced.

Wei Zhang, Jie Wu, Jinghua Shen, Zhijun Xue
Development Research on Openness Evaluation Factors for Pocket Parks

This research aims to conduct an in-depth study on the open evaluation factors of urban pocket parks with the objective of improving their service to users. The research methodology includes literature review, interviews, and questionnaire surveys. The study begins by examining the concepts of open parks, pocket parks, and openness, starting from open parks. It then explores the open evaluation factors of pocket parks based on previous research. A comparative analysis is conducted, leading to proposed improvement strategies. The research findings present an evaluation scheme for the open evaluation factors of pocket parks. In conclusion, while previous studies have acknowledged the need for in-depth research on the openness of pocket parks, specific investigations on this aspect are lacking. This study fills that gap by developing open evaluation factors for pocket park users and proposing tailored strategies to enhance the openness of pocket parks based on user types.

Yunjie Sun
Study on Landscape Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Chinese Traditional Settlements Based on Niche Theory

The Anhui settlement is one of the best preserved in China. Its conservation research is a typical case of sustainable research and an essential component of ecosystem research. In this paper, six typical Anhui communities were considered. Combining traditional Fengshui environmental studies with modern niche-related ideas and using techniques of entity study, including qualitative analysis, quantitative research, and data retrieval, this paper analyzes the landscape characteristics at the macro, medium, and micro levels. The research results show that the conventional settlements in Huizhou are built on the mountains, forming a geographical space model with mountains on four sides or three sides in the east, south, west, and north and open halls, which form an ideal settlement model. At the same time, the rational use of land, resources, and space should be promoted according to the development conditions of settlements to steadily realize the spatial succession of traditional settlements and walk off the road of characteristic ecological development.

Jianfu Chen, An Yan, Hailing Sun
Towards a Sustainable Future: Timber Waste Management in New Zealand’s Construction Industry

This research paper provides a comprehensive overview of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) management, specifically emphasising timber waste. Firstly, it assesses timber’s environmental and functional advantages in the construction industry. Despite the benefits of timber, the paper identifies significant challenges in managing chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated timber waste due to its potentially hazardous impacts. To address these issues, the study proposes enhanced public understanding, innovative timber treatment processes, and effective waste management strategies. The role of stakeholders and policymakers in shaping sustainable waste management practices is also explored, highlighting the importance of implementing site waste management schemes and extended producer responsibility programs. The paper culminates in the presentation of innovative approaches for waste management, encompassing statistical modelling, automation, and systemic carbon reduction strategies. The research concludes with a set of recommendations aimed at promoting sustainable material selection, managing CCA-treated timber, enhancing stakeholder engagement, and adopting lifecycle consideration in material selection.

Dat Tien Doan, Ping Sun
Quantitative Study on the Evolution of Urban Residential Spaces from the Perspective of Regionalism: A Case Study of Shanghai Lane Houses

Urban development in China has entered a stage of stock renewal, and regional development has become an important issue. The regional identity of buildings is crucial for promoting regional development. However, it is evident that architecture faces a crisis in cultural identity during the modernization. As one of the essential residential buildings in modern Shanghai, Lane houses are integral to urban renewal and represent an important aspect of Shanghai’s culture. This study uses space syntax and M-shaped Diagram to explore the evolution of typical internal spatial structures of lane houses in different stages of development and their cultural connotations based on four variables: integration, choice, courtyard coupling, and loopiness. The results show that the central nodes (living room and traffic core) and courtyards’ essential positions have remained unchanged throughout the evolution process and have been deeply influenced by traditional Chinese culture while retaining the depth of Eastern space. However, the distinctive features of traditional Chinese residential spaces have gradually lost been lost in evolution process, and the loopiness of service space, which is the main activity area for people, is gradually reduced.

Yaru Xu
Thermal Process Analysis in Passive Solar Dormitories in Plateau Areas: Onsite Case Study in Zoige

In order to understand the thermal process of passive solar dormitories in highland areas, this paper establishes a heat transfer model for passive solar student dormitories and analyses the effects of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity of their envelope surfaces on the heat storage, and then analyses the effects on indoor air temperature. The results show that increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient of the floor surface and the thermal conductivity of the floor can both increase the indoor air temperature. Once the thermal conductivity has been increased to 1.5 W/(m2·K), further improvements are no longer noticeable in terms of temperature increase. Increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient of the floor surface and the thermal conductivity of the floor both enhance the heat storage of the floor. When the thermal conductivity is less than 1.5 W/(m2·K), increasing the thermal conductivity has a greater impact on the heat storage of the floor, while increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient has a less obvious impact on the heat storage of the floor. This paper is a guide to optimizing the energy efficiency of passive solar buildings of the same type.

Diqing Wang, Jifan Cao, Yin Zhang, Dongsheng Huang
Functional Floor Plan Adaptation for Age-Friendly Housing in the Context of Ageing in Place

Global ageing has further increased and, in line with national conditions, China will adopt ageing in place as the main form of retirement. The number of age-friendly residential space renovations is increasing. At the same time, China’s existing residential stock is large and voluminous, mostly with wall bearing structures. At the same time, due to the current economic situation, the layout of existing homes cannot be modified too much, and the vast majority of homes have to retain their original wall and window and door openings. This requires the designer to have a clearer understanding of the floor plan characteristics of the home, in order to provide the most efficient and age-appropriate space layout for the elderly. In this paper, a common house plan is chosen. Based on the theory of spatial syntax, it analyses in depth the degree of connectivity, integration, control and depth value indicators of the individual spaces of the house plan. The characteristics of each functional space are quantified and analysed, and finally the most suitable space is selected for matching with the specific function. It is hoped that this will provide a cognitive approach to the ageing retrofitting of existing homes in China.

