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Über dieses Buch

This book presents the proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018), held on August 26-30, 2018, in Florence, Italy. By highlighting the latest theories and models, as well as cutting-edge technologies and applications, and by combining findings from a range of disciplines including engineering, design, robotics, healthcare, management, computer science, human biology and behavioral science, it provides researchers and practitioners alike with a comprehensive, timely guide on human factors and ergonomics. It also offers an excellent source of innovative ideas to stimulate future discussions and developments aimed at applying knowledge and techniques to optimize system performance, while at the same time promoting the health, safety and wellbeing of individuals. The proceedings include papers from researchers and practitioners, scientists and physicians, institutional leaders, managers and policy makers that contribute to constructing the Human Factors and Ergonomics approach across a variety of methodologies, domains and productive sectors.

This volume includes papers addressing the following topics: Ergonomics in Design, Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design, and Affective Design.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Ergonomics in Design

Frontmatter

An Analysis of Usability Issues on Fashion M-commerce Websites’ Product Page

Due to the increasing number of mobile phone users with access to the Internet over the last decade, it has become increasingly necessary to propose usability guidelines designed to be applied to projects made for mobile devices. In Brazil, m-commerce is becoming more and more popular and in the short-term it is likely to reach similar performance numbers as to the traditional ecommerce. However, there are still several websites that are not specifically designed for mobile devices and do not take into account their characteristics and singularities. A review of the existing literature on the subject was undertaken to elicit suggested guidelines for the development of digital interfaces. Based on these guidelines the websites of two retail companies were analyzed. The objective of the analysis was to assess what are the impacts on usability caused by uncritical adaptations of complete websites to mobile versions. This evaluation was done bearing in mind the categorization of usability principles developed by Brangier e Barcenilla (2003). Issues such as: confusing translations, lack of consistency, small touch targets, amongst others, were detected on the analyzed websites. This investigation showed it is possible to make small changes that would result in websites with improved usability.

Carolina Bozzi, Claudia Mont’Alvão

Ergonomics of Design - Problems in Making the Project a Reality

Introduction: The analysis based on ergonomics, used in this study, seeks not only to adjust questions related to risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders, but also to redefine a productive process that may be altered. Studies based on activities carried out in the boiler operation are not many, and the studies are based more on the production and mechanisms of the same, relating productivity and decrease in the levels of pollution. Thus, this study will address several points of the boiler operator’s activity, in order to solve the proposed demand (skeletal muscle issue and productivity). Methods: An ergonomic analysis was performed divided in three phases. The first phase (generalist) was a collection of data about the company, the specific function and the sector that makes up the function (general organization, tasks and production). In the second phase, a pre-diagnosis of the analyzed function was presented. Finally, ergonomic evaluation methods (interview, real analysis, application of ergonomic tool) were applied to confront the initial demand. After this, in the third phase, a final diagnosis and recommendations were made to adapt the current situation of the activities. Results: The company evaluated has around 370 employees, including the production, recycling and reuse of paper sector. The evaluated sector (Boiler) has six active employees, in three shifts (two employees per shift). The development of the work focused on the boiler operator was informed about the issues involving the boiler-to-gas exchange by the steam boiler. Being the consumption of the new boiler, much bigger than the previous one. Through the data passed by the company, there was a possible pre-diagnosis focused on cognitive and musculoskeletal issues (demand from employee reports about function). Numerous operative modes were observed during the performance of the function and this is due to a technical error of the boiler mat, which causes the worker to have to organize the wood logs inside the boiler box after they have left the conveyor). The boiler project, even if tested and simulated, when it became real presented variables that went unnoticed in the project’s idealization. Causing physical overload during the activities.

Thiago Alves de Oliveira, Paigy Costa Elaine Fernandes, Camila Mafalti Toledo, Henrique Mianovichi, Edgard de Oliveira Neto, Adreia Paparotti, Vilson Paulo Tauffer, Luiz Marcelo Marcondes Coelho de Oliveira, Thais Caroline de Barros, José Eduardo Falcetti

Reducing the Pulling Force on Plastic Bag Rolls

A bagging table rolling device is a tool that is mainly installed in supermarkets to supply plastic bags. One of the usability problems with this device is that the pulling force is large. In the case of a large new roll, the pulling force is 6.9 N, which means that the device cannot be operated comfortably. The force that a user can easily exert is about 3 N, but when the pulling force exceeds 5 N, the roll feels heavy. One effective measure for reducing the pulling force is to reduce the angle of the rail on which the center shaft of the plastic bag roll is installed. Usually, it is designed at 45°, but if the angle is reduced, both the frictional force and pulling force decrease. In this research, the theoretical equation for the pulling force was derived for changes in rail angle, and a comparison with the measured value was made. As a result, the theoretical and measured values showed good agreement, and the theoretical formula was shown to be useful in rolling device design.

Takeyoshi Kaminishizono

Range of Rest Posture of Human Lower Limbs

The most advocated schemes of comfort perception have proposed an objective method to evaluate “effects in the internal body” and “perceived effects”—the state of the art for comfort/discomfort evaluation. Postural comfort is one aspect of comfort/discomfort perception, and this current work adds to existing knowledge toward a more objectified posture evaluation for comfort. The authors have used the concept of Range of Rest Posture (RRP), as proposed by Apostolico et al. [1], useful for comfort evaluation. The study focused on the identification of RRP within the Comfort Range of Motion (CROM) for these human joints in the lower limbs: hip, knee, and ankle. The proposed method is based on extensive experimental work involving 114 healthy individuals (59 males and 55 females) ranging from 20 to 40 years old. The age range was narrowed to avoid an age-clustering of results due to inhomogeneity of the statistical sample. The experimental data were processed using statistical methods for identifying the RRP in the experimental CROM. Several Maximum Level of Comfort (MLC) positions were found within the RRP. These positions were among the most important information in the comfort evaluation analyses.

Alessandro Naddeo, Nicola Cappetti, Mariarosaria Vallone

Trust in Imperfect Automation

The types of unreliability that an automated system may express can have effects on a user’s perception of that automation’s overall operational ability. A software program which makes one type of mistake might be judged more harshly than another program which makes a different sort of error; even if both have equal success rates. Here I use a Hidden Object Game to examine people’s different responses to a program when it appears to either miss its target objects or, alternatively, to make false alarms. Playing at both high and low clutter levels, participants who believed they were working with an automated system which missed targets decreased their trust in that automation, and judged its performance more harshly, compared to participants who believed the automation was making false alarms. Participants in the combined low clutter and miss condition showed the strongest decrease in trust. When asked to guess how often the program had been correct this group also gave it the lowest mean score. These results demonstrates that in a target detection task, automation that misses targets will be judged more harshly than automation that errs on the side of false alarms.

Alexandra Kaplan

From Rigid to Flexible – From Virtual to Tangible an Evolution of Human-Centered Design

Human Centered Design (HCD) has become a necessary and unavoidable approach to seriously consider human factors upstream in systems architecture and functionalities. 20th century practices started by inventing and building tangible objects, functionalities being added incrementally and piled up at infinity, offering not only more automated systems but also more complex uses of these systems. Conversely, since the beginning of the 21st century engineering projects are designed from a computer (i.e., in a virtual environment) by defining scenarios and functional configurations that can be tested using human-in-the-loop simulations where the issue of tangibility is becoming crucial along three dimensions: technology, organizations and people (jobs). These virtual structures and functions must be made tangible from two points of view: that of physics and that of the figurative (i.e., cognitive and socio-cognitive). Tangibility can be characterized and evaluated through five dimensions: complexity; maturity; flexibility; stability; and sustainability. It is interesting to note that these dimensions can be mirrored with that of autonomy: inter-connectivity, independence, flexibility, resilience, and persistence. In this perspective, this article presents a new paradigm, the Human-Systems Integration (HSI) and analyzes the evolution of rigid automation towards a flexible autonomy, proposing a new paradigm of HCD.

Guy André Boy

The Layout Evaluation of Man-Machine Interface Based on Eye Movement Data

The principle of functional grouping is one of the important principles that should be followed in interface design, but so far it lacks the support of the quantitative data for the importance of interface design. In order to validate the function grouping principle in interface design with quantitative data, this study designed three different levels of interface. Each interface had 17 functional icons which are divided into three groups on the interface. Thirty-five subjects performed the icon search task on interfaces while their eye movement data was recorded. The results showed that the interface laid out according to the principle of functional grouping has the shortest searching time, the least number of fixation points and the number of saccade, the shortest scanpath and the smallest fixation divergence, while the interface of icon completely random layout show the longest search time, the maximum number of fixation points and the number of saccade, the longest scanpath, the maximum fixation dispersion, and while the data results of the interface that is partially laid out in accordance with the principle of functional partitioning was in between. Therefore, it can be concluded that, when the layout of the interface is different according to the principle of functional grouping, human-computer interaction efficiency and eye movement behavior will be obviously affected. The layout of the interface may be objectively evaluated by utilizing the change of eye movement data.

Qianxiang Zhou, Yang Cheng, Zhongqi Liu, Yuhong Chen, Chenming Li

The Factors that Influence Productivity During the Activity of Lining in Small Vertical Buildings in Brazil - A Case Study

The application of the inner lining in a construction site is a critical point because it requires professionals well qualified for the service. The quality of the final product is very visible and has an influence on customer satisfaction. In addition, in Brazil, lining has protection, insulation and resistance functions that are very important to customers and add value to the building.The purpose of this research is to identify the factors that influence productivity in the internal lining activity of a small vertical building. The specific objectives are to show how these factors exert their influence on the quantitative and qualitative aspect of the process and bring a project improvement proposal that minimizes the losses caused by all the factors identified. An ergonomic work-based approach was carried out.It was observed that five factors interfere in productivity: rework, large planning and replanning pauses, participation of assistant in the activities, excessive number of cuts in ceramics in areas more difficult to execute and displacements generated by the poor distribution of materials.From these results, it was verified that there was a lack of specific direction in the decision-making process of the inner lining activity of walls. So, it was suggested a design adjustment of the walls, dimensions and electrical installations of the evaluated environments, in order to use the maximum of whole pieces, in an attempt to reduce the problems arising from this process.

Alinny Dantas Avelino, Andrezza Araújo Rodrigues da Silva, Marline Almeida Marques Inocencio, Maria Christine Werba Saldanha

Investigate the Effect of Age and Lights on Human Responses

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of age and lights on human responses. The participants included 10 young (22.40 ± 1.43 years old) and 10 middle-aged (36.40 ± 1.43 years old) adults. Independent variables of the experiment were groups (young and middle-aged adults), light environment (light A and light B) and time. Light A and light B were RGB LEDs; and the peak of blue spectrum was the only difference between light A (464 nm) and light B (451 nm). Dependent variables were physiological responses and subjective evaluations. The physiological responses included heart rate (HR), galvanic skin response (GSR) and little finger temperature. The subjective evaluations included feeling about lights (range from dim to bright), emotion and generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD). In this experiment, each participant should take a rest and feel the light environment for 40 min. The results showed that the age groups were the main factor to affect the physiological responses. The post-hoc comparisons showed that young adults were more relaxing than middle-aged adults. On interaction between age groups and lighs for GSR and HR, the reults showed that young adults felt more relaxed than middle-aged adults while at light A environment which was 464 nm peak wavelength of blue spectrum. Lights were the main factor to affect the subjective evaluations. All participants felt more dim, less tense, more serene and less GAD at light B than at light A. However, there was significant difference for only tense & jittery question and the others were significant trend (bright/dim, serene & contented and GAD). This study suggested that it was needed to consider the age and light factors when designing the light environment.

Chinmei Chou, Ruyu Huang

Creativity in Design of Green Workplaces

Creativity in office design has been enhanced through the introduction of the Green design focus to ensure sustainability of the building. This includes designing buildings to minimize the environmental footprint and to provide for the health and wellbeing of the occupants. In relation to office workplaces the change has been significant as the focus has been on the functions that are undertaken and designing creative settings to provide for the workers. This has seen a reduction in the number of workstations and greater use of collaboration spaces. These include large tables for teams to work together, break out areas with booths and comfortable seating for small group discussions, work areas with acoustic screens around the work points for focussed concentration tasks, meeting rooms of various sizes with video conferencing as well as designated areas for socializing and meeting other workers from the company. The green environment also utilizes plants and colours to enhance the workplace for the workers. This move to the green workplace is enabled by greater use of hand held or mobile technology rather than workstation based personal computers. With high speed internet connectivity the worker is able to access their computer files anywhere in the building and in any of the work settings provided. This requires the company to move to a digitized information management system and away from paper file based systems. The creativity in design enables a wide range of work settings to encourage dynamic work. This includes workstations and meeting tables that are at standing height or that can be easily adjusted with an electric motor or hydraulic system between sitting and standing heights. The introduction of the green work environment requires a culture that encourages workers to move around to achieve the associated health and wellbeing benefits. Creativity is evident in the design of the collaboration and break out settings. The lounge style chairs and couches as well as the booths encourage workers to relax as they interact. The break out areas also involve standing only tables for short term meetings. These spaces results in less reliance on meeting rooms for small group discussions. The requirement for private spaces for telephone calls can be met with phone booths or small spaces where calls can be made without being over heard by others. The green environment requires careful planning to meet the needs of clients visiting the office and to ensure that any staff or visitor with special needs can be accommodated. The green environment also addresses greater utilization of natural light through the windows and less reliance on overhead lighting when it is not required. Window treatments and blinds are essential to control excessive window light during direct sunlight periods. It also involves a layout of the work areas to minimize noise disruption particularly in areas where staff need to concentrate. These changes in the work environment has addressed ergonomics with the physical, cognitive and psychosocial benefits.

David Caple

The Effect of Character Design on Character Identification for Mobile Games

Mobile games with role-playing features are currently one of the most popular types of mobile games on the market. From the viewpoint of game development, it is crucial to encourage players to continue playing these games. The relationship of a player with his/her game character/avatar is an important factor for game design. However, few studies have explored the effects of game character design on character/avatar identification in mobile games. The results of these studies can be used to evaluate the aforementioned effects and can be used as references for game design development. The present study aimed to explore the character design factors that can affect character identification through interface experiments. The study results were as following: Various character design factors affected the players’ character identification types, especially the sense of embodied presence and wishful identification. Game developers can use these results as references for studying gaming psychology and for designing and developing mobile games.

Elena Carolina Li, Yen-Wei Liang, Hsin-Ni Lu, Jin-Yu Chen

Test Technology Research on Immersion Thermal Manikin

People are carrying out abundant scientific experiments, many of which are very dangerous. To better guarantee the safety of the real human, a device that can replace the real people to do experiments is needed to test the thermal resistance of the garment and evaluate the environmental parameters. The manikin is a device that simulates the heat and moisture exchange between the human body and the environment. So far, there have been more than 100 thermal manikins in the world. The immersion thermal manikin is mainly used to measure the thermal resistance of clothing or life-saving protective equipment that needs to work underwater to evaluate the thermal comfort of the garment. It is a technical difficulty for the manikin to achieve the waterproof function and the continuous work under the water through the program control of the manikin heating. This paper provides a brief introduction to the construction of immersion thermal manikin and its software and hardware system.

Wang Qian, Xu Ying, Tian Yinsheng, Ding Li

Team Cognitive Walkthrough: Fusing Creativity and Effectiveness for a Novel Operation

For first-of-its kind operation, it is valuable to bring together system designers and combatants to generate creative and feasible concepts to deploy robots in future operations. System designers will share the perspective in the terms of the technological possibilities and system limitations while the combatants bring with them the rich battlefield knowledge. The proposed methodology is the “Team Cognitive Walkthrough” which leverages on the strengths of both Design Thinking and Cognitive Walkthrough techniques to encourage collaboration to derive concepts for a novel operation. The Team Cognitive Walkthrough is conducted over a series of 3 day-long workshops with participants, made up of an equal mix of soldiers and engineers to define the problem statement, identify opportunities, and co-create a suite of solutions. Through weaving Design Thinking methodologies into Cognitive Walkthrough, creativity and effectiveness can both be achieved at an early stage of the development. LEGO ® SERIOUS PLAY ® provides a common language through the use of LEGO® bricks to establish rapport and common understanding amongst the participants. Collaborative Sketch allowed all participants to have equal voices in the first round of design. Application of the low fidelity paper prototypes during the Cognitive Walkthrough meant that the design changes could be effected rapidly. The initial findings have indicated that the ideation workshop involving the combatants and engineers together had led to the derivation of creative solutions. The combatants acquired a better understanding of the technological challenges while the engineers gained a deeper appreciation of the battlefield considerations.

Kok Hoo Lee, Kenny Wei Liang Chua, Danny Shu Ming Koh, Angela Li Sin Tan

Anthropometric and Geometrical Analysis to Design an Ergonomic Prototype in Jaggery (Panela) Industry

This paper presents a novel prototype, which allows the improvement of biomechanical conditions in critical process of Jaggery production. The proposed design will be selected through an ergonomic evaluation of productive process of mixing, molding and packaging. As a first step we carried out an ergonomic analysis by applying REBA postural assessment and a composed version of loads lifting NIOSH methods; afterwards clinical history was analyzed. Finally, we conducted 39 surveys to the operators belonging to the mixing, molding and packaging process. We developed a CAD model of the prototype by using the software Autodesk Inventor® and later the software Poser 8.0® was used to create a working method to link the prototype with the Colombian anthropometric data. It was found that the spatula (hand tool for mixing process) must be lengthened by 179 mm and the adjustable table should drop to 250 mm from the ground. An economic estimate was determined with a Net Present Value (NPV) of $ 7,047,110, an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 20.78% and a payback period of investment of 3 years. According to the results obtained by the NIOSH and REBA methods, the surveys developed and the historic information provided by the company it was possible to detect that mixing is the most critical process of Jaggery production, then was determined that modified the length of spatula and scrape the pan diagonally reduce the number of moves. Finally, the project was proven economically feasible.

Luis A. Saavedra-Robinson, Vincent S. Robinson-Luque, Carlos A. Andrade-Castro, Cristian D. Molineros-Ospina

Study of HFE/UE Process Model in Medical Device Development

Recently, importance has been placed on designing medical device based on the concepts of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) and Usability Engineering (UE). In this paper, we considered HFE/UE development process model incorporating human-centered design and safety design. First, in order to practice usability engineering in enterprises based on the relation with human-centered design/safety design, the following three issues were confirmed. (1) Clarification and elaboration of the product development process, (2) Quantification of usability, (3) Improvement of methods, tools, and environment. Next, we focused on “Context Search”, one of the three basic usability tools of the medical product development program. And in designing medical equipment, consideration to the thought circuits of people who actually use the equipment is important as well as performance. Therefore, with reference to the pm - SHELL model of the HFE model, we decided to capture HFE in a wider view. Finally, a new HFE/UE equipment development process model and Usability evaluation process model were examined based on development cases of “medical drivers” and “bone fleas”.

Toru Nagao, Kazuo Misumi, Daisaku Ikeda

Standardization of “Dynamic Sign” for Comfort and Safe Society

Animated signs and signs that changed according to the situation, can be expected to improve the convenience of facilities and improve safety and security concerning traffic. This technology is already being developed in multiple countries, and some practical applications have already been realized. Most of these consist of projection lighting systems for presenting information in public spaces. In this paper, this technology will be referred to as “Dynamic sign.” However, the significance, necessity and feasibility of “Dynamic sign” has been recognized, there are currently no international standards that describe the ergonomic requirements for designing “Dynamic sign.” To spread this new technology of “Dynamic sign” through the marketplace quickly and appropriately, it is important to avoid situations with competing specifications that do not take into account the cognitive characteristics of the information recipient. Accordingly, this paper discuss the first step of the human ergonomics principles for the application of “Dynamic sign.”

Reiko Sakata, Akiko Imaishi, Naoki Furuhata, Masami Aikawa, Hiroshi Watanabe, Nana Ito, Hiroyasu Ujike, Ken Sagawa

Human Factors and Ergonomics Design Principles and Guidelines: Helping Designers to Be More Creative

The knowledge and application of Human Factors/Ergonomics (HFE) principles and guidelines can help designers to develop better products and services. However, they may also include design constraints that may affect designers’ creativity. Although both HFE principles and guidelines and creativity are considered essential in the design of products and services, the link between them is little researched. In this article a discussion is presented on the influence that HFE principles and guidelines can exert on the creativity of designers. It also presents case studies of HFE principles and guidelines and discusses how they can influence designers’ creativity. In addition, a set of recommendations is suggested to help designers apply ergonomic design principles and guidelines to stimulate creativity. It is concluded that HFE principles and guidelines can assist designers in creating safer and more efficient products and services and can also broaden their creative process and therefore the originality and appropriateness of products and services.

Virginia Tiradentes Souto, Luciane Maria Fadel

Application of the Equid Methodology and the Principles of Macro Ergonomics in Seat Design

It is known that the main concept of Ergonomics consists in the understanding of the adaptation of the jobs and the needs of its users. When it comes to seating we should also consider several topics, this adaptation is of fundamental importance for the perception of comfort of users in relation to their jobs. A Brazilian company located in the south of the country developed a study whose main theme contemplated the application of tools linked to ergonomics through concepts that aimed to design a seat that would meet the functional needs of its users, as well as to understand market action and commercial viability, and also of their interaction in corporate environments. Therefore, this paper aims to demonstrate the application of macro ergonomics concepts and the Equid/2008 tool in the design and production of seat and, as specific objectives, the demonstration of commercial needs and the respective users with the multidisciplinary team involved as well as evidencing the final result of the product and its respective relevance in the national and international market. Methodologically semi-qualitative questionnaires based on the precepts of the tool and macro ergonomics concepts were applied in all stages of the process, involving development team, process and manufacturing, commercialization and users. It was concluded that the Equid tool and Macro Ergonomics concepts have proven effective in the design and definition of the ergonomic and functional characteristics of the product. Besides that, they are fundamental to list the functional needs of the product and the team of workers involved in its manufacture.

Cristiane Nonemacher Cantele, Giovanna Nonemacher

Conspicuity and Accidents: Data Versus Resource-Limited Differentiations

Accident events frequently involved failures of conspicuity. These failures can be predominantly sensory in nature in which, either the world itself does not provide sufficient informational cues such that they are masked or diminished in some fashion, or the sensory surfaces of the observing individual prove insufficient to register the critical cues for action. In contrast to sensory conspicuity stands cognitive conspicuity. Here, the cues from the environment may be very clear and also be efficiently registered by the individual perceiver. Yet, their significance may remain unrecognized due to the experiential and/or attentional limitations of that person. Sensory restrictions are often equated to inherent limits in bottom-up processing. In turn, cognitive limitations are linked to restrictions on top-down processing. In this brief paper, I look to explore a further link to the constructs of data-limited and resource-limited capacities which are closely aligned to the conspicuity dimensions identified. Most especially, I look to introduce the co-action of these processes and how their interactive effects play into various forms of accident with examples taken primarily from ground transportation.

P. A. Hancock

An Ergonomic Study and Analysis for the Porto Metro Driver Cabin Area

In this study, we analysed ergonomic characteristics of the Metro drivers and their operating position within the cockpit area. Over several weeks, qualitative data was gathered from selected drivers concerning how they use and interact with the space; setting-up their ideal sitting positions.Although we were not asked to redesign the driver’s seat, the sitting position of each driver played an important role to discover how the driver could access and use other peripheral equipment within the cockpit area. The seat itself had several adjustable options to put the driver in his/her desired position and even with all these options, many drivers still complained about repetitive strain, over-reaching and overall discomfort.These scenarios were built, tested and recorded in order to evaluate and identify possible improvements for the driver’s operating experience. Particularly, with the need to support the driver’s left operating arm in relation to the speed-lever and reducing wind-shield reflections.This document presents some of our findings during this procedure and high-lights the constructive parameters with which we applied to our design process.https://vimeo.com/266190644.

J. H. Aston, R. P. Freire, J. L. Ferreira, R. Coelho, J. A. Simões

Trust and Human Factors in the Design of Healthcare Technology

Every day people use multiple technologies to perform complex tasks, such as buying products online, informing their decision making, or supporting their work activities. In many cases, as in healthcare, high risk processes are dependent on the technology to deliver the appropriate service - e.g. diagnostics outcomes, deliver treatments to patients. Hence there is a need for the users and stakeholders of healthcare technologies to trust that these produce accurate and reliable results. Research suggests that trust is: (i) a set of beliefs that a person has before they use or the experience a technology or system; (ii) built throughout the relationship between user and system, and (iii) dependent on the cumulative experience with a specific system. This paper explores the current studies on trust, and its relationship with the concept of user experience. The main contribution is to: (i) propose a definition of Trust Towards Systems (TTS) to bridge the concept of trust and experience; (ii) highlight the importance of TTS given findings for research on trust in other (non-health) settings and to show how design can be used to change perceptions of trust.

Simone Borsci, Peter Buckle, Simon Walne, Davide Salanitri

Individual Differences in Contact Pressure on the Dorsal Surface of the Foot During Gait

The main objective of this study was to examine how contact pressure on the dorsal surface of the foot changes with varying shapes. Ten healthy young men (22.1 ± 0.6 years) with independent walking ability were recruited in this study. We measured the anthropometric characteristics of the foot. Shoe size for the experiment was individually decided based on the obtained anthropometric data. Subsequently, FlexiForce® sensors were attached to the dorsal side of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (P1), intermediate cuneiform (P2), and pternion (P3) to measure the contact pressure during walking. In addition, foot switch sensors were used to determine the gait cycle. At P2, some participants with a higher foot height showed a lower increase in contact pressure during the loading response or pre-swing phases than did participants with a lower foot height. The observed distribution of the contact pressure on the dorsal foot might be caused by the change in the shape of the shoes and the foot joint movement during walking.

Shin Takesue, Ping Yeap Loh, Satoshi Muraki, Shinsuke Hamanaka, Atsushi Yamada, Kouichi Ikegami, Kenki Wada, Hiroshi Furutachi

Improving Airplane Boarding Time by Illumination Guidance

The airplane boarding process has certainly room for improvement. One of the improvement possibilities is seat finding. To improve seat finding a Boeing 737 was equipped with spotlights above the seats that starts to become more intense when you come closer. To test the effect 20 passengers boarded with and without light. The effects on time were recorded and a questionnaire was used to gain insight on the experience. In both situations the boarding with light was 2 s faster. However, the difference was not significant. The experience data were hard to interpret as a part of the participants were not aware that there was a light. The study shows that there is potential in using the light, but further research is needed to study the effect on a flight where many passengers board at the same time.

Stefan Akkerman, Peter Vink

Thinking with Hands, Acting with Minds: Embodied Cognition and Creative Practice

Traditional conceptions of ‘creativity’ assume that the creative person is able to imagine a finished product and then bring this forth through their skill in making things. This conception is also used to separate the ‘artist’ from the craft-worker. In this paper, I show how the developing theories of Embodied Cognition can illustrate when and how ‘creativity’ arises in the design and production of jewellery. I demonstrate the points at which creative reflection are acted upon (even when the jewellers might not be able to put their ‘cognition’ into words). I argue that not only does Embodied Cognition provide a clear and parsimonious account of how jewellers create their objects, but that it also provides a strong and compelling theoretical basis for Ergonomics. By marrying our understanding of how people physically interact with their tools and the world around them, with our understanding of how goal-directed actions are performed, the theory of Embodied Cognition is fundamental in shaping Ergonomics’ ability to explain and analyse human activity.

Chris Baber

Effective Wearable Design

New types of wearable products with electronics and intelligent components are rapidly entering the global consumer marketplace. These new wearable technologies have greater need for fit precision to function properly with broad demographics. However, traditional anthropometric averages and human 3D models alone are proving to be insufficient for achieving the fit required. Effective product development requires iterative use of human subjects starting early in the design process. The fit testing must be continued throughout the process with close communication with industrial design and various engineering teams. This process is particularly important for products that are the first of their kind and thus have no precedents to follow.This paper will review the effective fit study process developed at various institutions to ensure correct fit and comfort on highly technological products. The process was applied and proven at a new technology startup in Florida, Magic Leap Inc. The result was not only an effective fit for their target market, but also an elegant design which is comfortable to wear for a long duration of time and intuitive for consumer to interact.

Kathleen M. Robinette, Gary Shigeru Natsume

Ergonomics of the Built Environment: Main Methodologies Used in Brazil and the Most Adequate Ones to Evaluate the Interaction Between the Elderly and Built Environment

Ergonomics is not only concerned with the relationship between man/object, but also with the relationship with the environment in which he carries out his tasks. The man, to carry out his activities, uses the built environment and the man/environment relationship is what interferes with human behavior. In addition, it is known that the aging of the population in most countries, including Brazil, is a growing phenomenon. It is also important to point that the built environment has explicit participation in the quality of life and well-being of the elderly. Thus, this article aims to determine which were the main methodologies used in ergonomics of the built environment (EBE) research in Brazil between 2013 and 2017, make a comparative analysis between them and then determine which of them might be appropriate when the human-environment interaction is related to the elderly user.

