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This book presents the proceedings of CRIOCM_2016, 21st International Conference on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate, sharing the latest developments in real estate and construction management around the globe. The conference was organized by the Chinese Research Institute of Construction Management (CRIOCM) working in close collaboration with the University of Hong Kong. Written by international academics and professionals, the proceedings discuss the latest achievements, research findings and advances in frontier disciplines in the field of construction management and real estate. Covering a wide range of topics, including building information modelling, big data, geographic information systems, housing policies, management of infrastructure projects, occupational health and safety, real estate finance and economics, urban planning, and sustainability, the discussions provide valuable insights into the implementation of advanced construction project management and the real estate market in China and abroad. The book is an outstanding reference resource for academics and professionals alike.



Chapter 1. A Cluster Analysis of Real Estate Business Models in China

The globalized construction market has created strong completion among industry players. To remain competitive, the building developers are constantly in search of novel business models. As a result, diverse real estate business models have emerged and research into business model construct has also intensified. Despite the growing academic interest in the area, no commonly accepted definition and construct of real estate business models have yet been established. Also, there is a lack of quantitative studies of the real estate business models in China. The aim of this paper is thus to (1) identify the variables for studying the real estate business model; and (2) reveal the main streams of real estate business model in China. The research was carried out through the combination of a two-step cluster analysis of 117 real estate companies in China. The business model clusters were revealed using a number of variables including target customer, product, market orientation, finance, collaboration network, core capability and revenue. Five clusters of these companies were revealed: (1) commercial property model; (2) government-dominant model; (3) management-dominant model; (4) resource-dominant model; and (5) domestic leading model. The findings should help with understanding the complex profiles of real estate business models and support cross-context learning of the practices.

K. J. Li, Y. Zhou, A. Shrestha, G. W. Liu

Chapter 2. A Comparison of Barrier-Free Access Designs For the Elderly Living in the Community and in Care and Attention Homes in Hong Kong

The growing rate of both the aging population and their disabilities are increasing the need for an age-friendly built environment. A feature of an age-friendly environment supporting elderly quality of life (QoL) is barrier-free access (BFA) design. This study compares the levels of satisfaction with BFA design between community-dwelling elderly and those living in care and attention (C&A) homes in Hong Kong. A questionnaire survey was distributed to community-dwelling elderly and those in C&A homes, to assess their levels of satisfaction with 11 BFA items. A total of 269 responses were received from elderly people living in the two housing types, while an independent samples t-test was used for data analysis. The study reveals that: (1) four out of the 11 BFA items have mean scores greater than five on a seven-point Likert scale for the elderly living in both community and C&A homes; and (2) six BFA items were significantly different among the housing types. The study recommends that universal design guidelines specifically considering elderly changing ability should be adopted for those staying in the community. The use of ceramic tiles is also suggested for wet areas and PVC tiles with non-slip granules for dry areas in both housing types.

Ibukun Famakin, Mei-yung Leung

Chapter 3. A Comparison of Green Building Policies in Asian Countries or Regions

Green building is regarded as an effective way to solve the global warming problem and improve our living environment. Green building rating system is an important tool in assessing and judging whether a building is green or not. To promote the implementation of green building rating systems, the support of the policies and regulations is an essential measure. This paper focuses on the policy development in four economically developed countries or regions in Asia, including Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. The aim of the paper is to provide a reference for the improvement of green building policies and regulations as well as promotion for the development of sustainable construction industry. A comparison of their policy development paths from the perspectives of implementation mechanism, development process, and economic incentive system was conducted. Recommendations for improving the policy development in Asia are also proposed, for example promoting effective use of tax policy and discount policy, establishing long-term and practical energy saving incentives mechanism.

Xiaosen Huo, Ann T.W. Yu

Chapter 4. A Comparison of Public Private Partnership Environment Between Australia and China

Due to the central government’s effort in encouraging and supporting the participation of social capital investors in infrastructure development since late 2013, China is currently catching Public Private Partnership (PPP) fever. However, China is still considered to have immature regulatory and institutional PPP frameworks. By contrast, PPP projects have enjoyed significant success in Australia, which is one of the most mature PPP markets globally. Hence, this paper aims to review the environment for PPPs in Australia and China and consequently identify trends and potential innovations. It was found that although the overall environment is still evolving, China has a wealth of experience with PPPs. Given the tremendous economic growth and immense demand for infrastructure, China will continue to have a massive demand for future PPP projects. In Australia, the need for significant private investment in the nation’s infrastructure is expected to result in the emergence of a variety of innovative funding and financing models. However, notwithstanding the maturity of the Australian PPP market, very little has been done to confirm PPP performance during the operational phase. This paper makes an important contribution by comparing the two PPP markets and the findings will provide a better understanding of PPPs to industry practitioners in order to deliver cost-effective infrastructure. It could also offer a starting point for Australia to enter the Chinese PPP market based on its huge technical, financial and legal PPP expertise.

Yongjian Ke, Marcus Jefferies, Peter Davis

Chapter 5. A Conceptual Model of Cloud-Based Virtual Community for BIM Innovation and Promotion

BIM is a relatively new idea in construction and it requires multi-disciplinary collaboration. In a typical BIM project, project participants from different disciplines need to work together under a collaboration platform for BIM data exchange, communication and cooperation. However, the traditional project-based collaboration platform causes difficulties in diffusion of BIM knowledge and experience for consecutive new projects. This becomes one of the constraints for fast-moving BIM development, particularly in the countries where professional interactions are few and BIM talents are scarce in the market. Social networks have become increasingly attractive in the past decade and they enable people to build and sustain relationships for certain purposes. Thus, effective networking is ideal for involving BIM talents together and it is an entirely new perspective in BIM development and promotion by establishing a virtual community. A conceptual model was developed in this study and it demonstrates an innovative solution that integrates professional networks with traditional BIM collaboration platforms. BIM talents who engage in the proposed virtual community are encouraged for sharing knowledge between network members. The results show that the virtual community can foster construction innovation and generate new idea that can enhance the performance of BIM implementation and achieve knowledge diffusion to other BIM projects. Moreover, the virtual community assembles construction professionals from worldwide and develops a talent pool that facilitates recruitment of BIM talents. Additionally, the cloud-based platform of the virtual community develops an integrative hub that can store, share and manage all BIM issues in an easy and efficient way. The key objective of this study is to investigate alternative solutions to achieve BIM innovation and wider BIM adoption in the construction industry.

C. W. Keung

Chapter 6. A Dynamic Analysis on the Urban Carbon Footprint and Carbon Carrying Capacity—A Case Study of Chongqing

The rapid improvement of the urban economy and urbanization process has led to an increase in carbon emissions every year, which has caused various environmental problems. In this paper, we have conducted a dynamic analysis on the carbon footprint, carbon carrying capacity and net carbon footprint in Chongqing of China. The data used for analysis come from official statistics during the period of 1998–2013. The method for the evaluation of carbon footprint, carbon carrying capacity and net carbon footprint is improved. The results show that the carbon footprint in Chongqing has risen from 67,641,200 to 176,227,300 tons from 1998 to 2013. Among that, the energy utilization contributed 74.76–93.31% to the total carbon footprint, the main cause of the growth of carbon footprint. On the other hand, the carbon carrying capacity in Chongqing has increased from 28,270,000 to 32,433,500 tons during the surveyed period. It has been formed that the average carbon sequestration of the cultivated land and forest land accounted for 40.60 and 53.38% respectively, indicating that the cultivated land and forest land are important parts of the carbon carrying capacity. Furthermore, the net carbon footprint has increased from 39,371,200 tons to 143,793,800 tons during the surveyed period, with the growth rate of 265.23%, indicating that the total carbon footprint of Chongqing is much larger than the carbon carrying capacity. Carbon emissions and carbon sequestrations in Chongqing are unbalanced, indicating that the mission of carbon emission reduction is still under severe challenge.

S. P. Li, Q. J. Zheng, D. H. Zeng, Z. H. Huang, L. Y. Shen

Chapter 7. A Framework for Quantifying Carbon Emissions Generated During Demolition Waste Processing

Massive demolition waste has been generated during urban renewal activities in China. Within the waste treatment and disposal procedures, tremendous carbon emissions have been generated due to energy consumption and exhaust emission from machines and vehicles operation. However, there is no attempt has been tried to quantify the carbon emission of demolition waste processing. This paper proposes a framework for quantifying the carbon emission during demolition waste treatment and disposal procedures. The results showed that the framework for quantifying carbon emissions from demolition waste processing involves seven main stages: set the aims of study; build the model and decide the system boundary; identify the carbon emission factors; construct equations to quantifying the carbon emission factors (CEFs); obtain the data inventory for CEFs; calculate the carbon emissions and; output and analysis the results. From the generation to the final disposal, demolition waste processing involves four main stages: generation, onsite treatment, transport and disposal. When using the quantification model, both direct and indirect carbon emission need to be considered. This paper provides a practical framework for scholars to quantify carbon emission from demolition waste processing.