Feng Wang, Bo Zhang, Xiangyun Wang, Jie Liu
Identifying Architectural Forms and Evaluating the Climate Adaptability of Traditional Buildings in Southwest China

The unique and various forms of Miao buildings in Southwest China promote harmony with nature and are an important part of Miao culture as well. This paper firstly finds out that some architectural forms are inherited in new Miao buildings during the transformation through on-site surveying and comparison. Based on the output of the software of Climate Consultant, both the traditional and new are tested through the design strategies set out on plan, sections and building forms respectively, to find that traditional Miao buildings can adapt to the local climate well, while for the modern ones, their functions for improving thermal comfort is disappearing. The paper suggests that more attention should be paid to traditional Miao’s potential efforts to adapt to the environment, rather than simply symbolic icons.

Chenpeng Xu, Keding Lu
Research on the Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Spatial Soundscape Perception in University Campuses: Guizhou University as an Example

In order to investigate the characteristics of soundscape perception in different functional spaces of campus and its influencing factors, Guizhou University was used as the research object to obtain soundscape perception data based on on-site research and questionnaire survey, and four dimensions of campus functional characteristics, sound source perception, soundscape perception and soundscape satisfaction were analyzed to explore the interactions among the dimensions and the main influencing factors of campus soundscape. The results show that birdsong sound has a high Sound dominant degree and Sound harmonious degree in ecological green areas and lake water areas, and traffic sound has a high sound dominant degree in the whole campus; the soundscape pleasantness and soundscape eventfulness of different functional spaces are significantly different, with higher soundscape pleasantness in ecological green areas and lake and water areas, and more obvious soundscape eventfulness in student living areas and cultural and sports activities areas; some sound source elements have strong correlation with the soundscape perception of functional space, birdsong sound can play a role in increasing the soundscape pleasantness and soundscape eventfulness, and conversation sound can enhance the soundscape eventfulness in the lake water body area; the campus is easily accessible, so the negative impact of traffic sound on the campus environment is most obvious. The research conclusions can provide a basis for the relationship between sound source and soundscape perception in functional space. The overall sound environment can be adjusted through soundscape characteristics, which is of great significance for optimizing the quality of campus soundscape.

Yonghe Ma, Honggang Tang, Xiaoheng Zhou
Numerical Simulation of Indoor Air Quality and Aerosol Diffusion in Gym

An indoor ventilation system plays an important role in the improvement of indoor air quality and the control of virus transmission. Therefore, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), this paper establishes a full-scale gym ventilation calculation model under full-load conditions and simulates three different ventilation modes in the gym. The spatial distribution of indoor CO2 was obtained by solving the component transport equation, and the diffusion process of aerosol generated by the coughing of virus carriers in the gym was calculated by the Lagrange method. The results show that the CO2 con-centration in the indoor human activity area is lowest when the underfloor air distribution system is used. The top supply top return air and underfloor air distribution ventilation mode is more conducive to the removal of pollutants. The underfloor air distribution mode can minimize the mixing of air and aerosol particles in the gym and reduce the diffusion range of aerosol particles. The research results can provide a reference for the design of the ventilation system of the gym.

Zhiqiang Kang, Baorui Hao, Ning Yin, Tong Wang
Ecological Construction Strategy of Traditional Houses in Qianzhong Tunpu: A Case Study of Yunshan Tun

The Tunpu village in the Qianzhong region of Guizhou, China, was formed as a military or commercial settlement after the Ming Dynasty army migrated into the territory of Guizhou. This form of settlement is a relatively closed cultural legacy of the Ming dynasty, which was progressively influenced to form a distinctive Tunpu village with Han Chinese culture. Traditional Chinese villages and dwellings have evolved over a long period to produce ecological construction techniques and methods that are in harmony with the natural environment and are rich in ecological wisdom and rationale. Based on the disciplinary background of architecture, this paper will discusses the typical construction concepts and ecological techniques of traditional dwellings of traditional Tunpu in the Qianzhong region from three aspects: regional characteristics, construction concepts, and construction techniques, to explore the ecological methods and concepts involved and provide a theoretical basis for the conservation and renewal of traditional dwellings, while developing sustainable perspectives for green architecture.

Fang Han, Jian Yue, Zhuo Chen, Jian Liu
Research on Forward Design of Green Office Building Based on BIM

With the implementation of the dual carbon strategy, we will promote the development of office green building design and build a new mechanism for its development based on the principle of green ecological sustainability and under the guidance of BIM’s multiple collaborative concept. In the full cycle design stage of the building, the digital simulation of the green performance of office buildings and the structural overrun design are mainly used to optimize the architectural design, so as to avoid the phenomenon that the defects in the architectural scheme stage lead to the later use of technology stacking to make up for its “congenital deficiency”. In the Yangtze River Delta port front headquarters project of Shanghai runYou technology, the BIM positive design process is proposed from the perspective of architect responsibility system, and then the BIM optimization model is constructed with green performance as the variable, integration and environmental simulation analysis and structural overrun calculation, and energy consumption and comfort as the goal. The research results help to enhance the low-carbon design performance of buildings, It provides theoretical and practical basis for design decision.