Maria de Lourdes Capponi Arruda Koehler, Flávio Anthero Nunes Vianna dos Santos, Susana Cristina Domenech

On the Role of Ergonomics at the Interface Between Research and Practice

Ergonomics is comprised of a scientific discipline and professional practice. Broadly speaking, these two components are often referred to as research and practice, and the individual members sometimes identify as researchers or practitioners. Some subset of ergonomists conduct both research and practice. Since the early days of the field, there has been a certain amount of tension between research and practice. Although such tension is not specific to the ergonomics field, ergonomics is uniquely positioned to analyze the interface between researchers and practitioners to optimize the interaction between these two groups of stakeholders. Ergonomists have varied experience and education, and perhaps too little attention has been focused on understanding both the capabilities and limitations of ergonomists. More specific attention to understanding the needs of users of ergonomics research is proposed as another avenue to reduce the research-practice tension. Similarly, the organizational needs and expectations of consumers of ergonomics services will lead to research being better able to result in tools and assessments that will help ergonomists fulfill the needs of their customers. An example from the U.S. mining industry will be used in this paper to illustrate how understanding the eventual application context of ergonomics and its end users can create relevant and easy-to-use ergonomics tools.

Patrick G. Dempsey

Evaluation of Usability of Two Therapeutic Ultrasound Equipment

The benefit of ultrasound as a therapeutic element in the physiotherapist’s practice has been widely used. To carry out this therapy it’s necessary to use the equipment of those that are directed to specialists in physical therapy. However, due to the diversity of models and brands, there are many differences in terms of design, which can modify the interaction with the user. The objective of this work is to compare the usability of two therapeutic ultrasound devices used in a University of the Metropolitan Zone of Guadalajara.

Sandra-Karina Castro-Luna, Sergio-Alberto Valenzuela-Gómez, Marcelo Soares

Digitalization of the Ergonomic Assessment Worksheet – User Requirements for EAWS Digital Evaluation Functions

Background: The Ergonomic Assessment Worksheet method (EAWS) is used to assess biomechanical risks for the whole body and upper extremities and to develop ergonomic measures. Different EAWS software tools are available but are mostly limited to the presentation of EAWS points and the involved strain factors. That limits the deployment of the EAWS method in practical use. Objective: For the purpose of user oriented extension of digital EAWS evaluations, requirements and needs of users have to be determined for EAWS evaluation functions and design elements as well as the user context as part of a user-centered design process. Method: The user context and requirements is investigated by using an online survey and semi-standardized interviews. The target group are EAWS-experienced people to receive more detailed information about the usage and design requirements. Results: The online survey was filled out by 61 people and 13 interviews were conducted. The EAWS is not only applied for the evaluation of working processes, but it is also increasingly used for the deduction of measures and in other cases. In general, a high importance for an EAWS digitalization can be stated. There is a particularly high need for evaluation functions such as ‘ergonomic map’, ‘sensitivity analysis’, ‘design analysis’ and ‘job rotation analysis’. Users deployed certain requirements for the design of these functions such as the presentation of essential information or the use of color coding. Conclusion: The surveys demonstrate that the EAWS method is widely used within companies, but existing digitalizations of EAWS have to be extended by further useful functions. For that purpose, the results of the two surveys can be used to develop more user-friendly EAWS evaluations.

Michael Spitzhirn, Peter Kuhlang, Angelika C. Bullinger

All the Real Man’s Men

When we say to someone “Don’t act like a girl!”, we are saying more than a simple sentence. We are moving in the field of representation and self-perception. What are we saying about men?What are we saying about women?In the last decades gender stereotypes, in particular the idea of ‘real man’ that is linked to the father ‘breadwinner’, constitute one of the key limits to gender equality: overcoming these conceptions and categorizations is a fundamental step. As creative designers we feel the necessity of a smarter approach to design and the responsibility to be active protagonists in changing our society.This project can be defined a cognitive ergonomic move in the fields of psychology and design concepts: it is an educational path made to be ‘designer friendly’ recognizing the relevance of the stereotypes and their connection to prejudices. Creating guidelines which include psychological and designer sensibility, we suggest not to simply replace the ‘real man’ with a new one: we wish to deconstruct this model improving the emerging of new ones and consequently promoting ideas of ‘diversity’ and ‘authenticity’.The aim is training creative designers in order to let them introduce and slowly educate audience to accept cultural changes and new models.

S. Sagona, P. M. Tamborrini, L. Rollè

How to Implement a High-Fidelity Prototyping Approach in a Cardiac Surgery Device?

Heuristic Inspection, Task Analysis and Usability Testing for Improving an Aortic Valve Resection and Implantation Device Design

Increasingly often, the surgeon operates remotely. More and more, he/she does neither see nor touch the patient directly but acts with miniaturized systems, such as catheters and robotic instruments. This reduces intervention time and accelerates the patient’s recovery. This paper reports the ergonomic contribution to the design of a device for the resection of stenosed aortic valves and the implantation of a new aortic bioprosthesis. In high-risk contexts as in cardiac surgery, high fidelity prototypes are necessary to allow clinical trials. An association between engineers and ergonomists becomes essential, because the prototype becomes a key stage of the design process. We suggest a triangulation of methods (heuristic inspection, task analysis and usability testing) to produce a high-fidelity prototype reliable for clinical trials. The clinical trials themselves then constitute a preliminary step for further improving the device.

René Patesson, Eric Brangier, Xavier Bollen, Mathias Tummers

Situation Awareness in Future Autonomous Vehicles: Beware of the Unexpected

Vehicle autonomy is being heavily promoted as a means of improving transportation safety on the roadways. This goal, however, is highly dependent on the ability of human drivers to maintain situation awareness and intervene in circumstances that the automation cannot handle. While autonomy software is improving, it remains far less capable than human drivers. The automation conundrum shows that even as it improves, system autonomy is increasingly likely to reduce the ability of drivers to provide needed oversight. The Human-Automation System Oversight (HASO) model provides guidance on the design of vehicle autonomy to facilitate effective human-autonomy design for semi-autonomous vehicles.

Mica R. Endsley

Impact of the ‘Contributing Factors in Construction Accidents’ (ConCA) Model

In 2005 the ‘Contributing factors in Construction Accidents’ framework (ConCA) introduced a sociotechnical systems approach to risk management in construction. ConCA demonstrated the value of exploring distal factors and identifying underlying or latent causes: It promoted an understanding of construction accidents as systemic accidents and challenged an industry-wide culture of blaming frontline workers. A decade later the original article has been cited by research from 37 countries, shaping inquiries and initiatives to improve safety in both the UK and Australia. But to what extent has systems thinking infiltrated practitioners and policy-makers’ views? Despite broader views of contributing factors, many practitioners still view workers in a negative light, holding them responsible for accidents because of complacency, cynicism about safety, or a high-tolerance for risk. This paper evaluates the impact of the ConCA framework, updates it, and develops our understanding of the relationships between immediate circumstances and distal factors, as seen by an expert panel of participants (n = 32). A more in-depth ‘ConCA+’ framework is proposed. It challenges the negative perceptions of workers, and supports shifting the emphasis of risk management away from worker behaviors and towards resolving wider systemic issues. New directions are proposed which show how knowledge management, job design, technological innovation, empowerment and collaboration should be the focus of future work.

Eleanor Harvey, Patrick Waterson, Andrew Dainty

Designing Solutions for Healthcare System Problems - LUFT Incentive Spirometer: Study of Case

This paper has the goal of demonstrating the development of a design process based on the concepts of ergonomics, interdisciplinary and participatory design in order to aid the respiratory physiotherapy treatment of children with acquired and congenital visual disability. This process was conducted in a referential physiotherapy treatment center in Niterói city, Brazil. The public Brazilian healthcare system has several problems to afford medical equipment to public hospitals and physiotherapy centers. Thus, this kind of facilities is hardly accessible for the majority of population, specially failing to attend the needs of the visually disabled. Therefore, providing an affordable product truly efficient to be used in the respiratory treatment for children with visual disability was a significantly relevant goal. Through an ergonomics approach with participation of many specialists from different fields of knowledge and user-centered design concepts, it was possible to design a facilitating tool to stimulate a playful and more active attitude from the blind child patient during the treatment. The process’ development consisted of systematic observation, interview, brainstorming sessions and meetings with experts from several different disciplines such as physiotherapy, physics, engineering, psychology and industrial design. Finally, a respiratory physiotherapy equipment was designed and tested with the final user.

Flávia Azevedo, Giuseppe Amado, Luciana Cruz, Nathalia Pacheco, Nathália Pompeu

Evaluation of Neck Motion Due to Change in Working Velocity Based on Feature Extraction with Motion Division

In recent year, the evaluation method of human motion to clarify the usability is needed because it is a hard task to assess the subjective evaluation of usability of product and the comfort of the environment. This study aimed to analyze neck motion using feature extraction with motion division and clarify the relationship between neck motion and workability. We propose the motion division method based on the calculation of probability density function from the Gaussian distribution. The algorithm being proposed uses the analysis of the measured data by an experiment. As part of the experiment, each participant was instructed to gaze at a target while in the sitting posture. The working posture of each participant was measured to evaluate the effects of working velocity on the position of the target. The numbers of extracted feature point decreased with the decreasing working velocity. The normal working velocity condition maximized the number of extracted feature points. Moreover, participants answered the best subjective workability under normal conditions. These results show that increasing the number of extracted feature points may improve workability.

Kazuki Hiranai, Atsushi Sugama, Takanori Chihara, Akihiko Seo

Characterization of the Dynamics of Sitting During a Sustained and Mentally Demanding Computer Task

This laboratory study studied the dynamics of sitting during a sustained and mentally demanding computer task. Mental fatigue ratings, overall performance and kinetic were recorded in 20 asymptomatic computer users performing computer work for 40 min divided in 12 time epochs. The displacement of the center of pressure (COP) in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions was calculated. The average, standard deviation, and sample entropy values were computed from the COP time series to assess respectively, the magnitude, size and complexity of sitting dynamics. Fatigue ratings significantly increased from before to after the computer task while the overall performance did not change significantly over time. Likewise, the direction of displacement of the COP did not affect significantly the AVG but resulted in larger SD and SaEn values in the ML direction compared with AP direction. Time did not play a significant role on any of the outcome measures. The present study demonstrated that the sitting dynamics can be assessed in an ecological environment, e.g. in office chairs. Further, we found that 40 min seated computer work did not changed the dynamics of sitting. On the contrary, we observed increased size and structure of variability in the ML than the AP direction. This latter finding can be used to design office chairs or interventions aiming at preventing discomfort due to long time sitting.

Pascal Madeleine, Ramtin Zargari Marandi, Kristoffer Larsen Norheim, Nicolas Vuillerme, Afshin Samani

Usability-Optimization of Inertial Motion Capture Systems

Inertial Motion Capture Systems (IMCS) have both many benefits and known disadvantages. The objective of this paper is to optimize available and current IMCS. Therefore the development guideline VDI 2221 was utilized with a focus on the preparation and calibration procedure as well as the attachment of the sensors. The analyzation revealed optimization potential that was considered in the conception phase. The elaborated improvements included new clothes, a suitcase for the storage of attachments and clothes, a fixture for the initialization of sensors, optimized attachments, and a new calibration procedure with a mechanical construction and line lasers. The validation showed that the optimized procedure was clear, the new attachments were more comfortable and had a better grip, the calibration posture was reproducible, and the results of the optimized IMCS were better than the results of the standard IMCS.

Philipp Pomiersky, Kristian Karlovic, Thomas Maier

A Proposed Methods Framework and a Pilot Intervention for Workplace Design

The workspace design process offers opportunities for significant improvements of work environments at low costs. However, work environment experts and Occupational Health Services (OHS) personnel are not seen as natural partners, inhibiting their chances of getting experience. This paper reports results from a national pilot intervention project comprised of a methods framework and a course. The aim of the intervention was to teach these professionals reliable, cost-effective and feasible methods for conducting workplace design projects. The intervention also aimed to increase employee participation in workplace design processes and thereby achieve better impact in these cases. Methods were taught to 56 work environment experts, also creating incentives for them to practice this knowledge. These experts were given incentives to contact and offer their client organizations services for planning new work environments. In the long term, the competence within the field of workplace design on a national level hopefully will be improved.

Linda Rolfö, Jörgen Eklund

Revisiting the Sociotechnical Principles for System Design (Clegg, 2000)

In this paper we reflect upon and re-examine the impact of one of the most influential papers in recent years in the field of sociotechnical systems design (Clegg, 2000). In particular, we look at the influence the paper has had upon a diverse range of researchers (e.g., citation patterns, the extent to which the ideas in the paper have been taken up by disciplines outside of human factors/ergonomics); carry out an evaluation of the extent to which the STS principles have stood the test of time and areas where they may need to be modified in the light of new developments within systems ergonomics (e.g., complexity theory, cybernetics), technology (e.g., the internet of things, automation and robotics) and wider society (e.g., globalization, climate change). The paper concludes with a section covering the future of STS and potential ways in which the principles could be taken forward and modified in order to cope with new developments in human factors/ergonomics and elsewhere.

Patrick Waterson, Ken Eason

Influence of Driving Duration on Static Factors of Seating Comfort in Motorcycles

The driving duration is an important consideration for the design and development of automobile seats. Seating comfort consists of two factors, static and dynamic, and research on passenger cars shows both these factors are influenced by driving duration. However there is limited research to understand the influence of driving duration on seating comfort in motorcycles. This study investigates the influence of driving duration on static factors of seating comfort in motorcycles. Motorcycles from India that are typically used for commuting are considered in this study. The study is carried out with the help of 13 male volunteers and involves subjective rating of seating comfort in a static lab based set up of the motorcycle. The evaluation is carried out for 60 min and the rating of seating comfort is obtained after every 10 min. The data is analysed statistically using ANOVA. The results show that there is a significant influence of time on seating comfort in motorcycles (p < 0.05). The seating comfort reduces with time, however the comfort rating saturates after a duration of 30 min to remain fairly constant. The results of this study provide useful inputs for further research on seating comfort in motorcycles.

Velagapudi Sai Praveen, Gaur Gopal Ray

Creativity in Web Design

Web design has evolved significantly since its text-based roots of the early 1990s to richly interactive and innovative web experiences that we see today. The catalysts for this evolution have been the following trends: technological advances in web standards and their rapid adoption by web browsers; the emergence and widespread adoption of smartphones as the primary computing and communication device; and proliferation of data brought about by our digital interactions from messaging to e-commerce to social media.These trends have resulted in the design of a variety of creative web design and experiences. In this paper, I’ll focus on the following: responsive and performant design; emotion-driven design; smart personalization facilitated by artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies; and conversational interfaces enabled by voice recognition. I’ll also briefly touch on the potential of emotionally intelligent interfaces and integration of virtual reality into websites.

Pawan Vora

Creativity in Teaching Design: A Balance Between the Academic and Intuitive Approach, the AIRP Experiment

Teaching the design practice at the university level, and especially at the university of technology challenges the ageless questions of art and design during the engineering design process. Basically, our role is to train and to foster the development of skilled professionals who produce products that are pleasing, safe and economically bearable. At the forefront of this goal we see different approaches confronting each other. Scientists, including ergonomists, are looking for strict and exhaustive pre-design studies that present two pitfalls to creativity: copy and paste and monodisciplinary responses. On the contrary, creatives argue our greatest discoveries and creations are born from chance and the most recognised designers are self- taught free thinkers. The aim of this paper is to present a method to reconcile these two points of view: interdisciplinary problem-solving workshops, which began ten years ago and solve difficult situations in various fields while simultaneously creating ingenious solutions impacting the technological advancement of products, services, and environments for the aging population.

Pierre-Henri Dejean, Elisabeth Brunier, Michel Lechapellier

Integrating Ergonomics into Product Design Through the UCD Approach

The aim of this paper is to propose a systematic for the integration of ergonomics/human factors (HFE) into product design, based on the user-centered design approach. Thus, an overview of the systematic is presented, as well as the suggestion of methods and support tools for each phase of the design process. In order to verify the applicability of the systematic in the engineering education, an experiment was carried out in two classes of the product design course in a Brazilian University. One class was chosen as a study group and used the systematic proposal during the course, and the other class was chosen as a control group and used the standard methodology as was already done in the course. At the end of the course, a questionnaire was applied with the students of both classes, on the understanding and use of HFE in the product design, showing that presenting this content of ergonomics in an appropriate way and together with the design process allows students to be more likely to use it, to understand it better and know how to use it.

Fabíola Reinert, Leila Amaral Gontijo

Ergonomics Evaluation of Workstations for Mechanical Engineering Companies with Particular Attention to Older Workers

Raising the retirement age characterizes the Italian pension policies as long as many other Western countries. The problems associated with the rise of the working-age population occur at the level of the production sector and at the level of the over 50 age workers safety and health risks, who work in the handling and control of industrial machineries. (ILO, 2015)The sector of mechanical engineering is part of the metal industry, and it deals with machineries and facilities production. Today many people work into the metal industry, especially the over 50 workers.By identifying the over 50 workers as a specific category of users, the design needs require the adaptation of the workstation to prevent any risks related to safety and to incapacity to work. The purpose of this ergonomics evaluation is the raising of safety and usability standard conditions.This is the case of OCEM 2 company. It is made up of workers aged between 22 and 54.The project in question aims to an ergonomic evaluation of 6 workstations in the carpentry and assembly departments.The purpose of research project is to improve current workstations through an euristic evaluation of users risks conditions, using the methodological approach of ergonomics for design and its theoretical and operational tools, as Task Analysis, Users observation, Thinking Aloud, questionnaires and interviews. The aim of the results is to provide the basis for developing the design phase and to improve users risk conditions, usability and users comfort.

Francesca Tosi, Mattia Pistolesi

Validity of Using Lab Based Set-Ups for Evaluation of Static Factors in Seating Comfort of Motorcycles

Seating comfort in automobiles has two important factors, static factors and dynamic factors. Research on static factors of seating comfort often uses static lab based test set-ups to evaluate comfort. Studies, especially in passenger cars, have shown that there is no significant difference in the ratings of seating comfort between lab based set-ups and actual driving. The riding posture, mass distribution and dynamics of a motorcycle are unlike a passenger car and warrant further examination to use static lab based set-ups. The aim of the current study is to examine the validity of using static lab based set-up to evaluate static factors of seating comfort in motorcycles. A group of 18 male volunteers from TVS Motor Company participated in the study. The study involves subjective rating of seating comfort and measurement of seat interface pressure in a static lab based set up as well as actual driving in a flat test track for two motorcycles. The results show that there is no significant difference in the subjective rating of comfort as well as the seat interface pressure between static lab based set-up and actual riding(paired t-test, p > 0.7). There is also a statistically significant correlation between the subjective ratings of seating comfort in static lab based set-up and actual riding (r = 0.77, p < 0.01, n = 36).

Sai Praveen Velagapudi, Gaur Gopal Ray

Gesturing on the Handlebar: A User-Elicitation Study for On-Bike Gestural Interaction

There are growing numbers of apps and smartphone-mounts for professional cyclists, since they are crucial to track performances during training. However, these solutions require the athlete to take her hand off the handlebar to interact with it. This represents a major safety issue for the cyclists since it requires leaving the brake control, shifting the attention and, possibly, compromising posture. This paper reports the findings of a user elicitation study conducted with seven professional and semi-professional cyclists in order to design gestures that can be performed while maintaining the hands in the correct position on the handlebar. Results report the frequency of fingers used for these gestures, with the index being the favorite. Furthermore, it provides a classification of gestures in three categories: press, extension and swipe. The most convenient gestures were the thumb and index press, followed by the extension of different combinations of fingers.

Maurizio Caon, Rico Süsse, Benoit Grelier, Omar Abou Khaled, Elena Mugellini

The role of Prototyping in Ergonomic Practice and Research to Anticipate New Products and Services

This article argues for the dual role of prototyping in facilitating abductive thinking in research and practice within “Ergonomics” and “Design”. Moreover, this duality also pertains to the development of innovative commodities, as well as in the acquisition of new knowledge.Since PE investigates real-life scenarios the aim of the researcher is to understand the nature and complexity of the future state of the system. In this sense prototypes can be used as probes into that future state due to the fact that once implemented they unveil real interactions and transformations of the system. Based on the act of design as a critical inquiry in itself, prototypes and prototyping are then being more and more perceived as carriers of reflection and argumentationFrom a pedagogical perspective, prototyping exposes students to larger issues around creating and testing operational models of knowledge. Reversely, when being engaged in collaborative project with industry, prototyping can play an expanded as well as a more effective role in conceptualizing innovative solutions in an efficient manner.

André Liem

Design and Ergonomics in the Medical Sector: A Methodology to Evaluate the Ergonomics Performances for Anesthesia Workstations

Some people may find it difficult to manage products or interact with systems. This is mostly due to product designed and not to final user. In healthcare the medical devices (DMs) that highlight design flaws can cause operating errors and generate adverse events.Despite manufactures of medical devices claim that Human Factors have a high priority in their projects, few of these are flawless products from the perspective of design and human-machine interface.Ergonomics and design methodologies were used in the context of a negotiated procedure for the supply of anesthesia systems for surgeries. Hierarchical task analysis, User Observation, Questionnaire, and Gap Analysis were used for the ergonomics evaluation and to evaluate the usability of an anesthesia system for two Tuscany hospitals. The evaluations were conducted with medical personnel (doctors and nurses).The obtained results allowed the effectiveness usability levels of product and its components and digital interfaces.The methodology showed in this article provides a useful tool to study ergonomics, usability and errors during the use of anesthesia workstation.

Mattia Pistolesi, Stefano Bellucci

Designing Urban Smart Furniture for Facilitating Migrants’ Integration: The Co-design Workshop as Approach for Supporting Inclusive Design

European cities are changing due the immigration of people from different cultures.There are many issues related to the integration and dialogue between cultures. Urban design plays a key role in how migrants participate in their host community and it is an important driver for the inclusion process. Facilitating the participation of residents in designing public spaces and their use helps to create a better sense of belonging. Promoting in public spaces the interaction of different cultures becomes a crucial element to facilitate social cohesion and living together.The research project explores an innovative approach in the use of public spaces, through the design of smart urban furniture. Based on a survey of the user’s needs, and on co-design activities, the project investigates innovative solutions for facilitating migrants’ integration and the dialogue between different cultures, through the design of innovative urban furniture, with smart technologies embodied inside.The project, based on the co-design approach of rapid prototyping, creates different kinds of new interaction among urban space and people, and between users of different social or cultural background. The results presented in this paper, were conducted by the research unit of the University of Florence, in cooperation with the Human Tech Institute and the School of Management of the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland.

Alessandra Rinaldi, Maurizio Caon, Omar Abou Khaled, Elena Mugellini

Natural Thumb Zone on Smartphone with One-Handed Interaction: Effects of Thumb Length and Screen Size

This study aimed at investigating natural thumb zone of the user in smartphone touchscreen with one-handed grip. The subjects were divided into three groups according to their thumb lengths: small, medium, large. Experiments were carried out using three smartphones of different sizes: 4.7 in., 5.1 in., 5.2 in. The natural thumb zone of each group was analyzed using heat-map method. In large group, the thumb zone occupied more than 50% of the touch screen, while small and medium groups occupied only about 30% in all smartphones of different sizes. Compare to other groups, the thumb zone ratio of the small group in 5.2 in. smartphone was found greatly reduced. The lowermost region and the upper-left region of the smartphone touchscreen are not commonly included in natural thumb zone, regardless of the thumb-length groups. The results of this study could be used for designing new mobile device to enhance the usability of one-handed interaction; small devices with a touch screen as well.

Hyo Chang Kim, Yong Gu Ji

Interior Design Adequacy of Truck Sleeper Cabins in Brazil as to the Use as Temporary Dwelling

This research aimed to identify and present relevant aspects regarding the use of truck sleeper cabins in Brazil as temporary dwellings, based on user perception, on observation of the researcher and on experts’ evaluation. Data collection included 25 semi-structured interviews with truck drivers and direct observation and image record of their cabins in use. The sample was randomly selected in relation to truck brands and models, at roads and ports in the states of São Paulo and Pernambuco, including vehicles from the Southeast, South, Northeast and Midwest regions. Interviews were also conducted with six experts from truck manufacturing companies and two professionals from cabin customization companies. The results suggest that trips with many overnight stays, typical of Brazilian use, generate needs not always met by the original designs of the cabins, so there are many adaptations made by users in order to sleep more comfortably, store objects, cook and eat, travel with their families, just to mention some. The high incidence of robberies generates demands for solutions to meet basic feeding and hygiene needs inside the cabins, as well as anti-theft devices. It is concluded that Brazilian users desire higher cabins, larger beds, night air conditioning, onboard refrigerators, suitable electrical installations, solutions to accommodate and transport family members safely. Thus, there is potential for a greater offer of customization by the manufacturers, in order to achieve better adaptation as to the use observed in Brazil.

Ana Paula Scabello Mello

Workload II: A Future Paradigm for Analysis and Measurement

Well-established models of workload focus on the cognitive demands placed on an individual and the capacity of cognitive resources to respond to those demands. These models, and the range of measurement tools which have been used to capture workload in real world and laboratory settings have been vital in ensuring design of work to take into account workload over the past four decades. This paper will consider how we should now build on these well-established foundations to develop a new suite of tools and approaches suitable for 21st Century workplaces. In the past, it was impractical to apply detailed automatic capture of work (either through physiological measures of people, or through sensing of interaction) in situ in a workplace. Development of technologies, alongside changing attitudes towards sensing in workplace settings, mean that we now have new tools and large data sets potentially available to capture a wider range of elements of a workplace, potentially enriching our workload measurement data set, and making triangulation of methods routine and seamless.However, these enriched data sets will need to take into account the changed nature of work. Workplaces now see increasing collaboration between people and autonomous systems (Kaber 2017). Workplace tasks normally now involve multiple people, systems, technologies and artefacts. Typically, workload assessment tools have only considered single people and single roles (where multiple resource theory provides a framework to capture two or more elements of a single role). Similarly, unlike theories such as Situation Awareness (Endsley 1995) (Endsley 2015) workload theories do not tend to directly address the role of the social and organisational context on the effect of work, and it is proposed that through the adoption of established notions such as cognitive appraisal they can and should now do this. Finally, workload models tend to be based on the traditional human information processing model (Wickens et al. 2003), rather than directly acknowledging the joint cognitive systems nature (Hollnagel and Woods 2005) of the way that we work.This paper will address the above in the light of reviewing the strong foundations of workload theory, and building upon this to identify challenges and priorities for workload theories and tools for our future workplaces.

Sarah Sharples

Design of an Auxiliary Implement for Classical Guitar Positioning from a Postural Analysis in Musicians

Guitarists interact with many elements such as music stand, chair and implements for instrument positioning in order to accomplish their artistic activity. Regarding auxiliary implements for guitar positioning, it has been recognized, that in addition to providing a better accessibility and a simpler interaction with the musical instrument, it’s necessary to analyze their characteristics and their relationship with the postural variations in musicians to identify possible risk factors and establishing new conditions to prevent them.This paper aims to describe a postural analysis of three existing auxiliary implements as the base for generating design parameters of a new device for guitar positioning.To carry out the postural evaluation, guitarists were asked to play a fingering exercise specially designed for this study. They were video recorded in three different angles simultaneously. Afterwards, all videos were synchronized and divided in photograms in order to apply the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), which was useful as a diagnostic test to identify higher risk postures. Subsequently, the angles of the above-mentioned body segments were estimated using the 3DSSPP software.

Sergio Alberto Valenzuela-Gómez, John Alexander Rey-Galindo, Carlos Aceves-González

Ergonomics of a Children’s Day Hospital

There is little emphasis given by the discipline of ergonomics to hospital architecture in Brazil. As such, this paper presents a case study of an ergonomic evaluation done in the Brasilia Children’s Hospital. The research focused on the spatial quality and user satisfaction through an ergonomic standpoint. It analyzed the pediatric oncology therapy area, focusing on chemotherapy treatment. Therefore, the intent here is to increase the scarce existing material on the architecture literature dedicated to the study of this spatial typology. The case study showed that ambiance is key in creating a sense of well-being, hospitality, and comfort to users. It contributed to a didactic interaction with patients, breaking the usual concept of sobriety and sterility of a hospital. This promoted the interaction between different actors, which avoided the habitual isolation of a child in new spaces and discomforts with certain therapeutic practices. As such, this paper discusses evaluation and proposal – under the focus of Ergonomics applied to the built environment – of a children’s day hospital for cancer treatment.

Nicole Ferrer, Vilma Villarouco

Cognitive Ergonomics in Architecture: Creativity and Ambience in Children’s Healthcare Spaces

The concept of hospital environment based on the precepts of cognitive ergonomics expands the understanding of hospital ecology. It encompasses the dimensions of relationships, the physical structure, and the way these two interact with the activities that occur there. Ambiance then becomes an important factor in breaking preconceived ideas of what healthcare spaces should look like. This contributes to the construction of new situations that may come to transform paradigms of healthcare spaces. It shows that both Ergonomics of the built environment and Ergonomics in the design process play a relevant part in the betterment of healthcare spaces. As such, the goal here is to understand the relationship between users and the environment, assessing whether it meets the needs of children and their caregivers. This paper discusses conceptually the use of cognitive ergonomics as a tool of inter and transdisciplinary ideas in the design process of the built environment of children’s healthcare spaces. It seeks to understand how the integral needs of the users may become the focus – to the detriment of the disease-centered approach –, with more humanized spaces adapted to their expectations and needs.