Y. Li, H. Y. Wu, Z. Z. Wu, J. Y. Wang, H. B. Duan, J. Zuo, Z. D. Li, X. L. Zhang

Chapter 8. A Framework for Utilizing Automated and Robotic Construction for Sustainable Building

Up to date research in the development of sustainable high-rise buildings was focused on the adoption of new approaches in the operation and maintenance stages of buildings, whilst the potential of automated and robotic technologies to achieve sustainability was only marginally considered. Activities during the construction stage have significant impact on the overall performance of sustainable buildings regarding pollution, construction waste, resource consumption, work conditions and skills, etc., which can be controlled for better outcomes through automated and robotic technologies. The aim of this paper is to build the basis for the development of a systematic framework and assessment tool for the utilization of automated and robotic construction technologies within the context of sustainable building. Based on state-of-the-art technology and approaches in construction automation and sustainable building, the key dimensions of the framework, relevant mechanisms, and indicators are identified and outlined. The work presented in this paper in a next step will be translated into quantifiable variables. Ultimately the framework will be validated through application in case studies and real world projects as a tool that can be used to guide the development and assessment of technologies, strategies and business models for utilizing automated and robotic construction for sustainable building.

Mi Pan, Thomas Linner, Hui Min Cheng, Wei Pan, Thomas Bock

Chapter 9. A Literature Review of Sustainable Urbanization in China

Over the last couple of decades, urban areas around the world have been engaged in increasing initiatives, practices and experiments with a view to achieve social, economical and environmental sustainability. Echoing with these movements, sustainable urbanization has entered the policy agendas. In practice, various focus aspects including eco-environment protection, land development, housing, policy, population growth and migration and energy utilization have been coded and discussed from different sources of journals. In China’s context, these terms/keywords arise across different scales and types of cities, which would have implications for how these types of cities are understood theoretically in terms of sustainable urbanization. In response, this paper intends to conduct a comprehensive literature review to further explore three key areas including evaluation, innovative solutions and engagement of all stakeholders that will move forward the sustainable urbanization across cities scales in China.

Y. T. Tan, H. Xu

Chapter 10. A Macro-Micro Framework of ADR Use in the Malaysian Construction Industry

Inspired by Coleman’s scheme, this paper presents a theoretical framework on decision making process in a macro-micro perspective for Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) in the Malaysian construction industry. Macro conditions influence the overall level of ADR use in the construction industry, not directly, but through the myriad of decisions made by construction practitioners in using ADR. By drawing on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and Institutional Theory, this paper demonstrates how micro outcomes (actual ADR use behaviour) is linked with micro-level decision making process, embedded in a macro-level configuration that influences overall macro outcomes (overall level of ADR use in the construction industry). Overall, decision making process in ADR use can be conceptualized with the process of forming intentions; while macro conditions, through institutional isomorphism such as coercive pressures, normative pressures, and mimetic pressures systematically influence intention. Both coercive and normative pressures would influence subjective norm; while mimetic pressures would influence descriptive norm. The combination of attitude, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm and descriptive norm would form intentions that further predict the use of ADR. Optimistically, the overall framework could offer practical premise for useful policies and interventions that yield favourable micro and macro outcomes.

Chia Kuang Lee, Tak Wing Yiu, Sai On Cheung

Chapter 11. A Preliminary Study on the Effects of HSR on Station Area

Increasing proliferation of high speed rail (HSR) has brought significant influence on HSR-based station area, which has been playing an important role in the sustainable development of urban area. In this study, a mixed method composed of literature review, expert interview and online survey was applied to identify the effects of HSR on station area in Chinese context. It was found that, these impacts can be categorized into four sub-systems, namely transport, economy, society, and environment; dynamic balance among these sub-systems is a key factor to achieve sustainable urban space. The research findings add insights into the multifarious impacts of HSR on station area, and shed some light on the practice for local authorities to promote a catalyst of station area towards urban sustainability.

Guo Liu, Kunhui Ye

Chapter 12. A System Dynamics Framework of Drivers and Constraints to Enhancing Productivity of the Hong Kong Construction Industry

The Hong Kong construction industry has experienced high-speed growth during the past few decades and is still expecting significant growth in the near future due to the combination of public and private housing and infrastructure projects. However, project cost and time overruns are often reported. The future of the construction industry also faces risks imposed by other problems including ageing workforce and skill shortage. As a result, the industry is struggling with stagnating productivity. In order to deliver the growing construction projects on time and within budget, there is an urgent need for enhancing the productivity of the industry. This paper aims to develop a system dynamics (SD) framework of drivers and constraints to enhancing productivity of the construction industry. Wide-ranging drivers and constraints were identified at industry, project and activity levels and in five aspects, namely, policy formation, regulatory requirements, planning and design, project management and administration, and site construction. The framework was then verified through semi-structured interviews with 30 industry leaders. Many drivers and constraints were found to be interactive with each other and dynamic in nature for different types of construction projects. Although site-level activities were observed important, industry-level policy and regulatory factors were considered more significant.

A. A. Javed, Zhan W, W. Pan

Chapter 13. A Whole Life Cycle Group Decision-Making Framework for Sustainability Evaluation of Major Infrastructure Projects

The success of public major infrastructure projects (MIPs) is becoming a dominant driving force of new-type and sustainable urbanization boom in China. Sustainability evaluation of MIPs is essentially a group decision-making (GDM) process, involving various parties influenced by MIPs. Furthermore, complicated and dynamic decision-making information from group decision-makers is determined by the multi-level and multi-dimensional decision-making attributes of whole life cycle (WLC) infrastructure sustainability. More importantly, how the public stakeholders can integrate the dynamic interactive decision-making information from group decision-makers is indeed significant to achieve the sustainability goal. This research, therefore, aims to develop a comprehensive evaluation indicator system of infrastructure sustainability as GDM attributes through establishing an operational Sustainability Breakdown Structure (SBS) framework. Moreover, from a WLC perspective, a conceptual Dynamic Interactive Coordination based GDM (DIC-GDM) framework is going to be established for determining GDM attributes’ evaluation weights and integrating GDM information of MIPs sustainability evaluation. Combining with the SBS, the DIC-GDM framework will objectively and scientifically normalize the MIPs sustainability evaluation process under public participation. Consequently, main findings will not only valuable in theoretical framework innovation of GDM and sustainability evaluation, but also certainly significant in realizing long-term MIPs sustainability in urbanization practices from a public participation perspective.

B. Xue, H. Xu

Chapter 14. Adaptive Reuse of Inner-City Buildings: Methods for Minimising Waste and Stimulating the Economy

There is a growing number of aged and obsolete buildings all over the world due to the rapid restructure of the economy. Even though ageing buildings experience physical, functional, technological and economic obsolescence, demolition can be a premature decision. The aim of this research is to identify methods of adaptive reuse of buildings to minimise waste generation and stimulate the economy using the Central Business District (CBD) of Adelaide as a case study. The results showed that adaptive reuse of buildings provides substantial amount of social, economic and environmental benefits. Key factors affecting the decision of reusing buildings include: financial, technical, functional, cultural/historical and legal. Cost analysis showed that conversion and refurbishment costs can be increased due to technical risks. Similarly, it is necessary to consider the functional and cultural values in adaptive reuse of buildings. However, there are some restrictions in the Australian National Construction Code and other legislation in relation to adaptive reuse of existing buildings especially in fire and safety requirements, earthquake resistance, hazardous substances, disability access and environmental protection. Despite benefits of providing flexibility in using them in existing buildings, there are practical impediments associated with compliance with these legislation and standards.

N. Udawatta, Zillante George, A. Elmualim, R. Rameezdeen, J. Zuo

Chapter 15. An AHP-ANP Integrated Framework of Evaluating Innovative Business Models for Sustainable Building

Sustainable building (SB) has emerged as an innovative approach to minimizing resource consumption and its resulting impacts on ecological systems. Innovative business models are in need to present the economic viability of sustainable standards and promote the market uptake of SB. However, there is a lack of consistent evaluation of SBs’ business value and of structured selection of appropriate business models. The interdependence among performance evaluation criteria is still ambiguous. This paper aims to develop a systematic performance evaluation network for innovative business models of SB and exploring the interdependencies among main criteria to improve the decision accuracy in the evaluation process. First, the key performance criteria and detailed indicators for evaluating business models for SB are identified based on a comprehensive literature review and questionnaire-based survey. Then the interdependencies among the performance criteria are identified through a focus group meeting. Six integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)–Analytical Network Process (ANP) based expert surveys have been conducted with clients and developers for SB to reveal the weights and interdependencies among the criteria. Finally eight key criteria and thirty-three indicators with determined weights in terms of short-term performance and long-term performance are identified, and the network demonstrating the qualitative interdependencies among them has been also constructed. The results contribute to enhancing the understanding of business model innovations for SB. The developed network provides stakeholders a consolidated tool for the systematic selection and evaluation of various business models.

X. Zhao, L. Chen, W. Pan, Q. Lu

Chapter 16. An AHP-GIS Based Model of C&D Waste Landfill Site Selection: A Triangulation of Critical Factors

With the fast increasing construction and demolition (C&D) waste in China, it is an important issue of how to make advisable decisions on landfill site selection to reduce the problems such as the scarcity of land, high operating costs and serious environmental impacts, particularly in Shenzhen. In available studies, few covered the three critical factors together i.e. economy, environment and society. Based on geographic information system (GIS) and analytic hierarchy process (AHP), this study aims at identifying the appropriate C&D waste landfill sites in Shenzhen by encompassing environmental, social and economical criteria. First of all, the environmental, social and economical criteria are identified and criteria weights are computed by applying AHP method. Next, geographic information system (GIS) is used to manipulate and present spatial data. The candidate sites are determined by aggregation according to the criteria weights. Data are sorted into three classes within the study area i.e. most suitable, suitable and not suitable areas, which accounted for 0.83, 19.09 and 80.53% of the total land area in Shenzhen. Finally, some suggestions are proposed to further improve landfill site selection practice.