Hui Cao, Ruixin Ju, Zhibo Wang, Dan Fu
Research on the Comfort of Outdoor Thermal Environment in Old Communities in Mild Climate Areas

Taking four representative old communities in Guiyang City, a representative city in mild climate areas, as the research objects, the current situation of thermal environment and thermal sensation of residents in the old communities in each season were understood through field measurement and questionnaire survey, and relevant thermal comfort indexes—PET, SET* and UTCI were calculated to analyze and determine the functional relationship between each index and subjective feeling. The neutral thermal sensitivity range, thermal comfort zone and 90% thermal acceptance range of residents in different seasons were obtained. Based on the prediction accuracy of the comfort range of different indicators, the thermal comfort ranges of indicators in different seasons were respectively: SET* (20.8 ℃–26.1 ℃) in spring, SET* (20.2 ℃–31.9 ℃) in summer, PET (≤25.5 ℃) in autumn, and UTCI (9.9 ℃–13.6 ℃) in winter.

Yiming Xing, Yan Wang
Research on Reformation of Illuminance Uniformity in University Ladder Classroom

In order to further explore and improve the current situation of illumination uniformity in college classrooms, promote the development of green buildings and energy saving, and effectively improve the lighting comfort of college classrooms. Taking classroom 108 in the West Building of Gui-zhou University as an example, based on the research of classroom lighting in the teaching building, the illuminance of selected objects at different measuring position points was measured at different times of the day to study the influencing factors of illuminance and put forward corresponding improvement measures. By changing the arrangement of classroom lighting fixtures and adding lamps, the classroom lighting optimization program was proposed and simulated by using Dialux evo lighting design software, and the advantages and disadvantages of the optimization effect were analyzed and compared, which finally improved the average illuminance of the classroom, met the illuminance uniformity and greatly improved the classroom lighting quality, in order to provide reference significance to the lighting design transformation of the university classroom.

Saitong Li, Yan Wang, Qihua Kuang, Qiang Wu
Analysis and Study on Climate Adaptability of Traditional Houses in Jianghuai Region of Anhui Province, China

This paper takes the traditional houses in the Jianghuai area of Anhui Province of China as the research object, and selects five traditional houses as typical cases for field research and simulation. According to the climate adaptation design strategy analyzed by Climate Consultant software, the experience of jianghuai traditional houses in climate adaptability is qualitatively analyzed from three aspects: focusing on shading treatment, promoting ventilation and cooling, and strengthening heat storage, and provide ideas and guidance for contemporary design combined with climate and passive regulation methods.

Ziteng Han, Shan Wu, Wei Wang
Thermal-Economic Performance Evaluation of Air Conditioning for Office Buildings

Building energy consumption accounts for about 40% of the total energy consumption in China. Among them, for hot summer and cold winter areas, the energy consumption of air conditioning and refrigeration in summer is the main part, based on the current situation of air conditioning application in this area, it is significant to improve the energy efficiency of refrigeration equipment in summer by analyzing the energy-saving potential of operation energy consumption and comprehensively evaluating its economy. Based on the theoretical thermodynamic perfection of equipment refrigeration, taking the split type air conditioning system in Guiyang office buildings as an example, this paper selects the typical refrigeration equipment and analyzes its energy-saving potential and economy based on its energy price status, in order to clarify the office building split air conditioning equipment energy-saving capacity and its operation economy. The preliminary analysis shows that when the service life of air-conditioning exceeds 5 years, its energy-saving performance and economy can reach the agreement, that is, the best energy-saving air-conditioning economy is also the best.

Jifan Cao, Diqing Wang, Hongli Sun, Yin Zhang
Research on Green Construction Technology of Traditional Buildings in Northern Anhui Based on Climate Adaptability

Climate is a prerequisite for traditional architecture in the process of site selection, design and construction, and also an important reason for the regionalization of traditional architecture. Therefore, the research on the green construction technology of traditional buildings adapting to climate is helpful to excavate the context of traditional architecture and inherit the construction wisdom of traditional architecture. In this paper, the spatial layout of traditional buildings in northern Anhui was studied in depth from the perspective of climate adaptability by means of field investigation, ECOTECT and PHOENICS simulation analysis, and the green construction technology for the spatial layout of traditional buildings in northern Anhui was summarized from three aspects of plane layout, external surface design and detailed structure. Therefore, it can be applied to the design of modern architecture living environment with the same climatic conditions in northern Anhui and its surrounding areas.

Manting Zhu, Anqi Liu, Wei Wang
Simulation of Different Ventilation Methods on Indoor Air Quality and Thermal Comfort in College Classroom

Indoor air quality in university classrooms is closely related to human thermal comfort, and proper air distribution can dilute indoor air pollutants in time and create a healthy and comfortable indoor environment. This paper selects the classroom of a university in Shenyang as the research object, through numerical simulation of the ventilation modes of up-flow and up-return, up-flow and down-return, and side-flow and down-return, the indoor temperature field, velocity field, CO2 concentration field and PMV-PPD index were obtained. The results show that the most ideal temperature field, velocity field, CO2 concentration field and thermal comfort can be obtained by using the side-flow and down-return air supply mode in the classroom, the temperature in the classroom is in the range of 16–24 ℃, the wind speed is low, and the air distribution is uniform in the area where people are concentrated; The pollutant removal efficiency is high, and CO2 is taken away from the release source position with the air flow, which reduces the CO2 exposure intensity of the breathing microenvironment; Students’ thermal feeling is in a slightly warm state, and the percentage of dissatisfaction with the thermal environment is the lowest.