Nicole Ferrer, Vilma Villarouco

Enhancing the Usability of a Mobile App for Process Evaluation in a Participatory Ergonomics Healthcare Intervention

Monitoring of workplace intervention processes in real-time can identify factors influencing intervention success or failure while they can still be modified if necessary. The aims of this study are to describe a process to assess and (where necessary) improve functionality and usability of a process evaluation mobile app. The app was developed for the research study “Safety and Health through Integrated, Facilitated Teams” (SHIFT), an evaluation of the CPH-NEW Healthy Workplace Participatory Program in public sector healthcare institutions. App users are members and co-facilitators of labor-management health and safety committees, internal program champions, other managers, and researchers. The app records four “functions:” meetings held, attendance and attendee feedback; project-related chats; and time spent on project activities. Post-meeting feedback surveys cover participant engagement, group dynamics, and usefulness of the intervention at each step. Pilot tests were conducted across combinations of device specifications to assess both functionality and usability. Functionality problems were fixed as they were documented. The average System Usability Scale scores for seven student testers were similar between the two interfaces: 72.9 for the mobile app and 72.5 for the website, both corresponding to “good” usability. Development of a mobile app requires substantial effort and personnel time which may not be apparent at the start of the project. Communication between researchers and the app developer was challenging at times. Conceptual and mental models of the specifications do not necessarily correspond due to differences in fields, experience, and priorities.

Winnie Chin, Alicia Kurowski, Guanling Chen, Rebecca Gore, Laura Punnett

Temporal Dispersion in Distributed Work

Effective communication is critical to sociotechnical systems. Such systems may entail distributed authority and responsibility, and physical resources that are not collocated. This is certainly the case in crisis management. To improve communication during crisis management, researchers have tried to enhance the communication technology. However, communication problems persist even in the presence of robust technology. Several studies of communication have examined the consequences of the spatial distribution of operators working on the achievement of a common goal. Yet, few have researchers have investigated the effects of temporal distribution. Drawing on documentation of the Deepwater Horizon Accident in 2010, we select examples to reveal the temporal distribution of events that affect the availability of contextual information across a socio-technical system. We claim that temporal distance, like spatial distance, reduces global awareness and the opportunity to observe the incidental behaviour that renders activities mutually accessible.

Béatrice Linot, Jérôme Dinet, François Charoy, Valerie L. Shalin

Iteration in Usabilty Testing: Instructive Interfaces of a Dietary Plan in Diabetics

The goal of usability testing is to make design decisions based on objective data and user-centered criteria. Iteration in usability testing is key to identify the design decisions that hinder the interaction between users and interfaces, additionally validates the design elements that enhance it. When the usability testing is applied to systems or interfaces related to users’ health issues, such as diabetes, benefits in both in the interaction as well in user welfare are obtained. Diabetes complications can be diminished through the metabolic control of the patient, which is achieved through the implementation of a dietary plan. Two usability assessments were carried out during the interface development, this study presents the second iteration of the assessment of the interface redesign based on the results of the first evaluation, the feedback from the participants and the application of the ergonomic guidelines. Three dimensions of usability were evaluated: satisfaction, efficiency and effectiveness. Both interfaces showed similar results in usability. The use of color was identified as a design element to be assessed in an isolated manner. The iterative assessment allowed to improve the proposed guidelines for the design of instructional interfaces and when applied in the interface design process, results in a positive effect on its usability. In addition, the recommendations made by the users of the first test were validated through the iterative testing, making this a user centered process.

Carlos D. de Leon Zuloaga, Lilia Roselia Prado Leon

Exploring Packaging Lid Design Preferences Among Mexican University Students

The aim of this research was to evaluate Mexican students’ preferences of three redesigned lids. To reach the objective, a test was performed with three 3D printed lids that were redesigned based on valuable features regarding the overall shape, texture, and dimensions as found in previous studies. The most different characteristic among the lids was the overall shape. Eighteen female university students participated in this test, which consisted of opening a bottle using the three redesigned lids while placing their hand according to the user’s most comfortable position. Four methods were used to measure perceived exertion, user’s satisfaction, comfort and perceived effort, and the kind of grip used by the participants: the Borg CR-10 scale, two questionnaires to measure satisfaction and a direct observation made by the researchers. Results suggest that students’ preferences were focused on the enhanced grip through the use of hexagonal lids with rounded corners and clearly marked concave sides to place the fingers on the lid’s wall. Overall, the results in this study provide valuable ideas to designers in order to create lids that are able to satisfy the needs and preferences of people with characteristics similar to those of the participants in this research. Similarly, the study offers an opportunity for trying the ideas with other groups of users.

Paulina Manzano-Hernandez, David Vidana-Zavala, Carlos Aceves-Gonzalez

An Ergonomic Solution for Ventilating Backpack Design

Comfort issue is one of the major concerns regarding backpack design. Previous studies have tried to improve backpack comfort in different ways such as reducing load weights and balancing the load distribution. However, few studies have investigated the issues related to thermal comfort, which is a fundamental problem for bicycle rider with backpacks. This study aimed at improving the user’s experience for those who cycle with backpacks by providing a better ventilation design and body support. Interviews were firstly completed among fifty participants to investigate their usage pattern and usability issues regarding backpack use. Following, a test was conducted with participants to find out the possible difficulties and problems when cycling with a backpack. The main sweating areas on the back were identified. Design criteria were formulated, and a product prototype was developed accordingly. An experiment was then conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the ventilation design in two conditions of walking and cycling. Skin temperatures of the back were measured using the infrared thermographic camera. Results showed that the shell support of the backpack design could provide better air circulation in the gap between the body and the backpack. Wearing the ventilating backpack could significantly decrease back temperature and improve the user’s thermal comfort while cycling.

Q. C. Li, Y. Luximon, V. H. Y. Chu, B. M. H. Ip, S. H. T. Kwan, K. C. K. Lau

Keeping the Users in Mind: Investigations of Applicable Gaze Gesture Sets and Gaze Control Interaction Design Parameters

Recent advances in terms of affordability of the eye-tracking technology and the implementation of smarter algorithms enable designers implement this interaction method more usable. The presented study tested two user-dependent design parameters (deviation angle of the gaze and duration time of fixations between strokes) which constitutes to be significant important for this interaction method. Therefore, participants executed a large number of gestures on the gaze gesture test bench. The parameter values were variated to receive comparable results over all tested gestures. The gestures presented discrete actions for controlling interface menus. The results showed that there exists an optimum between tolerant detection and ratio of misinterpretation by the system. Further, the perceived individual motorial and cognitive strain and the statements about the difficulty of the executions were compared with the objective measurements. As a conclusion, parameter values have been identified which are also reliable in terms of usability.

Marcus Jenke, Thomas Maier

Enhancing Collaborative Creativity: Towards a New User-Centered Design Method, the Dynamic Persona Method

Regardless of the areas considered, designers need to develop products that are both innovative and user-friendly, and thus creative [5]. In order to favor their creative activities, the designers can use different methods, amongst which we propose a new kind of method of personas. The purpose of our study is to submit and test the ‘dynamic personas’ method we propose, by comparison with the use of the classical persona method (qualified here of ‘static’).

Nicolas Pichot, Nathalie Bonnardel

A 3D Printed Thermal Manikin Head for Evaluating Helmets for Convective and Radiative Heat Loss

Thermal performance of three bicycle helmets for radiative and convective heat loss was evaluated through heat loss experiments in a wind tunnel. A 3D printed thermal manikin head of a 50th percentile western male population was developed. Thermal performance of a helmet was quantified by comparing the manikin head heat losses with and without helmet. Experiments were performed for two air velocities: 1.6 m/s and 6 m/s. An infrared heat lamp positioned above the manikin simulated the effect of solar load. The results from the experiments showed a convective cooling efficiency between 89% and 96% for open helmets and between 78% and 83% for closed helmets. The radiative heat gain ranged from 3.5 W to 4.5 W for open helmets and 5 W to 8 W for closed helmets.

Shriram Mukunthan, Jochen Vleugels, Toon Huysmans, Tiago Sotto Mayor, Guido De Bruyne

Effectiveness of Stability Evaluation by Acceleration and Angular Velocity While Operating Smartphones

The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of evaluating the stability by accelerometer and gyroscope built in smartphone while users were operating smartphones. A total of three smartphones with different sizes were used for the experiment. The swaying caused by the unstable operation of the smartphone was measured as acceleration and angular velocity and components related to stability were extracted. Since the weight of smartphones differed from one type to another, when the difference between the smartphones was evaluated, the acceleration was converted into force. Participants were asked to evaluate the stability during operation and the risk of dropping. The result showed that the force and angular velocity increased as the smartphone size increased. As the hands of the participants became smaller, the acceleration and angular velocity were increased. It was found that the stability during operation was evaluated as uncomfortable as the force and angular velocity became larger. On the other hand, there was no relationship between the risk of dropping and the force and angular velocity. From these results, acceleration and angular velocity appeared to be effective for evaluation of stability while operating smartphones.

Yuki Oga, Kentaro Kotani, Satoshi Suzuki, Takafumi Asao

The Development of an Adaptive Device for Children with a Hand Impairment

Children with mild symbrachydactyly (<4 missing fingers) are considered to have a low-degree of functional impairment. In this study, we suggest an adaptive device and evaluate the device on its beneficiary effects. Five children (age 6–10) are fitted with a prototype and are asked to train with the device at home for a period of three weeks. The SHAP-C test is used to measure the level of functionality of the healthy hand, the impaired hand and the prototype of the adaptive device. With the SHAP-C, no additional beneficial effects of the device were measured. However, children tended to use the device well for specific activities such as holding a fork during dinner. Also, three out of five reacted positively on the colourful design of the prototype adaptive device, wanting to show the device to family, friends and classmates. The results provide feedback for further improvements of adaptive devices to enhance motoric functionality and empower children with mild to severe symbrachydactyly.

E. Haring, K. Vaes, S. Truijen, M. Van Nuffel, L. Quirijnen, S. Verwulgen

Applying a Theory of Situation Awareness to Idea Generation: Mitigation of Design Fixation

As a solution to ambiguity and complexity within the idea generation stage, several structured idea generation methods have been developed. Though their usefulness in the idea generation phase has been verified in many studies, methods or techniques designed to help people generate ideas often lead to associations that hinder people’s free thinking. This phenomenon is called design fixation. Many research studies on design fixation has shown that it severely limits creativity. One of the reasons why design fixation is difficult to overcome is that designers are often unaware of its occurrence during ideation – in other words, designers lose situation awareness in the middle of a cognitively demanding ideation task. An ability to maintain situation awareness, and, thereby, detect and address design fixation in a timely manner would greatly help designers effectively perform ideation. Surprisingly, little research has examined the influences of situation awareness on design fixation and ideation outcomes, or, has developed systems for supporting such situation awareness. To bridge the gap, we developed a situation awareness support system which indicates the elapsed time during idea generation and how many times the user, who is generating ideas, has used each stimulus employed to inspire idea generation. The situation awareness support system helps designers easily and rapidly identify occurrences of design fixation. Finally, an experimental method for examining the impacts of the situation awareness support system has been established.

Byounghyun Choi, Woojin Park

Home Environment and the Elderly: Objects and Products in Relation to the Physical Factors and Their Incidence on Early Dependence

The aging of population at the world level requires more research from different areas, with ergonomics playing an important role due to its multidisciplinary character.The relation of older adults with their objectual surroundings is specific and marginal in the representation of design. This hinders the basic activities of daily living (ADL) in the home environment. Their physical and cognitive specificities make us ask about and reflect on the factors that interfere with their performance and affect their autonomy, requiring us to promote an inclusive design for older persons.Because of the above, we value the need to prevent the deterioration of older persons and in this way favor their quality of life and autonomy. Furthermore, it is relevant that the dependence of older persons has a high individual and collective cost that affects a country’s welfare.Chile is projected for the year 2025 as the region’s most aged country, with around 25% of the people considered as older persons, and a progressive increase of dependent older persons who are added to the structural inequality, so we have a growing older population associated with impoverishment and femininity. Social services approach incipiently this situation, which from the health perspective, the dependence of older persons becomes a sanitary priority.The present proposal is framed in the first phase of the institutional project of the Universidad de Santiago de Chile, which is aimed at relating the physical (postures and movements) and the cognitive (perception) characteristics of older adults and the transition to dependence, in the ADL. The scientific development of the issue was examined through an INTEGRATIVE REVISION that answered the question: Which are the risk factors in daily life and its objectual environment, which attempt against the posture, anthropometry, and biomechanics of older adult men and women, that have an influence on mild dependence? Two search engines, PUBMED and WOS, were used, and among the results, it is highlighted that physical space must adjust to adapt to the physical, cognitive, and emotional changes caused by natural aging. On the other hand, in various studies it is seen that illumination, the ease of maintaining hygiene, and inappropriate furniture, are constant problems in houses, and this turns more serious with the risk of decreasing memory, among other.

María J. Araya, Amaya Pavez, Isabel Torres, Fernanda Ramírez, José M. Araya

Integrating Creativity and Human Factors in the Design of Engineering Curriculums

Engineers are expected to design systems and products for human use. However, the curriculums of most engineering courses do not include a course on human factors. Thus, engineers design products and systems considering only the technical aspects. This results in usability problems and poor performance in the market. This paper discusses some of the problems in designing buildings and workplace environments such as lack of thermal comfort, excessive illumination, poor layout, confusing design of controls, etc. A framework for integrating human factors in designing built environments will be proposed that will include a system for various engineering disciplines to communicate and consider the needs of the users at different stages of the design process.

Rosemary R. Seva

Bridging Gaps Between Ergonomics and Creative Design: A Pedagogical Experiment

In this paper, we describe a large-scale pedagogical setting involving groups of students from different profiles gathered around a real-scale design project (re-shaping the waiting room of a mental health center). Ergonomics students’ main task is to analyze the needs and real activities of end-users; high school students’ task is to propose inspiring design tracks; interior architecture students’ task is to produce the design project; industrial drafting students’ task is to realize execution plans while construction students’ task is to implement the project on site. This communication more precisely focuses on the role of ergonomists in the setup, describing their intervention and the practical and pedagogical innovations put in place to help them face the various challenges encountered during the project, namely dealing with the temporal constraints of the intervention, documenting and observing a sensitive situation and involving end-users to make them heart of the design process. The paper concludes with feedback gathered from the different stakeholders.

Stéphane Safin, Catherine Elsen, Pinky Pintus

Creativity in Design: Using Cognitive Metaphors to Unveil Knowledge About Relationships in the World

Image-schematic metaphors are a concept from cognitive linguistics that describes basic building blocks of how we make sense of the world. These metaphors represent users’ mental models and following them in interaction design increases intuitive use. In this paper, we empirically test whether the predictions of the metaphors “important is heavy – unimportant is light” and “black is heavy – white is light” as well as their combination “important is black – unimportant is light” hold true. For this, 20 Japanese subjects had to judge the physical weight of differently colored and weighted objects and infer on the importance of data which was stored on or contained by them. We found that data stored on or in black (compared to white) and heavy (compared to light) objects was perceived as more important, confirming the metaphors.

Takashi Toriizuka, Diana Löffler, Robert Tscharn

Extending System Design Tools to Facilitate Systemic Innovation in Prospective Ergonomics

Through an extensive literature review, this article aims to promote systemic innovation, which is presently too much influenced by context and too limited by rationality. As such, the article argues for the use of systems design methods and tools for anticipating future needs in the development of innovative products and services. Building upon theoretical concepts, such as “Bounded Rationality”, “Situated Design” and “Practice Theory”, systems design methods and tools, such as the Function-Task Interaction Matrix Method and Dependence Structure Matrix, should be made more comprehensive by extending technical and user elements with contextual elements. These matrices help to identify problem fields as well as opportunities by juxtaposing and force-fitting technical, user, and contextual elements.Conclusively, the application of extended system design tools, such as EDSM define and FTCIM define, represents and incorporates design information. It also demonstrates how scenario-based methods can be effective in identifying innovative products, services and contexts.

André Liem

Design Suggestions of the Clinical Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Equipment for Stroke Patients

Rehabilitation products are the most important and indispensable tools. It should be increase treatment effectiveness and motivation for the patients and to reduce the occupational therapists work loading. The purpose of this study was to survey the usage problems and needs of the conventional Stacking cones for stroke patients and occupational therapists by field observe and in-depth interview. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) the improvement suggestions of Stacking cones are to add the friction materials on the bottom of the platform to improve the sliding problem, to provide different sizes and shapes of objects to replacing the cones, to change the way for fingers grasp, to increase the product interesting, to record the track of the movement and the number of movements. (2) The design suggestions of the Stacking cones for home used: to use the items obtained at home (such as: plastic cups, bottles, yogurt bottles and other items) to replace conical cup; Treatment activities, such as: pouring, eating, drinking, wiping the table of action. (3) Based on suggestions, a Checkerboard upper limb rehabilitation product design proposal was proposed. The design features are: The magnetic force of the magnet is applied as a frictional force; the backplane has a support frame that adjusts the slope of the platform; depending on the degrees of recovery of the patient’s hand function, objects of different sizes can be selected. Further research is needed to examine the effects and intensity of using it in rehabilitation.

Mei-Hsiang Chen, Lan-Ling Huang

Ergonomic Considerations for the Inclusive Communication of Low Vision People in Academic Spaces

Educational institutions must embrace public policies that guarantee the social inclusion of all people without discrimination of any kind. To achieve this objective, the diversity of needs and abilities of the people must be considered, favoring them full access and effective interaction with the spaces. In response to these challenges of inclusion, and particularly considering people with low vision (Clasificación Internacional del Funcionamiento CIF de la OMS), this project was proposed to explore from three Latin American universities (Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia; Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México; Universidad de Bueno Aires, Argentina), the communication needs of this population group, from the three indispensable categories to achieve autonomy within the university space: Informative, guiding and directional signage. This is due to the fact that from some previous studies, important differences in behavior and response have been found during the interaction with open spaces and closed spaces between people with low vision and people with total blindness. From this perspective, the research proposal seeks to establish through an exploratory study and an experiential process, the conceptual elements that from the ergonomic perspective are required to develop efficient alternatives of signage and signaling that use new technologies and facilitate orientation, information, and displacement of people with low vision inside the academic spaces.

Rojas R. Claudia Isabel, Luna Rodríguez A. Sofía

“Bear an e-hand”: Designing a Wearable Assistant for Single-Handed and Small Crew Sail Racing

The objective of this research is to design a set of functionalities that support the activity of a skipper engaged in a competitive offshore single-handed race. This work has a twofold aim: designing new agency for skipper supervision, control and command to contribute to a better overall performance, and, secondly, to ensure onboard safety. The different phases of a human- centred design approach were applied, with special emphasis on the analysis of the skipper’s activity in order to identify the complex articulation between the different components of the system (human, technical, normative, and natural elements). Based on this extended characterization of the coupling between human, technology and the environment, a set of successive digital mock-ups was designed and iteratively tested in a simulated environment. The results from the last testing iteration demonstrated the functional value of the “augmented skipper” and its perceived usability from the user’s point of view. In the next step of the project, the mock-up will be tested in real conditions in order to complete the experimental evaluation.

Sébastien Lemanceau, Mariane Galbat, Julien Guibourdenche, Raymond Lu Cong Sang, Lalou Roucayrol, Pascal Salembier, Raphaël Ibarboure

How Does the Seat Cover Influence the Seat Comfort Evaluation?

This study investigates the tactile perceived influence of seat covers. Two identical BMW 3-Series seats are used, one with a leather cover and one with a fabric cover. Thirty healthy subjects participated in an experiment rating the tactile perceived properties of the seats while blindfolded. A discomfort test, a word pair rating and the overall experience of the seats were examined. The study has shown that not only the foam properties and the contour of the seat influences the seat characterisation but also the seat cover material. The leather and the fabric seats were characterised different, but the pressure distribution did not show so much differences. Furthermore, the perceived differentiation of the seats are distinctive for the seat pan and for the backrest. Therefore, further research is needed to investigate other characteristics of the seat like shear force related to various cover properties in combination with different seat components and contour combinations.

Maximilian Wegner, Shabila Anjani, Wenhua Li, Peter Vink

An Interview Process to Anticipate Future Needs

First Analysis of an Approach to Explore Future User Experiences in the Fields of Business Travel and Tourism

This paper resituates an intervention focusing on “ideation and prospective” on new products and services in the field of travel. It promotes a “need-seeker” or “prospective ergonomics” approach applied to private and business travel sectors. To this end, it develops an ideation-centred interview method. This method is based on the confrontation of interviewers with a description of human activities before, during and after the trips. Applied to 14 experts, this ideation interview counted 106 new ideas. 33 were selected by the company, 6 scenarios for future use were written and tested on target users. This intervention finally makes it possible to discuss the question of anticipating needs. It leads one to consider that there would be an expertise in future needs; that such expertise can be co-constructive, between an expert and an interviewer. This expertise focuses primarily on content: there are people who, through their profession, their experience or their knowledge, have a high capacity to produce representations of the future. Secondly, there are situations, particularly interviews, which improve the development of representations of future uses.

Eric Brangier, Blandine Brangier, Cathie Marache-Francisco, Steve Kopp, Julien Clausse

User Innovation, Lead Users and Crowdsourcing for the Design of New Products and Services: Why, What and How?

The goal of this study is to examine new paradigms, approaches, methods and tools that can help Prospective Ergonomics (PE) in its dual mission of defining current and future needs of users/customers and creating innovative products and services. After exposing the highlights of the PE that serve as a framing for our study, we present and analyze three powerful concepts that can guide PE: User innovation, Lead users, and Crowdsourcing. The theme of User Innovation comes from the research of von Hippel initiated in the 70’s, which is at the origin of a paradigm shift in the field of innovation. His research, confirmed by several other researchers, showed that “a large part of the innovations of products and services was the outcome of the users rather than the manufacturers”. Lead users are “users of a product or service that currently experience needs still unknown to the public, and who are positioned to benefit significantly by obtaining a solution to their needs”. Included are users at the leading edges of the target market of a product or service, and users in other markets that do similar activities or face similar problems in a more extreme form. Finally crowdsourcing, which existed long before the digital age, is “a type of participative online activity in which an individual or a firm proposes to a group of individuals, via a flexible open call, the voluntary undertaking of a task”. One main field of application is the production and selection of innovative ideas. Finally, we present four new social-media crowdsourcing tools: UXModeler, Crowdboard, CrowdUX and SortedCrowdUX, as well as two cases of successful use of crowdsourcing in banking and industry.

Jean-Marc Robert, Masood Maldar, Mitra Taraghi, Ahmed Seffah

The Research-Practice Gap: An Explanatory Factor for Automotive HMI Customers’ Complaints?

Automotive HMI development was historically feature and technology-driven. Over time, we witnessed a shift in focus from physical to cognitive issues, especially due to technology evolution and embedded HMI complexification. This made adapting automotive HMI development process a necessity to address human factors and cognitive ergonomics challenges in design/evaluation phases. It is in this context that car manufacturers enhanced the traditional systems engineering logic (V like model) thanks to the User-Centered Design cycle (UCD). But, despite this user centric approach, some customers’ complaints and usability issues concerning automotive HMI are reported. Why is it so? To answer this question a research is underway. In this article, we (1) describe the work that led us to consider the research-practice gap as a candidate factor explaining why the user centric approach fails and (2) describe what we are planning to do as next steps.

Fares Zaidi, Christian Bastien, Xavier Chalandon, Laurent Moiselet, Emmanuelle Thianche

Iterative Exploration of Token-Based Interaction for Enriched Audio Sequencing

Digital products are becoming increasingly ubiquitous, and consequently interaction styles such as tangible interaction are gaining popularity. However, the theories of tangible interaction seem to be not easily translated into concrete results. A research through design approach is proposed to bridge the gap between theory and design practice, and consequently to enable industrial transfer. Research through design resides in the gray area between the theoretical and the practical. To illustrate a research through design approach and to investigate the potential of tangible user interfaces for digitally enhanced toys, a pilot case study was conducted. Three design iterations have been constructed and tested to explore tangible interactions based on the use of tokens for enriched audio sequencing in a musical toy for children aged five to six. Each of the constructed iterations take prior design solutions as a starting point and create added value by building further on conclusions and design recommendations from previous iterations. The conclusions and tangible results from this study have an inspirational value and demonstrate the design insights and research possibilities of tangible interaction.

Marieke Van Camp, Lukas Van Campenhout, Jouke Verlinden, Guido De Bruyne, Regan Watts

Design Methods for the Projection of Uses for Vulnerable People

The VOCADOM research project aims to design a new technology (voice control usable at home) to encourage the well-being and autonomy of the elderly with loss of autonomy at home. To guide design choices, we develop a user-centered design for all so that all actors are involved in the design process and we develop new methods of uses prospecting so that target profiles can project themselves in-to the use of an innovative device in ecological situation. We are in a process of methodological triangulation. Especially for the study of needs where through an ethnographic study we identify the problems encountered at home where the device can help. We ask end users and caregivers who are part of the eco system. After we use activity simulation methods to evaluate the acceptance, usefulness and usability of the device. This will allow us to improve the device so that it matches the real needs of users.

Elena Elias, Marc-Eric Bobillier Chaumon, Michel Vacher

An Evaluation of Sit to Stand Devices for Use in Rehabilitation

There are many assistive devices to help with raising a person from a seat. These devices are considered active as they require some balance, trunk control and weightbearing ability. There is concern that this movement is mostly passive due to fixation at the trunk and knee. This study explores the movement patterns in sit to stand transfers active and assisted. Study Design: A fully squared repeated measures design was use. All participants (n = 20) used all conditions (n = 7) in a balanced order. Transfers were recorded with; video recordings, a 6 dimensional force plate, hip, knee and ankle positions were recorded with motion capture. Subjective evaluations for comfort and security were completed. Physical data was compared with ANOVA calculations with Bonferroni corrections.Results: Device G scored highest for comfort, knee support and overall preference. Sling movement had a negative effect on the sensations of comfort and security. The motion analysis of the flexible knee support showed:People push into the floor and CoP moved towards the toe.More anterior knee movement (P < 0.05).More bodyweight through feet (P < 0.05).Quicker transfer of weight onto feet.Very low bodyweight was recorded in all lowering actions.The use of a flexible knee support raised the subjective and physical performance of the assistive device and may improve rehabilitation responses.

M. Fray, S. Hignett, A. Reece, S. Ali, L. Ingram

How to Develop a HMI for an Agricultural Tractor Focusing on the Handling of Various Implements

Mobile machines are used in a variety of work scenarios. One of these machines is the tractor in agricultural use. The agricultural tractor operates with a huge number of different implements. These need to be controlled with just one static human machine interface. Consequently, there is a grand difficulty to get all the different scenarios arranged with one compromise interface system solution which is in charge of the possibility that every implement can be operated with. Thus the need of an adaptive human machine interface (HMI) is the initial situation of this research project, called aISA – adaptive Interface Systems in Agricultural tractors. Based on field measurements with an agricultural tractor, surveys and theoretical analysis a method was generated which enables the development of adaptive interface systems. By the example of the HMI of an agricultural tractor the method will be validated. This paper deals with the analysis and the development of the method which leads to first concepts of an adaptive HMI.

Andreas Kaufmann, Timo Schempp, Ingmar Stoehr, Markus Schmid, Thomas Maier

Conceptual Design of E-health Services by, and for Support of, Home Care Staff

Together with staff from home care from four municipalities we investigated how e-health services can improve the work environment. In a series of four workshops we coached the participants in (1) describing their work process and pinpointing the problematic situations in the process, (2) formulating their wishes for an ideal work process, (3) conceptualizing how e-health solutions can be used to obtain the ideal work process and describing scenarios (4) illustrating the scenarios and the design process on storyboards. The storyboards describe, amongst other, how support through e-health systems may be used to: gain access to adequate information; get in touch with other professionals as doctors or other colleagues; prevent medication errors, and to transfer images or physiological data to an expert who can directly provide personal support.

Gudbjörg Erlingsdóttir, Christofer Rydenfält, Johanna Persson, Gerd Johansson

Electronic Voting for All: Co-creating an Accessible Interface

The study investigated the extent to which electronic voting is accessible to Dutch voters, especially the visually impaired, those with low literacy, and the elderly. Together with the different user groups, a series of electronic interfaces were developed and simulations of a vote-printer were built to run tests on large numbers of participants. The interface consisted of a card reader, a touchscreen and a printer; audio support was available via a headset. For participants with disabilities, the independent variables were visual impairment and low literacy. For elderly participants, the independent variable was age. All participants were asked to make specific choices on the screen and to check the printed result for their choice. As reference, they were asked to vote using the current Dutch ballot paper/red pencil system. The criteria used to determine the accessibility of both systems was: does the printed ballot match the intended vote? The vote-printer significantly increased independent voting by the visually impaired, however this was not seen for the low-literacy group. For the elderly, the use of a vote-printer with electronic interface is equally as accessible as the current paper ballot. All three groups reported using a vote-printer with electronic interface to be easier than the current paper ballot. The study confirmed that co-creating with intended users in the early conceptualization phase is key.

Daan van Eijk, Johan Molenbroek, Lilian Henze, Geert Niermeijer

Allocation of Function Revisited: The Use of Animals in Productive Processes and Systems

An examination of work systems outside the normal remit of ergonomics has revealed that the framework for the allocation of function should be expanded from human-machine system interactions to further include animal and environment interactions. Examples are given, mainly from agriculture, that point to the need for animal ergonomics. Brief reviews of some tasks in the security and health sectors ratify the use of animals, which is considered alongside the possible use cobots. The cases presented in this return visit to the allocation of function support the development of a sub-discipline of animal ergonomics with similar broad areas of physical cognitive and organizational factors. The review also suggests that companion and service, animals, particularly those for sensory detection, are unlikely to be displaced by cobots in the near future.