Zhikun Ding, Menglian Zhu, Yifei Wang, Jiasong Zhu

Chapter 17. An Alternative Model for Regional Sustainability Evaluation: A Case Study of Chongqing

With the worldwide embracement of sustainable development, it is considered that recognizing the sustainable development performance is important in pursuing effective sustainable development, since it has been invested a great cost of manpower, material and financial resource. With this aim, this paper innovatively develops an adaptive neural fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) to evaluate the regional sustainability performance. The training samples are derived from 38 regions in Chongqing China. The proposed ANFIS model proves to be very effective in region sustainability performance assessment, which can help the governments monitor the sustainability performance more systematically, efficiently and economically.

C. Y. Shuai, Y. T. Tan, L. D. Jiao

Chapter 18. An Empirical Analysis of the Effect of Prefabrication on Fostering Sustainable Construction

While the industry professionals and government bodies have been advocating the use of prefabrication as a more sustainable option, literature indicates reducing construction time and the reliance of labours may be the true motives for pushing prefabrication forward. This study aims to investigate the roles of prefabrication in fostering sustainable construction. The effectiveness of prefabrication on fostering sustainable construction was evaluated on the five aspects enlisted by the UK’s Green Construction Board: Biodiversity, Carbon, Materials, Waste and Water. An industry survey was conducted. 200 questionnaires were sent to industry practitioners in greater Melbourne region in Australia. The results indicate that prefabrication is effective in reducing waste and fostering the use of more environmental friendly construction materials. However, respondents do not have high regard for seeing prefabrication as a way to reduce carbon, avoid water pollution and reduce the impact of the projects on biodiversity. The results from the Analysis of Variance further indicate significant different views between the developers/consultants and the contractors on the effect of prefabrication on waste reduction and the use of more environmental friendly materials. It is suggested that proactive actions should be taken at the design stage to unleash the potential of prefabrication in construction.

Peter S. P. Wong, Michael Phillip Kanellopoulos, Luke Edmonson

Chapter 19. An Empirical Investigation of Construction and Demolition Waste Management in China’s Pearl River Delta

With the fast development of the Chinese economy, a large number of newly-built building and demolition projects produce a large amount of construction wastes and they will further deteriorate in the future. However, the Chinese government isn’t paying adequate attention to the generation and treatment of construction wastes. Most construction waste are not treated properly, which causes a serious damage to the environment. Through adopting the questionnaire research method, this paper analyzes the current situations of each subdivided project’s scrape ratio in China’s Pearl River Delta, as well as the recycling rate of each construction waste in the process of tearing down architectures. The research proposes 14 influence factors and finds the main reasons include: The government doesn’t offer adequate support to the minimization management of construction wastes; there lacks plans of managing construction wastes on construction sites; the on-site management personnel have inadequate understanding of the minimization management of construction wastes. According to researches, the most effective measures include “adopting the BIM technology, which can effectively lower the generation of architectural products; the government imperfects relevant policies, laws and regulations, strengthens the efforts of supervision and provides tax-redemption and subsidiaries, promotes the recycling and reusing of various construction wastes. The research results can provide strategic reference for stakeholders to formulate the strategies of managing the minimization of construction wastes.

J. K. Liu, Y. S. Pang, D. Wang, J. W. Zhou

Chapter 20. An Intelligent Decision Support System for Improving Information Integrity in Procuring Infrastructures in Hong Kong

Hong Kong has gone through huge programmes of infrastructure development, which bring about significant economic benefits and improve our living environment. The government of the HKSAR has developed tender evaluation methods to achieve transparent and systemic procurement of public works infrastructure contracts and has recently introduced more attributes to enhance competition in the technical quality, safety, innovation, productivity and sustainability of tenders. However, cost and time overruns have still been reported on major infrastructure projects. Issues with the validity and efficiency of decision-making regarding procurement (i.e., cost estimation, time schedule, and comprehensive evaluation) have been regarded as one of main reasons for these problems at the pre-construction stage, while the loss of essential decision information during this decision process can extremely influence the decision validity and efficiency. Some efforts have been made theoretically to deal with vagueness and improve information integrity using uncertain theories, including fuzzy sets, probability, and fuzzy extensions. However, there is little research focusing on the real decision problems existed in infrastructure procurement process, which is lacking in systematic and efficient solutions to improve information integrity. This paper aims to develop an intelligent decision support system (IDSS) for improving decision information integrity in procuring infrastructures in Hong Kong. A systems approach based model is proposed to analyze the main reasons for information loss in tender evaluation process of infrastructure projects. Three kinds of reasons for information loss have been found, namely, vagueness, scarcity and risk neglect. Based on that, an IDSS using fuzzy theories and perceptual computing has been furtherly developed to address the problems about information loss existed. This developed system will contribute to a step change in practice and policy towards successful decisions on infrastructure tender evaluation in Hong Kong and inform reliable infrastructure procurement in other urban contexts.

L. Chen, W. Pan

Chapter 21. An Investigation of Waste Reduction Measures Employed in Construction Industry: Case of Shenzhen

A vast amount of construction and demolition waste (C&D Waste) has been produced over the past decades, and the healthy and environmental issues caused by C&D Waste gradually aroused people’s attention. Although many studies on C&D Waste management has been conducted and various measures to reduce C&D Waste generation has been proposed, little attention has been paid to assessing the effectiveness of those measures. Therefore, this paper conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate practical waste reduction measures and involved critical factors. The results show that “Design for disassemble” and “use of recycled materials, such as metal scaffolding, metal formworks” are the most popular C&D Waste reduction measures in design stage and construction stage respectively.

Y. Gao, J. Y. Wang, H. Y. Wu, X. X. Xu

Chapter 22. An Optimization-Based Semantic Building Model Generation Method with a Pilot Case of a Demolished Construction

Emerging technologies like massive point cloud from laser scanning and 3D photogrammetry enabled new ways of generating ‘as-built’ building information models (BIM) for existing buildings. It is valuable but also challenging to generate semantic models from point cloud and images in automated ways. In this paper, we present a novel method called Optimization-based Model Generation (OMG) for automated semantic BIM generation. OMG starts from a semantic BIM component dataset and a target measurement such as point cloud, photographs, or floor plans. A fitness function is defined to measure the matching level between an arbitrary BIM model and the target measurement without object recognition. Combinations of digital components are then extensively generated as building models regarding semantic constraints. The fittest model that matches the target measurement best is the result of OMG. The proposed method was demonstrated in reconstructing a 3D model of a demolished building. Advantages of OMG include high-level automation, low requirement on measurement, relationship discovery for components, reusable component libraries, and scalability to new environments.

F. Xue, K. Chen, D. Liu, Y. Niu, W.S. Lu

Chapter 23. Analysis and Optimization of Key Index of Public Investment Building Project’s Performance Evaluation Based on Project Governance

In order to improve performance evaluation systems, this paper analyses and optimises the indexes for a public investment-building project. A new public management theory and law-based administration theory are used as project governance methods. The funds are as follows: a three-level index dividing and 23 indexes will guarantee the effects of the evaluation, and an index supplement and appendix produce positive meanings on index definition and evaluation oriented results. However, partly index define indistinct and hardly quantify, besides, key information reflect insufficient in index system. By amending common parts and unique indexes, the index system to optimise a project’s performance evaluation will be more objective, reasonable, and effective.

Y.S. Wang, F.f. Liu, W.Z. He, Y. Zhang, H.Y. Li, J.F. Li

Chapter 24. Analysis on the Influencing Factors of Building Energy Consumption—A Southwest China Case Study

The Chinese government has been closely watching its domestic energy consumption, in which buildings are the largest consumers. This paper discloses the impacts of the most significant influencing factors on building energy consumption in Southwest China by employing Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STPRAT) theory. The authors focus on examining six main factors (i.e., population size, urbanization ratio, Per Capita Value-added of Tertiary Industry at Constant Prices (VTP), Consumer Price Index (CPI), Retail Price Index (RPI), patent number) from three perspectives including population, affluence and technology. With the assistance of mathematical statistics software, the authors calculated the elasticity coefficient and importance degree of the six factors in referring to their impacts on building energy consumption in Southwest China. Results of this paper suggest that all the factors in three perspectives affect energy consumption; and the patent number has the largest impact. The effect of the population size to the energy consumption level is small.