Zhiqiang Kang, Ning Yin, Baorui Hao, Yunyi Wang
A Study on the Scenic Beauty of Huangguoshu Scenic Area Based on SD and SBE Method

To promote the protection and development of tourism resources in waterfall-type scenic spots, scenic beauty estimation procedures (SBE) and semantic difference (SD) methods were used to study the scenic beauty of Huangguoshu. The results showed that the landscape beauty of the Huangguoshu Scenic Area was relatively good, and the overall beauty of Huangguoshu Waterfall was the highest. Among different scenic spots, the SBE value of the Huangguoshu Waterfall Scenic Area had the maximum value, and it was significantly different from that of the Tianxing Bridge Scenic Area and Doupotang Scenic Area. The SBE value of different landscape types, from high to low, was water system, overall landscape, mountain, vegetation, bridge, and building, and the beauty of the natural landscape was higher than that of the artificial landscape. The landscape of waterfalls showed a decreasing trend from large to small. The main factors affecting the beauty of the Huangguoshu Scenic Area were landscape identifiability, landscape coordination, naturalness of mountains, surrounding plant communities, majesty and beauty of water systems, relationship between mountains and rivers, and plant space enclosure. The scenic spots in the Huangguoshu Scenic Area that were lower than the lower limit of the scenic beauty threshold (13.73) were all artificial landscapes. The Huangguoshu Scenic Area was characterised by the beauty of harmonious symbiosis of green ecology, majestic beauty, and natural beauty of karst geology. Beauty threshold monitoring can provide technical support for the dynamic protection and optimisation of the scenic area. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the dynamic management and regulation of scenic spots and are of great significance for maintaining the aesthetic value of scenic spots and planning and building scenic spots with regional characteristics.

Xinren Zhang, Zongsheng Huang
A Study on the Characteristics and Optimization of the Soundscape of the Miao Settlement in Southeast Guizhou: A Case Study of the Thousand Miao Villages Xijiang

The ethnic villages are the spatial representation of the ethnic continuation, with the protection of ethnic villages increasing, but the soundscape, as the characteristic component of ethnic villages, is not enough to excavate and protect, the characteristic soundscape can not be reflected in the planning and construction of ethnic settlements. In this study, the thousand miao villages xijiang was used to investigate the composition, temporal variation, spatial distribution and perception of thousand miao villages xijiang soundscape by means of sound walking, grid division and Patch Division, a thousand miao villages xijiang GIS soundscape map was obtained, and the features of thousand miao villages xijiang soundscape were analyzed by using SD semantic subdivision method. The spatiotemporal dynamic characteristics of thousand miao villages xijiang soundscape and the related influencing factors were studied, this paper reveals the feeling of soundscape in different thousand miao villages xijiang areas, and puts forward the countermeasures and suggestions for optimization and improvement to provide reference for the future planning and design of Miao settlement.

Qihua Kuang, Rui Yang, Yan Wang, Xiaomei Li, Qiang Wu, Saitong Li
Wayfinding Oriented Evidence-Based Design for Building Optimization

The evidence-based design (EBD) method is deemed with significant potency in optimizing architecture designs based on qualitative and quantitative data. However, EBD methods fail to aptly collaborate with conventional design process due to the lack of practical workflow. This study proposed an EBD approach integrating spatial analysis and virtual reality and applied them to a wayfinding-oriented design optimization project. Taking the College of Design and Engineering (CDE) building group of National University of Singapore (NUS) as a study case, this research firstly identified the causes of low wayfinding efficiency via site survey and spatial analysis. Then, corresponding optimization schemes were proposed, and a VR experiment was conducted to evaluate their effectiveness. This study concluded that the lack of openness in vertical traffic space was one of the dominant causes for the low wayfinding efficiency. This issue could be optimized by improving visibility and accessibility. Besides, this study verified the feasibility and demonstrated the great potential of EBD approach, offering a practical reference to design more legible and user-friendly spaces.

Qian Cao, Jingyi Li, Shuyang Li, Moxuan Shen, Weiyi Liang, Kaiyu Lu

Smart City

Efficient Prediction of Indoor Airflow in Naturally Ventilated Residential Buildings Using a CFD-DNN Model Approach

Predicting indoor airflow in multi-storey residential buildings is crucial for energy-efficient natural ventilation systems. The indoor environment significantly affects human well-being due to extended indoor time and potential health risks. Precise and efficient airflow simulations are necessary to ensure thermal comfort and air quality. This study introduces a novel approach combining Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with machine learning techniques to predict indoor airflow. Specifically, we explore using a Deep Neural Network (DNN) model for accurate indoor airflow forecasting. The DNN effectively reproduces airflow patterns and temperature distributions. Integrating CFD simulations halves test scenario anticipation time, highlighting efficient indoor airflow prediction potential. Using a data-driven approach, this research demonstrates the feasibility of swiftly and accurately predicting indoor airflow in naturally ventilated residential buildings. Such models can optimize indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and energy efficiency, contributing to sustainable building design and operation.

Tran Van Quang, Nguyen Lu Phuong, Dat Tien Doan
A Genetic Algorithm Using Diversity-Concern Principle to Solve Robust Influence Maximization Problem on Urban Transportation Networks

In recent years, the influence maximization has become a hot topic in the field of complex networks. The so-called influence maximization problem is to select a certain scale of nodes in a given network to work as seeds, and this subset can achieve the maximal information propagation effect. Networks like transportation systems are usually exposed to complex environment, its internal components are threatened by external disturbance, and its information transmission process is also at risk. The corresponding optimization problem can be modeled as the robust influence maximization problem (RIM). In cities, roads or intersections may face various failures or disruptions, such as natural disasters, traffic accidents or other emergencies. City managers need to design robust public transportation systems to minimize the impact of these situations on the overall transportation network. However, the existing work only considers the stable network structure or the damaged link, and lack the research on destructions caused by nodal failures. Also, the current optimization methods do not integrate the information of the search process well to solve the problem of robust influence maximization. To tackle these issues, the paper proposes a metric to evaluate seed robustness under node-specific attacks and a genetic algorithm called DC-GA-RIM. This method integrates the diversity concern principle and includes problem-oriented operators to improve its search ability. The effectiveness of DC-GA-RIM in solving RIM problems has been proven on a variety of networks. Stations and traffic hubs can be detected using the proposed method.