David O’Neill

Creativity in Uncovering Customer Expertise for Affective Design

We analyzed customer expertise in purchasing a car that satisfies customer needs for affective design. The approach was based on a hierarchical patterns analysis. There is a hierarchy of requirements starting with simple marketing requirements and ending with final design details. We assume that there is a rationale for customer’s evaluation of cars, and that evaluations are connected to design details. The purpose of using a hierarchical pattern was to model how car buyers evaluate car appearance. In addition, a hierarchical pattern is helpful to establish a dialog between car buyers and designers and create a frame work, where customer requirements can be satisfied. The study examined five main roles of product appearance, namely: Aesthetics, Symbolic Meaning, Functionality, Ergonomics and Categorization. The functional and ergonomics role are described as semantic roles as they address user’s evaluation of the apparent utility and perceived quality of a design. Twenty-six sets of evaluations were obtained from interviews with 13 subjects. To arrive at hierarchical patterns, the data was analyzed in three steps: Step 1 involved classifying responses into three groups: “I like”, “I dislike” and “I want to modify”. Step 2 transformed the results into hierarchical patterns using questions such as “Why do you like this car?” Step 3 analyzed and generalized the hierarchical patterns into a few simple patterns. The analyses yielded seven different hierarchical patterns, which generally fit all the evaluations of cars. The results are discussed in the context of the product appearance roles.

Jouh Ching Goh, Martin G. Helander

Anthropometric Data of Chilean Male Workers

The aim of this study was to update the Chilean male workers’ anthropometric database to be used for design purposes and to examine the secular changes observed in a group of anthropometric variables for Chilean male workers. Data collection involved a sample of 2,346 male workers with ages ranging from 18 to 65+, assigned to the Mutual de Seguridad C.Ch.C in the two most populated regions of Chile (Valparaíso and Metropolitana) distributed in nine economic activities branches. Data collection was performed by two teams of 3 physiotherapies each. Before starting the collection process, the measurement teams underwent a training session of one week that included a theoretical session on the basic concepts of anthropometrics, as well as some practical instructions. A total of 32 anthropometric measures were gathered following the ISO standard 7250-1. Before applying the data, a checking process was carried out, trying to identify errors related to the data collection process. The magnitude of the positive secular trend for the stature was 1.0 cm per decade and the highest value was found for shoulder breadth, with a positive increase of 2.7 cm per decade. The results obtained allowed to observe the existence of a positive secular trend for most of the selected body measurements. Finally, it was also possible to verify that the current research may be used for design purposes and to establish the baseline data for long-term observation regarding anthropometric changes among Chilean male workers.

H. I. Castellucci, C. A. Viviani, J. F. M. Molenbroek, P. M. Arezes, M. Martínez, V. Aparici, S. Bragança

Functional Fashion and Co-creation for People with Disabilities

There are annual inclusive fashion parades in Brazil, these encourage designers and student designers to develop collections with features that promote the accessibility, autonomy and high self-esteem of people with disabilities. The authors believe that participants face difficulties in developing these collections. The literature does not present methods that aid in this development. Through the application of questionnaires with 26 participants this research investigates if the fashion designers of these parades have difficulties in the development of inclusive and functional fashion; and asks if they believe that co-creation would be favorable in the development process of these products. It has been found that among the bigger difficulties of the designers are: the data collection with the users regarding accessibility and how to dress, the selection of trims, and the development of the patterns. The use of co-creation in a method that aid the development of functional fashion products was considered favorable for 88% of respondents.

Bruna Brogin, Maria Lucia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto

Evaluation of Colour Stereotype Profile of the Population of Eastern India

The phrase “population stereotype” is used to depict the response preference, which refers to long-term behavior and well-ingrained awareness of a particular population. Colour is one of the main features of any visual scene having the potential to improve or spoil the user experience. The aim of the present work was to study and analyze the color stereotypes patterns of the population of Eastern India. To serve this purpose a color chart was prepared with four set of concepts represented by nine colors. 1640 adult female and 1987 male subjects from Eastern India were volunteered. The subjects were asked to choose colors to represent concepts. The color preferences were recorded as results. It was observed that a higher percentage of the female preferred red (66.42%) for “hot”, blue (35.65%) for “cold”, green (54.31%) for “on”, red (47.0%) for “off”, green (38%) for “safe”, red (77.4%) for “danger”, green (75.3%) for “go”, yellow (46.2%) for “caution” and red (76.5%) for “stop” symbols. There was no significant difference in the color preference between male and female subjects (except the female subjects who preferred black over red for “off”). Significant gender difference (p < 0.05 or less) was found for color stereotype strengths. There was no significant difference in color preferences and stereotype strengths between the rural and urban subjects of both sexes but for “cold” concept the urban males predominantly preferred pink color whereas rural males selected blue color. It may be concluded that no rural-urban difference in color stereotype was observed but gender had predominant impact on color stereotype of the population of Eastern India.

Monalisha Banerjee, Piyali Sengupta, Prakash Dhara

Belbin on Inspection: A 50-Year Retrospective

The Applied Ergonomics Handbook (1970) contained an important reprint of Meredith Belbin’s DSIR paper Inspection and Human Efficiency (1963). Since those years there have been literally hundreds of papers on the role and effectiveness of humans as inspectors, all the way to See et al. (2017) who surveys where human inspection might go in the 21st Century. The current paper examines the prescience of Belbin’s original contribution in the light of significant work before Belbin, his own contribution to the theory and practice of the art, and subsequent developments. The major integrative summaries of inspection are reviewed to demonstrate the ways in which the study of human factors in inspection has changed over this half-century.

Colin G. Drury

Integrated Product Gestalt Design Method for the Analysis and Definition of Interface Elements Regarding Exterior and Interior

The exterior and interior of products are often considered as independent systems in the development process. But both the interior and the exterior gestalt are of great relevance for the usage and perception of a product. As a consequence of technological advance, such as increased automation, the borders between exterior and interior are becoming blurred. The Integrated Product Gestalt Design Definition proposed in this paper facilitates the consideration of the interrelations between and resulting complexity of different aspects of a gestalt integrating exterior and interior. We therefore distinguish between the subgestalts layout, shape, colour with surface and graphics to describe both the exterior and interior. The interdependencies between interior and exterior are characterized by functional-technical and aesthetical aspects. To derive essential relations between the exterior and interior view different products, covering investment goods and consumer goods, are analyzed. This analysis reveals the most common relations between the exterior and interior systems and allows for finding recurring patterns of relations between exterior, inner space and interior. This is a prerequisite for the predictive quality of the Integrated Product Gestalt Design. Thus, the approach facilitates the next step of a guided implementation of a method for the development process by highlighting the links between the disciplines.

Daniel Holder, David Inkermann, Petia Krasteva, Thomas Vietor, Thomas Maier

Wearable Devices and Smart Garments for Stress Management

Wearables are the cutting edge of electronic devices; as they are miniaturized, people can directly wear them, generating a continuous interaction with computers. The implementation of wearables in everyday life is going to change completely human behaviours. These devices create human-computer interaction potentialities that can be addressed to several directions: taking care of people, leading people to a different behaviour model for changing social dynamics, turning these ubiquitous computers into a “collective wearable”.There is a global adoption of the preventive approach to health: it consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. There is also an increasing attention to security and to risk management in the sanitary field in terms of products, ergonomic communication and innovation of processes. Moreover, users demand to know their real wellness status, independently of the individual perception. It’s necessary to inform users about the biofeedback recorded by wearable devices, but it is essential to effectively communicating them to caregivers or patients.This paper, presenting some results of interaction design research for human wellbeing and healthcare, explores tangible interfaces focused on biomedical fields: it concerns security, stress management, collection of biofeedback for preventive healthcare and also emotional issues connected with the human-computer interaction.

Alessandra Rinaldi, Claudia Becchimanzi, Francesca Tosi

Cognitive Engineer’s Multifaceted Role in Participatory Design Processes

The paper discusses the importance of Participatory Design Processes in the design/redesign of work systems. It emphasizes the role of cognitive engineers, as well as the importance of their constructive engagement with domain practitioners, in order to develop effective design solutions. This position is documented by the role accomplished by a cognitive engineer during the design process of a prototypical interface for an electricity distribution management system, which was intended to replace the existing hard-wired artifacts (Mimic Diagram, Control panel, Control Desk) in a traditional control room. The paper presents in detail what tools and techniques were used, and which domain practitioners participated at different phases of the interface design cycle (i.e. ethnographic analysis, cognitive work analysis, prototype design and evaluation) to elicit the intended design knowledge. The paper concludes discussing why is it important to establish the role of cognitive engineers in design teams in industry.

Sotiria Drivalou

HSI Implementation in Complex System Design Process

The implementation of human factors engineering in the development of complex systems can be challenging. For this reason, we sometimes see that the subject is not part of the routine design process in small companies, as well as in well-founded corporates.The result can be more than just “poor usability”, which requires users to “fight” inefficient procedures to operate a system. The effect can usually be financially measurable. Some of the costly consequences are:Long non-productive timesLonger training time and higher probability for errorsDifficult maintenance accessibilityProbability of significant ergonomic risk factorsFrustrated and low motivated workersSales impactThe negative effects lead firms to seek methods and practices to involve human factors engineering in. their workflow. The concerns accompanied with this will, relate to extending the R&D time, complicating procedures, and increasing in the total project cost.The human system integration (HSI) approach addresses these concerns by providing a systematic point of view in integrating the touch points of the human with the product.A good and effective approach takes into consideration, in addition to design procedures, also the path that the organization should take in order to accept and acknowledge the contribution of an additional discipline. Understanding the importance of aspects of operation, efficiency, and maintainability in addition to technical aspects such as performance and reliability.

Yakir Yaniv

Acceptability Beyond Usability: A Manufacturing Case Study

This study is a part of an innovation project carried on in ErgoLab, the ergonomics laboratory of FCA in Turin, with the aim of evaluating the use of a passive exoskeleton for upper limbs in automotive manufacturing tasks. The introduction of new technologies into a production environment is not always effective, because workers often don’t use them. It is therefore important that future users accept this innovation. With the aim of evaluating Usability and Acceptability, the testing protocol included various data collection techniques: observation during simulated work tasks, interviews, a TAM2 questionnaire in order to analyse acceptability and, finally a focus group. Overall results showed that workers judge the exoskeleton positively because of evidence that activities can be performed with reduced physical effort. The device is perceived as useful especially in tasks requiring precision. The evaluation showed a good human-device interaction, but the workers involved in the tests consider the work-device interaction a critical point. On closer inspection, workers reported perceived ease of use, voluntariness and results demonstrability but little intention of using it and perceived usefulness. The results of the focus group are consistent with individual results: workers state that the exoskeleton is useful for performing certain activities, but its use should be voluntary.

S. Gilotta, S. Spada, L. Ghibaudo, M. Isoardi, C. O. Mosso

A Technology Corner for Operator Training in Manufacturing Tasks

This study is part of a project carried out in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles with the aim of introducing innovation and Industry 4.0 technologies in workers’ training. Nowadays, the training is performed using a system, called “Manufacturing Training System” (MTS), composed by three different areas: a document area in which there are step method procedures, quick kaizen and operation cards for each work phase; an ability corner with tools useful to perform activities and a simulated production line on which the operator can practice. The iterative process with a multidisciplinary design a project was built up, keeping in mind User Center Design principles and focusing on the active engagement of the user in each design stage, to validate what actions users can be asked to perform and what tasks the system has to do automatically. In the first phase, the Cognitive Ergonomists observed and interviewed Team Leaders, workers that coordinate and manage other co-workers and know critical issues of their domain tasks. In a second phase, the so-called “personas tool” with specific characteristics and scenarios was used to analyze users’ needs. After that the new training system features were defined.Thanks to requirement definition, four thematic areas were defined: ergonomics and safety, documents and procedures, equipment and workstation and operating procedures. For each area, the training was divided into learning and practical exercises.Based on this approach, different tools have been chosen for each area. For example Augmented Reality was used for learning and acquiring information and notions, and Gamification Techniques were used for the practical exercises. Furthermore, storyboards were proposed as a new tool to help the learning process. Soon, mock-ups could be implemented to easily test with workers, validate project hypothesis, find critical issues and further support successful approaches.

Silvia Gilotta, Stefania Spada, Lidia Ghibaudo, Monica Isoardi

Optimizing the Design of a Workspace Using a Participatory Design Method

Today, lots of companies work on the quality and the image of the workspace b as that has a real impact on the quality of their productions. Generally, this consideration involves the redevelopment of a space favourable for the well-being and the communication between users. However, this work on space is still too often treated as a fad and thus summarized to an imitation of the mythic groups communicating on their actions. The objective of this project is to implement a reasoned approach of participatory design to involve users in the design of a space lead to the practice of innovation.

Marion Poupard, Céline Mateev, Fabrice Mantelet

Ergonomic Intervention of the Risk Factors Related to Manual Handling of Loads in the Burial Tasks of 5 Park Cemeteries in Chile

The present study shows the intervention of the risk factors related to the manual handling of loads, in tasks performed by 86 workers related to the burial procedures in five cemeteries in Chile. Design proposals for handcrafted tweezers for the mobilization of tombstones; incorporation of engines to the funeral carts, bicycles with trolleys for the transport of gardening materials; eliminates and reduces the intensity of risk by 70%. During the development of the investigation there were changes in the Chilean legislation regarding to the maximum weight allowed, decreasing from 50 to 25 kg. The above, together with the change in the administration of the company studied, gave a new orientation to the study.

A. Diaz, L. Sanchez

Exploring New Usages of Journey Maps: Introducing the Pedagogical and the Project Planning Journey Maps

Journey maps are graphical and textual representations that intend to outline an experience over time with a product, a system or a service (Kalbach 2016). In this article, we first describe how this visualization tool is used in interaction design. Secondly, through two case studies, we describe two innovative ways of using this tool. In the first case study, we present the pedagogical journey map, a journey mapping approach meant to be used by teachers as a collaborative design tool to support the creation of pedagogical activities. In the second case study, we introduce the project planning journey map, used as both a prospective and retrospective project planning tool to help student designers plan and reflect on their design process. This paper is meant to support the use of the journey map as a prospective design method by academics and practitioners (from fields such as interaction design, user experience design, prospective ergonomics, education, and engineering) addressing issues related to the design of innovative products and services.

Isabelle Sperano, Jacynthe Roberge, Pierre Bénech, Jana Trgalova, Robert Andruchow

Evaluating Users’ Creativity for Service and Needs Identification in the Field of Emerging Technologies: A Comparison of Two Methods and Two Production Conditions

The “probe” technique aims to support user-centred design by facilitating the exploration and collection of new ideas concerning technology use and services with a participatory design orientation. This technique consists essentially in introducing and providing targeted “potential” users with one (or more) simple artefact(s) illustrative of the considered emerging technology so that the participants can put and use it at home, in their daily environment during a long time, i.e. several days or even weeks. The main assumption is that users’ ideation is stimulated by handling the artefact and projecting possible uses from their individual’s daily physical and social environment. This study examines to what extend the «probe» technique can support users in their elicitation of creative uses as possible precursors of «latent needs» related to an emerging technology. The technique was compared with a standard prototype exploration situation where subjects came to the laboratory to be introduced to, to manipulate and to test the artefact before eliciting creative uses. Additionally, two eliciting conditions (individual vs. group) were contrasted in order to investigate the effect of social construction on the generation of creative ideas. The results suggest that the “probe” condition significantly exceeds the in-laboratory prototype-based production condition both in terms of quantity and quality of ideas. We also replicated the result that individuals working alone produced significantly more idea than those working interactively within a group. We finally discussed the factors that may explain these results and the perspectives.

Dominique Decotter, Jean-Marie Burkhardt, Todd Lubart

Studies on the Use of Variations of ‘Brainstorming’ in Creative Design Situations

To favor creative design activities, we elaborated variations of the seminal ‘brainstorming’ technique to be used in early design. In contrast to the classical brainstorming’, these techniques are (1) used in individual situations, and (2) they aim to lead participants to adopt either a focus on the evocation of ideas (as in the classical brainstorming technique) or on the evocation and management of constraints related to the design problem. To analyze the effects of these two techniques of brainstorming, we conducted three studies with respectively students in design (study 1), future generalist teachers (study 2), and future teachers specialized in creative activities (study 3). Depending on the experimental groups, in each study, participants were provided with instructions that are intended to stimulate them either to look for numerous and various ideas (CQFD groups), or to analyze constraints related to the design problem at hand (CQHD groups), or else with no specific instruction (control groups). In a second phase, in all the studies, the participants’ creative productions were submitted to ‘judges’, consisting of teachers specialized in creative activities, who had to evaluate them with regard to various criteria. Scores on the creative performances show that the conditions to enhance creative performances depend on the participants’ background and specialty. Thus, students in design benefit the most from instructions focused on constraints related to the design problem whereas students consisting in future generalist teachers and future teachers specialized in creative activities benefit the most from instructions focusing on the evocation of ideas.

Nathalie Bonnardel, John Didier

Analyzing Interaction Dynamics at the Fuzzy Front-End of Innovation Projects: A Tool for Prospective Ergonomics

Prospective ergonomics is defined as an emerging mode of ergonomic intervention focused on the anticipation of future user needs and activities for innovation design. This is a fairly new topic of research for ergonomics and implies the development of new methods of intervention, a sustained dialog with other domains such as innovation management, and a better understanding of the activity deployed by design teams at the fuzzy front-end of design projects. In order to address this need, we analyzed verbal communication between members of an ad hoc team whose goal was to structure future projects for the development of systems making use of emerging technologies in the field of bioinformatics, during a KCP workshop for innovation management. Our results show that the activity deployed by this team – composed of software developers, user representatives and an ergonomist - comprises epistemic and argumentative aspects, just as the subsequent design activity does. We discuss these results in terms of research on prospective ergonomics and on design activities.

Julien Nelson, Xavier Malon, Nicolas Férey

Sleep Quality, Job Stress and Job Performance in Middle Age Women

Researchers have pointed out that work stress could cause poor sleep quality. Many women with menopause symptoms complained about couldn’t fall asleep, easy to wake up and difficult to stay asleep. Long term poor sleep quality not only affects concentration, responsiveness, and memory but also leads to a decline in cognitive abilities such as memory, learning, reasoning, counting, expressing complex languages, and making decisions. The cognitive ability is a very critical factor influencing job performance. Therefore, without quality sleep, the job performance could be decreased and further affect the life satisfaction negatively. The study adopts Job Stress Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaires and self-rated job performance to understand the relationship between all those factors. The results of this study are not only able to understand the relationship between sleep quality, job stress and job performance, but also can be used as a reference while establishing polices to improve menopause women’s working intension.

Zhi Xuan Chen, Chih-Fu Wu

Design for Empowerment, the Stigma-Free Design Toolkit

Designing assistive devices is not only clinically and technically demanding, it can also be a very intimate and emotionally sensitive task. Many of them have been developed by medical and engineering experts, for whom ergonomic and physiological considerations are paramount. Although these product need to function properly on a technical and ergonomic level, scant attention is given to emotional aspects, such as social stress, stigma and shame. Even when users feel perfectly at ease and self-reliant with their assistive device, all too often, the obvious or subtle remarks of bystanders, fueled by culturally embedded product stereotypes, keep challenging these users [1].This paper addresses the topic of product-related stigma (PRS), social disapproval associated with the use of a particular product, and introduces a stigma-free design toolkit for designers and development teams. The toolkit focusses on the emotional and social challenges associated with the conception of stigma-sensitive assistive devices. The stigma-free design toolkit contains two tools that can be used in sequence or individually. The PAMS (Product Appraisal Model for Stigma) ‘unveils’ stigma pitfalls and social conflicts between users of stigma-sensitive products and their surroundings. The PIMS (Product Intervention Model for Stigma) is a set of 14 stigma-alleviating design interventions.The model was first introduced in 2014 and has been improved through its application in education and research projects. After 5 years of development the stigma-free design toolkit reportedly assisted to increase empathy with end-users, inspire designers, alleviate the effects of product-related stigma and increase user-product attachment, user empowerment and collective well-being.

K. Vaes

Innovative Scenarios and Products for Sport Outdoor: The Challenge of Design for Citizens’ Wellness and Health

Increasing physical activity and physical education are very important issues to overcome ageing population, but require the development of a conscious attitude of citizens towards their own health. Ergonomics for Design and methods of the Human-centred design and User Experience may allow outlining possible solutions for increasing human expectations towards active life, wellness and prevention. This paper presents the results of the Wellness Outdoor workshop, promoted by the Laboratory of Ergonomics and Design (LED) of the University of Florence in collaboration with Technogym, a leading-edge company that develops fitness equipment for any physical activity. Main aims of the workshop were to define and design novel scenarios and systems concepts for outdoor fitness. To this aim, we followed a first research step based on focus groups, personas methods, user observations and Task Analysis, which led to the definition of user needs and context-of-use. Then, brainstorming activities driven by scenarios-based design and parallel design sessions proved to be effective for outlining inputs and ideas generation. Finally, in the present work four system concepts, named S.O.Fiber, Hexagon Space, Outdoor Training and Develop, are presented.

Francesca Tosi, Giuseppe Fedele, Alessia Brischetto, Mattia Pistolesi, Daniele Busciantella Ricci, Alessandra Rinaldi

Creativity in Design of Safety Helmet for Oil Palm Workers

An effective ergonomics product design for safety helmet among oil palm harvesters requires both physical and non-physical aspects of ergonomics criteria. This project aims to develop a novel safety helmet design for oil palm harvesters’ using ergonomics principles, creative design and occupational safety and health combining with waste by product from the palm tree. The initial design concept was developed by considering human factors aspect gained from previous study among harvesters’ in several plantation sites, in both aesthetic and functional perspective. Benchmarking and trend analysis were conducted at the early stage of the design development process to establish user requirements, comparing features and faults in existing product and at the same time finding opportunities for improvement in the new design. New design elements incorporated to the safety helmet to re-create the perception of a robust and trendy product besides creating the excitement and impression to the customers. Strong lines and angular surfaces create the emotion and strong character of the product. The product design cycle was an iterative process and the final approved design was reviewed and the ventilation design, the maximum strength and effective weight of the safety helmet were finalized. In testing the final design prototype for field experiment, the prototypes were fabricated through hand molding and distributed to the oil palm harvesters in various location of the plantation. Improved final version were developed after additional comments by users and acceptance of the new safety helmet considered through focus group discussion and the use in the field. The outcome from the improved prototype will be integrated with material proposed by combining the material proposed and the final design in developing mold. The final product will improve the safety and health among harvesters, acceptance on the new helmet and improved the corporate image of the company.

M. T. Shamsul Bahri, Ng Yee Guan, Khairul Nazri Abd Wahib, Rizal Rahman, Shariman Abu Bakar, S. M. Sapuan, Dayana Hazwani Mohd Suadi Nata

Developing a Framework for a Participatory Ergonomics Design Processes: The MPEC Method

Ergonomics is considered a design-driven discipline although several challenges hinder its incorporation into the design process such as the articulation of the several actors involved. In this paper we present and discuss a framework for participatory ergonomics design processes focusing on its validation in three real-life design projects. The development of the framework started from a literature review, focusing on existing methods for participatory ergonomics. Seven tools and techniques were selected and structured as a framework which was then validated in three pilot studies (redesign of an industrial kitchen, public hospital sector and large steel industry sector). From the cases, we saw that the framework enabled participants to interact and contribute in different contexts (by themselves, in small groups, collectively) in different stages of the design process while also allowing for the development of several alternative solutions which can be further explored through simulations. It also directs the organization towards concrete changes through detailing and prioritizing of possible solutions and the establishment of a shared view of the planned implementations. Results show that the tools and techniques when employed in an articulated and integrated way supported the development of conceptual designs from a collaborative perspective. The Brazilian context in which this framework was developed, presents several other challenges that must be better understood. Furthermore, as the Ergonomic Workplace Analysis provides a structured intervention method, this framework can assist practitioners and researchers to better structure their participatory ergonomics design approach using integrated and efficient methods and techniques.

Daniel Braatz, Esdras Paravizo, Monica Vieira Garcia Campos, Claudia Ferreira Mazzoni, Carla Aparecida Gonçalves Sirqueira

Second Cycle Education Program in Virtual Ergonomics and Design

Current product and production development tends to become more complex where principal design decisions are made in very early development phases when product data only exist in virtual formats. To support this virtual product realisation process there exist a number of tools and technologies. Considering ergonomics and human factors in an increasingly complex process with often complex tools requires competent people able to handle multidisciplinary development challenges in a proactive manner. To answer the need for educational programs to cover these issues the School of Engineering Science at University of Skövde has developed a new master (second cycle) program Virtual Ergonomics and Design. The aim with the program is to give students and future product and production developers, necessary knowledge and skills to effectively use virtual tools for analysis, development, and verification of ergonomics and integrate ergonomics and user aspects into the product realisation process. This is achieved through a number of courses that partly forms a core within the subject Virtual product realisation but also provides in-depth knowledge in ergonomics. Students will in a possible future role as design or production engineers have a great influence on ergonomics in manufacturing departments but also better perception of ergonomics, higher motivation and knowledge of support tools and methods for ergonomics integration.

Anna Brolin, Erik Brolin, Dan Högberg

Ergonomics in Design: The Human-Centred Design Approach for Developing Innovative Motor Caravans Systems

Ergonomics and Design, precisely the relationship among Human- centred design (HCD) approach and Design for Innovation methods, represent a concrete growth strategy. European Union suggests design as a key discipline and activity to bring new ideas to the market, transforming them into user-friendly and appealing products or services. Though still often associated solely with aesthetics, the application of design is much broader. A more systematic use of design as a tool for Human-centred and market-driven innovation in all sectors of the economy, complementary to R&D, would improve European competitiveness. The paper presents the early results of the POR CReO-FP7 project “Triaca” developed with Trigano SpA. In Italy, recreational vehicles sector has always been present and active, however, in recent years motor caravans industry recorded a strong decrease of orders due to the economic downturn and a flattened supply. In this context, the project aim is the development of innovative solutions in terms of environmental sustainability and quality of the user experience. Our contribution is focused on the experimentation of the HCD approach, especially its investigation methods based on the direct involvement of users and its evaluation methods for usability and safety to the development of good design solution.

Alessia Brischetto, Giuseppe Lotti, Francesca Tosi

Comparison of Questionnaire Based and User Model Based Usability Evaluation Methods

The usability now serves as a fundamental quality of a computational device, e.g. smartphone. Moreover, the smartphone has firmly embedded into our daily life as an indispensable part, so the context and style that user may interact with them are largely different from a decade ago. Nowadays, testing usability with end user has become a common sense. Thus, how valid a usability evaluation method could assess the ‘extent to which a product can be used by specified users’ (ISO 9241-11) to facilitate software design becomes an interesting question to explore.In this research, three usability evaluation methods are compared. Among these methods, IsoMetrics is a standard questionnaire aiming at offer usability data for summative and formative evaluation; SUMI aims to assess quality of software product from end users perspective; User Model Checklist is a method based on user’s cognition-motor chain in specific tasks. The coverage and amount of usability issues, user’s effort of evaluation and software developer’s feedback on evaluation result are compared under a simulated usability test on SMS function with a smartphone. The result indicate that User Model Checklist could cover 90.4% of the usability issues found by IsoMetrics and SUMI, while 26.3% usability issues found by User Model Checklist could not be covered by IsoMetrics and SUMI. Users put highest effort on accomplish IsoMetrics and lowest effort on User Model Checklist. Moreover, the feedbacks from the developers show that the User Model Checklist requires lower usability knowledge, offers clearer improvement points and supports detailed design better.

Meng Li, Armagan Albayrak, Yu Zhang, Daan van Eijk, Zengyao Yang

Ergonomic Design and Evaluation of Innovative MainStand of Motorcycle

Tremendous growth of motor powered two wheeler (motorcycles, scooters etc.) sector, not only creates problems related to traffic and pollution but also imposing a big concern for parking space management. In one hand, the use of main/central stand is strenuous due to load lifting while on the other hand, use of side stand occupies more parking spaces due to inclined position of the motorcycles/scooters. It is often find that female and young-adults avoid using the manually operated main-stand due to high amount of force requirement. They generally prefer to use side-stand. Keeping in mind the fact of space constraint, in the present research an attempt made to demonstrate design and development of user-friendly innovative main-stand for motorcycle. Following identification of biomechanical problems (e.g. excessive force exertion) associated with commonly available main-stand during parking; literature review was carry out to find out the status of research and development in the previously mentioned field of main-stand design. After user survey, brainstorming was perform to develop initial concept models by using black box diagram and functions requirement. The best concept was selected using Pugh chart analysis. In embodiment design, Ashby charts used for material and manufacturing process selection for the best concept. The 3-D CAD model was developed and FEA analysis performed. Then, prototype was built for real user testing. Effectiveness of the newly developed main-stand was compared with the existing/available one in terms of user feedback and physiological parameter (like heart rate) during the use of the stand. Manufacturing and marketing of such redesigned main-stand would definitely address the issue of scarcity of parking space in metro cities or congested marked places/crowded localities in over populated countries like India.