Z. N. Zhao, H. M. Zhang, Y. F. Ding, L. Y. Shen

Chapter 25. Analysis on the Influencing Factors of Multidimensional LMDI Energy Consumption—A Case Study of Chongqing

In 2016, Chongqing formulates and announces the outline of its 13th Five-Year Plan for economic and social development, which emphasizes the effective control of the total energy consumption. This is of great strategic significance to the mission of achieving sustainable energy supply, and the coordinated development between economic, social and ecological environment for Chongqing. This paper introduces a multidimensional LMDI (Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index) model for analyzing the energy consumption, by considering five factors: urbanization rate, industrial structure, economic growth, technical progress and scale of the population. The factors urbanization rate and industrial structure are newly introduced in this study. The data used are collected from Chongqing Statistics Yearbook for the period of 1997–2013. The results show that economic growth is the main factor for the growth of energy consumption in Chongqing; technical progress plays a significant role in energy saving; urbanization contributes the increase of energy consumption; industrial structure is also a major factor affecting energy consumption, and the energy saving effect from industrial restructuring has not been materialized. This paper reveals the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, technical progress, urbanization, industrial structure, and the scale of the population. It can provide references for studying measures controlling energy consumption.

H. M. Zhang, Z. N. Zhao, L. Y. Shen, W. W. Wen, M. Chen

Chapter 26. Application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Site Management—Material and Progress Control

In order to improve communication on a construction site, this research focuses on the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in site management for material and progress control in Hong Kong. Components of site management as well as the suitable aspects of applying BIM in site management were identified. Case studies of BIM implementation on two construction projects were presented. Interviews were arranged with BIM professionals, including consultants and contractors. The limitations of adopting BIM on site management were also analyzed. The results and analysis showed that the application of BIM in material and progress control was mainly for quantity takeoff, construction sequence optimization and provision of knowledge database. This database encouraged interaction between parties because an informative BIM model could not be produced by just one party. The findings show that the visualization from BIM 3D/4D model helps engineers or planners to become more confident about real happenings on the construction site. It can also help to identify and resolve the material and progress control related problems before construction commences.

A. Nadeem, A. K. D. Wong, G. Akhanova, S. Azhar, S. N. Wong

Chapter 27. Application of SWOT Analysis in Turkish Construction Industry

Strategic management is a concept that concerns with making decisions and taking corrective actions to achieve long term targets and goals of an organization and is used as an important management technique in construction industry due to its complex and dynamic environment. Thus, every organization in the construction industry should have specific strategies to cope with or take advantages of these changes and plan their strategies in order to obtain sustainable competitive advantage where the competition is very intense. Notably, SWOT analysis became one of the most popular tools for strategic planning in order to decide future actions depending on the analysis of internal and external environment. In this study, with the aim of identifying the internal and external factors in terms of their significance on the Turkish construction industry; the strengths and weakness of Turkish construction industry with the opportunities and threats in national and international markets were examined based on a comprehensive literature review. The result of the study can be used by Turkish construction companies and international companies as well to position themselves in Turkish construction industry and to highlight their current strategic management practice for strategizing in a most correct way.

Z. Işık, H. Aladağ, G. Demirdöğen, Ç. Aygün

Chapter 28. Assessment of Energy Efficiency for Retrofit Versus Reconstruction Projects by Building Information Modeling

Nowadays, Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the leading technological advance in project management life cycle of constructions. Being able to see post construction phase is one of the non-conventional benefits of BIM of which provides the user to proactively plan the projects. In this study, a retrofit and a reconstruction project were handled in their post construction process to assess their energy efficiency in terms of carbon dioxide emissions and embedded energy results. Generally, structural retrofit basically traces on two principles such as the reliability of the structure and the cost of retrofitting. However, in this study, structural retrofitting was investigated in terms of its energy efficiency compared to a reconstructed building. In this context, a structural retrofit and a new construction with same conditions and dimensions were created with a BIM software and carbon dioxide emission and embedded energy results of these two projects were evaluated. The analysis results indicated that the proportion of carbon dioxide emissions and embedded energy in new construction is higher than retrofitted structure. Consequently, the main factors that cause to higher embedded energy and carbon emission difference between new structure and retrofitted structure were found as concrete and reinforcement steel.

G. Demirdöğen, Z. Isık

Chapter 29. Barriers to and Enablers for Lessons Learned Practices in International Infrastructure Development Projects—A Case Study

The implementation of international infrastructure development projects is confronted with many challenges. Lessons learned has emerged as the vital key to success of these projects. Management of lessons learned is a chain with organizational stakeholders as links, of which government agency is arguably the weakest. While many organizational stakeholders (e.g., international development banks, independent consultants) are sophisticated in lessons learned practices, little is researched on and understood of how governments agencies manage lessons learned and how to help them do so more effectively. This paper reports on a study, which is part of a larger research effort, into the barriers and enablers to effective lessons learned practices in international development projects. The study uses a government agency in Vietnam as a case. It has four steps. First, documents related to project management policies are analyzed and literature reviewed. Second, twenty-five officers from the government agency are interviewed using a semi-structured guide. Third, output from document analysis and the interviews is used to categorize barriers and enablers to effective lessons learned management. Four, a survey is used to solicit input to the importance of the barriers and enablers. The major finding is barriers and enablers that are critical to effective management of lessons learned in this kind of projects. These barriers and enablers are ranked and grouped into three categories: (1) individual, (2) organizational, and (3) inter-organizational. Outcome of the research provides a basis for a better understanding of barriers and enablers to managing lessons learned in international development projects. The research results will be used to develop a conceptual framework for lessons learned practices and strategies to improve them in the next research phase.

Tiendung Le, Eric Too, Viet Anh Tran

Chapter 30. Benchmarking Innovation Potentials in Large Projects by Public Private Partnerships

Large projects have greater potentials for innovations. Driving and enabling innovations in Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements is a complex challenge in many cases. Hence our ongoing research aims at benchmarking innovation potentials in large projects procured by PPP. The research method includes critical review of literature and interviews. Key drivers and enablers of innovation explored in this research include potential for achieving higher quality, demand for green benefits and environmental sustainability, technical challenges or complexities, competition between bidders, client’s requirements, regulator’s requirements, end-user’s involvement and requirements, performance-based contracting, fund available for innovation, facilities, applications and materials for innovation, risk management (e.g. risk transfer/allocation), culture (e.g. no blame culture), communication (e.g. lateral communication structure), integrated project delivery, collaboration of skills and expertise, long term and whole life values, reward and recognition for innovators, government schemes (e.g. tax incentives) and R&D investment. The paper presents (a) an interim summary of research findings and (b) a conceptual framework to benchmark innovation potentials in large projects delivered by PPP.

Cut Sarah Febrina, Palaneeswaran Ekambaram

Chapter 31. Benefits of Using Constructability, Operability, and Maintainability in Infrastructure Projects: A Meta-Synthesis

Planning and construction of infrastructure projects are increasing rapidly as the vital lifeline of countries for welfare and economic development; which considering cumulative population growth, they are in the center of attention more than ever. High investments, negative effects of early destruction and available duplications in these projects have enlarged necessity of focus on existing post design problems. In order to reduce problems of post design stages in infrastructure projects, constructability, operability, and maintainability concepts can be used in the initial pre-construction stage, which is a project management technique for reviewing post design processes from beginning to end. These concepts emphasize on early presence of construction, operation and maintenance contractors at the early phases of the project, so that through integrating knowledge and experience, reduce problems due to lack of applying them at the early stages of the project. Lack of comprehensive and centralized research that study benefits of applying these concepts, made researchers to conduct this project. This investigation, by the aim of evaluating benefits of applying these concepts in infrastructure projects and by using meta-synthesis method and utilizing qualitative analysis software NVIVO, has classified these benefits in different phases of the project life cycle. Finally, a classified structure of the benefits of implementing these concepts in different phases of the project has been provided; which by evaluating the obtained results and applying them, experts and various agents of the project can share their experiences and knowledge with each other efficiently. This study results in reduction of available problems due to lack of applying the concepts at the early stages of the project by highlighting awareness toward such brilliant benefits presented in the world investigations.

S. Jadidoleslami, E. Saghatforoush, N. Kordestani Ghaleenoe, C. Preece

Chapter 32. Big Data in Urban Planning Practices: Shaping Our Cities with Data

In this age of information, massive volumes of data about cities and their residents are strewn everywhere. Since big data bears great potentials for providing enhanced insights and improving decision-makings, its effective application becomes a key factor for achieving success in the development of smart cities. In the domain of urban planning, attempts have been made to explore the better utilization of big data. This paper aims at identifying current applications of big data in urban planning with emphasis on understanding public behaviors and citizens’ needs via space-time information. It is found that obtaining public data through passive data acquisition and active public participation could well support planning decisions, and particularly active civic participation could generate better social effects and enhance the public acceptance of urban planning. This paper ends with revealing five problems and challenges that need to be overcome, including poor data quality, data analytics, privacy leakage, digital divide, and information security before the benefits of smart cities can be reaped.

Ruiqu Ma, Patrick T. I. Lam, C. K. Leung

Chapter 33. Board of Director’s Role in Preventing Corporate Misconduct in the Construction Industry

This paper examines the theoretical literature and conducts empirical analysis on the mechanisms of corporate governance. We focus on directors’ role in ameliorating various types of agency problems (e.g., corporate misconduct) arising from conflicts of interests between stakeholders and managers to the firm. In a sample of 45 public listed construction companies in Taiwan between 2005 and 2014, the result indicates that illegal corporate behavior is more likely to occur in firms with large boards while board independence isn’t significant for misconduct constraining. The finding also shows why board’s monitoring function is important and how firms rein in misconduct by altering board size and composition.