Minghao Chen, Shuai Wang
The Feasibility Study of the Rapid Damage Inspection Technique in Municipal Pole Structure Using UAV

With the development of city size and modern infrastructure, various types of pole facilities were increasingly utilized in the modern cities, such as light pole, power supply tower, wind turbine and traffic sign pole. Meanwhile, such facilities may have some damage issues due to aging and other environmental factors. For ensuring the safety and municipal maintenance, it is essential to proposed some reliable and efficient inspection methods. Especially for the crowded urban area, the traditional inspection method such as manual observation and non-destructive test using the permanent sensors are not applicable. To this end, UAV inspection can be a promising technique to realize rapid evaluation of damage in the pole structure. Therefore, this paper proposed a UAV inspection method associated with computer-based visual displacement and vibration monitoring techniques to rapidly detect damage in the pole structure. Its feasibility has been discussed by methodology discussion and numerical model. Two types of common damage types of lamp poles were selected: the corrosion of lamp poles and the loosening of bolts connection were correlated to the vibration modal. The results provided a theoretical basis for UAV inspection on any municipal structure in the future.

Lu Zhang, Yating Liu, Hongyu Li
Identifying Key Nodes in Urban Transportation Systems Using the Information Diffusion Model

Urban transporting networks are a type of complex systems, widely existing in modern society. The identification of nodes with significant influential ability is crucial for scientific researches and practical applications including urban planning and city management. Through the survey of relevant literature, most of existing methods for determining influential nodes in cities ignore the topological performance or only consider an agent-based approach using structural metrics for nodal detections, which requires multi-dimensional data, resulting in insufficient robustness. To address such shortcomings, this paper first designs a metric to assess the influential ability of nodes via their structural information. Equipped with the metric, an evolution algorithm is implemented to detect a set of nodes with distinct influential ability. In the experiment, a road network data processor using Pipe4data is developed to process urban road networks from Haizhu District, Guangzhou. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been experimentally verified.

Yongbin He, Siheng Ren, Shihan Chen, Shuai Wang
Research on Lighting Evacuation Method Based on Visual Attention Mechanism Analysis

In order to improve the evacuation efficiency of parks and scenic spots in response to unexpected situations, It integrates human visual attention mechanisms into landscape evacuation lighting design, conducts research on human oriented visual attention mechanisms, and generates an analysis model for virtual landscape evacuation lighting design. In the model, the “material field and standard solution” problem analysis and solution tool of TRIZ theory is introduced to convert the standard solution into a design basis that can be applied in landscape evacuation lighting design, and the design scheme is completed accordingly. The scheme is applied to the simulation experiment of landscape evacuation lighting design in the form of VR virtual simulation scenes to verify the feasibility of the model. It can be seen that the specific landscape evacuation lighting design can match the user's visual attention mechanism, and paying attention to the user's attention can improve the efficiency of pedestrian evacuation.

Ce Zheng, Mingyu Zhang, Yu Chang
ANN-Based High-Dimensional Multi-objective Optimal Design for Natural Lighting in Large-Span Buildings

In order to build a high-dimensional multi-objective comprehensive balance optimization system for natural lighting, and to solve the limitations of the building performance simulation (BPS) based optimization design method in terms of the number of optimization objectives and the feedback time of results when large-span buildings involve high-dimensional multi-objective optimization design. The study proposes an architect-oriented high-dimensional multi-objective optimization design method for natural lighting based on an artificial neural network (ANN) meta-model coupled with a high-dimensional multi-objective optimization algorithm, based on the Rhino + Grasshopper parametric design technology platform, using a large-span building medium-sized gymnasium as a practical research case to carry out the study. The empirical results show that: 1) the mean square error (MSE) value domain of ANN meta-model construction schemes are all less than 0.0054, and the Pearson correlation coefficient R value domain are all greater than 0.81. 2) the Pareto front solution search time for high-dimensional multi-objective optimal design is 7s. 3) the Daylight Autonomy (DA) and Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI) values are improved by 0.82%–109.62% and 3.08%–26.71%, respectively, and the Energy Use Intensity (EUI) and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values are reduced by 3.81%–13.78% and 0.21%–13.77%, respectively, for the non-dominated solution optimized design schemes.

Jinlong Zou, Lei Feng, Zhongrong Liu
Research on Intelligent Monitoring System of Urban Network Database

City network database is vulnerable to attack. Smart city IOT (Internet of Things) needs to implement intelligent monitoring systems to protect network systems. The traditional convolutional neural network needs more advantages in dealing with real-time network intrusion. This paper proposes a new detection method using a visualization method when real-time traffic data is missing. We built a real-time traffic detection platform and invented a new algorithm structure: The system uses offline data to digitize and pixelate the hacked network traffic and then carries out gray-scale mapping, a pre-processing step. The data is rotated to the right and connected to the CNN interface for training. We use real-time network data to verify the experiment and evaluate our proposed model. The results show that the scheme proposed in this paper has a good detection effect and can detect real-time network intrusion types.