M. Arunachalam, Sougata Karmakar

Anisotropic Haptic Texture of Buttons for User Interfaces

In recent years, we have gained access to an increasing number of aesthetical devices with buttons having similar haptic textures, thus enabling users to distinguish between the buttons using haptic sense. Haptic cues, in addition to visual cues, could therefore help the user to understand the functions of the buttons. However, the users tend to grope the buttons and attempt to push them without looking, although the visual cues were typically attached to the buttons. In this study, we propose the use of anisotropic haptic texture as a haptic cue for paired buttons, because it is possible to attach the haptic texture, such as sharkskin, to existing buttons, without the need for reconstruction. In this regard, our previous study evaluated and confirmed the effectiveness with respect to young individuals; however, the effectiveness with respect to elderly users has not yet been considered. Therefore, herein, the effectiveness was evaluated for elderly participants and assessed using experiments. The results revealed the ineffectiveness of anisotropic haptic texture as a cue for the appropriate button choice. Considering the factor of erroneous choices made by the elderly, it is discovered that their frictional images vary due to perception issues. Thus, we created a standard for the recognition of anisotropic haptic texture with respect to the creation of frictional images. To clarify the effectiveness of the proposed method, an evaluation experiment was conducted, and the validity results for elderly people were obtained.

Daiji Kobayashi, Nobuki Nanjo

Ergonomics Intervention of Workplaces Using SEANES Ergonomic Checkpoints

Ergonomics improvements in the workplace are gaining impetus in industry. As a means of fitting the workplace to workers, ergonomics improvements are increasingly applied with the aim of improving safety, health and productivity at work. A broad range of ergonomics measures can be applied through the initiative of workers. To support ergonomics application in several types of workplaces, a new manual specifying Ergonomic Checkpoints for indoor and outdoor workplaces was developed by the Southeast Asian Network of Ergonomics Societies (SEANES). This paper presents SEANES Ergonomic Checkpoints for Indoor and Outdoor Workplaces, with an illustration from Process Control room activities. The goal was to motivate workers to recognize hazards in the work environment and take initiatives that minimize the impact of unsafe acts on workers. The initiatives are published in the form of a self-guided manual. The manual makes use of a Workplace Checklist comprising low-cost actions in six technical areas: materials handling, workstation design, machine and tool safety, physical environment, welfare facilities, communication and work organization. Generic issues shared by 12 workplaces were identified in order to standardize and modify existing checkpoints.

Halimahtun Khalid, Kazutaka Kogi, Martin Helander

SIMS, Evaluating a Sustainable Design Process to Create Jewelry

Sustainable design calls for in-depth understanding of the design processes, factors that should be in place for a regenerative and transfigurative design and also knowing the practical implications and challenges of designing a sustainable product or service. Human Factors and Ergonomics, provide design principles and practices that can ensure that human needs are incorporated and integrated within the design and in doing so ensure that the end system/product/service is sustainable. These models are mainly focused on review and evaluation phases of the design. SIMS (our proposed framework) allows for in-depth exploration of a design outcome/creative process during its inception (i.e., conceptual design). In the present paper, SIMS process (Scalabale, Interactive, Modular Simulation) will be used and documented during developing a sustainable jewelry design.

Luigi Ferrara, Paul McClure, Nastaran Dadashi

The Effects of Passive Ankle-Foot Orthotic Devices’ Stiffness – Application and Limitation of 2D Inverted Pendulum Gait Model

This paper presents a pilot study for the development of a lumped parameter model that can facilitate the interpretation of gait data and design AFOs. A 2-D kinematic link model was constructed first and then adapted into a lumped parameter model with inverted pendulum approach. A patient with ankle disability was recruited and performed three walks with different ankle stiffness support: no AFO, medium-stiff (3.6 N·m/deg) AFOs, and stiff (4.5 N·m/deg) AFOs. An inertia measurement unit (IMU) system was used to measure the sagittal kinematics of the impaired and unimpaired limbs, and the data collected was used as inputs for the proposed gait model. Good agreement between observed and predicted swing time of the unimpaired side based on given AFO stiffness was achieved.

Qianyi Fu, Thomas Armstrong, Albert Shih

Evaluation of Smartwatch Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) for Studying Human Movements

This study aims to evaluate the temporal and spatial accuracy of the inertia measurement unit (IMU) data from a wearable smartwatch using a controlled movement and comparisons with the optical tracking measured data during gait. The Sony Watch 3 was used for two tests. First, a rotational test was performed in which the watch was attached to a rotating shaft that rotated at a constant speed. Second, a subject test was performed in which the watches were attached to shin and foot. The IMU outputs were analyzed to obtain the gait motion, and results were compared with measurement from the optical tracking system. For the rotational test, the IMU data showed moderate temporal accuracy (sampling interval: 0.012 ms ± 0.005 ms), and high spatial accuracy (error of trajectory: 0.03 m ± 0.03 m). For the subject test, the error between two measurements was 1.2° ± 1.9°.

Qianyi Fu, Thomas Armstrong, Albert Shih

User-Centered Design: Ethical Issues

The ethical aspects involved in the application of the methodology of the user centered design is discussed in this paper. We present to the readers some application of educational practice that have been applied to the development of assistive technologies. And after presenting the elements of observation of the design practice of user-centered design, we discussed the need for certain specific practices and guidelines to be applied for the development of assistive technology. And we conclude that the application of user-centered design requires above all a higher level of perception and skills of the design team when it comes to subjects with disabilities.

Maria Lucia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto, Gisele Yumi Arabori Ribeiro, Maria Lilian Barbosa, Bruna Brogin, Sandra Regina Marchi, Kelli Smithe

Ergonomics for Impartiality and Efficiency in the Law-Courts of Ancient Athens

The judicial procedure in the classical Athenian time (508–323 B.C.E.), was designed to achieve societal values such as representativeness, legitimacy and impartiality. In the present paper, the procedure for selecting and allocating daily jurors to law-courts and the artefacts involved are described, based on the description made by Aristotle in his book Constitution of Athens, as well as findings from excavations in ancient Agora of Athens. It is demonstrated that the whole system meets contemporary ergonomic principles for user-centred and service design. Furthermore, it is shown that the system of the ancient Athenian law-courts represents an exemplar case of a highly sophisticated sociotechnical system, designed based on the understanding of societal values and the users’ micro-moments throughout their entire journey.

Vassilis Papakostopoulos, Dimitris Nathanael, Nicolas Marmaras

Creativity in Measuring Trust in Human-Robot Interaction Using Interactive Dialogs

The measurement of human trust in humanoid robots in human-robot interaction requires novel approaches that can predict trust effectively. We present a method that mapped subjective measures (i.e. general trust, psychological) to objective measures (i.e. physiological) to predict trust. We designed interactive dialogs that represent real world service scenarios of Business, Disaster, and Healthcare. The dialogs embedded fifteen trust attributes of Ability, Benevolence and Integrity (ABI) in the communication dialogs. The ABI measures were mapped to physiological measures of facial expressions, voiced speech and camera-based heart rate. Forty-eight subjects comprising 24 males and 24 females aged between 18 to 36 years participated in the experiment. Half of the subjects were Malays and half were Chinese. Three humanoid robots represented full bodied, partial bodied and virtual agents. The experimental design was a within-subjects design. Each subject was tested on all robots in all scenarios. Subjects scored trust on an online scale that ranged from 0 to 7 points. The subjective data was analyzed using Univariate and Oneway MANOVA. The results found the humanoids to be trustworthy in different service tasks. The attributes of ‘Integrity’ and ‘Ability’ trust components are important in Business and Disaster scenarios. The estimation of trust was about 83% accurate when using this creative approach. In conclusion, humanoid robots can interact with humans using dialogs that are representative of real world communication.

Halimahtun Khalid, Wei Shiung Liew, Bin Sheng Voong, Martin Helander

UCD, Ergonomics and Inclusive Design: The HABITAT Project

Recent forecasts about the European population have highlighted the fact that the number of elderly people will grow rapidly in the upcoming years and that the economic impact of aging society will be relevant in all EU countries. In this perspective, a healthy, active, and independent aging, for as long as possible, is a goal that involves the whole community, as it can lead to an improvement in the quality of life and a great cost savings. In this scenario, digital technology can put itself at the service of healthy ageing also by empowering available tools and devices, and allowing the development of new support paradigms, like seamless anywhere-anytime medical treatment and home assistance, with sustainable quality and costs. The article aims at describing the application of a Human Centered design tool, like the QFD, to the selection and development of technological solutions related to physical and cognitive ergonomics issues in the design of smart objects connected to the Internet of Things for elderly. The applied methods take also in account the needs of all the people involved in the care and assistance of the elderly, trying to define the most inclusive and less intrusive design solutions. The analysis is based on the first results obtained by the Habitat project, a multidisciplinary design research focused on the development of a IOT platform for the Home Assistance of self-sufficient and non-self-sufficient elderly users.

Giuseppe Mincolelli, Michele Marchi, Gian Andrea Giacobone, Lorenzo Chiari, Elena Borelli, Sabato Mellone, Carlo Tacconi, Tullio Salmon Cinotti, Luca Roffia, Francesco Antoniazzi, Alessandra Costanzo, Giacomo Paolini, Diego Masotti, Paola Mello, Federico Chesani, Daniela Loreti, Silvia Imbesi

A Usability Study of an Enterprise Resource Planning System: A Case Study on SAP Business One

The importance of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system in modern business has created a demand for ERP consultants with the appropriate competencies to implement, maintain and support these systems such as SAP, Oracle, and Microsoft Dynamics. However, users of these systems encounter usability issues whilst learning to use the systems. Several studies have shown that the assessed user interface of these ERP systems resulted to poor usability and user dissatisfaction. Empirical studies on the usability of ERP systems, particularly for SAP B1 are limited on determining the critical success factors. This paper reports on the usability assessment of SAP B1 which investigates on the effects of the external dependent variables such as buttons, labels or terminologies, navigation, layout colors, user help and logical process. The experiment results provide considerable insights into the usability design issues of the SAP B1 Sales Module. Results were assessed by measuring the efficiency effectiveness and satisfaction followed by computing for their corresponding Single Usability Metric (SUM) for benchmarking. Thus, from the usability results of the redesigned user interface, there was a significant improvement on the sigma level.

Ronaldo V. Polancos

State of Research in the Design and Development of Emergency Response Vehicles and Equipment: A Scoping Review

The current design of ambulances and paramedic equipment are not conducive of a safe and efficient work environment, and it plays a role in the poor health of paramedics. There has been discussion to improve current design standards to set the bar higher. Despite the desire to include human factors and ergonomics (HFE) into a standard, the effectiveness of HFE interventions is unclear and a systematic review of these interventions is needed prior to recommending it into the standard. The objective of this study was to review all existing English peer reviewed research to identify interventions or features of the patient compartment and associated equipment that could affect paramedics performance, health, and safety.A scoping review methodology was applied to systematically search and screen for relevant articles, and to systematically extract and chart the data. Three databases (EmBase, Scopus and PubMed) were searched and search results were screened for articles that pertained to the performance, health, and safety of paramedics within the ambulance or when using equipment. 48 relevant articles were identified. Considering the timeline of the research (predominately since 2005) and the current state of intervention development (most research still targets understanding the problem), we conclude that the overall body of research available to improve the performance, health, and safety of paramedics is limited. Evidence has improved our understanding of the ergonomic challenges faced by paramedics, but we have less evidence to inform standards or best practices. Future research efforts should fill this gap by focusing on developing, implementing and evaluating strategies to address HFE concerns within the paramedic sector.

Bronson Du, Michelle Boileau, Kayla Wierts, Steven Fischer, Amin Yazdani

An Approach to Inject HFE into Existing Design Standards

Current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) programs and practices, though having potential, are not easily integrated into organizations’ management system. As a result, HFE programs have been perceived by many organizations as parallel and stand-alone, requiring a separate pool of resources to operate. A lack of integration into existing management and quality systems can make HFE programs costly and unsustainable for organizations, particularly those adopting lean strategies. Like HFE programs, emerging HFE standards are also often independent and stand-alone from readily available industry technical design standards. Embedding HFE principles into industry technical design standards offers a unique opportunity to position HFE upstream in the design and development phase of a product, and increase its adoption and application. Additionally, inclusion of HFE specifications within technical design standards may also improve communication between HFE researchers and HFE knowledge users (designers and decision makers), particularly within the design process. This discussion paper presents a case for embedding HFE principles into existing industry specific technical standards using the paramedic industry as an example, and a systems approach was used to inform the standard.

Bronson Du, Steven Fischer, Amin Yazdani

Design for the Lower Limbs. A Study for the Development of an Assistive Robotic System for Sensorimotor Rehabilitation After Stroke

Stroke is the first cause of disability and the second of death in Europe.Given the wideness of the target of patients affected by it and the impossibility to reduce them in a sample, the study focused on the need of therapists to start the rehabilitation with bedridden patients that for different reasons cannot stand but have a good cognitive response: the lack of assistive devices for the rehabilitation for lying patients and the time needed for their discharge from a stroke unit to another ward are times of inactivity that can lead to a less effective recovery. The paper is the synthesis of a doctoral research in Design Sciences: based on the concept of neural plasticity and the possibility of complete recovery after stroke, a project concept has been built on technologically-driven dynamics of distraction, involving the patients in a flow heading to an optimal experience state, fostering the engagement through the gamification of the exercises and giving to the therapist the possibility to control and customize the levels of complexity of the stimulation. After an interdisciplinary desktop research, an on-field observation has been conducted to identify possible areas of intervention: attention has been given to the environment of use, the therapists as main users, the patients as secondary users and beneficiary of the interaction, the design and the usability of the system. The result is a design concept of an assistive robotic system for sensorimotor rehabilitation of lower limbs enhanced by a digital gaming and progress monitoring system.

Francesca Toso

Ergonomic Design of a Drumstick Plucker

India is the largest producer of Moringa tree’s pod referred to as ‘drumstick’ in the world. Harvesting of this commercially valuable farm produce is a delicate process due to constraints such as height of plant, judgmental visibility in selective plucking, and damage to the drumstick during the harvesting, long working hours and uncomfortable posture of harvester. At present, most of the farmers are using locally made, non-ergonomically developed tools. These self-made harvesting tools are an essential cause for low economic returns to farmers from drumstick farming due to the high percentage harvesting of immature pods by non-selective plucking. Until date several studies have been conducted to develop a drumstick plucker. These drumstick harvesters need large shearing force of 5 to 15 N for harvesting single drumstick or cutter pipe requiring twisting force to harvest. Both these ways are not feasible to apply on commercial basis as it may develop musculoskeletal disorders in long run. In order to avoid the harvesting loss due to non-selective plucking and health related issues; there is a need to design suitable harvesting tools. Therefore, to address the above mentioned issues, a conceptual model of selective drumstick plucker was developed through Solidworks which was then converted to a full scale prototype for simulation study in the field.

Dhanashri B. Shinde, Gaur G. Ray

Design Intervention Direction for Brick Kiln Industry Based on Ergonomic Study

India is the Second Largest producer of clay fired bricks, accounting for more than 10% of global production. Stress at the workplace was linked to absenteeism, higher attrition and decreased productivity. Physiological, Postural, and Psychological stresses are mainly four major stresses that affect productivity/human performance. A good numbers of research paper suggested that “design intervention” is required as soon as possible in brick making industry. In Indian brick-making industry, prioritization of direction for design intervention is essential. Keeping in mind, the necessity of prioritization between Physiological, Postural, and Psychological stress (P-P-P Scale), the present study focused to give direction guidelines for design intervention.To validate above scale, three activities (Mud Making, Brick Moulding and Brick firing/Jalai) were selected from the brick making process. Heart Rate, QEC, PSS and CET were measured to know the Physiological, Postural and Psychological stress for above three activities. It was found that Physiological stress is higher for Mud making activity, Postural stress is higher for brick moulding activity. This result gives a clear design direction for redesigning the task.In conclusion, it is suggested that when the dominant stress experienced by the workers in unorganized sector is identified and prioritized, the direction for design intervention is easier for the designer.

Amar Kundu, Gaur G. Ray

Ergonomics and Design: Neonatal Transport Incubator for Premature or Pathological Newborn Transportation

For the past few years, cultural and technological progress has allowed premature newborns greater possibilities for survival. Since not all the infants are born in hospitals that can provide appropriate treatments, 2–2,5% of newborns need to be transferred. The aim of this design research is to give comfort to the newborn, as well as to give healthcare professionals better working conditions in order to facilitate their interactions and reduce errors during all the transportation phases. This research used methodologies of “Human-Centred Design”, focusing on direct and indirect users’ needs, skills and different points of view of professionals involved in the design or planning of the products/services. By conducting field surveys at the Meyer Children’s Hospital, useful data has been collected to address some of the problems related to neonatal transportation by combining users’ needs with technology. The collected information allowed an analysis of users’ behavior, their needs and the frequency of errors during the performance of tasks, evaluating critical issues of actual products/systems and defining new requirements. The research has focused on understanding the current user incubator interface and on evaluating its emotional impact on users. Indeed, incubators can be very unwieldy and hard to manage during transportation. This approach has led to developing new solutions to better meet the needs of healthcare professionals. By synthesizing the obtained results, it has been possible to set up new solutions which lead to the design of a new incubator for premature or pathological newborn transportation.

Ester Iacono, Francesca Tosi, Alessandra Rinaldi

The Emotion of Light Instrument for Wellness

If objects have the ability to talk, if environments have the chance to get around this, it is definitely due to light. If this is spontaneously accepted less spontaneously we accept that objects and environments have their own autonomous experience with whoever uses them. Yet in them there are phenomena that do not depend on the wishes of the user, but rather express conditions that suggest moods, purely emotional perceptions.The logic that wants the isometry of the form to determine functions or uses is often a logic of perceptual suggestions, relational relationships between light and shadow. Light not only illuminates but characterizes shapes and spaces. Not only does it allow perception, but it is through it that emotional relationships arise. Objects, spaces through light modulation, chromatic declination, and tonal intensity, offer varying dimensions of fruition.It is an example that if physical space is always equal to itself in time, luminous space can change and transform perceptual conditions by cognitively altering and even suggesting the psychological relationship of the use of things.The new dimension of designing light overtake, with the support of increasingly sophisticated implementation tools, the commitment to make a correct contribution to lumens by expanding the lighting design to a strongly cultural trajectory: educating well-being by educating the perception of light.

Gianpiero Alfarano, Alessandro Spennato

6Ws in Ergonomics Workplace Design

A workplace should have good consideration of ergonomics in the design which can prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve productivity and work efficiency, reduce production costs and optimize human well-being. This paper aims to summarize the six aspects of applying ergonomics principles in workplace design. This paper will answer the following questions: (1) Why should ergonomics principles be used in workplace design? (2) Who should be consulted and considered in workplace design? (3) When should ergonomics principles be used in workplace design? (4) Where should ergonomics be applied in workplace design? (5) How should ergonomics be used in workplace design? (6) What are the ergonomics principles in workplace design? Workplace design should consider the full spectrum of user groups with different physical and psychological needs. Ergonomics should be considered well in the design stage and the pre-occupant and post-occupant inspections should be used to evaluate the actual environment. The design should consider both the work and non-work area in the workplace including the design of workstations, staff facilities, tools and work environment. Accommodation of special needs users should be well-considered. Staff consultation with all relevant parties should be organized in the design stage for collecting the opinions of the staff. A good workplace design can enhance employees’ satisfaction and well-being. The environmental comfort model has three levels of comfort: (a) physical comfort; (b) functional comfort; and (c) psychological comfort. In addition, good environmental quality will create a higher quality of employees’ work life and ultimately will have a positive effect on employees’ well-being and quality of life. In conclusion, ergonomic workplace design can facilitate occupational safety and health, work efficiency and employee well-being.

Justine M. Y. Chim

Selection of Convenient Locations for the Placement of Push- and Rotary-Type Controls

The purpose of this study was to describe the most convenient areas for operating push- and rotary-type controls that are commonly used in various electric appliances. The participants were ten males (Mean age = 21.7 years, SD = 0.5 years) with no history of trauma and no medical history of abnormal motor function. The push- and rotary-type controls were set on the intersections of a specified grid with six conditions in the anterior direction (40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, 120%, and 140%) and nine conditions in the left–right directions (−75%, −50%, −25%, 0% [median sagittal plane], 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and 125%) based on the ratio of the maximum reaching distances of the participants. The participants pushed and rotated the controls to adjust the height of a red bar to a white target line displayed on a monitor. The participants reported the subjective ease of operation of the controls as follows: push control from 0% to 25% in the left–right direction from 60% to 80% in the anterior direction, rotary control of 25% in the left–right direction, and 80% in the anterior direction, regardless of whether they used the dominant or the non-dominant limbs. Our results indicate that the most convenient locations for the push- and rotary-type controls could be calculated by the maximum reach distance of the upper limbs using the above ratios.

Wataru Toyoda

Adapting Furniture to the Child – Ergonomics as a Main Tool in a Design Project

Leading a research project on Product Design about children’s furniture, the aim is to create a better environment for children, adapting furniture to their physical and psychological needs, namely a high chair following child’s growth from 6 months up to 7 years of age. The goal is also to provide solutions, which may enable extended product life cycles, contributing to sustainability. Taking Ergonomics and Human Factors as a tool for the understanding of how children interact with furniture, this study searches for relations between 3 different approaches in an ergonomic level: an interview based study with pre-school children (direct users), along with drawing sessions; an interview based study with parents (indirect users); and an adaptability study with high chairs available in the market (case study). When comparing results and conclusions, these studies give a glance on how children are such a difficult target, highly subjective and prone to change. However, even if a relation between the results of the different approaches is sometimes narrow, is through the use of Ergonomics and Human Factors as one of the main tools in this design research project, that we can start to reach a better understanding of how can furniture be adapted to the child.

Cristina Salvador

Systemic Body: Ergonomics of the Prevention

This work results from the health context in the productive world, related to the seated activity and the excessive use of everyday technological objects, that minimize day-to-day gestures, establishing predatory relationships in motor organization and body structure, which impose radical changes on human nature and health implications as a whole. Following this line, this work brings a problematization: theoretical comparison on the understanding of what comfort means in the visions of corporal therapies X of ergonomics – an important parameter in the process of thinking design and in the definition of product form - a conceptual misconception makes the success of an entire work impossible. The hypothesis that feeds this work is that a closer look at the mechanical aspect of the dynamics of the psychomotor organization of the human structure, as a whole, can influence the projective reasoning of professionals who evaluate, validate, conceive and develop products. For that, I developed in my PhD research Design for Health, biomimetic models of the human body, built on biotensegrity technology, constructive factors of structure and organization of complex systems and integrated movement, which support the understanding of the human motor system, through muscular chains of movement. It is able to leverage innovative processes by contributing significantly to the transformation of the state of knowledge by establishing new mental models of cognition, which encourage innovation processes when applied in other areas of knowledge, directly influencing thinking design, ergonomics, but also in the areas of biomedical, physiotherapeutic practices, and in high performance sports.

Georgia Victor

The Role of Design in Use in Agriculture: The Case of Brazilian Crops

Harvesting is one of the most critical phases in any crop once it determines the quality of raw material obtained and future production for the next seasons. Sugarcane crops are more uniform allowing the complete mechanization of harvesting. Orange crops, on the other hand, present variability and require special handling to preserve quality so the harvesting process remains manual preponderantly. The aim of this research was to explore how the distinct characteristics of sugarcane and orange crops influence the construction of instruments, promoting a discussion about design in use in Brazilian fields and its role to improve productivity and safety. Multiple case study was conducted at 9 sites: 3 sites of sugarcane crops and 6 sites of orange crops. Task analysis, observations, interviews, questionnaires and video footage were undertaken at each site. The modifications made by the harvesting teams in all studied sites aimed the appropriateness of objects to local conditions and real needs, transforming them in instruments, improving reliability, safety, health and productivity. In agriculture, a sector where working conditions still need to be significantly improved especially in developing countries, it is argued that design in use appears as a solution for the problems faced by workers in the field, as an essential mean to maintain health and productivity at work.

Lidiane Regina Narimoto, Simone Emmanuelle Alves Costa Belussi

Do Virtual Environments Unleash Everyone’s Creative Potential?

The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether Multi-User Virtual Environments improve everyone’s creativity whatever their creative potential profile, (b) the combination of internal creative resources that favours fluency and originality in a brainstorming task in virtual and real environments (VE and RE respectively). For this purpose, our study involved brainstorming sessions in two conditions: a real meeting room (RE) and a similar meeting room in virtual environment (VE). Creative potential of 60 participants was assessed via the creative profiler. The results showed that at team level, fluency and originality were significantly improved in VE compared to RE. However, at individual level, the results suggested that VE did not favour everyone. Participants in VE with high risk-taking propensity were significantly more creative (fluency and originality) than the other participants (e.g., those with similar profile in RE as well as participants with low scores in risk taking in VE). Similar profile was observed for divergent thinking and mental flexibility but at a lesser extent. The results are discussed with regards to social and motivational causes, latent inhibition and attentional mechanisms involved in creative behaviour.

S. Bourgeois-Bougrine, P. Richard, T. Lubart, J. M. Burkhardt, B. Frantz

The Guided Imaginary Projection, a New Methodology for Prospective Ergonomics

We tested a new methodology called “guided imaginary projection” (GIP) to support people in projecting themselves into the use of emergent services, in order to gather information about their probable subjective experience with the future service. For the purpose of the study, the targeted service was ‘dynamic’ carpooling, a mobility service geolocated for short distance and immediate travel, still rarely used. We aimed to collect information about the sources of comfort and discomfort imagined by non-users. 24 interviews were conducted to evaluate the method. The population was divided in two groups, the projection group and the non-projection group. Our hypothesis is that if the projection group had a more complete projected form of experience of the service, this group should produce more elements about the sources of comfort and discomfort of the dynamic carpooling compared to others. The results indicate that the projection group’s interviews lasted significantly longer and contained significantly more elements of comfort and discomfort than the non-projection group. We also analysed the types of discourse used during the GIP to evaluate the degree of projection: imaginary-embodied, imaginary-analytical, or general discourse. At the end we discuss the results, limits and perspectives.

Anaïs Allinc, Béatrice Cahour, Jean-Marie Burkhardt

Ergonomics and Standard

In many parts of the world, compliance with relevant standards is a mandatory requirement in many services, but even when it is not, we believe standards are a good idea because they:Provide definitive, authoritative widely agreed statements of good practiceRequire organizations to consider and meet the needs of their peopleHelp organizations meet their legal requirement under disability and health and safety legislationPromote consistency by providing a consistent reference across design teams or across work placesIntegrating ergonomics principle to existing standards is essential if progress is to be made in our country Nigeria technological advancement, managing a business continues to set new challenges and demands especially when viewed against:Significant competition;High customer and community expectations;Returns on capital employed;Regulatory compliance;Executive liability risk.Standards and legislation affecting health, safety, environment and quality assurance share many common elements that if effectively integrated will stimulate business improvement and risk reduction. Integration of ergonomics principles will expose areas of waste and non-value-added activity, and provide opportunities for rationalization.

Samson Adaramola

A Comparison Between Representative 3D Faces Based on Bi- and Multi-variate and Shape Based Analysis

In Ergonomic product design, designers need to translate anthropometric data of the target population into product dimensions or sizing systems. Currently, sizing systems are often based on traditional anthropometric data and generally use the variation of one or two key body dimensions directly related to the product. For products that need to closely fit a certain part of the body it is relevant to incorporate multiple key dimensions. This can be realized by a multivariate approach such as a Principal Component Analysis. Over the past decades, there has been an increase in incorporating 3D imaging in anthropometric surveys. In order to integrate the use of 3D anthropometry in product sizing, representative models are used to visualize the variability of the target population. For the development of a ventilation mask for children, this study compares representative models of 3D faces based on a bivariate, multivariate and shape based analysis of 303 children’s faces.

Lyè Goto, Toon Huysmans, Wonsup Lee, Johan F. M. Molenbroek, Richard H. M. Goossens

Using Prospective Ergonomics to Identify Opportunities from Recent Technological Advances in AI: The Case of a West African Bank

This paper discusses two examples of how ergonomics practitioners implemented prospective ergonomics. The first resulted in the development of a scoring approach to lending in a West African bank that had previously been deemed impossible due to the lack of relevant data. By using cognitive ergonomics, practitioners demonstrated to risk managers that scores could be developed using local customer characteristics. The second initiative was the application of new technology using deep neural networks for image processing. Through a cognitive task analysis of hundreds of risk managers, we determined that they spend most of their time verifying information. By combining advanced image processing and scoring we were able to fully automate the loan adjudication process. We believe that this insight could transform the lending industry. We also identify a need for upgraded models and approaches to predict possible transformations and their potential impact.

Francois Aubin, Marie-Claude Prevost

My Pain Coach: A Mobile System with Tangible Interface for Pain Assessment

Pain assessment is an essential first step in planning for and providing pain management. Access to effective pain management programs is often limited, due to scarcity of services. Other barriers to treatment include physical symptoms that limit mobility, distance from a clinic, transportation requirements and cost constraints. In response to these barriers to service delivery, the demand for online health resources is growing. However, current solutions present a number of shortcomings, in particular when referring to usability and accessibility. This paper presents the vision of the My Pain Coach system and the first prototype generated as the result of the first iteration of the development process. This prototype is based on a smartphone app and presents two different interfaces: a force-sensitive touchscreen, and a tangible interface based on a textile mat. A preliminary usability evaluation has been conducted and the results show that these interfaces are perceived as excellent from a usability point of view. Nevertheless, further development and testing are still required for the tangible interface.