C. J. Lee, R. Wang, S. C. Hsu, C. Y. Lee

Chapter 34. Bridging Knowledge Gap Between Green and Non-green Facilities Management in Singapore

The building industry has experienced a widespread shift towards green building standards since the last decade, calling for the need for more green facilities professionals in order to maximize green building potential in terms of energy efficiency, water conservation, occupant comfort and productivity, and waste reduction. Though several studies have investigated the operation and maintenance processes of green buildings, few of such studies considered facility managers’ knowledge and skills regarding green facilities management, and many fail to realize that the road to a sustainable future does not end by the presence of green infrastructures. Rather, it is equally important, or even more so to ensure that proper facilities management and maintenance planning need to be conducted such that the potential of green buildings is maximised. This indicates the need to identify and measure current knowledge gap between non-green and green facilities management. Set in the context of Singapore, this study aims to establish both quantitative and qualitative evidences on the presence of green knowledge gap, and evaluates the consequential effects on green buildings as well as on the facility management industry. A total of 90 survey responses were collected with key stakeholders were conducted in order to gain understanding and insights on the practices of green facilities management, industry trends, and possible ways to bridge the green knowledge gap. Through both quantitative and qualitative analyses, one of the most critical problems in green facilities management has been identified as the “inadequate experience, training and/or knowledge”. This set of results can potentially help facilities professionals, major industry players, and statutory boards make better policy decisions to better bridge green knowledge gap and to shape the future of the green built environment.

Yujie Lu, Ngiam Min Li Joyce

Chapter 35. Bridging the Cyber and Physical Systems for Better Construction: A Case Study of Construction Machinery Monitoring and Utilization

It has been widely accepted that developing and maintaining a cyber system (e.g. Building Information Modeling) representing the corresponding physical system is a promising approach to improve decision-making in construction. However, to bridge the bi-directional coordination between the virtual and the physical system is the prerequisite for the improvement, yet this is the most challenging part for researchers and practitioners. Using tower crane as a case study, the primary aim of this study is to propose a cyber-physical system by articulating its system structure, bridging technologies, and its computational applications. Particularly, a smart core is developed to integrate real-time information on physical machinery on site with their ‘cyber twins’ in virtual, which is developed as a web-based platform. A LEGO® tower crane is built and simulated in lab, showing the cyber and physical systems can be well bridged to facilitate safety management and resource utilization in construction projects.

D. D. Liu, W. S. Lu, Y. H. Niu, F. Xue, K. Chen

Chapter 36. Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry: A Case Study in Malaysia

BIM is an intelligent model that triggers a different kind of design mindset, conduct and behaviour which emerged as one of the latest moderation of computer-aided technologies being utilized in Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). The demand and global emphasis upon sustainable stressing and eagerness upon efficiency and cost improvements throughout project lifecycle inevitably necessitate BIM to be implemented within AEC industry. This paper therefore elicited an industry wide analysis in BIM adoption in Malaysia. The study aims to review current BIM implementation challenges in Malaysian AEC industry. Quantitative approach is selected for data collection. Questionnaire surveys were distributed to architects, engineers and contractors. The collected data is analyzed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The challenges factors are categorized into three (3) categories, culture, business and technology. It is found that cost factor, knowledge factor and stakeholder factor are the major challenges in Malaysia AEC industry. These establish result portrayals will ineluctably serve as a guideline for AEC BIM adopters to develop proper BIM execution planning, with equilibrium established between intended accomplishments and suitable solutions for the tailing predicaments.

N. F. Azmi, C. S. Chai, L. W. Chin

Chapter 37. Carbon Emission Modelling for Construction Logistics Process Through Activity-Based Method

Materials logistics are important for every construction project to decrease the effect on environment as the logistics process contribute to a high carbon emission. As a result, planners and managers should strive to plan and control the ordering, distribution and storage of materials (i.e. the logistics process) carefully in order to cut down the pollution during the construction stage. Despite that, there is a lack of simple but powerful formalism to analyse and model the carbon emission during the construction logistics process. This research aims to resolve the problem and facilitate the construction manager to find the carbon emission sources while minimising the emission quantity through better logistics arrangement. In this research, the common material logistics practices are revealed and research range of carbon emission during logistics process is devised. Carbon emission sources are found by referring to activity based method and calculation model is established according to emission factor approach. The results of this research can be used for evaluating the carbon emission effect of logistics activity before a low carbon logistics schedule is made.

Y. Fang, Z. D. Ma, Y. Z. Luo

Chapter 38. Causal Loop Analysis on the Impact of Schedule Risks in Prefabrication Housing Production in Hong Kong

Every country is dealing with its own housing problems; however, none compares with Hong Kong where housing has always been a major concern as a result of low supply over the past decades. Against the constraints in delivering sufficient houses, prefabrication as a solution has been increasingly advocated for its potential benefits of rapid process and better quality. However, schedule delay caused by various risks affected the prefabrication housing production (PHP) in Hong Kong, which can be further exacerbated by the fact that the whole prefabrication manufacturing sector has moved to offshore areas in the Pearl River Delta region. This study applies system dynamics (SD) to recognize and investigate the potential effects of various risks on the scheduling of PHP. A causal-loop diagram is then constructed to analyze the impact of schedule risks in PHP based on the identified variables in the defined system. This study is of value in exploring interactional and interdependent relationships underlying the identified schedule risks within the three sub-systems including schedule risk sub-system, prefabrication housing production sub-system and schedule performance sub-system.

W. K. Huang, X. X. Xu, K. Chen, H. Y. Wu, Z. D. Li

Chapter 39. Causes of Delays in Mega Projects—Case of the Zambian Transmission Power Projects

Zambia is experiencing unprecedentedly high levels of construction activities in the electrical transmission power sector with investments in excess of USD 1 Billion. However, delay has been identified as one of the major recurring problems in these projects with many negative effects such as cost overruns, schedule overruns, lost business opportunities and delayed project benefits. This study aimed at identifying the most important causes of delay and their effects in large transmission power projects in Zambia. A combination of a case study and survey approach was adopted. The questionnaires were distributed to contractors and clients involved in transmission power projects in Zambia. The data collected was analyzed and the factors (causes) of delays ranked to determine the importance and the effects of delays. The results show that the following are the most important causes of delays in transmission power projects in Zambia: rain effect on construction activities; type of project bidding and award; difficulties in financing project by client/owner; delay in approving major changes in the scope by the client; and delays in progress payments by owner. Some of the recommendations made based on the study results were: need for adequate planning and scheduling; engaging of fully dedicated project implementation units (PIUs) which should hasten the approval processes; and to make adjustments to the criteria for contract award to focus less on price (lowest bidder) and more on the contractor’s capabilities and past performances.

Chaali Kalebuka, Erastus Mwanaumo, Wellington Didibhuku Thwala

Chapter 40. Characterization of Carbon Emissions from the Construction Activities: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China

Construction industry is one of the intensive energy-consuming sectors, which will inevitably lead a great amount of carbon emissions. However, most researchers only focused on the carbon emissions at use stage of buildings. There is relatively little work to look at the emissions from the construction activities themselves. Shenzhen city, as a rapidly developing flagship megacity in South China, has been selected as a demonstration to analyze its emission from construction activities. Specifically, carbon emissions from construction activities, including material use, construction processes of buildings in the past few years, have been investigated to obtain the fundamental data to make a contribution analysis in Shenzhen. The results show that carbon emissions from material use is the largest contributor during construction activities, which has caused 132.4 million tonnes in 2013, and carbon emissions of cement use has accounted for 53.2% of all materials use. To summarize, the results are beneficial to figure out environmental impact from the construction activities. The outcomes are also important from a policy standpoint and low-carbon technologies substitution perspective.

L. N. Zheng, H. Zhang., H. B. Duan, X. H. Wang, Y. N. Niu, J. Y. Wang

Chapter 41. China’s Ongoing Policy Instrument for Building Energy Efficiency: Drives, Approaches and Prospects

Policy instrument is considered as the key to improving energy efficiency in the building sector. This paper presents the current development of BEE policy instruments by examining their practices during the period of 1986–2016 in China. These policy instruments are classified into four groups: mandatory administrative instrument, economic incentive instrument, information-based instrument, and voluntary agreement instrument. The development of these four group of BEE policy instruments is analyzed in China from the perspectives of the number of policy instruments developed, the development trend & prospects, and the experience gained in developing these instruments. The study also gave several effective policy suggestions that is tailored to China.

B. He, X. L. Zhang, L. D. Jiao, L. Y. Shen

Chapter 42. Chinese Building Energy Service Industry Evolution Based on Ecological Niche

Energy conservation has become a worldwide issue recent years. In order to improve the energy efficiency of existing building, ESCOs provide a package of techniques and funding support. Building energy service industry has developed rapidly in the past decades in China. However, there are still many problems hampering the implementation of building energy efficiency projects, leaving huge potential for the improvement of building energy service industry. From the perspective of ecological theory, building energy service industry can be treated as an ecosystem which contains producer, consumer, decomposer and environment. To reflect the situation of building energy service industry, six indicators are selected namely “ecostate indicator” and “ecorole indicator”. For an intimate presentation, the development of GDP is chosen to be a reference. By comparing the building energy service industry niche with GDP-niche, it is found that although building energy service industry is developing rapidly because of the policies and financial support, it lags far behind GDP development.