Xusheng Tang, Jie Liu
Data Mining and Retrofit Design for Age-friendly Spaces

Ageing in place has become the most dominant form of ageing in China. A large number of homes need to be retrofitted. Traditional retrofit designs are influenced by the personal experience of the designer, resulting in uncontrollable quality of the retrofit work. In contrast, this paper uses computer data analysis software to data mine the behaviour of users in interior spaces. The final behavioural data from the mining is used to guide the design of more rational spaces. This approach can provide a replicable methodology for all remodelling processes. In this paper, six common indoor household types for the elderly are selected for the study and the data on the home mobility behaviour of the elderly in these six representative household types is predicted with the aid of computer-related software. In the first step, the most effective path space areas are analysed. In the second step, the visual environment of the path space is analysed. Finally, a data-informed design strategy for age-friendly spaces is proposed.

Jie Liu
The Ecological Wisdom of Water Management in Traditional Villages in Northeast China, Hubei Province

The Northeast region of Hubei, China belongs to a low mountain and hilly terrain with abundant water systems. Villages around the river have been plagued by floods and waterlogging disasters. In the process of adapting to nature, the ancestors of the villages accumulated rich ecological wisdom for water management. This study focuses on the traditional villages in Northeast China, Hubei Province, using research methods such as literature review, field investigation, and GIS analysis. From macro to micro levels, it summarizes the ecological wisdom of water management, such as balancing the selection of sites with “hydrophilicity” and “hydrophobicity”, adaptive layout based on the water environment, and spatial organization of water systems combining points, lines, and surfaces. Based on these findings, putting forward suggestions for village planning and construction.

Lilan Luo, Changyou Wu, Hui Feng, Haiyu Xia
An EV Charging Station Siting Model Based on Machine Learning

Aiming at the problems of the site selection method of EV charging station based on machine learning, such as single site selection factor, large subjective factor, insufficient sample labeling, simple labeling strategy and low location accuracy, a site selection method of EV charging station based on multi-source data fusion was proposed. This method constructed seven basic features from multi-source data, combined with PFAHP and TOPSIS methods, obtained the weight of POI in economic features, and proposed a semi-supervised learning method using mixed similarity automatic allocation markers to extend the training set. Based on the basic features and LogitBoost integration algorithm, an EV charging station siting model was constructed. In this paper, 6 districts in Shanghai were taken as the study area, and 4 sets of schemes and 8 experiments were designed to verify the superiority and applicability of the proposed method. The experimental results show that compared with the single similarity and manual labeling model, the accuracy of the recommended model is increased by 0.6%–2.6%, and the recall rate, F1 and ranking accuracy are all improved. The results show that the method proposed in this paper can better solve the problem of pre-location of EV charging stations, and has certain reference value for other public facilities.

Yufang Dai, Minghao Liu, Xiangli Liao
Research on Influencing Factors of Smart City Construction Capability Based on DEMATEL-ISM

Currently, the construction of smart cities in China is still under exploration, and the lack of construction capacity has become an important factor restricting its construction and development. The improvement of the development capacity of smart city construction can enhance the scientificity of urban construction planning, improve the efficiency of public resource utilization, and effectively avoid construction risks, which has a significant promoting effect on the subsequent operation and maintenance of smart cities. Therefore, this article constructs a model of influencing factors on the development capacity of smart city construction through literature research, questionnaire survey, and expert interview methods. Using Decision-making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) and Interpretative Structural Modeling Method (ISM), Calculate the degree of cause and centrality of factors, identify key influencing factors, divide impact levels, and determine the specific mechanisms of action between factors. The results indicate that the ability to integrate technology, the level of network support platform construction, strategic planning ability, information collection level, and humanistic literacy level are the deep influencing factors of the construction capacity of smart cities. Strategic planning capability and information infrastructure construction level are key influencing factors. Based on the research results and key factors in each category, suggestions and strategies were proposed to promote the continuous construction and development of smart cities.

Xiaoheng Zhou, Honggang Tang, Wenyao Xiao
Research on the Renewal Design of Community Public Space Under the Smart Elderly Care Model

In recent years, due to changes in population structure, the number of elderly people in China has gradually increased, and the elderly population has become a hot topic and focus of attention for the whole society. At the same time, with the rapid development of information technology today, traditional elderly care models are also transitioning towards intelligence, and traditional elderly care models are no longer able to meet the elderly care requirements of our country. So, a new type of community elderly care model - smart elderly care emerged. Smart elderly care is the integration of elderly care services with information technologies such as the Internet, big data, and the Internet of Things, utilizing information service platforms to integrate resources from multiple fields such as catering, housekeeping, and healthcare, and applying these resources to community and home based elderly care services, thereby promoting the supply and demand balance of elderly care services. This article takes the physiological, psychological, and behavioral needs of the elderly as the core, and combines the Kano model analysis method to analyze and study the supply and demand relationship of community elderly care from the perspective of smart communities. It summarizes the key points of community public space design under the smart elderly care model, providing some construction references for the development of the domestic elderly care industry.

Lang Lyu, Honggang Tang, Biao Wang
Research on the Regional Adaptability Strategies of Elderly Activity Facilities in Temperate Area

Activities for the elderly usually have high requirements for the comfort, health and safety of the place. It is necessary to combine the analysis of the local natural environment, climate characteristics and cultural environment, and adopt the design strategy suitable for the regional environment to provide the elderly with green, ecological, healthy and comfortable activity space. Taking senior activity center in a region of Guizhou as an example, through the analysis of its functional requirements, regional natural climate conditions and land use environment, the design adopts BIM technology, new structure, air layer, environmental symbiosis and other strategies. After completion, the project has been recognized by the elderly users, which has certain enlightenment for the design of the elderly activity facilities widely constructed at present.