Maurizio Caon, Leonardo Angelini, Katharina Ledermann, Chantal Martin-Sölch, Omar Abou Khaled, Elena Mugellini

Experiencing Sound Through Interactive Jewellery and Fashion Accessories

In this paper we report the results of a series of experiments conducted as part of a participatory Research through Design (RtD) project [1] which aims to develop interactive jewels for deaf women. The project moved from the idea of bringing mindful attention to aesthetics in designing for disability, exploring cross-modal sensory associations. Our jewels detect ambient sound and represent them with light patterns, vibration patterns, and shape change. Preferences can be set through an app that allows to record sounds of interest (e.g. doorbell, a household appliance) and to notify them through visual or tactile feedback of the jewel.In order to design meaningful cross-modal sensory associations between sounds in input and behaviours of the jewels in output, we engaged hearing and deaf people in an experiment on the association of light patterns to sound types. Preliminary results show the difficulty in associating light patterns to sound types without listening to the sound during the task. On the contrary, when the sound was preliminary heard, there was a higher possibility to associate it with the correct light pattern. Even if the results of the experiment are preliminary due to the small sample size of participants and the limited number of sounds used in the study, nevertheless they gave us insights about the design of the jewelry system and for follow up studies.

Patrizia Marti, Iolanda Iacono, Michele Tittarelli

Design for All

Frontmatter

Cities and Population Aging: A Literature Review

The increasing population aging worldwide and the suitability of cities for this fact are the problems raised in this research. Through a literature review of articles from 2007 to 2017, indexed in the 24 Engineering III databases of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel of the ministry of education of Brazil, CAPES. These articles were selected by criteria of greater worldwide publication, highlighting concepts, foundations and theoretical outlines on active aging and the age-friendly cities in the world. The systematic review study followed the Knowledge Development Process - Constructivist instrument for article selection and for bibliometric analysis. In order to analyze the content of the constituted portfolio, criteria of scope, country and importance for the scientific community were assigned. The 24 selected articles are relevant to the implantation and evaluation of the age-friendly cities in the world. The United States and the United Kingdom are the countries with the largest publications on the subject researched, highlighting the worldwide concern about age pyramid change and longevity. The years of greatest publication of articles were 2014 and 2015 following the journal with the most articles on the subject found in this research, which was Ageing and Society. The authors with more than cross-citations were Bufell and Phillipson. The relevance of the study is proved by the number of publications found in the survey of 2168 articles and by the worldwide aging process that transforms today’s youth into the elderly of tomorrow.

Suelyn Maria Longhi de Oliveira, Sergio Luiz Ribas Pessa, Fernando José Schenatto, Maria de Lourdes Bernartt

The Use of Standards for Identifying, Codifying and Transmitting Expert Ergonomic Knowledge

Formal technical standards based on ergonomic principles can ensure that products, systems and services are fit for purpose, accessible and useable. The application of these standards should be used to ensure that items of technology meet political requirements for equality by enabling the full range of end users to participate in the digital society. Ergonomists and representatives of consumers participate in the specification and creation of these standards to ensure that their content is relevant, correct and up-to-date. They work to ensure that the standards accurately represent the needs and requirements of end users including amongst others people with disabilities, older people and people with different language and cultural backgrounds. A number of these standards are referenced in law and in procurement contracts. They are not often not used in higher education resulting in knowledge deficit for young technical professionals. The paper is based on the authors experience including working in the area of accessibility standardization and at a University which prides itself on the diversity of its staff and has students from more than 150 nations. The paper ends with a consideration of the way in which more effective use can be made of these standards.

Gill Whitney

Analysis of Methods for Evaluation of Assistive Technologies Focused on Computational Access of People with Cerebral Palsy

Considering the digital advancement nowadays, technology comes closer to the population and generates concerns regarding user experience and interaction with machines. In relation to users with some kind of cognitive or motor disability, that is even more complex. Among the deficiencies, cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood. Therefore, it is relevant to develop research regarding accessibility and technology for these people, objectifying the digital inclusion and stimulation of autonomy. The present research intends to contribute with the improvement of studies concerning Inclusive Design focused on people with cerebral palsy and, indirectly, to other motor dysfunctions, by identifying assistive technologies that enable or facilitate the computational access to this audience and to raise methods of evaluation for these technological supports. Through a systematic bibliographic review from databases such as ProQuest, Scopus and Web of Science, classifications regarding the types of computational assistive technologies were found, as well as the relation of methods used in these papers. As results, it was possible to observe the predominance of participative methods, in which people with deficiency test and execute tasks for the evaluation. The methods here presented may facilitate the evaluation of existing assistive technologies for people with cerebral palsy and contribute with the validation of future prototypes with this purpose.

Carolina Savioli Marques Tavares, Flávio Anthero, Murilo Scoz

A Tactile Tag to Identify Color of Clothes for People with Visual Disabilities

A tactile color tag called “iro-pochi” was developed to meet the need of totally blind people who like to know the color of clothes they wear and also like to enjoy their own color coordination in their clothing. The tag has a total of 13 small tactile dots on its surface, 10 of them being aligned on a circle of about 30 mm diameter representing the color circle of fundamental colors and other three dots being at the center of it showing white, gray and black to simulate the color order system in color science. People with visual disabilities touch those dots with a finger and find a hole or one big dot made previously to show the color that corresponds to the location on the color circle, and consequently know the color of clothes. The design was based on the study and finding that blind people understand the relationships among colors, near or far, as sighted people do, which can represents the colors in a circle. The tag has been developed as a commercial product that is attachable to any clothing through some feasibility tests, and expected to provide color information of clothes in our daily life not only to blind people but to all the people in the future.

Ken Sagawa, Saori Okudera, Shoko Ashizawa

Creating Personas with Identified Accessibility Issues for People with Disabilities: Refrigerator Usage Case

Inclusive design means a design that is designed to enable everyone to use products, architecture, and environmental services more easily and safely, regardless of the presence or absence of disability and age.

Yong Min Kim, Joong Hee Lee, Myung Hwan Yun, Donggun Park, Gee Won Shin, Hye Soon Yang, Dong Wook Lee, Seok Ho Ju

Ergonomics in the Built Environment: Survey of the Factors Related to the Corporate Work Environment Linked to Activities of High Concentration

One of the aims of ergonomics in built environments is to evaluate the adaptability of these spaces to the users’ activities. In this sense the intervention is not only restricted to the physical and dimensional needs, but also in understanding the formal and aesthetic needs in order to provide them with a pleasant and productive space. It is known in this context that some poorly designed environments can generate an unhealthy load on the physical, psychological and social aspects of work affecting the efficiency of the whole productive process. In this sense, the main goal of the study was to survey the real conditions of the work environment and the working conditions idealized by its users, making a statistical comparison of both. In this way, it is concluded that ergonomics should be considered in environmental projects in order to recommend Ergonomics concepts in relation to the physical aspects, characteristics of users, tasks and their respective expectations. For one cannot conceive the study of the built environment without the search for the understanding of the user’s perception about this space. It is in fact the element that suffers the most impact from the sensations that the environment can transmit and its behavior is influenced by the environment where it carries out its activities.

Cristiane Nonemacher Cantele, Giovanna Nonemacher

The United States’ Journey to Achieve Accessibility of Medical Devices

Medical devices in the United States were exempt from any accessibility requirements until 2017, when the U.S. Access Board issued its Final Rule on medical device accessibility. This presentation will discuss how the American journey to address medical device accessibility problems proceeded from about 2004 until the final regulation was issued. Lessons learned along the way will be presented, and it is hoped that these lessons will assist other countries that may be pursuing the development of standards or legislation on medical device accessibility. In addition, this paper describes the content of the Final Rule, the aspects of accessibility that are covered, and the specific guidance provided for increasing the accessibility of medical instrumentation.

Daryle Gardner-Bonneau

Investigation of Accessibility Issues for Visually Impaired People When Using Washing Machines

In the era of numerous consumer products with advanced technologies, there are unexpectedly large number of population being discriminated – although unintentional – from benefits of such products, namely people with disabilities. To prevent such discrimination, many countries and organization have published design guidelines for manufactures to accommodate such population by their products. Despite of such effort, such documents focus on people with physical accessibility issues like people on wheelchair, but not on people with informational accessibility issues like people with visual impairments. In this study, 12 visually impaired people were recruited for survey and interview to investigate their frustration and needs on using consumer products in terms of accessibility. This study specified the consumer product as washing machine, since it is reported as one of the most difficult consumer products to use for visually impaired people by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy in Korea. Moreover, their frustration and needs were structuralized by applying task analysis technique to specify them. This study is expected to contribute to manufacturers to comprehend the accessibility issues of visually impaired people when using washing machine and may also propose that the task analysis technique, especially therbligs, may be utilized as an accessibility evaluation tool.

Joong Hee Lee, NaKyoung You, JiHwan Lee, Kyoung-Jun Lee, Myung Hwan Yun, JeongSu Han, Young-Ju Jeong, HoJin Lee

A Survey of User Experience of Two Wheeler Users in Long-Term Interactions

Taiwan is an island nation with the highest density of scooter-riding populations in the world. We want to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of long-term use in light of the user experience (UXs). This is to further understand the potential needs of scooter riders and provide suggestions in product/service design for increasing user willingness to accommodate e-scooters. An online survey design is used to recruit scooter commuters, aged over 18 years. One hundred and ninety individuals (80 male and 110 female) participated in the study. The results indicated that scooter design and usage can evoke positive emotions. The hedonic quality may positively influences user’s willingness to recommend a scooter product. However, a number of factors including pragmatic quality and individual differences of gender and age have been found to influence scooter usage. This study discusses research results and applications to provide practical references for related research and product/service design.

Fei-Hui Huang, Shu-Renn Lin

User-Centered Development of a Support-System for Visually Handicapped People in the Context of Public Transportation

Visually impaired people face many issues when trying to navigate through variable territory. Especially in cities, these people are dependent on public transportation. While metros, trams and trains in most instances allow barrier-free access, the infrastructure of buses lags behind. In many cities situations occur, where buses stop at different positions at the platform or they stop behind each other, so that visually impaired have difficulty finding the right bus and navigating to the bus door. Often these situations are time-critical. Advanced everyday life technology, e.g. smartphones and wearables, can be used to help visually impaired people in these situations.This paper describes a concept for an electronic orientation aid system to help visually impaired people in specific, critical situations of public transportation. It was developed using user-centered design and in an intercultural project. Therefore, user-context-analyses and evaluations have been carried out in Germany and India. After setting the system borders, the usability context and the user demands could be analyzed by conducting interviews with blind people and several experts (N = 7), who gave important insights into the use of public transportation systems by visually impaired people. Based on this, an overall concept was described and further placement and feedback studies were conducted to generate a specific input for the designing stage. The result of this stage was a prototype wrist band with vibration feedback. A practical evaluation (Wizard of Oz experiment) with blindfolded persons and visually impaired people (N = 15) confirmed the general utility of the prototype, but also showed potential for improvements.

Christopher Stockinger, Christina König

Ergonomic Design of Interfaces for People with Dementia

Because age is one of the greatest risk factors for dementia, the number of people with dementia will increase rapidly prospective. Due to their cognitive impairments and thereof resulting limited interactions with technical aids, everyday products are not sufficiently adapted to the needs of people with dementia. People with dementia need technical aids, which are adapted to their specific symptomatology. The aim of this work was to evaluate the user interface of an entertainment system and the examination of the system in real context of use. For investigating the user interface, a rocker switch, a rotary switch and a push button were trialed in a usability test with 14 people with dementia regarding perception and operation. The quality of interaction was assessed by using ordinally scaled degrees of assistances, which were given by the test coordinator during tests. For evaluating systems in real context of use, six people with dementia received a prototype for five weeks. Each operation was saved in log files and was combined with questionnaires for caregivers. As a result, differences in perception couldn’t be proven, whereas people with dementia used the rocker switch significantly better than the rotary switch. Results of investigating the systems in real context of use show a dependency on dementia severities and individuals, which complicate a general statement about the effect and use of systems. An enlargement of the sample with a classification into different user groups should be carried out prospective for examining systems in real context of use.

Elisabeth Ibenthal, Claus Backhaus

Shaping Ethical, Legal and Social Implications of the Digital Revolution Through Participation: The New Interdisciplinary Research Paradigm of Aachener DenkfabrEthik

The digital era is bringing fundamental transformations to all areas of society. The penetration of everyone’s professional and private lives with modern information and communication technology is constantly increasing. However, the developers responsible for this transformation are currently often oriented too heavily towards what can be accomplished technically, what is economically promising or politically desirable and not primarily towards the requirements of the future users.The Aachener DenkfabrEthik is a success model for participatory identification of regional potential and challenges related to technology while also addressing this problem. As an independent exchange and networking platform, it forms precisely the required interface between citizens of all age groups, researchers in a wide range of disciplines, and regional decision-makers, allowing to proactively record and convey the implications of using technology. The initiative is supported actively by an interdisciplinary advisory board of regional personalities from religion, culture, politics, science, and industry.Until now, there has been a lack of such a place of exchange in which ethical, social and legal problems can be communicated and discussed through participation together across all age groups. With the Aachener DenkfabrEthik, an incubator has been created that closes this gap and also contributes to shaping participatory geronto technology research. The cross-faculty, academic evaluation is undertaken using a multi-methodological approach in which procedures from various disciplines are combined and transformed for use in new areas of application.This process results in an interdisciplinary research paradigm in which technical innovations are designed in a user-centric manner, implemented across domains, and assessed on a macrosocial level.

Alexander Mertens, Katharina Schäfer, Peter Rasche, Christina Bröhl, Sabine Theis, Tobias Seinsch, Christopher Brandl, Matthias Wille

Accessibility and Standards in Japan —Historical Overview and the Future—

Accessibility is one of the social keen issues in Japan. This social concern reflects Japanese Industrial Standards Committee, JISC, to develop more than 40 accessibility-related standards (JISs) by now for solutions of various problems that older people and people with disabilities have. Ergonomic knowledge and data are addressed as critical points that make JIS standards successful. Fundamental design methods such as color combination, font size, tactile markings, etc. were developed by taking account of effects of aging and disabilities. Some of them have been proposed for ISO standards to make international contribution of JISC with Japanese experiences in developing accessibility standards. These history and future issues are described here.

Nana Itoh, Ken Sagawa

EU Standardization. Mandate 420 - Accessibility in the Built Environment Following a Design for All Approach

Accessibility of the built environment is essential for people with disabilities to be able to exercise their rights and to participate fully in society. How can governments provide products and services for all citizens with limited financial resources and increasing accessibility demands? The European Commission proposes, in the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020, to use legislative and standardization tools, such as specific mandates, to improve accessibility for people with disabilities. This paper introduces these mandates related to accessibility with a Design for All approach, and in particular outlines the work of Mandate M/420 for accessibility requirements for public procurement in the built environment (including transport infrastructures), based on ISO 21542:2011 “Accessibility and Usability of the Built Environment”, which is its main reference standard that, after seven years, is now under revision. It also describes the standardization process which is a participatory one, involving different experts, representing national standardization bodies and stakeholders.

Isabella Tiziana Steffan, Monika Anna Klenovec

Awards as Tools to Implement Inclusion and Accessibility in the Built Environment

Europe is now an essentially urban society, with four out of five EU citizens living in towns and cities. Retaining the pleasure of city living, as cities become ever more congested, is a challenge for all. This is especially the case for persons with disabilities, older people, and those with reduced mobility or other types of temporary impairments. These groups are at risk of not being allowed to enjoy significant parts of city life, and being isolated from society. Limiting a city’s access to just a part of the population while ignoring a significant other part, is economically, socially and politically unsustainable. For all persons to enjoy their human rights, allowing access to the conditions necessary to enjoy a full life is imperative. Some awards can be powerful tools to promote accessibility in the built environment, such as the Access City Award, the Accessible Airport Awards, the UIA Friendly and Inclusive Spaces Award. In this article, the authors describe the main selection criteria and procedures.

Isabella Tiziana Steffan, Marie Denninghaus

Scientific Courses on Ergonomics in Austria

Human work design are seen as a major component in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders and in age-based and gender-based operations. For implementation is required a national ergonomic education at scientific level.The objectives of this project study were to identify the quantity and quality of courses in ergonomics offered by scientific institutions in Austria. The choice of the institutions was made by internet research as well as through additional correspondence with experts.The method used was a semi-standardized questionnaire. The obtained data were analysed and described descriptively and analytically in the spreadsheet program Excel as well as in the SAS Enterprise Guide 4.2.The 14 scientific institutions surveyed offered 33 courses focusing on ergonomics in 22 study programs, which could be assigned to five categories and which differed in the sectoral focus and the portion allotted to ergonomics.

Elisabeth Quendler, Sophie Schaffernicht

Design and Communication

Visual Communication: We read almost as often as we breathe and reading is the main communication vehicle. We read to study, work, obtain information, for pleasure, and on all media: from paper to screens… and even road signs.Reading, like any other human activity, involves the use of energy and if we can’t decipher the written word in a fluid and immediate way, reading becomes a struggle and leads to asthenopia. The eye muscles, used first in the process to transform the image into information that can be perceived by the human brain, are strained causing typical clinical symptoms: red, sore or watery eyes, double vision. The font is the transmission belt between the text and the reader and when it is easy to read all our energy can be spent in understanding the content.Design for All: The EasyReading font project was originally conceived to make reading easier for people with dyslexia - which affects an estimated 10% of the world’s population, i.e., about 750 million people. During its development, inspired by the ideas of the maestro Bruno Munari, the concept was transformed as a broader Design for All approach was adopted. The difficulties encountered by dyslexic readers were thus seen as an opportunity to design a font that could make reading easier for everyone. Hence it became an inclusive project.Recognitions: At international level, EasyReading is the only font to have been described by an autonomous and independent scientific study, conducted by Christina Bachmann (Clinical Psychologist and Psychotherapist), as “A valid compensatory tool for readers with dyslexia and a facilitating font for all categories of readers”.It has received a positive opinion from the Italian Dyslexia Association (AID) for its specific graphic characteristics that are useful in facilitating reading by those with dyslexia problems.For its innovative design, it has been granted financial incentives by the Italian Ministry of Economic Development, through the Italian Value Foundation, Permanent Exhibition of Made in Italy and Italian Design.Work in Progress: In 2018, the new “EasyReading Pro” version will be released which, in addition to the Latin alphabet, will include the Cyrillic, Greek (ancient-modern) and Coptic alphabets.

Federico Alfonsetti, Uberto Cardellini

Accessibility of Products and Services Following a Design for All Approach in Standards

All individual users have their own profile of needs, characteristics, capabilities, and preferences, and this fact needs to be recognized when developing mainstream products, goods and services. For most people the profile of abilities changes substantially throughout the course of their life, as they advance from childhood to adulthood and then into old age. In addition, changing circumstances, accidents, disease and other events frequently have a significant impact on needs, characteristics, capabilities, and preferences. Furthermore, the context of use of products and services can influence users’ needs, characteristics, capabilities, and preferences. A Design for All approach takes account of human diversity to extend the range of users in the developing of mainstream products and services which includes, older persons and persons with disabilities.Article 9 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [UNCRPD] (see footnote 1) refers to equal rights of persons with disabilities in the context of “accessibility” and “to enable persons with disabilities to live independently and participate fully in all aspects of life” [Art 9(1)]. M/473 (M/473 EN, Standardization Mandate to CEN, CENELEC, and ETSI to include “Design for All” in relevant standardization initiatives [Ref. Ares (2010)578264 – 10/09/2010] http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/mandates/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.detail&id=461ftp://ftp.cencenelec.eu/CEN/Sectors/List/Accessibility/DfAmandate.pdf.), a Standardization mandate issued by the European Commission in 2013 to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI with a request to include accessibility following a “Design for All” approach in mainstream standards. The intent was not to develop specific accessibility standards but to incorporate accessibility in mainstream standards and from an early stage. Early research in this M/473 project informed the work of M/473, that the best approach was to develop a standard which would enable organizations to extend the range of users by identifying diverse needs, characteristics, capabilities, and preferences, by directly or indirectly involving users, and by using knowledge about accessibility in its procedures and processes.The European standard [FprEN17161] is unique in the standardization arena as it sets out requirements that enable an organization to design, develop and provide products or services so that they can be accessed, understood and used by the widest range of users including persons with disabilities. An environment where products and services are more accessible allows for more inclusion and participation of citizens in society.Extending the range of users that can access, understand and use a product or service has the potential to benefit a wider range of users in the population including persons with disabilities. Furthermore, the standard supports the proposed “European Directive on Accessibility” (Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States as regards the accessibility requirements for products and services [2015/0278 (COD)].).

Elizabeth O’Ferrall

Accessible-Design Standards for Consumer Products Developed in ISO/TC 159/SC 4/WG 10

ISO/TC 159/SC 4/WG 10, entitled “Accessible Design for Consumer Products”, has been developing a series of accessible-design standards since 2007. Accessible design is a design of products, services and built environments focused on diverse users to maximize the number of potential users who can readily use them in diverse contexts. Consumer products are categorized as a major group of products to which accessible design could be applied most effectively because they should be usable for everyone regardless of their abilities/characteristics, without prior training or knowledge about the usage. Furthermore, different kinds of consumer products are often used at the same time in the home. Therefore, it is desirable that the user-interfaces of those products be “standardized” to make them easy to use for every potential user. This paper introduces the present activities of the WG for those who are interested in developing products, services and built environments with enhanced accessibility for everyone.

Kenji Kurakata

Inclusive Human-Centered Design: Experiences and Challenges to Teaching Design Engineering Students

A considerable literature has grown up around the theme of inclusive design, but few studies have pointed the challenges to educate it. Recently, the inclusive design concept and philosophy have been included in the engineering design curricula as part of human factors and ergonomics module in a Mexican University. The expected value was to create empathy and awareness about physical and cognitive differences of the potential users among young students. The aim of this paper is to describe the teaching experiences and challenges of executing a design project using by the first time an inclusive design approach. Nine design proposals were developed during a five-month workshop by 40 undergraduate students and two teachers following methods from both human-centered and inclusive design. In collaboration with a non-profit organisation, each team designed a product to help children with arthrogryposis, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy or hemiparesis to carry out a daily life activity. Some issues were identified from the student’s viewpoint such as the complexity of reading scientific papers slow the design process, students felt overwhelmed with the responsibility to find a meaningful solution and they had problems to gain feedback from users. From the teacher’s perspective, the main challenges were the increase in the amount of time that students needed help and the lack of design research techniques to communicate with people with a speech disability. Another finding was that the use of a design logbook facilitated the process by allowing the student’s metacognition after each activity. Overall, the evidence showed positive effects in students, increasing their level of engagement and motivation during the project and achieving a design that tried to satisfy the different user’s needs. In addition, all the students recognised that the module had a great impact in their professional training and it should remain in the design engineering curricula. Despite its exploratory nature, this study offers some insight into how enhance the inclusive design training among young students.

Irma C. Landa-Avila, Carlos Aceves-Gonzalez

Walking Works Wonders: A Workplace Health Intervention Evaluated Over 24 Months

Walking Works Wonders (WWW) is a workplace intervention designed to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour. WWW involves tailoring health information according to employees’ readiness for change. The approach recognises that when attempting to motivate behaviour change, success is greater when interventions align with recipients’ attitudes and beliefs. The impact of the tailored approach was investigated by comparing tailored interventions with standard conditions and control groups in a 24-month longitudinal study in 10 worksites across the UK. Employees who received either a standard or tailored intervention demonstrated significantly higher self-reported work ability and improved organizational commitment, job motivation, job satisfaction, and a reduction in intention to quit the organization. The tailored interventions significantly reduced BMI and waist circumference compared to standard and control conditions. Workplace health interventions designed to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour are likely to be more effective where the information is tailored to employees’ readiness to change.

Cheryl Haslam, Aadil Kazi, Myanna Duncan, Ricardo Twumasi, Stacy Clemes

Ergonomic Accessibility Assessment in Mixed-Use Buildings

In ergonomics parameters are purposed to the development of accessible projects, according to its methods that allow the integration of usage and interaction of the user with the environment. Mixed-used buildings have been a trend in the real estate market in the last few years and it has been contributing significantly to an improvement in the Brazilian economy. In this perspective when articulating postulates of the Brazilian Technical Normative (NBR 9050/2015) among the ergonomics, the present research evaluates if the studied buildings comply such in the architectonical project, considering the accessibility criteria contained in the normative, as, in its usage, in favor of the comfort and its safety for persons with reduced mobility.The purposed method for the study realized in mixed-use buildings was constituted of a series of steps and actions. The three steps (analyses, simulation, and validity) comprise a general view of the facilities, enabling the evaluation of the accessibility and permitting the validation of the obtained data. The premise of this method implies in considering the real situation and the involvement of the user in the process.To answer the research’s aims there were made some graphic simulations in the architectonical plans of the buildings intending to reproduce the target situation. For the participant observation it was adopted the guided tour method consisted of a supervised tour in the edifices with a wheelchair user.The results point some barriers in important access routes and even when the normative standards are obeyed, not always, the comfort is assured. Despite the fragility of the data this study purposes thinking about the normative enforcement and pointing out, above all, its limits.

Juliane Calvet, Júlia Abrahão

Ergonomics and Emergency Response: An Inclusive Approach

Emergency Preparedness and Response to People with Disabilities: The Italian National Fire Fighters Corps Experience

In recent years, the Italian National Fire fighters Corp have adopted more inclusive operational procedures to tackle emergencies involving people with special needs. To this end specific training and standard operating procedures have been elaborated. In emergency scenarios in which fire fighters operate (e.g. fires, earthquakes, etc.), the protection of the people that have to be rescued must be assured, but the rescuers should also work in safe conditions in order to achieve this objective with greater reliability. The rescue of people with disabilities implies operating procedure that do not cause further damage to the person (e.g. excess of digital pressure, bedsores for peoples with mobility impairment on a wheelchair, etc.). With regard to the rescuer, unsuitable fireman’s lift techniques could damage his musculoskeletal system. This paper describes the operative procedures that have been developed and considers the ergonomic aspects used in the rescue.

Giuseppe Romano, Angelo Porcu, Luca Manselli, Marcella Battaglia, Stefano Zanut

Diversity, Inclusion and Safety in case of Fire

New Fire Safety Regulation, Recently Adopted in Italy, Enhances the Inclusion of People with Special Needs

Fire safety law in Italy was updated on August 2015 with the introduction of the Internal Ministry Decree 3/8/2015. The regulation provides mandatory recommendations and guidance to consider the requirements of people with disabilities since the stages of design and to heed the inclusion as a prerequisite of the edifice. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action: while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Disability can be permanent or temporary. In the context of this new regulation, new and different means of access and egress consider the possibility to escape from a dangerous situation not only using stairs for egress, but also horizontal evacuation into another fire compartment at the same floor. These solutions are known as “area of refuge” and “progressive horizontal evacuation”.Architectural solutions are synergically completed with other safety measures (e.g. fire alarm and detection systems, fire safety signs, escape lighting, etc.) to offer adequate performance to the needs of “all” the persons, including people with visual, mobility and cognitive impairments.The contribution highlights some design solutions according to the Italian fire safety regulation, comparing them with the international ones, developed by each country using its own regulation.

Giuseppe Romano, Angelo Porcu, Luca Manselli, Marcella Battaglia, Stefano Zanut

Accessibility at University Campus in Historical Center

Brazilian legislation, through its Federal Constitution, guarantees to every citizen the right to “come and go” and the right of access to education. Surfing in the legal framework, Brazilian laws and norms ensures a portion of the vacancies in higher public education for a disabled person, as well as, reserves to this public 1% of the vacancies in the board of employees in companies, public or private, with more than one hundred employees, as also minimum dimensions necessary for the use of physical spaces. On the other hand, it is understood that many environments are not accessible and consequently prevent an enjoyment of such rights. It is understood that the university is an environment of vocational training of architects and urban planners and, for this reason, should be seen as a inclusive environment reference. This article presents a study on the campus of the Federal University of Sergipe located in Laranjeiras, a city of great historical and touristic importance to the state of Sergipe and to the whole of Brazil, and where is headquartered the graduation course of architecture and urbanism.

Danillo Crúz de Almeida, Larissa Scarano Pereira Matos da Silva, Carla Fernanda Barbosa Teixeira, Rubens Luiz da Silva Santos

Needs and Use of the Information in the Environment by People with Visual Impairment

Most of the information we use in our daily commutes is presented in a visual way. However, this volume of information could be useless for people with a visual impairment, for them it exists some resources such as tactile flooring or braille information points that can constitute their main guiding tools in public spaces. Although, there is little information available about the extent of the real utility of these elements. Furthermore, it has been detected a gap of information regarding the characteristics of the commutes and needs of people with visual impairment.This study aimed to identify the information needs of people with visual impairment through identifying the following aspects: (1) Daily life activities, (2) Orientation strategies and way finding in the complex built environments, (3) Frequency and way of use of the signals provided in the environment by people with complete blindness or severe visual impairment, (4) Types of discrepancies, errors, and omissions in the characteristics of the environment, which reduce the usability of the space and might put the user in danger, and (5) Safety perception.Data were obtained through a semi-structured interview that was responded by 18 adults with complete blindness and severe visual impairment. As references for orientation, the most common aspects were textures or level changes on the floor, as well as ambience elements like noise and smell. On the other hand, the information presented in braille was reported as little used, due to the difficulty to find the information. In regard to safety, participants reported feeling unsafe, most of them mentioned street crossing as a major risk point.The use of auditory, tactile or even olfactory signals can provide important information while commuting, making paramount the design of signals that consider these senses to take advantage of them. It is required as well to assess the characteristics of the existent tactile signals and their location to identify opportunities for improvement to ensure the safety and independence of people with visual impairment.