Saina Zheng, Pengpeng Xu, Guiwen Liu, Jinxi Jing

Chapter 43. Clean Development Mechanism in Airports: The Colombian Case

In Colombia, the development of new airport projects should involve sustainable financial resources. It allows to create sustainable infrastructure as well as better environmental conditions. Thus, private investors will have new resources available for developing infrastructure projects. Therefore, this paper explores how can the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) be used for encouraging the involvement of new private investors in developing sustainable airports. To address this, this paper examines the role of the CMD in the development of new infrastructure of transportation. As a result, this paper should promote sustainable development including the CMD in the funding process. Additionally, it proposes tax benefits for developing new projects.

J. D. González-Ruiz, E. A. Duque, J. C. Restrepo

Chapter 44. Conflict Analysis of Concentrated Rural Settlement Development During Post-disaster Reconstruction in China: A Multi-agent Simulation

Housing reconstruction is critically important to realize sustainable post-disaster reconstruction. Concentrated rural settlement (CRS) development was promoted after the 5.12 Sichuan earthquake in China. Existing studies focus on the process of CRS reconstruction while overlooking potential conflicts during the reconstruction. This study aims to investigate the behavior of farmers and local government during CRS reconstruction. Evolutional game analysis is used to find the evolutionarily stable strategy for farmers and local government. Multi-agent simulation is used to validate the evolutional trend of farmers’ and local government’s behavior during CRS reconstruction. The impacts of critical factors on the evolutionary stable strategy have also been investigated. Without proper management, there would be conflicts between farmers and local government in CRS development during post-disaster reconstruction. The findings can facilitate the local government to better promote CRS development during post-disaster reconstruction.

Y Peng, Q. X. Li, H. J. Bao

Chapter 45. Construction and Demolition Waste Management: Experiences Learning from Developed Countries and Their Enlightenment to China

During the past decades, the construction sector has resulted in a great amount of construction and demolition (C&D) waste due to the rapid but intensive urbanization and large construction activities in China. However, C&D wastes have been mainly disposed of landfilling or simple dumping, which triggered lots of concerns of security, health and environmental problems. Based on extensive review on existing studies on C&D waste in China, it was found that previous studies mainly concentrated on the estimation of generation of C&D waste. Therefore, this study has made attempts to figure out: current policies and regulations on C&D waste management and their effective and enforcement; Secondly, we have conducted a comparative analysis between domestic and foreign C&D waste management systems in developed countries, with aiming at pointing out the gaps between China and developed countries from the perspective of environmentally sound management of C&D waste. To summarize, the outcomes of this studies are expected to offer proposals for C&D waste management in China, and provide references for other developing countries in worldwide.

X. H. Wang, H. Zhang, L. N. Zheng, H. B. Duan, Y. N. Niu, J. Y. Wang

Chapter 46. Construction Project Manager Health and Safety Interventions Towards Improving Workers’ Performance

Optimum worker performance is required to achieve project delivery within project parameters. However, construction workers are regularly exposed to hazards, involved in accidents, their productivity is poor, they suffer from ill health, suffer from work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and contractors lack resources to allocate towards H&S. However, the lack or the absence of health and safety (H&S) measures, which the aforementioned depend on, has a negative impact on workers’ performance. Two descriptive surveys were conducted among construction project managers (CPMs) registered with the South African Council for the Project and Construction Management Professions (SACPCMP), and general contractor (GC) members of the East Cape Master Builders Association (ECMBA). Interviews were also conducted with CPMs. The salient findings include: accidents impact workers’ performance; inadequate H&S implementation affects workers’ skills and motivation, which in turn affects their performance; poor constructability is relevant to H&S and workers’ skills; provision and maintenance of welfare facilities are inadequate and affect workers’ performance, and projects do not benefit from adequate financial provision for H&S. It is concluded that CPMs do not effectively integrate H&S into projects, they can influence workers’ health and well-being and performance indirectly, and they can enhance their H&S interventions towards improving workers’ performance.

W. Ayessaki, J. Smallwood

Chapter 47. Construction Work Productivity in South Africa: A Case of Gauteng Province Construction Industry

Poor performance occur in construction projects despite the importance of the construction industry in most of the countries globally. In context of this sentiment this study examined the factors affecting productivity, the effects of poor productivity and the strategies to improve productivity in construction projects. A deductive approach using quantitative research was adopted. Questionnaire was developed from extensive literature review. A total of 65 randomly sampled respondents received the questionnaires. Forty two questionnaires were returned representing 64.6% response rate. They were analysed using statistical package for social sciences version 22. The findings indicated that the most prevalent factors that affect productivity in construction projects in South Africa are: delay in arrival of material and equipment and the attitude and morale of workers. The effects of poor productivity were poor quality of work delivered because of time, bad reputation as a company. Lastly the strategies perceived to improve project productivity were; adherence to construction specifications, ensuring quality of works delivered but to name a few. The study suggested that the construction companies should concentrate on the strategies in order to improve productivity at project level. A model to improve productivity on construction projects should be developed in future study.

A. S. Sibande, N. J. Agumba

Chapter 48. Contractors’ Organisational Culture Towards Health and Safety Compliance in Ghana

Most of the major incidents and personal injuries on construction sites have been attributed to poor safety culture. The purpose of the study was to examine the contractors’ organisational culture towards Health and Safety (H&S) compliance in Ghana. The study adopted Delphi survey method of data collection. Expert (academics and professionals) were asked to rate the impact of other factors in predicting contractors’ contribution that will lead to the overall compliance with H&S regulations. Findings from the study show eleven measurement variables, only one measurement variable (communication of H&S information to workers)was considered by the experts to have reached consensus with IQD cut-off (IQD ≤ 1) score. Four measurement attributes also reached consensus based on the median score of (9–10) and seven other measurement attributes reached consensus based on the median score of (7–8.99). Five out of the eleven variables were ranked by the experts as the most pressing issues on H&S compliance. It can be concluded from the findings that contractors’ organisational culture towards H&S compliance has a high impact to the overall H&S regulations in Ghana.

Z. Mustapha, C. Aigbavboa, W. D. Thwala

Chapter 49. Convention and Exhibition Center Integrated into High Speed Rail Station: Experience and Idea

As the perfection of high speed railway network, the functional value of city of high speed rail station has become the hot spot of domestic urban construction. However, there is lack of a clear and rational planning of the high speed railway district that is critical for the future endeavor. Based on the theoretical and practical analysis of development of Hong Kong MTR, this paper summarizes some experience and puts forward an idea of constructing convention and exhibition center integrated into high speed rail station which will reduce the time cost and relieve traffic pressure in the city, to provide references for the future development of the high speed rail station in the direction of comprehensive and multifunctional.

Yue Li, Yuzhe Wu

Chapter 50. Corporate Social Responsibility Localization in International Construction Business

Emerging from the both sides of the Atlantic, corporate social responsibility (CSR) to date has travelled to the world with the internationalization of construction business. When CSR activities implemented in the host countries, it could be responsive to the local context. CSR localization is thus receiving growing interests, evidenced by the “local content policies”. However, there is a paucity of knowledge on CSR localization. The primary aim of this study is to explore the CSR localization patterns as portrayed by international construction companies (ICCs). CSR/sustainability reports of ICCs from four countries were collected to do the content analysis and case studies. CSR was defined in this study firstly and then, 94 CSR activity items were identified. Based on that, it is found that CSR activities would likely be localized when they are desired or required by the host countries. ICCs tend to implementing localized CSR activities closely related to construction businesses. The study provides a brief view of the CSR localization patterns by ICCs. The patterns derived can also be used for further investigation of the causes, e.g. the institutional/culture distance as explained by institutional theory, or and the legitimacy to undertake construction business in different local contexts.

Meng Ye, Weisheng Lu, Roger Flanagan

Chapter 51. Correlation Analysis of Key Influencing Factors to the Total Factor Productivity of the Hong Kong Construction Industry

Productivity is an endemic issue that challenges the Hong Kong construction industry. Studies addressing labour productivity abound; however, few have investigated and analysed the key influencing factors that affect the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) by using correlation analysis. This paper aims to identify the key influencing factors to the TFP growth and provide insights and solutions to enhancing construction productivity at industry, organisation, and activity levels. The results reveal a downward trend of construction productivity in Hong Kong with a negative average TFP growth rate of −2.15% per annum over the period from 2003 to 2014. Through correlation analyses this trend was found to be shaped by the factors including manpower issues and low material technology progress. A number of important measures were identified to improve the TFP growth, including young workers engagement and motivation, research & development investment in automated or semi-automated installations, assembly, and building industrialisation, lean thinking, and project development incentives at industry level. Additional ones include addressing labour management, training and education at organisation level, as well as labour co-operation and on-site learning at activity level. The findings contribute to a better more comprehensive understanding of construction industry productivity.

W. Zhan, W. Pan, A. A. Javed, K. W. Chau

Chapter 52. Critical Impact Factors Affecting Carbon Emission: Evidence from STIRPAT Model with Panel Data Analysis

With the global warming challenge, carbon emission reduction is appreciated as the basic policy for each country. This paper used the STIRPAT model with analyzing the impact of population, affluence and technology on the total carbon emission of 125 countries of different income levels over the period of 1990–2011. The empirical results indicate that the key impact factor at high-income level is technology, followed by population and affluence. The impact factor affluence has the strongest influence on carbon emission at upper- and lower-middle levels, however the factor population has the least impact. As to the low-income level, the key impact factor is affluence followed by population and technology. The conclusions from this paper help the policy makers to design effective policies to reduce the carbon emission.