Honggang Tang, Dongyan Jiang
Constructing a Framework for Measuring TOD Community Scenarios Based on Big Data Analysis

In recent years, governments at all levels in China have advocated the integration of the TOD model into urban planning and construction, and because scene theory and TOD communities share the same core values, this paper applies scene theory to the study of the development model of TOD communities. Because of their mixed functional characteristics, TOD communities can strengthen the agglomeration effect by creating diversified characteristic scenes, attracting specific people to converge there, improving the TOD communities can attract specific groups of people to gather here and enhance the inherent vitality of TOD communities to promote sustainable development. Based on the scene analysis framework of the Chicago School, a scene measurement framework for TOD communities based on China’s national conditions is constructed. Through the integration of big data such as bibliometric method and POI database, the scene measurement dimensions of TOD communities are divided into three main dimensions of functional space, public transportation space and public service space, and fifteen sub-dimensions are refined. The “UNI-CITY” TOD community is used as an empirical study, and suggestions for optimization are made based on the scenario measurement dimension framework.

Suliu Chen, Yun Xiong
A Computational Analysis Method to Evaluating Experiential Qualities of Historical Streets in Sustainable Townscapes

In recent years, there have been numerous studies on the influencing factors of experiential qualities, but there is a lack of consideration for spatial cognition factors such as the perceived quality of street space by the public under a people-oriented approach. This paper uses a space syntax analysis method to evaluating experiential qualities of historical streets in sustainable townscapes. The research results show that from a global perspective, spatial quality has a certain explanatory power on the distribution of spatial vitality. From a local perspective, the impact of different dimensions of space quality on space vitality showing a more complex relationship in urban space. The difference in the impact of spatial quality on spatial vitality in different types of spaces is mainly related to location, and the improvement of spatial quality optimization on spatial vitality requires certain material prerequisites. Therefore, in actual space renovation work, it is necessary to determine whether quality optimization can be adopted to enhance vitality based on the existing material conditions of the space.

Yabing Xu, Hui Tong, Wenpeng Song, Zhao Li, John Rollo, Pengfei Zhao, Meng Chen, Yolanda Esteban
Research on the Construction System of Traditional Wooden Dwellings of Miao Nationality in Southeast Guizhou Based on BIM Technology

Traditional wooden dwellings of Miao nationality in southeast Guizhou show unique regional and cultural characteristics, and their main frame form is the Chuan-Dou style wooden frames. In order to analyze the component composition and construction characteristics of the traditional wooden frame system, the basic component system and three-dimensional information model were established by means of accurate design, three-dimensional visualization and quick and efficient means of BIM technology to summarize its characteristics, so as to provide strong support and guarantee for the construction, protection and inheritance of traditional dwellings.

Shuang Liu, Lei Gong, Li Zhou, Chengyang Liu
Analysis of the Impact Mechanism of Smart City Construction on Low Carbon Development Based on Multi Phase DID Evaluation

With the continuous development of information technology and the continuous improvement of urban informatization application level, the construction of smart cities has emerged As a new model for the development of technology enabled cities in the digital age, smart cities play a crucial role in China’s low-carbon transformation However, the current academic community mostly examines smart cities from a qualitative analysis perspective, while few scholars pay attention to the quantitative impact of smart city construction on low-carbon development, and there are even fewer studies exploring its impact mechanism. This paper uses the multi period double difference model to evaluate the implementation effect of three batches of smart city pilots on low-carbon development in China, and conducts mediating effect test and heterogeneity analysis. Smart city construction plays a very positive role in urban low-carbon construction; Smart cities promote low-carbon development of cities by enhancing their innovation capabilities and energy efficiency. In the middle and east cities and non - resource cities, the development of smart cities is more important to the low carbon development.

Wenyao Xiao, Honggang Tang, Lang Lyu
Influence Factors Analysis of Aging Landscape Based on the Characteristics of the Elderly Human Body

Globally, people are living longer. Today, most people may anticipate living into their 60s and beyond. The number of older people and their share of the population is increasing in every nation. With the continuous growth of age, the physiological function and psychological function characteristics of the elderly population continue to decline while they need an active lifestyle. Therefore, the demand for outdoor physical landscapes also changes. This paper aims to study and analyse the physiological and psychological function characteristics of the aged group. The characteristics of daily behaviours and activities of the elderly people and their actual needs for outdoor landscapes were obtained. The influence factors of the elderly population on the ageing outdoor landscape space are as early as in the design process of space planning, design layout, facilities, and process flow in the design and construction stages. The finding provides theoretical support and design guidance for the new construction to generate healthy, livable, ageing outdoor landscapes space.

Xiangyun Wang, Alamah Misni, Feng Wang
Research on the Causes and Treatment Methods of Urban Flood Points

Urban flooding, caused by extreme rainfall in the context of global warming, poses significant challenges to people, society, and the economy. One particular flood-prone area in Guiyang’s Huaxi District serves as our research focus. Field visits revealed that inadequate infrastructure, suboptimal management systems, limited local resources, and a lack of safety awareness among residents contribute to the flooding issue. To address this, we propose implementing Low Impact Development (LID) techniques to transform the area into a sponge-like site. Using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), we constructed a flood simulation model to compare pre- and post-transformation scenarios. Results show that the proposed approach effectively mitigates flooding. Moreover, we emphasize improving flood prevention and control management systems by standardizing practices and enhancing drainage and flood prevention facilities. These measures aim to bolster the overall urban flood control system and ensure the city operates safely. Our study provides valuable insights for building a resilient Guiyang, acting as a reference for sponge city construction and strengthening flood control efforts.