John Rey-Galindo, Libertad Rizo-Corona, Elvia Luz González-Muñoz, Carlos Aceves-González

A Step Towards Inclusive Design: Comfortable Maximum Height of a Bus Step for the Elderly Mexican Population

In Mexico, public transport has emerged as one of the most viable options for the transportation of elderly people; however, the characteristics of buses have become an obstacle to their use. The aim of this research was to determine the maximum comfort height of a bus step for the elderly Mexican population. Twenty-one older adults participated in this study. The participants were asked to select the height they considered comfortable from four step options, which were built taking as a reference the maximum height established by The General Norm of technical nature SM/IMTJ/002/2014. The results showed that there is a relationship between the performance of physical activities and the choice of step height. Considering the results, it is suggested to establish a measure between 15 and 20 cm for the first step of the bus.

Ileana Chávez-Sánchez, Paula González-Torres, Andrea Tejada-Gutiérrez, John Rey-Galindo, Carlos Aceves-González

Accessibility and Visual Contrast: A Proposal for a Better Evaluation of This Physical Quantity

In Europe CEN, CENELEC and ETSI have been working and are still working on a series of standards, according to the European Disability Strategy 2010-2020. ISO has many working groups working on accessibility, including the one charged with the revision of ISO 21542 on Accessibility and usability of the built environment.In this framework, a great attention is now being given to the definition of design considerations useful to facilitate orientation and to ensure safe use of an environment, particularly for people with visual impairments. The physical quantity more related with human visual perception is visual contrast, and several existing standards refer to this quantity to establish minimum values to be provided to aid perception of information, building elements, etc. In this work, the authors face the problem of identifying which parameter may be most suitable to describe visual contrast, according to human sensation. The discussion focuses on the alternative between the use of the LRV (Light Reflectance Value) and the CIE Y tristimulus value, but also on the right formula to adopt to quantify the visual contrast between two adjacent surfaces. In order to contribute to an improvement of international standards now under development, the authors examine several guidelines, standards and recommendations, comparing the different evaluation methods and requirements adopted and finally give their suggestions.

Gregorio Feigusch, Isabella Tiziana Steffan

Evaluation of Human-Robot Interaction Quality: A Toolkit for Workplace Design

The working world is facing a constant change. New technologies emerge enabling new forms of human-system interactions. Especially autonomous robots in services industries as well as manufacturing settings create novel forms of human-robot interaction. Not only researchers but also system integrators as well as practitioners are confronted with the question how to analyze, to evaluate and finally how to design these new working systems in a human-centered way. In this paper we present evaluation criteria as well as a toolkit with concrete measures in order to enable a holistic evaluation of cognitive aspects in human-robot-interactions in work related scenarios. The evaluation criteria comprise technology and human related parameters. Further the paper presents a first empirical validation of the evaluation criteria and their measurements. The validation study uses a manual assembly task accomplished with a lightweight robot. The results indicate that the evaluation criteria can be used to describe the quality of the human-robot interaction.

Patricia H. Rosen, Sarah Sommer, Sascha Wischniwski

Interpretability of Surround Shapes Around Safety Symbols: Cross-Cultural Differences Among Migrant Farmworkers

Risk communication based on safety signs is a fundamental component in high-hazard industries as agriculture, to prevent injuries. To make signs easily comprehensible by all users, the design of safety signs has been standardized in terms of color and shape to distinguish the different types of safety messages. Nevertheless, several studies demonstrated that individual characteristics as education, cultural background, and experience, can affect safety signs comprehension. Considering the increasing number of the migrant workforce in agriculture, especially in high-income countries, it is significant to investigate cross–cultural differences in safety signs interpretation. A sample of sixty migrants (Romanian n = 8; Indian n = 12; Pakistani n = 28; Gambian n = 12) employed in Italian farms was asked to associate four graphical symbols representing the main types of safety messages (mandatory, prohibition, warning, emergency), to the corresponding surround shape. With regard to geometric shape interpretation, the results showed that less than 50% of participants chose the standardized shape for warning (triangle), mandatory and prohibition (round) signs; while the majority of respondents assigned the emergency sign to the square shape. With regard to nationality, all the shape-symbol associations made by Romanians corresponded to the standardized ones, followed by Indians (52%), Pakistanis (43%) and Gambians (42%). No significant differences emerged either for the length of stay in Italy or for years of education. Results confirmed the role of national culture in safety signs interpretation and seem to show that only migrants from countries closer to the Western culture are more familiar with the meaning of standardized shapes.

Giorgia Bagagiolo, Federica Caffaro, Lucia Vigoroso, Ambra Giustetto, Eugenio Cavallo, Margherita Micheletti Cremasco

Antonio Franco Market: Case Study on Accessibility in Public Buildings

Having a disability or reduced mobility is the reality of a part of the brazilian population. However, the lack of accessibility in public spaces is detrimental to the experience of these individuals in the city, restricting the right to come and go to every citizen. In this context, the study presented concerns the evaluation of spatial accessibility in the city center of Aracaju (SE), specifically, in the area of the Municipal market Governor Antonio Franco. The market is located in a historic area of the city and was chosen as object of study for, even today, have great influence in Commerce and local tourism, attracting audiences. The analysis undertaken aimed to diagnose space accessibility from the perception of people with disabilities in the built environment and compare the situation found with the parameters of existing legislation and the guidelines for accessible spaces.

Gabriela Pires Santana, Mariel de Melo Pinheiro, Victoria Oliveira Santos Leite, Larissa Scarano Pereira Matos da Silva

Information for Tactile Reading: A Study of Tactile Ergonomics of Packaging for Blind People

This article presents a gap identified during a research on accessible packaging and the difficulty in tactile reading of the braille system by blind individuals. The study was carried out with five users (four blind and one with visual acuity of 5%) being two of them braille readers. The study analyzed the difficulty in reading and identify the information contended in the food packaging. The data were collected through interview, photo and filming. The interviewees signed the TCLE (Consent Form Free and Informed) and then a questionnaire was carried out with open and closed questions. After some laboratory evaluations, the difficulties of recognizing some braille transcripts were identified; one of the problems was in the braille height. We compared the tactile information content in five different food products in Brazilian packages resulting in suggestions for improvements in the communication of information to visually impaired people. To obtain the results of this study, we also evaluated the physical characteristics of the Braille code printed on the packages, mainly the height of the system that allows the tactile reading. It was verified that the height values presented have a significant sample variation. These results help users with difficulties in understanding the information contained in packaging’s using the braille tactile reading.

Gisele Yumi Arabori Ribeiro, Maria Lilian de Araújo Barbosa, Maria Lúcia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto, Rafael Lima Vieira

Inclusive Design Strategies to Enhance Inclusivity for All in Public Transportation - A Case Study on a Railway Station

The way traffic information is presented is not optimal for all travellers despite that, transportation systems should be accessible to everyone. The purpose of this study was to investigate how people with various disabilities perceive, experience and need audible and visible traffic information when travelling, especially at railway stations. The goal was to propose ideas on how to improve the accessibility of traffic information. Elderly and people with hearing or visual impairment were studied using online surveys. Observations were also made at the central railway station in Gothenburg, Sweden. The results showed various user demands on how traffic information should be presented to be available and suitable. Visual information screens, mobile phones and spoken information were the mostly used information sources. In general, there are too few information screens and the applications on mobile phones are updated too slowly. During traffic disturbances there are too many announcements and the quality is perceived as poor. The background noise is noticed as too loud. To conclude, it is outmost important to include user experience in the design decisions regarding information flow. The following strategies are proposed for improvement: The number and placement of visual screens should be increased, the content, length and formulations of the audial announcements should be revised, implementation of attention signals should be introduced to alert travellers of new information, and mobile applications should achieve better coherence with the visual and spoken information sources. Quiet zones should be investigated to offer reduced background noise.

Moa Nybacka, Anna-Lisa Osvalder

Fashion Design Methodology Tools in Products’ Development for People with Disabilities and Low Mobility

This paper presents an overview about the possibilities of methodology in fashion design projects, regarding people with disabilities and reduced mobility, in order to expand the projectual possibilities for an effective design for inclusion.Methods or tools in clothing projects should be an integration between ergonomic and functional aspects and the needs and desires related to both communicational and aesthetic preferences of the users/consumers. Considering the insufficiency in project methods in fashion design field to effectively achieve usability, the paper intends to explore interdisciplinary tools and its application in clothing development. The study aimed to develop a methodological tool to contribute in the process of designing fashion products for people with some kind of reduced mobility.The method employed was a qualitative, exploratory and applied research and, supporting the theoretical basis, an analytical approach was performed regarding methods of project from design, fashion and ergonomics aiming at a macro understanding of the processes of projects.The research resulted in projectual guidelines that enhance and optimize the clothing design process focusing on people with reduced mobility, providing an projectual and creative possibility in fashion, regarding methodological tools, and increasing inclusion and accessibility. The guidelines propose, as a final result, an ergonomic approach aiming for comfort, safety and usability but also providing a better approach to inclusive design, instrumentalizing professionals in designing for disability.

Gabriela Y. Nakayama, Laura B. Martins

Look with the Eyes of Others: Accessibility in Hospital Environments

In Brazil, access to health is a citizen’s right and a duty of the public authority. However, health care facilities, especially those in the public system, are not accessible to people with disabilities or reduced mobility, including patients with fragile health. It’s common for the user of these spaces to abandon their treatment, because they face difficulties to access it. In this sense, the article presents an accessibility analysis in a public hospital, specifically the Ambulatory of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Paraíba. Therefore, a multi-method approach was used that included the recognition and characterization of the object of study and an evaluation from the perspective of the disabled user. Three people with different disabilities were invited to report their experiences, citing the positives and negatives, while the researchers photographed and transcribed the comments. After analyzing the results, it was possible to identify the main problems encountered and to propose solutions to promote the inclusion and greater participation of people with disabilities in the studied environment.

Larissa Scarano Pereira Matos da Silva, Angelina Dias Leão Costa

Recommendations for the Development of Accessible Games for People with Down Syndrome

In Brazil, there isn’t a census which indicates the number of people with Down syndrome, but it is estimated that 270 thousand people have it (MOVIMENTO DOWN, 2012). This syndrome has several degrees of impairments, which causes intellectual and motor delays. In face of it, this team started to think in a way to help these persons to develop their abilities and quality of life. As a result, mobile games were a solution found, because as Vygotsky (1991) said, games promote the intellectual, social and moral development, and the type chosen was based on the fact that mobile is the most platform used to play nowadays. So, before solutions were projected, this research aims to create a list of accessibility recommendations for designing graphical user interfaces for games based on the people with Down Syndrome characteristics. It is important to know, that it represents the first step of the master’s thesis study and other guidelines were added to complement the guide. Therefore, an exploratory research was made to get to know the impairments that the trisomy 21 could cause. This study was based on Silveira (2012), Danielski (1999), Movimento Down (2013, 2015), Lima (2011) and Marques (2012) and established 6 recommendations for visual, auditory, speech and language, short memory, concentration and abstract thoughts difficulties. Although this list was not tested yet, because a mobile game is being created following these criterias, the team believes that they can contribute to making accessible games and the recommendations do not prejudicate the gameplay or the game design cycle of production. It just suggests some inputs on interface and configuration modes to help this and other people.

Lízie Sancho Nascimento, Laura Bezerra Martins, Vilma Villarouco, Windson de Carvalho, Raimundo Lima Junior

“Design for All” Manual: From Users’ Needs to Inclusive Design Strategies

Design for All (DfA) has been considered as a fundamental and innovative strategy to design inclusive spaces for a diversity of people’s needs and wishes. However, there is still a gap between theory and practice in this discipline. Therefore, tools that support designers to implement DfA through a descriptive approach in architectural practice are necessary.The paper discusses the research development of a manual to inspire architects in the application of DfA strategy. The manual’s development is based on four main criteria for knowledge transfer, defined by a precedent literature review: communicate, organize, understand and use.The outcome of the research is the definition and design for a DfA Manual on Public Spaces in terms of haptic experiences. The manual strives to transfer knowledge through a descriptive and performance based approach. For this reason, over design indications, the manual aims also to include an extensive description of users’ needs, references to case studies and laws on accessibility, which inspire architects and support them to find the proper design solution within their own project. In the manual sample developed, design indications focus on haptic design, which studies the perception of the built environment through the body, referring to the sense of touch.Thus, the manual’s purpose is to create a DfA awareness for many architects, designers and decision makers in their activities. Therefore, starting from the basic application of prescriptive laws, the manual should be used as a support tool during the design process to design inclusive spaces for all users.

Erica Isa Mosca, Jasmien Herssens, Andrea Rebecchi, Hubert Froyen, Stefano Capolongo

Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design

Frontmatter

Past and Future Challenges for Railway Research and the Role of a Systems Perspective

Operational train traffic is dependent on an efficient traffic plan monitored and executed by the traffic controllers, the proficient maneuvering of the trains by the train drivers, and on the interaction, communication, and coordination between these two work roles. The railway research community, and the branch of industry itself, has called for an integrated systems perspective for the whole train traffic system to achieve an efficient performance. As human-human and human-technology interactions are natural parts of the socio-technical system of train traffic, the aim of this paper is to provide illustrative examples for why a systems perspective is needed for the future of railway research. Furthermore, we present the theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) as a necessary addition to the theoretical and methodological toolbox of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF&E) discipline. To realize efficient and coordinated processes involved in organizing and executing operational train traffic, the paper proposes that the DCog framework should be implemented in the train traffic domain as a viable approach forward.

Rebecca Andreasson, Anders A. Jansson, Jessica Lindblom

Passengers with Disabilities, Elderly and Obese in Brazilian Air Transportation: Contradictions in the Activity Systems

The objective of this study was to understand the contradictions in the activity systems of passengers with disabilities, the elderly and obese in the Brazilian air transportation, which originate participation restrictions when boarding, during the flight and in the deplaning process of air travel. A qualitative approach was adopted based on Ergonomics and the Activity Theory. The research participants were passengers with physical, visual, and auditory disabilities and elderly and obese passengers. The data collection included 14 preliminary interviews in rehabilitation organizations and assistance services for the participant groups, with a total of 25 participants; a questionnaire-based survey involving 399 respondents; and observations in commercial aviation. A total of 43 non-participant observations were carried out, and eight other participant observations took place during the air travel, which included two self-confrontation interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results indicated passenger participation restrictions during the flight that are related to airport infrastructure, airport signs, operational factors, equipment, aircrafts, and regulatory aspects. These restrictions are related to contradictions in the interaction of the components of the activity system, which include: the passenger, the artifacts, the rules, the community (passengers and workers), airport operators, the airlines and the object of the activity. To promote full participation during the air travel, some changes are needed; primarily the transformation of significance and representations in terms of action of those involved in air transportation and their work activity, seeking to achieve integration between design and use.

Talita Naiara Rossi da Silva, Jerusa Barbosa Guarda de Souza, João Alberto Camarotto, Nilton Luiz Menegon

Ergonomic and Psychosocial Aspects of Electrical Energy Maintenance Activities on Transmission Lines

In recent years, the electric power sector has undergone considerable changes, contributing to the increase of accidents, mainly in the maintenance activity of transmission lines. The purpose of this project is to identify ergonomic and psychosocial aspects in this activity, through the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA), applied to an electric energy concessionaire. This research is underway and the initial results point to the relevance of the organizational aspects associated to the profile of the new workers.

Sandra F. Bezerra Gemma, Renan Primo, José Luiz Pereira Brittes, Milton Shoiti Misuta, Eduardo Penteado Lacusta Junior

From Micro to Macro Dimension: An Inverted Way to Think Solution in Designs

The theme of this article relates to the difficulties of embodying user expectations and management’s interests in the design of workstations. Our focus is on industry-driven designs. Workstations are usually designed according to the logic of the design process, which adopts macro solutions as a praxis and then carries it forward to solve micro issues. In effect, this logic deals with the building design, then shifts its focus to the work spaces, and only then begins to define the workstations. The purpose of this article is to show that understanding how a workstation is used reveals key information for the design of the building responsible for supporting future workstations. Based on the Ergonomic Work Analysis method, a case study was developed in the context of a Brazilian thermal power plant. The analysis included a building that contained a control room and its workstations. The results showed that the Design Inversion process – from Micro to Macro – allows for learning from the experience of use, thus avoiding errors that are commonly made in complex designs and later repeated in other business units in the industry or in the same company with several similar units.

Adson Eduardo Resende, Iara Sousa Castro, Fausto Mascia

Design as a Reflection of User Experience

This article presents preliminary results from a study developed at a control room of a passenger transport system, namely a subway system, as part of an ongoing doctorate research from the School of Architecture and Urbanism at the University of São Paulo. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that designing requires the retrieval of the user experience and its recognition as an essential part of the development of work artifacts. While building their daily use experience, the user creates strategies in order to overcome the frailties of the projects. Indeed, the understanding of the subsystems of an artifact is paramount, for this is where the designer encounters the variables that need to be dealt with. The designer manipulates these subsystems both simultaneously and separately. In fact, in the face of difficulties, there is a tendency to fragment the problem and to use concepts in an attempt to help determine the requirements that will be handled separately. Such conceptual independence among variables, promoted by the designing process, leads to some mismatches. The experience of the users and designers with this artifact emerges as an alternative to provide information to the project and raise their necessities, decreasing the mismatches. To achieve that, methodologies such as the Ergonomic Work Analysis and the Post-Occupancy Evaluation offer possibilities to recover the experience, thus requalifying the designing process.

Adson Eduardo Resende, Yvonne M. M. Mautner, Sheila W. Ornstein

Building a Dialogical Interface: A Contribution of Ergonomic Work Analysis to the Design Process

This article aims to present the activity as an interface amongst different actors in a project process.As based on the ergonomic intervention in a university restaurant, the kitchen assistants’ activity at the meal serving counter is presented as an interface among nutritionists, managers and operators of this food supply system.Building this interface in the re-evaluation meetings of this project aimed to support the dialog amongst heterogeneous actors, thus allowing for the transformation of this system and the improvement of the work conditions for the kitchen assistants.

Viktoriya Lipovaya, Francisco Duarte, Francisco Lima, Pascal Béguin

The Use of Circular Causality Networks: A Prerequisite for the Development of Efficient Psychosocial Risk Prevention and Management Plans

Problem. In the occupational health and safety field, it is usually recommended to narrow the intervention field before developing an action plan. Yet, one of the characteristics of psychosocial risks is presenting a chain of causality that can be especially complex. For example, a burnout can be caused by an overload, which is itself caused by a shortage of staff, which is caused by a lack of succession, which is caused by a lack of means in the HR budgets, etc. Yet, if numerous scientifically validated questionnaires help to evaluate health, quality of life and workplace wellness determinants (psychosocial factors), very often, the causal factors on which the action plan and intervention should be based, can be hard to identify. This presentation helps to describe a diagnosis process that fosters the identification of the causal factors on which the intervention must be based.Method and Results. The approach proposed, used in numerous occupational health interventions for more than 15 years, is based on the fault-tree analysis used in occupational safety. Nevertheless, given the specific characteristics of psychosocial factors, the approach used builds on the implementation of a circular causality network. This simple and empirical approach allows for collective work with the different protagonists of the situation and fosters the diagnosis and especially the development of a relevant action plan. If the circular causality network construction can be based on the results of a scientifically validated questionnaire, the design of the action plan can perfectly mobilize existing tools such as Hoshin Kanri X Matrix or A3 templates used in Lean.

Christian Voirol

Methodologies and Observation Tools in the Practical Exercise of Research-Intervention in Ergonomics. Impressions from Chile

The text explains the context in which Ergonomics is developed in Chile and how this context has influenced the observation about the work that the Ergonomist has. The text mentions successful cases, product of a good observation and the raise of problems with a comprehensive and participatory approach. However, the greatest influence has been linked to the development of legal regulations linked with health and safety conditions. These regulations have been orienting the focus of attention regarding the observation of the Ergonomist. This, according to the authors, has meant deviations, which should be the approach of the ergonomist to a problem. Five biases were identified. These have to do with the loss of the focus of the analysis, where health and safety issues predominate, and diminishing attention for the functioning of the system in general. The Ergonomist’s limited opportunity for intervention in his environment, since his role is very limited to achieve legal issue. The scarce possibility of choosing evaluation tools, since the normative issue also determines that aspects. The validity of the instruments and the reliability of the results was another bias. Finally, both a low precision and poor integration during the analysis of the data was also detected as an aspect to be improved. It is concluded that the role of the ergonomist needs to be reinforced as an observer of the environment in a contextualized way, in order to achieve a more complete identification during the analyzed and therefore develop better and integral proposals.

Fabiola Maureira, Felipe Meyer, Jorge Espinoza

The Real Richness in the Semi-jewel Production

The city of Limeira is officially designated as the jewel and semi-jewel capital of Brazil, besides being recognized in the world scenery in this productive sector. However, these successful financial data contrast with the socio-environmental externalities caused by this type of production.In this research, three factories of the city were studied aiming to give visibility to the work, still very little explored in the literature, explaining its content, in what way and under what conditions the workers of these factories accomplish it, through the method Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA), the main tool of activity ergonomics.This study evidenced that the work includes creation and assembly of products, through services and after-sales, as well as analysis and cost management and logistics. These characteristics are essential to address the vast diversity and high volume of products, and are revealed in the activities responsible for sales and deliveries of products that were the focus in this research.Different from what was expected of a mass production, the work turned out to be a manufacture of constant creations that depend on the management of the workers. Women are at the forefront of the negotiations in sales, with suppliers and with workers of the company, evidencing their decisive responsibilities for these companies.Even in an environment of intense pushiness of this sector, which is immersed in the consumption of the globalized market, prosperous results are achieved and it is in the commitment of these workers that lies the great value of the production of semi-jewel.

Sandra F. Bezerra Gemma, Marta Mesquita Silva

Turning Activity into a Lever for Integrating Humans into the Workplace: A Transversal Approach for Innovative Projects

Work without Man is not work but at most an automated process management. Automation of work is certainly a factor of production but will not be an element of development and innovation.A global reading of production issues shows that development has relied in recent years on a relocation dynamic. It is a question of finding productive spaces elsewhere at a lower cost, allowing performance points to be earned in the short term.Except the world is changing, production costs are inevitably associated with the societal development of producing countries. Mechanically, there will always be a place more profitable than another in a short-term logic. Major climate change is tending to raise awareness of the need to think differently about the global model. The challenge of sustainable development is no longer a philosophy but an issue for everyone. In the future, international summits dealing with climate issues will be fully associated with economic meetings. It is not possible that countries of mass production such as India or China continue to become intoxicated by air pollution.The evolution of consumption models is driving us towards the transformation of production models. Over the past 30 years it was appropriate to develop mass consumption at a low cost. The consumption model has become paradoxical: it is desirable to invest in qualitative products, but which have a short use. “Re-use’’ is developing. As a response to waste management, consumers want to be able to resell their products in order to consume other products, even if this means buying used products. Reactivity in production is becoming an important key to profitability. It is no longer a mass production automation but a capacity to respond effectively and quickly to the demand of consumers become more demanding.

Arnaud Tran Van, Thierry Morlet

Organization of an Experimental Workshop Workspace on the Example of ITMO University FabLab

Issues of usability and security of the organization of the space of production laboratory are discussed in the article. Data collected from the laboratory visitors and the growth charts of the laboratory’s audience are presented. The research was carried out on the basis of the FabLab Technopark of the ITMO University, which is a coworking zone with advanced equipment for implementation of projects in the fields of robotics, digital production, scientific and technical creativity. The resulting research can be used to organize the space of similar laboratories and increase the indicator of the convenience of space for users.

Aleksei Shchekoldin, Andrei Balkanskii, Lidia Korpan

The Role and Positioning of Observation in Ergonomics Approaches: A Research and Design Project

Observation methods historically form a significant part of the identity of activity-oriented approaches to ergonomics, while playing a central role in the holistic approach to work activity. This paper introduces the issue of the role and positioning of observation in ergonomics approaches, and presents a current research and design project. Started two years ago, the project promotes research and practice exchanges, involving reflections on and teaching of observation methods and techniques. Its objectives are threefold: (1) design an open and stable tool for in-situ observation, (2) contribute to the research about observation and human activities, and (3) promote teaching of observation methods and techniques. The paper concludes with an outline of the next steps for research and practice.

Vincent Boccara, Catherine Delgoulet, Valérie Zara-Meylan, Béatrice Barthe, Irène Gaillard, Sylvain Meylan

Developing a Methodology for a Participatory Ergonomics Evaluation Process: Human Performance and Productivity Cycle

Applying ergonomics in an industry in a systemic way can generate benefits and cost savings, since it contributes to reduce financial losses due to injuries, accidents and absenteeism with consequent increase in productivity. The current assumption considers that managing human factors is the key to improve the performance of organizations. The objective of this paper is to present the application of the Human Performance and Productivity Cycle – HPC method developed by the Center of Innovation in Ergonomics with the support of the TNO ergonomics team. The HCP was created as a virtuous cycle that underlies five steps to achieve effective solutions in ergonomics. The method was tested in a wagon workshop of a railway industry located in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to reach solutions, principles of ergonomics, technical knowledge and adequate human performance were considered. The strong involvement of the workers and managers led to assertiveness in understanding the risks and proposing solutions culminating in the agile process. Co-responsibility for the successful implementation of ergonomic improvements was achieved. The framework’s validation at the wagon workshop shows that the tools and techniques should be articulated and integrated. In such way, it can support the development of an ergonomic process to manage health, safety and productivity indicators of a sustainable model of prevention.

Cláudia Ferreira Mazzoni, Mônica Vieira Garcia Campos, Carla Aparecida Gonçalves Sirqueira, Frank Krause, Heleen de Kraker, Reinier Könemann, Marjolein Douwes

Training Ergonomists in Portugal: 32 Years of Experience

Ergonomics in Portugal as an undergraduate university course started in 1985, at the Faculty of Human Kinetics (FMH). During the last 32 years, changes have been introduced. Since 2007 the length of the course and rearrangement of the contents suffered modifications determined by the Bologna Agreement. Aiming at characterizing the profession, two questionnaires were applied to ergonomists. The first questionnaire was applied by FMH to a sample of 48 ergonomists and the second questionnaire was applied by the Portuguese Association (APERGO) to 43 ergonomists. Regarding the need of ergonomists in Portugal the prevalent opinion is that more ergonomists are and will be needed. Most of the ergonomists develop their work activity in the domain of Ergonomics (60.47%) and/or Health and Safety at work (55.8%). The Services sector (53.5%) is the main sector of activity for more than half of the sample. Industry (30.2%) and Education/Training (20.93%) are other sectors more represented. During the last years of economic crisis the training of ergonomists in Portugal has been questioned based on its costs. However, new demands are emerging and ergonomists will be needed in the future.

José Carvalhais, Teresa Cotrim, Anabela Simões

Observation Methods in the Context of Interactive Research

An interactive research approach was applied in an evaluation of a potential organizational change for mail carriers. Interviews and observations were performed. The results showed that specialization of mail carriers into either mail sorting or mail delivery would lead to more monotonous jobs. Observations showed that sorting mail in a new district takes substantially more time than in a well-known district. An interactive research approach creates a participative collaboration between employers, union representatives and researchers within a project. This influences the choice, planning and execution of methods, of which observation is one. Through the interactive discussions, the planning of how, who, when and where to perform the observations can be improved. This contributes to creating better opportunities to obtain valid results. The use of video recordings enables joint analysis, which contributes to higher acceptance of outcomes and results. The overall conclusion is that the combination of an interactive approach and observation methods is a way to improve both methodological validity and higher validity of the results in addition to higher acceptance of the results and subsequent decisions.

Jörgen Eklund

Design and Implementation of High Reliability Organizing Based Performance Metrics in the Context of the EU H2020 Research Project TARGET, Aiming at Developing VR/AR Training Environment for Security Critical Agents

Training teams to respond to unexpected situations differs from traditional trainings in the sense that it is not just about following prescribed steps or procedures, simply because the situation at hand has never been imagined or has already occurred but is developing in unexpected ways. As a result, a specific solution has been developed to assess teams’ performance, based on the High Reliability Organizing (HRO) theoretical framework, in the context of VR/AR training environment for security critical agents.Specifically, the solution operationalizes HRO principles such as reluctance to simplify, sensitivity to operations, deference to expertise and commitment to resilience, by providing real time metrics.Innovative aspects include the fact that the metrics capture systemic phenomenon that would otherwise be missed by a single trainer. Moreover, they provide unobtrusive measures, i.e. they don’t influence the trainees. Real time feedbacks can also help trainers manage scenarios by giving them information to adjust the intensity of the exercise. It is not job or language specific. Finally this enables the assessment of trainees’ progress by comparing the metrics for the same exercise at two different times or trainees’ areas for progress by comparing the metrics of a given team to the best performing team on the same exercise.

Renaud Vidal

Observations Between Quantitative and Qualitative Methods: Shared Contributions from an Ergonomist and an Occupational Psychologist

Dialogue between the activity clinic approach in occupational psychology and the activity ergonomics is part of the common history of our disciplines. We suggest going on feeding it with our singular cross-eyes with the reciprocal objective of deepening, at this stage of our debates, the questions of actions that drive us on how to define observation, its goals, the place it takes in the intervention, modalities, contributions sought for the various actors in the organization of work and its stakes in terms of transformations, efficiency and health at work. Observation is a common method in both our approaches, which are known to place their interventions and research in the co-construction of methodological frameworks with the relevant actors. We will draw attention to the relevance of using quantitative methods and tools to improve preventing problems such as musculoskeletal disorders.