C. Y. Shuai, X. N. Song, S. P. Li

Chapter 53. Critical Risks Associated with BIM Adoption: A Case of Singapore

In the recent years, building information modelling (BIM) has attracted worldwide attention from both academics and industry practitioners. Although there have been well-recognized benefits from the BIM adoption, the potential risks associated with BIM adoption should not be ignored. The objective of this study is to assess the potential risks in the BIM adoption in Singapore. To achieve the objective, a total of 16 risks were identified through a literature review, and a questionnaire survey was conducted with 36 industry practitioners. The magnitude of impact, likelihood of occurrence, and criticality of risks were analysed. The results indicated that the risk criticality scores ranged from 2.89 to 3.68, and that “lack of competency or expertise in using BIM” was the most critical risks associated with BIM adoption, followed by “cost overrun with BIM” and “lack of collaboration among project participants”. With respect to the impact, “lack of competency or expertise in using BIM” also received the top position. In terms of the likelihood of occurrence, “cultural resistance” was ranked top. The identification of the critical risks contributes to a better risk awareness in the organizations that were adopting BIM, and enables the industry practitioners to develop appropriate risk response measures.

Xianbo Zhao, Josua Pienaar, Shang Gao

Chapter 54. Critical Success Factors of Joint Ventures in the Construction Industry: Literature Review

Joint ventures have become increasingly common in the construction industry. Even though, issues related to the formation and operation of joint ventures in construction projects have been the subject of considerable commentary, joint ventures have become a useful vehicle for collaborative housing development and future private rented sector projects, and is therefore regarded as a speculation for profit where the risks and rewards (benefits) are shared by the parties. These rewards (benefits) include the access to new markets and distribution networks, increased capacity, sharing of costs with a partner and access to greater resources, including specialized staff, technology and finance. Thus, in order to have access to JV benefits it is important to first identify the potential critical success factors (CSF) that need to be observed when involved in JV construction projects. A literature search related to success factors of JV projects in the construction industry was conducted through the use of a thematic analysis. Key findings reveal that CSF of JVs includes comprehensive and fair written agreement, mutual understanding, inter-partner trust, commitment of the partners. Other CSFs when involved in JVs comprise the co-operation between the members, the ease of communication between the partners, management control, partner experience, and commitment of the partners. The study emphasizes potential critical success factors (CSFs) that need to be implemented when involved in JV which will enable interested and concerned parties (contractors, consultants, owners of construction companies) to appreciate the importance of these success factors in order to enhance JV performance.

M. F. Bekale Mba, N. J. Agumba

Chapter 55. Detection and Quantification of Spalling Distress in Subway Networks

Spalling is one of significant surface defects that affects the integrity and durability of concrete structures in subway networks. The current visual inspection is manually intensive. Moreover, the inspection results are heavily subjected to the inspectors’ knowledge and expertise. The main objective of this paper is to present a novel method for detecting and assessing concrete spalling in subway networks. The method relies on image processing techniques in spatial and frequency domains and regression analysis. Specifically, the digital color images of concrete surfaces are first processed to remove image noise and enhance the crucial detection clues associated with the spalling defects. Then, the spalling attributes are extracted to provide its 3D visualization. The depth and severity of the spalling distress are further measured using regression analysis combined with the projection of the spalling intensity curve. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been tested when inspecting a metro station in Montreal. The test results showed that the precision and recall for the detection of concrete spalling from the images could reach up to 94.8% and 91.7% separately. Meanwhile, the cubic relationship was found to quantify the spalling depth from the regression analysis results.

T. Dawood, Z. Zhu, T. Zayed

Chapter 56. Determinants of Business Overdraft Accessibility Within Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the South African Construction Industry: A Case of Gauteng Province

Small and medium construction enterprises (SMEs) are important vehicle to drive the economic growth globally. However, this sector have been stifled to participate fully in the main stream economy, due to lack of finance. There is paucity of research to determine the predictors of business overdraft accessibility from banks in South Africa. The data was obtained using questionnaire survey. 179 SMEs contractors responded, from conveniently sampled respondents in Gauteng province in South Africa. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. The study found that the dependant variable, business overdraft, was only predicted with the business location. However, the other independent variables modelled with business overdraft i.e. gender, age group, current position, type of organization ownership, tax number and collateral were not predictors of the business overdraft accessibility. The finding suggests that banks should not force clients to submit collateral before awarding credit to the SMEs. The model that was tested attained the Hosmer and Lemeshow Test goodness of fit. Hence the results were credible. However, a further study is proposed for the entire country. As the researchers acknowledge location of the study as a limitation. This will enable the researchers to generalize the findings.

O. A. Balogun, N. J. Agumba, N. Ansary

Chapter 57. Determination of Project Management Competence Risks in Build Operate Transfer (BOT) Transportation Projects

Increasing population and urbanization highlight the ventures in the construction of mega transportation projects handled by PPPs. Build–Operate–Transfer (BOT) is the most common financial model implemented for those projects. In order to increase the performance of those projects, long term planning (strategic management) and short term planning (project management) should be integrated for risk allocation between public and private stakeholders. Thus, along with risk factors such as political, economic, social, environmental, market, financial and construction; project management competence risks should also be well determined, analyzed and managed to provide stakeholder satisfaction with an efficient project management. In this context, this study aims to determine and rate project management competence risks in BOT transportation projects. With this aim, focus group discussions were carried out with experts from construction companies and universities in order to reveal the importance of project management competence risks in BOT transportation projects. Gathered data were then analyzed with SMART in order to identify their significance in the projects. The findings of the study can be used as a base to manage project management competence risks in order to increase project success.

H. Aladağ, Z. Işık

Chapter 58. Does the Development of China’s Building Industry Influence the Global Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions? an Analysis Based on the GVAR Model

As the economies become globalization, the development of building industry in China not only has significant impacts on domestic energy consumption and carbon emissions, but also imposes indirect influence on other countries. This paper studies the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption and carbon emissions in the context of international trades, using 1979Q2–2008Q4 quarterly data of 33 countries with the GVAR model. The results suggest that the growth of China’s building industry will influence the energy consumption and carbon emissions in different countries. The responses of energy consumption in most economies are positive, while the responses are negative in Japan and the Euro area, which means these two areas have different energy consumption structure from other economies. At the end of the paper, we draw the conclusion that a country’s development will have a worldwide impact and all countries should cooperate with each other in order to improve their energy use efficiency.

Hong Zhang, Jiawei Chen, Yang Li, Michael J. Seiler

Chapter 59. Driving Factors for Promoting Urbanization of Small Towns in Southwest China

A healthy and sustainable process of urbanization for small towns can be achieved through managing driving factors properly, therefore it is critical to identify these driving factors. This paper firstly summarize and classify the driving factors affecting urbanization in China, which have been presented in the existing literatures. Then the examination is given to the current status of small towns in Southwest China by making use of the data collected from field research. Finally, the driving factors of the urbanization in small town in Southwest China will be identified by incorporating the research work in previous section, including industrialization, the implementation of the social security system, the application of the investment and financing system, the effective administrative system, the application of the land transfer system, the development of infrastructure and requirements for ecological environment protection.

Ning Xiong, Zhenhua Huang, Shanshan Zhao, Liyin Shen

Chapter 60. Estimating the Walking Accessibility Premiums

Walking is a critical eco-friendly travel mode. Walking accessibility, the ease to reach essential destinations in the walk-in catchment area of a property, may affect this property’s price as good walking accessibility is significant from the perspective of mobility enhancement. Based on 1840 housing units in 380 multi- or high-story residential complexes in Xiamen Island, China, the paper develops a set of hedonic price models (one pre-specified and three Box-Cox transformed functional forms) to estimate, whether and to what extent, walking accessibility offers price premiums. It finds the followings: walking accessibility measures are highly robust and significant in all model specifications; walking accessibility contributes to explaining the variations in housing prices; walking accessibility to education and commercial facilities exerts positive effects on housing prices; walking accessibility to comprehensive hospitals affects housing prices negatively.

Linchuan Yang

Chapter 61. Evaluating the Critical Risk Factors of Reconstruction Urban Renewal Projects: The Developer’s Perspective in China

The reconstruction urban renewal projects has been confronted with the problems such as social conflict and half-way project. If these problems cannot be addressed properly, not only will the developer suffer a great economic loss, but it may also threat the safety and stability of society. In order to manage project risks more properly, based on the literature review and experts interview, this paper identified 29 potential risk factors and adopted questionnaire survey and factor analysis to extract 6 clusters and 22 critical factors altogether. The research indicated that the critical risk factors of reconstructing urban renewal projects can be reflected by 6 clusters, among which project management risk and social and policy risk, weighting over 40%, were identified as the most critical risk factors. In general, the developer can boost the possibility of project success by emphasizing the control of project management risk and social and policy risk.