Sicheng Wang, Ruili Chang
Identification the Causes of Negative Emotions in Smart Public Transportation Services Based on Social Media Data

The negative emotional comments of smart public transportation maybe contain specific reasons behind them. If the underlying reasons can be identified, it is beneficial to timely improve public transportation (PT) services and provide a more comfortable PT experience for the public. However, the application of emotional analysis based on social media in bus service evaluation is limited, especially in the exploration of the reasons behind negative evaluations of bus services, which is still in a blank stage. Therefore, based on social media data, the paper studies the method of identifying the causes of negative emotions in PT services. Sentiment data is obtained through Sina microlog. The reasons for negative emotions are proposed and classified, which are divided into seven types: long waiting times, poor hygiene, poor driver attitude, unstable driving, overcrowding, unreasonable pricing, and other reasons. Then, a classification model for negative emotions based on feature fusion and attention mechanism, BERT-BiGRU + CNN-Attention model, is established to identify the causes of various negative emotions. Finally, the proposed method is used for analysis and validation. This model incorporates an attention model on the basis of feature fusion, which assigns higher weights to important features. Therefore, the F1 value classified on the test set reached 0.9724, achieving a good identification result.

Yanfang Shou, Jianmin Xu
Research on Sponge Transformation and Renewal Design of Old Residential Districts in Mountain Cities from the Perspective of Resilience

Developing sponge transformation of old communities in mountainous cities from the perspective of resilience is an important means of urban waterlogging control. Based on the Xibei community site in Huaxi District, a total of 8 indicator items are constructed from three aspects: community ecological environment, community safety, and community resources. The entropy weight method and TOPSIS method are combined with SWMM software runoff simulation to construct a sponge construction evaluation system for update design research. The research shows that the two key factors to improve the sponge construction index of old communities are the average catchment area and the permeable pavement rate; Taking the elevation difference of mountainous communities as the runoff buffer area, setting linear fine seam drainage ditches, vegetation shallow ditches with small dams, and permeable pavement can absorb more than 20% of peak runoff, and reduce the comprehensive runoff coefficient of the site by more than 50%; The division of community catchment area should be flexibly adjusted according to the slope of different areas; The site pavement renewal based on LID control can reduce the comprehensive runoff coefficient of the site by more than 40%, and the peak value of road rainstorm runoff can be reduced by more than 20%; The evaluation system can provide more targeted guidance for sponge transformation design.

Peijun Feng, Jiatan Fan, Sicheng Wang
Study on “Intelligent” Renewal Strategy of Block Under Stock Optimization

Blocks carry the collective memory of residents and become a rare stock space in the city, so the “intelligent” renewal of blocks is a necessary stage and has due significance in the current context of smart city development in China. Given the numerous issues with the overall appearance, street space, ancillary facilities, management, and maintenance, this paper uses Yangzhou Dongguan Block as the research object to analyze the current state of the protection and renewal of blocks in China through literature analysis and field research, we propose the “intelligent” renewal strategy based on stock optimization and intelligent renewal as an entry point, including block renewal energization, information collection visualization, block service systematization, and intelligent operation management to guide the organic renewal practice and provide a clearer renewal approach for long-term sustainable development of China’s blocks.

Yao Wu, Tianhui Li, António Candeias
Evaluation of Urban Habitat Quality Based on Theory of Humanistic - A Case Study of HeFei Metropolitan Circle of China

Under the current requirements of sustainable development, scientific and objective evaluation of the quality of urban habitat and analysis of the influencing factors of habitat quality are of great significance for the implementation of habitat improvement according to local conditions. Taking the HeFei metropolitan circle as a case study, the study uses mathematical statistics and geographic information methods to evaluate the quality of urban habitat from four dimensions: physiological need, safety need, social communication need and self-actualization need, and to analyse The study shows that the quality of urban habitat in the HeFei metropolitan circle of China is not only spatially heterogeneous but also influential. The study shows that: (1) the spatial distribution of urban habitat quality in the HeFei metropolitan circle of China varies greatly, with the quality of urban habitat in the eastern part of the city being significantly higher than that in the western part; (2) the quality of urban habitat is influenced by many factors such as the level of economic development, infrastructure arrangement and ecological civilization construction, among which the level of economic development has a significant impact. (3) The radiation effect of neighbouring cities is of great significance to the improvement of the quality of urban habitat. Through the study and analysis of the index factors affecting the improvement of urban habitat quality, we provide reference suggestions for promoting sustainable urban development.

Xingang Yang, Mengyuan Jin, Xueyan Liu
An Examination of the Suzhou Folk House Patio Space’s Regional Characteristics Under the Concept of the Smart City

The idea of a “smart city” is focused on the individual, investigating more effective urban planning and design techniques from the hobbies and religious aspirations of the local populations. A space form dominates the patio and is the most recognizable space structure, which still plays a role that cannot be ignored. Suzhou residential houses are organic products adapted to the favorable natural conditions, developed water network system, long traditional culture, and thousands of years of feudal and religious system family form in the Suzhou area. This study primarily describes the spatial shape, pattern, functional elements, etc. of a Suzhou residential patio space. According to the findings, Suzhou’s residential patio space prominently displays regional features in terms of its construction, spatial organization, usage of functions, and spiritual connotations, among other things. A thorough comprehension of its structure and spiritual implications is necessary for taking a more active part in the creation of the smart city.

Tianhui Li, Yao Wu
Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Green Building, Civil Engineering and Smart City
herausgegeben von
Wei Guo
Kai Qian
Honggang Tang
Lei Gong
Springer Nature Singapore
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