Pascal Simonet, Céline Chatigny

The Human Transition to Ergonomics of Ubiquitous Autonomous Work

Until recent years, ergonomics has developed intramurals actions in productive organizations, that is to say, a large part of the research and studies carried out so far in ergonomics have focused on the activities of workers (individually or collectively) in architecturally or physically delimited places, where the reference unit of measurement was the time of execution with respect to an individual, a task or a technology. In the first decade of the 21st century, both the hybridization of forms of work [1] and the emergence of technologies for communication contributed to transforming this scenario and to the emergence of a new horizon; elements such as professional self-management and the emergence of the sphere of ubiquity have emerged, their emergence comes from the available technology that promotes and facilitates the availability of what is necessary to develop an activity or perform a task at any physical point [2], in fact the modification of the worker-company link implies changes in a large part of the basic ideas of ergonomics [3]. Among other reasons because work has an increasingly immaterial character and therefore activities are carried out independently of physical spaces. [4] For this reason, ergonomics requires new elements to be added to the analysis processes; in the interventions, it is necessary to include concepts such as omnipresence, self-implication, intensification, liquid work, availability, self-monitoring and life for work. In other words, ergonomics faces the challenge of a worker immersed in the flow of her professional career and mobility.

Juan A. Castillo-Martínez, Angela P. Cubillos-Rojas

Conceptual Principles as Intermediary Object: Case of an Industrial Unit

In the participatory design, an intermediary object is a hybrid object, as well as a modeling of our future desire and an instrument to mediate the design process among all the work teams. This article discusses and takes the design process as the object of analysis, and the use of conceptual principles as an intermediary object, based on the authors’ participation in the development of a new Sulphur Recovery Unit. One important point to be considered as a determining factor of functional mismatches in large industrial projects is the growing gap between operational and project teams, even when there is an expressed willingness to promote the participation of operators in the projects. The consequences of this are predominantly organizational, creating obstacles that must be overcome to make the operators’ integration into the project process more effective. Beginning from the conceptual project, the ergonomic design appears early, identifying the need to promote a social intervention together with the technical specifications, using one or more intermediary objects to organize and mediate the interactions between actors of the design process. This conceptual guidance creates a place where the solution to each design conflict should be discussed and resolved.

Adson Eduardo Resende, Francisco de P. A. Lima, Francisco J. C. Moura Duarte

Mini-User Testing Practice During Agile Development: The Results of a Survey Conducted with User Centric Specialists

In ergonomic practices, user testing is a central method to get feed-back from users regarding usability. In the last decade, new design methods have emerged like agile method, design thinking, lean startup. Most of these methods are looking for direct user’s feedback. In this context, in 2013 we published a book “user-centered agile method” which goal was to propose a method which enables to have continuous user’s feedback during the entire life circle of a project integrating agile development. Our approach was to take advantage of agile method to apply user testing also during development that is, during each agile iteration. We call this kind of user testing, applying around five participants, “mini-user testing”. Four years later, we wanted to evaluate the usage of “mini user testing” during agile development, into our ergonomists community and what it could imply regarding the evolution of these community’s practices. To answer these questions, we built a questionnaire which was filled by two survey populations. This article reports the results of this study.

Mathilde Cosquer, Dominique Deuff

Innovation at Work, Lessons Learned from a “Design for Use - Design in Use” Approach

The action research reported in this article describes the first results of support for innovation by use in a French industrial company. In the first part of the paper we present the theoretical principles of our framework and the five steps of the innovation by use process that we had implemented. We then detail the first results obtained concerning the uses collected by the designers for use and the designers in use. In the last part of the article we discuss the contribution of this approach in constructing workspaces for uses in design, which opens the way to a renewed power to act in innovation projects.

Viviane Folcher

Physical Work Capacity in Pregnant Women

Objective: Determine the Physical Capacity of Work (PCW) in pregnant women up to 35 years old working in the industrial manufacturing environment.Justification: There is not, from a legal, labor or engineering point of view, a standard that indicates the amount of work a pregnant woman can do or the number of breaks she may need. Currently, Mexican legislation indicates that a pregnant woman must perform a “LIGHT” job, leaving this term open to various interpretations.When we determine the PCW in pregnant women, we can assign them the workload they can develop depending on their age and gestation period, in other words, assign pregnant women to an adequate workstation.Methodology:1.Make a study of each of the women participating in the project to determine their health status.2.Calculate the Energy Metabolic Expenditure (EME) of each of the stations assigned to pregnant women with the method proposed by Bernad and Joseph [1].3.Perform a measurement of oxygen consumption in pregnant women with the VO2000® equipment while performing its activity in the assigned work station (Estimated maximum time: 60 min).Description of the Study: Phase I: The study was developed with 17 pregnant women who were in different periods of gestation.Phase II: The study was repeated with 5 of these 17 women who changed their gestation period of 1–2 or 2–3. Each woman performed a test for a minimum period of 30 min with VO2000® and determined the oxygen consumption and the corresponding Kcal/min. Total number of observations: 22.Phase III: Age, period and weeks of gestation, previous births, and EME in Kcal/min were considered as input variables.Results: With the data obtained, we determined the equation to predict the energy consumption in pregnant women by means of multiple linear regression analysis in the following way:$$ \begin{aligned} & {\text{PCW}} = 8.0 + 0.06{\text{Age}}\;{-}\,0.00148{\text{Age}}^{2} {-}3.4{\text{MEE}} + 0.49{\text{MEE}}^{2} + 0.015{\text{MEE}}^{3} \\ & {\text{S}} = 0.61\quad {\text{R-Sq}}\left( {\text{adj}} \right) = 54.0\% \\ \end{aligned} $$The model has a coefficient of determination 54%, which means that the variation can be explained by the variables considered only 54%.Conclusions:1.It is feasible to develop a method to determine the energy consumption in pregnant women working in a manufacturing environment.2.We can now have a more confident idea of how we should assign pregnant women to workstations that are appropriate according to their pregnancy weeks.3.Although the current model is “good”, more observations are needed to make it more robust under these considerations:

Enrique de la Vega-Bustillos, Francisco Lopez-Millan, Alejandro Coronado Rios, Diana Lagarda

The SIN-DME Questionnaire (Symptoms of INcomfort Associated with Muscle Skeletal Disorders)

The GiSCYT research group develops research and development activities in the field of ergonomics and motion analysis. It has three lines of research: Ergonomics, bioengineering of the Human Movement and Prevention of risks at work. The Ergomotion laboratory uses wireless technology for online recording of indicators of muscular, biomechanical and cognitive activity when performing a work activity. Our technology integrates video information and data for real-time analysis of activities, produces multimedia reports and quantitative data of the analyzed parameters. The Ergomotion laboratory offers different products adapted to the needs of your company. These products can be customized according to your requirements: prevention, identification, control, intervention or development.The ErgoMotion-lab laboratory of the Universidad del Rosario, is a pioneer in developing a new way to intervene in a health problem of workers that is growing daily, for this purpose is used the convergence of several scientific disciplines in the development of medical technology solutions aimed not only at prevention, but also to enable and integrate workers who have experienced this problem.

Juan A. Castillo Martinez

Workspace Lab: Planning Participatory Design

Can a participatory process help planning workspace participatory design? In this paper, we address this opportunity by presenting a toolkit developed with this purpose. This toolkit suggests creating a temporary and hypothetical environment called Workspace Lab, aiming at bringing up design dialogues into focus and giving insights on how to stage them, while bridging the gap of merging user involvement with the well-defined design work-practice. The Workspace Lab toolkit was gradually built during a research project, including three participatory workshops emphasizing joint exploration of both format and content by designers, who are the main intended users of this “laboratory” together with ergonomists, human factors specialists and other design stakeholders. The result was a flexible material that helps designers building a participatory process specifically for each project. The Workspace Lab toolkit contains not only suggestions of participatory methods that can be used during workspace design, but also brings in possibilities for planning the whole participatory process while discussing the different possibilities.

Carolina Conceição, Ole Broberg

Ergonomics and Architectural Programming: A Possible Articulation?

Throughout history, the practice of architectural design for industrial buildings generally considered the criterion of square footage established by the number of occupants or machines of a specific environment as a design parameter. Large sheds are often built for the distribution of industry sectors in space, prioritizing the manufacturing sequences and sizes of equipment. Nevertheless, space needs to be considered as an important resource in the management process. One of the problems faced by architects in their professional practice is the difficulty in integrating the expected functional quality into an architectural program with their architectural designs. In fact, it has been mainly considered what is prescribed, that is, the task, disregarding the activity and its resulting problems. The hypothesis of this study sustains that, when integrating the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA) as an auxiliary tool in the architectural programming, it is possible to promote functional quality for the use of the building. In this perspective, this study compares the methods used in EWA and architectural programming to enrich different design processes used by architects in their daily work. The research, carried out empirically in a Brazilian food industry, whose activities, inherent to the prescribed tasks, were analyzed in a systematic way, has the purpose of adding contributions to the usual methodology of architectural design. The results indicate that the lack of activity analysis generates problems in the production flow and a layout without flexible spaces for the integration of new machines in the implementation of new products.

Daniela Rocha, Júlia Abrahão

eSports: Opportunities for Future Ergonomic Studies

Professional electronic sports (eSports) is an emerging professional and academic field. It presents a unique combination of an electronic/online world and traditional sports. Its activity is computer-mediated, but has all characteristics of traditional sports: training routine, tournaments agenda, high pressure from eSports fans base, relations with sponsors, and others. This unique position has raised concerns of the professionals regarding the quality of standards, professionalization and formalization of this activity field. The aim of this article is to fill the gap in ergonomics studies on eSports, in particular, to generalize the knowledge about this new professional area, and also to reflect on the prospects of future ergonomic studies in this field. How is this professional world and professional area developing? What problems and new demands arise from this? We used an exploratory and qualitative methodology in three main phases: (1) Exploratory interviews with eSports professionals in order to understand and define existing problems in this new area; (2) Academic literature review on the topic; (3) An ergonomic intervention at one of the first Brazilian eSports enterprises, located in Rio de Janeiro. Ergonomic Work Analysis was employed to help an eSports team’s owner to investigate the problems of his eSports team formation. As a result, we reveal the main problems of the Brazilian eSports market, present preliminary ergonomic intervention results and highlight paths for future research.

Viktoriya Lipovaya, Patricia Costa, Pedro Grillo, Aleksandr Volosiuk, Aleksandra Sopina

Supporting Professional Transitions in Innovative Projects

Our work focuses on the professional transitions required to address the issues and meet the challenges of sustainable development. We see sustainable development as something that has to be thought out, especially in terms of work activities (to the extent that there will be no sustainability without workers being able to implement it in their work). After having indicated the depth of the changes requested and the corresponding design regime, we make two proposals that are intended to support the professional transitions required by the transition to more sustainable forms of production: namely (i) the implementation of a step-by-step design, and (ii) the creation of a work observatory whose operating methods are described.

Valérie Pueyo, Pascal Béguin

Simulation, Prototyping and Experimentation - The Potential of the Maker Labs to Achieving a Design-Driven HFE

Participatory Ergonomics design processes need intermediary objects to anticipate future activity and integrate team’s thoughts on the improvements of the work situation. These objects enable users and designers to dialogue and develop together a new representation of the work analyzed. The group needs to discuss, touch and test many variables, thus being required to engaging in simulation, prototyping and experimentation activities. Thus, maker labs’ potential for a design-driven Human Factors and Ergonomics relates to the tools and techniques for facilitating the technical and social construction of the design process. This paper aims to achieve a better understanding on the potential of this kind of labs in fostering a design-driven HFE based on three practical experiences carried-out by the authors. The first case reports a new product development project of physical evaluation apparatus focusing both ergonomics aspects (for the professional who uses it as work tool) and usability aspects (to the patient/user). A second case highlights the development, prototyping and simulation of a walking aid for people with motor skills impairment. The final case highlights the benefits of using 3D printed models as an intermediary object in a workshop for ergonomics and design education. Results achieved so far point toward the promising potential that maker labs’ technologies have in the context of ergonomics practice and education. Among the main benefits from simulation, prototyping and experimentation we highlight the ability to quickly produce scale physical models for fostering understanding throughout design processes, the testing of products/parts with custom made specification (including anatomical shapes) with low costs associated, and the ability to physically build and manipulate designs that usually would only be represented as virtual renderings or drawings.

Daniel Braatz, Esdras Paravizo, Andrea Regina Martins Fontes

Innovative Labs and Co-design

Since the mid-2000s, new co-design sites began to emerge all over the world. These “equipped environments” are extremely diverse in their forms: 3D conception virtual environments, Fab Labs, Living Labs, co-work spaces etc. Current available tools range from the simplest to the most sophisticated virtual environments through 3D printers. Despite their technological diversities, they share the philosophy of “making” together, which contributes to the emergence of new forms of rationalities for collective action. The objective of this article is to present the conceptual bases that guide the research project on these environments. It is an ongoing partnership project, from French and Brazilian Universities, which will investigate these environments in both countries. The project is focused on the apprehension of these laboratories from the perspective of the co-design of work and life means. These laboratories or design spaces open up possibilities for technical and social innovations by bringing together a diversity of heterogeneous actors.

F. Duarte, P. Béguin, V. Pueyo, F. Lima

Designing Therapeutic Projects Within Multiprofessional Health Teams: Integrating the Dimension of Work

This paper aims to demonstrate how the design of Therapeutic Plan (TP) is carried out by professionals of multi professional teams of Primary Care in Brazil. It is a qualitative research guided by the theoretical framework of Activity Ergonomics which included professionals from a Family Health Team (FHT) composed of: one physician, one nurse, one nursing assistant and six community health agents. The procedures of data collection were interviews and sistematic observations. The results demonstrate that the spaces for collective production of the activity, recommended for the construction of the TP, are insufficient to integrate the information coming from the real situation, as well as, to coordinate the actions that aim to solve the problems that emerge in the daily life of the service. In addition, the process of designing the TPs is still very handcrafted and little instrumentalized to favor the exchange between the different actors of the team. This frame indicates the need to deepen studies that can support the strengthening of tools and processes that favor the collective fabrication of work in the context of the Teamwork in Primary Care.

Carolina Maria do Carmo Alonso, Pascal Béguin, Valerie Pueyo, Francisco Duarte

The Collective Work in the Subsea Integrated Operations Centre: The Ad Hoc Teams in the Solution of Unexpected Situations

In order to increase of production in fields ever more distant from the coast, to reduce cost and increase the operational reliability, the oil industry has developed onshore-offshore integration projects. The construction of new spaces to sustain more collaborative ways of working have become challenges for the management and project teams of the petroleum producing companies.From observations of the operators’ work and of the participation in a project of an integrated operations centre, the main characteristics of the operator’s activity are presented, based on the interactions between the teams. are presented.This research highlights the specificity of the collective dimension of the activity. Ad hoc teams are formed to address unforeseen occurrences. The dynamicity of the activities contrasts with the structuring of processes through procedures, used by the company, as a basis for the conception of future work in these new environments. The constant unexpected situations contribute to the instability of the work activities.

N. C. Maia, F. Duarte

Co-conception Spaces: New Organizations to Support Participatory Projects

The emergence of new virtual reality and prototyping technologies has created new cooperation possibilities in design and has originated design spaces that aim at the collaboration and exchange of knowledge. These new features have made it easier to understand the consequences of design technical choices, something that has enriched information and reality in different design review formats. Among these new spaces, co-conception spaces, that put together resources to bring closer together professionals and users of different backgrounds, are noteworthy. This work aims to analyze the use of a company’ collaborative design center from the point of view of co-conception spaces’ constitution. Despite the variety of technological resources and the positive perception of the users involved, some design difficulties of either organizational, political and technological point of view make it difficult to better use the space. In addition, there was little integration of end users into the design process. Based on this initial study about the concept, it is perceived that the use of these resources that strengthen participation still occurs in an essentially non-collaborative design logic, once the use of these technologies is restricted to design reviews.

C. M. Marins, J. M. Bittencourt

Serious Games as Creative Tools to Approach Design

The article aims to reflect on the potential of the games in the educational context of university students attending History and Design Criticism courses. The central topic is the Serious Game, understood as digital tools for creative learning: their recent emergence as a branch of video games and a promising educational frontier, has introduced the concept of games designed for a serious purpose other than pure entertainment. The Serious Games are interactive digital activities that through simulation allow players to make a precise and accurate (even complex) experience. The article encourages the use of the Serious games as a participatory and engaging learning process to implement the active knowledge achieved through simulated experience of the game. Indeed, when used together or combined with conventional training and educational approaches, the Serious games could provide a more powerful means of knowledge transfer in almost all application domains. For this reason, the second objective of the article is to highlight the type of enrichment offered to the student-player by a Serious game: through the sensory gratification and iteration, he can know a topic through a critical action because the use of games stimulates ideas, improves individual sensitivity and collective work, and enhances knowledge skills. Finally, the article proposes some basic elements for the narrative structure of a Serious game dedicated to design, highlighting how the agreement between the invention, understood as “creativity with constraints” and the technical competence, are essential to obtain the experiential potential of the game.

Isabella Patti

Contributions of Ergonomics to the Development of Prevention Projects: The Role of Intermediate Prevention Objects

In a context where preventive measures are developed in a functionalist and technological way, the aim of this work is to set up general principles and methods for new preventive solutions that will enrich these existing measures.We propose an approach centered on the association of workers at all hierarchical levels around “intermediary objects” of prevention in order to support a collective debate. Observational data with physical and physiological measurements has been coupled. We have developed, reworked and enriched the notion of risk representation, which promotes the visibility and recognition of the knowledge built, developed and carried by workers on their activities and on ways to protect themselves from dangers or hazards.Implementation of the method raises detailed knowledges of chemical risks build by workers. These knowledges made possible by the experience of the body and the senses become accessible from references to the domestic and professional sphere in reflexive activities. Actors get involved and mobilize their individual, collective and organizational resources to propose prevention solutions. Use of intermediate prevention objects in “intermediate space for dialogue” allows to produce and support dialogues. These spaces are ultimately circulating entities for the co-production of knowledge for action: to generate knowledge and to collectively generate innovative prevention solutions.

Alain Garrigou, Nathalie Judon, Louis Galey

The Influences of the Ergonomic Work Analysis in Activities of a Center of Equine Therapy

The Equine Therapy is the application of therapeutic method with practices that use horses. The Equine Therapy is the application of a therapeutic method with practices that uses horse and riding techniques, with the purpose of educating, in addition to rehabilitating people with disabilities. The care activity has as its main objective the therapeutic objective according to the practitioner’s needs and diagnosis. This activity is divided into three stages, the first being “putting the practitioner on the horse”, the second “developing the care” and finally “removing the practitioner from the horse”. With the purpose of evaluating how each professional pertaining to the Center of Equine Therapy performs its main activity, denominated therapeutic care, the ergonomic precepts were used in order to identify the musculoskeletal damages and constraints to the professionals of the area. As support for the analyzes, the procedures were forwarded according to the steps of the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The collection of information was by a questionnaire of perception and the individual follow-ups of each attendance with the recording through filming and photos. For the diagnosis, the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS) was applied. As a result, it was verified the presence of multifactors that directly impact on the working conditions of equo-therapists. It stands out with high skeletal muscle constraint of equo-therapists, about 40% of eta-pas, in the care of a practitioner with special needs and chain.

Marcelo Dondelli Boaretto, Jullia Maria Rodrigues Zullim Rodrigues, Bruno Sobral Moreschi, Maria de Lourdes Santiago Luz

Affective Design

Frontmatter

The Study of Ergonomics Evaluation Method on Hardware and Software of Mobile Phones

With the development of technology and society, the demand for ergonomics of hardware and software of mobile phones has becoming increasingly prominent. Therefore, how to improve the user experience and improve the users’ willingness of using the mobile phone from the perspective of ergonomics have become a key concern for handset manufacturers. Based on both the current development trend of the mobile phone industry and the previous relevant conclusions, this paper established a universal evaluation index system on hardware and software of mobile phones and produced a 7-level Likert Scale questionnaire and verified its reliability and validity. In order to verify the practicability of the evaluation index system, the paper used AHP method to calculate the weight of each level of the indexes given by the experts through the score matrix and used weighted total score method to evaluate three different types of mobile phones quantitatively through usability testing. Besides, the paper also verified the mobile phones qualitatively with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and obtained the same conclusion as weighted total score method. Furthermore, one-way ANOVA was used to verify the universal applicability of the system in different genders and results showed that gender did not significantly affect the evaluation results concluded by the system.

Yongweijian Yu, Lijun Jia, Zhihao Liu, Meijue Lu, Qi Li, Yuting Xiong, Xiaowei Dong, Li Ding

Industrial Design Modeling for Smart Jewelry

This paper presents the methodologies and the systematic approaches in the industrial design development process to incorporate aesthetic and affective elements in Smart Jewelry. Contextual inquiry (CI) was conducted at the early stage to gather all the users’ inputs and feedback and KJ Analysis was applied to prioritize the voice of customer and hence the customer needs could be identified as our design requirements. Benchmarking and trend analysis were also conducted in early stage to understand market trends, compare features and faults in existing product in the market, at the same time finding opportunities for improvement in our own product. The development of the shape of the Smart Jewelry, the color chosen and the branding profile creation were also discussed in the paper. Several design concepts and prototypes have been developed and user’s emotions towards each concept in focus group have been captured. The survey was carried out at the end of this paper to assess the design effectiveness.

Soo Li Choong, Saharudin Busri, Khairul Nazri Wahib

Exploring the Fit Between Materials’ Expressive Values and the Self-expression of the End-User

In industrial design, materials selection plays an important role. Being the interface of a product, a material does not only have to meet technical-functional requirements, but also has to include intended experiential characteristics. Unfortunately, there is no one-to-one correspondence between materials and their expressive value, since a material’s perceived character is influenced by multiple contextual factors that are product-related (shape, function), user-related (gender, culture, etc.), and context-related (time, place, etc.). Our current research aims to explore possible relationships between materials, their expressive value and the link with self-expression of the end-user. It defines expressive value in terms of Schwartz end values. Consequently, this paper reveals insight in the expressive values that twelve pre-selected materials evoke in itself and in interaction with different pre-selected forms. Moreover, respondents are classified in meaningful self-expressive categories, based on their value orientation. For each of these segments, the materials and form-material combinations were investigated, both indirectly and directly, in relation to the fit between the expressive value of the material and the self-expression. Relationships were found between the self-perception and a material’s fit with the self-expression, and between materials and their perceived expression of values.

Veelaert Lore, Moons Ingrid, Coppieters Werner, Du Bois Els

The Effect of Age to the Perception of Apparent Usability and Affective Quality on Prototype Mobile Phones

In this study, a design framework that integrates functional and aesthetic attributes with apparent usability and affective quality was validated using prototypes. The framework was validated using a mobile phone which is a high involvement product. Product attributes that affected visual evaluation prior to usage were selected and categorized into functional and aesthetic attributes. Nine design alternatives were generated out of varied functional and aesthetic design attributes. A survey was used to evaluated each design alternative in terms of the pre-purchase dimensions of affective quality, apparent usability, and desirability. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to validate the design framework. After conducting the experiment, the model obtained has a good fit and the relationships were significant. It was found that affective quality has the greatest direct effect on desirability and apparent usability has the greatest total effect on desirability. Functional attributes have significant total effects on apparent usability and desirability. For comparative analysis, older people’s perception on functional attributes have a greater effect on apparent usability, affective quality and desirability. Finally, it can be said that apparent usability evokes more emotions for people having greater usability needs such as older people.

Rosemary R. Seva, Justin Joseph M. Apolonio, Ailea Kamille L. Go, Katrina Anne G. Puesta

Emotions as a System Regulator for Sustainability: Designing a Tangible Device Capable to Enable Connections

The research refers to two different initial topics of interest. On the one hand the large-scale diffusion of tracking devices and the growing interest to-wards the movement for the personal quantification, led us to the hypothesis that devices could autonomously analyze not only physical field related data, but also those related to emotions. On the other hand, the development of an intangible and interface-free system that aims to shape the environment around us according to our needs, hypothetically doesn’t require our direct intervention. A so called zero user interface system. In this scenario, the presence of data related to our emotional state, generally referred as mood, could be useful to regulate a system otherwise based on a single automated collection of exogenous values. In this paper we will focus on both on how this theoretical system will work and impact on the sustainability, and how to collect this data in a ideal way.

Flavio Montagner, Paolo Tamborrini, Andrea Di Salvo

Emotional Attributes of Urban Furniture

This article presents a research on emotions, which emerge from the interaction among user, urban furniture and its use setting. Three empirical studies aimed to: (i) identify and characterize emotional reactions (either positive or negative) raised from the interaction among users, urban furniture and public space; (ii) evaluate one positive emotion (pleasantness) and (iii) one negative emotion (fear) raised from the use of urban furniture/public space. Regardless of gender, the most mentioned positive emotion was pleasantness associated to safety. Fear was the main negative mentioned emotion, being a drawback in the use of public spaces. Attributes of eight constructs (users; activities performed in the public space; accessibility; privacy; urban furniture; vegetation; maintenance; buildings) were related to four space types (pleasant/safe; pleasant/unsafe; unpleasant/safe and pleasant/unsafe) resulting in basic elements to be used in guidelines for design and evaluation of emotional urban furniture/public space. Products with emotional appeal tend to be less vandalized, and to be more intensely used, therefore contributing to people’s well being and more livable cities.

Gabriela Zubaran Pizzato, Lia Buarque de Macedo Guimarães

How Designers Can Contribute to Education

Innovating Educational Systems Through Design Thinking

Based on continual social and technological transformations, many academics and governmental organisations call attention to the need for urgent changes in Education. Design Thinking (DT), an innovation method derived from design methodology connected to business innovation, has shown itself also as an useful method to be applied in the innovation of educational systems. This paper provides an introductional approach to Design Thinking and its possible role in educational contexts as a method to rethink learning/teaching experiences. For this purpose we present the conceptual background of Design and Design Thinking, introduce Design Thinking in Education, and present the D-Think Toolkit, a new framework which aims to support the understanding of the designer’s mindset and culture, and the application of its methods and tools in the redesign of education. The toolkit is the main result of the European research project D-Think, developed between 2014 and 2017 with the support of the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Commission. The conclusion of our paper highlights that DT offers a complementary framework for the innovation work of educators, so transforming them into change-makers. The designers’ creative and empathic mindset and collaborative working approach can enrich the reflection on the educators new role as ‘learning facilitators’.

Katja Tschimmel, Joana Santos

Evaluation of Attributes of Cosmetic Bottles Using Model of Kawaii Feelings and Eye Movements

Affective values are important factors in manufacturing in Japan. Kawaii, an affirmative adjective that denotes such positive meanings as cute or lovable, has become even more critical as an affective value and is playing a leading role in the worldwide success of many products, including Hello Kitty and Pokemon. Based on this success, we believe that kawaii will be a key factor in future product design. In our previous research, we constructed a model of kawaii feelings for cosmetic bottles and identified candidates of effective attributes to design kawaii cosmetic bottles. In this research, we used our model to clarify the relationship among kawaii feelings, attributes, eye movement indexes, and prediction results. Our results clarified the effective attributes for designing kawaii cosmetic bottles and the effectiveness of our model.

Tipporn Laohakangvalvit, Tiranee Achalakul, Michiko Ohkura

Proposal of a Methodological Model for the Design of a Complex Dynamic Working Environment in the Forestry Sector, to Generate an Emotionally Light Habitat

The research is aimed at proposing a methodological model for the design of a complex dynamic working environment in the forest sector, incorporating methods derived from affective engineering, to generate an emotionally light work environment. The research scenario corresponds to the coordination and control centers of forest fires in Chile. The optimization of the conditions of the space and its content, could contribute to improve the performance required for efficient and harmonious decision making in demanding situations. Unfortunately, their operators have not been involved into the design process of their work environment, even though they are the ones who know best about the functional and emotional benefits required. The methodological approach includes an active operators participation by the application of methods and instruments specific to affective engineering to capture the emotions of individuals in front of simultaneous and varied stimuli, the use of technological equipment to diagnose and define the characteristics of the space and the objects that appear in it, design of proposals, evaluation of the proposals by the users, final proposal design and user studies. The novelty of this research is the possibility of defining a methodological model based on the study of dynamic environments, generating as a result a proposal that contributes both directly into this field and to the theoretical and empirical basis built by the international scientific community.

Jimena Alarcón Castro, Fabiola Maureira

Form of the Space in Between Objects

Through our daily lifes, space is nothing more than a cartesian plane, where we operate our lives. The objects we use, or even our body as object, operates through this plateau. Nevertheless, this referential is more than just a relational medium for objects. Through Bruce Nauman’s The Cast of the Space Under My Chair, we want to rethink space not as emptiness of forms, but as the form itself. As a methodology, we propose the juxtaposition between two works, Skyspace Seldon Seen by James Turrell and Houghton Hut by Rachel Whiteread, both as references in space. In James Turrell we find the classical approach of spatial representation, the habitable technical object, the architectural archetype, the space-delimiting membrane. In Whiteread we find exactly the opposite, space treated as a technical object itself, a clear result of crystallized space and visible only through intervention, a memory, a monument. This now uninhabitable archetype encapsulates the form that was imperceptible as an object of its inner space. In the process of analysing the two works, the fundamental research basis is to address the questions of how form generates space or, on the other hand, how space can generate a form. In other words, to conduct a dialogue between the disciplines of Architecture and Design, clarifying the ergonomic relationship between the two ways of generating space.

Luis Miguel Ginja

Backmatter

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