W. D. Wu, G. W. Liu, Z. H. Cai, S. N. Zheng

Chapter 62. Evaluating the Effects of Alleviating Urban Traffic Congestion Using Real-Time Traffic Information on Mobile Devices

Nowadays, almost all the metropolises in China are facing severe urban traffic congestion. Some apps (applications) on mobile devices, such as AutoNavi Map and Baidu Map, offer free real-time traveler information and navigation service. More and more travelers are willing to utilize these mobile service to plan and optimize their personal travel activities. However, these apps have a possible influence on the urban traffic management. Although such services as the real-time navigation or traffic diversion may benefit some drivers and help to avoid congested roads, it is difficult to identify its benefits on urban traffic system level. Traffic diversion may alleviate the congestion on some roads but aggravate the traffic condition on the alternative roads. We built a microscopic traffic simulation model with complex system simulation software AnyLogic. Attempts have been made to figure out the drivers’ behavior to traffic diversion and the urban traffic network performance under real-time traffic information. In a word, this study attempts to answer: will the real-time traffic information provided by the apps brings benefits on network level or just benefits limited users? Some findings from this study may provide references for urban traffic service supply.

M. W. Hu, W. K. Huang, Y. Chen

Chapter 63. Evaluation of Construction Waste: Management Problems and Solutions

The purpose of the study is to identify the causes of construction waste generation in the Nelson Mandela Bay metropole and highlight focus areas that may contribute to the minimisation of construction waste. The study is aimed at encouraging sustainable development within the construction industry, by means of waste minimisation, reduction, and recycling. The research comprises of a normative survey involving responses from a variety of construction related professionals in the Nelson Mandela Bay metropole. The results indicate: a lack of knowledge in key waste related areas such as construction waste management solutions and alternative materials with less inherent waste; industry participants understand what may be required to reduce waste, but are not incentivised to implement responses in practice; the best way to contribute to the reduction of waste is to educate all participants; the cost implications of construction waste is an important approach in terms of motivating stakeholders as it is one that that they all relate to. Conclusions include that the industry needs to make a paradigm shift if it wishes to realise a sustainable future, and become the leaders thereof.

T. Quinn, J. J. Smallwood

Chapter 64. Evaluation of Procurement Systems of Public Sector Funded Projects

Due to their complex nature, construction projects are continuously faced with several challenges relating to cost, time, quality, satisfaction, etc. These are as a result of several factors including procurement method adopted, tendering approach, contractual options, etc. This study investigated various procurement routes of projects funded by the public sector with a view to suggesting appropriate options for improved performance construction projects. Based on the data obtained from literature review of the existing body of knowledge, primary data were obtained through questionnaires survey of relevant construction professionals. From the data obtained, design, tender and bill as well as management procurement options are the most preferred systems for public funded projects. The procedures followed when selecting a procurement systems are; competitive, qualified and open procedures. In selecting the system to be adopted, clarity allocation of responsibility, degree of competition and risk management approach are the major aspect considered. In view of this, procurement system for public funded projects should be selected based on the scope of work and not necessarily the experience of the construction team. More so, sustainability, economic stability and construction culture of projects should be considered for optimum project performance.

A. E. Oke, C. O. Aigbavboa, B. A. Tong

Chapter 65. Evolutionary Game Analysis on the Low-Carbon City Construction Between Central and Local Government in China

Global warming caused by carbon emission has been recognized as a big threat to the sustainability of the world. Developing low-carbon city has become an important strategy in China in response to increasingly serious global warming and the international pressure of reducing carbon emissions. In order to facilitate the strategy of building low-carbon city can be effectively carried out, it is very important to conduct a deep analysis on how to guide local government to thoroughly complete the low-carbon city construction policies. In this study, the central government and local government are selected as the main research body of the evolutionary game. Then the optimal strategies decision of both sides has been discussed comprehensively based on Replicated Dynamic Equation by employing the evolutionary game model. It is found that the benefits and costs of local government in promoting and developing the low-carbon city, subsidies and punishments from central government should be given with the highest priority for decision making in implementing low-carbon city in China.

Yingli Lou, Xiangnan Song, Hui Yan

Chapter 66. Examining Critical Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects

Knowledge transfer plays a significant role in smooth development of PPP programs. This research aims to identify the critical factors for improving knowledge transfer processes in PPP projects. Based on a thorough literature search and an empirical questionnaire survey, this research showed the critical factors are: (1) knowledge-related factors such as articulability of knowledge; (2) capability-related factors including experience of PPP teams, reliability of knowledge source, and innovation capability of PPP teams; (3) PPP projects-related factors such as political support, and support from experts. (4) culture-related factors including rewards & incentives, concern & trust, communication & collaboration, and learning culture. This research provides useful reference for organizations involved in PPPs on how to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of knowledge transfer. It also sets out directions for practitioners to design mechanisms and processes so that the knowledge accumulated in previous projects can be better captured and applied in future PPPs.

T. T. Liu, Y. C. Wang

Chapter 67. Explication of Challenges with Acceptance of Marketing Functions in the Management of Construction Business Enterprise

Construction business survival, growth and the desire for greater profitability in highly competitive business environment appear to have given construction marketing its greatest impetus. Yet construction businesses are slow in accepting marketing as a useful management function in the operations of construction business enterprise. This paper adopts the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in examining challenges with marketing acceptance in construction business enterprise management. The objectives of the study are: to determine the suitability of the constructs of the TAM for examination of factors influencing marketing acceptance in construction, to modify/alter the TAM constructs for the purpose of examining issues relating to marketing in construction and to find existing empirical evidence to support or otherwise the propositions in the modified TAM for construction marketing. The paper adopts the descriptive study design and uses literature review as a method to identify, summarizes, synthesize and show gaps in existing research knowledge on challenges with construction marketing. The study finds that perceived ease of use and perceived benefit of adoption marketing in the management of construction business enterprise are the major issues militating against marketing in construction. It also shows that the industry’s perception about marketing is a key determinant for its adoption and implementation. The paper opens a new direction for construction marketing research which places construction business managers’ perception about marketing relative to marketing’s adoption and implementation in the construction industry.

J. E. Yankah, C. Aigbavboa, W. Thwala

Chapter 68. Factors Influencing Safety Training Transfer on Construction Sites: A Literature Review

Significant amounts of resources are invested on construction workplace health and safety training of construction workers. An often under-addressed area of construction safety training is the concept of training transfer. Training transfer is a cognitive function, which involves reasoning, memory, attention and attainment of information such as knowledge and skills. More specifically, the maximisation of training transfer has been shown to lead to greater knowledge retention of safety skills and knowledge in construction workers. This paper aims to investigate the factors influencing safety-training transfer through a systematic review of safety training research and practices. The literature review is conducted with the scope of identifying and maximising training transfer effectiveness. This was achieved by examining previous research into these areas, which served as a basis for this literature review and helped in narrowing down the search criteria. A number of well-known peer reviewed academic journals in the fields of workplace safety and construction management were searched. The journals were critically analysed to identify recent developments, trends and future directions on safety training and training transfer research. The outcomes of this paper may provide trainers and training institutions with up to date knowledge on training transfer research and help to improve subsequent safety training design and delivery. In addition, construction organisations and related stakeholders can benefit from this research by discovering the latest developments and trends in maximising safety-training efforts within the construction industry.

R. Prasad, Y. Feng, M. Hardy

Chapter 69. Factors Influencing the Construction Time and Cost Overrun in Projects: Empirical Evidence from Pakistani Construction Industry

Construction industry plays critical role in the development of any country. Construction projects in developing countries usually face the time and cost overrun, hence affecting the profit and overall performance of the contractors. This paper aims to analyze the factors influencing the time overrun and cost overrun in Pakistani construction projects. The data in this research was collected by means of questionnaire survey from 113 construction projects. Regarding the design and documentation related issues, design changes during construction and improvements to standard drawings are critical factors influencing time overrun and cost overrun. Whereas for the labor related issues, bad performance of subcontractors and nominated suppliers and poor technical performance and shortage of technical staff are found to be critical factors. Among procurement issues, material fluctuation and shortage of material is found to be critical factor. Whereas for site operation issues, problem in land acquisition is the critical factor influencing time and cost overrun.

Ahsen Maqsoom, Muhammad Umar Khan, Muhammad Tariq Khan, Shahfahad Khan, Naeemullah, Fahim Ullah

Chapter 70. Feasibility Analysis of Using Construction and Demolition Waste in Sea Reclamation Projects in Hainan

Whether construction and demolition (C&D) waste could be applied in sea reclamation projects has caused a heated discussion in recent years. To salve the problem, this study, based on the analysis of C&D waste generation, waste components and disposal ways in Hainan, sums up experience from sea reclamation cases and then discusses the feasibility of using C&D waste in sea reclamation projects from three aspects, which are the legal regulations, technology and environment in order to find a new way for the utilization of C&D waste.

X. L. Li, Y. Li, H. Y. Wu, J. Y. Wang, H. B. Duan, X. X. Xv

Chapter 71. Female Student Enrolments in Construction Management Programs

This study examines the trends of female student enrolment to construction management (CM) undergraduate degree programs in New South Wales, Australia. Enrolment data from the past decade (2006–2015) were collected from three universities offering CM programs. A survey questionnaire was also conducted with current female students enrolled in CM program at one of the universities. The enrolment data shows that there is a steady increase of female student enrolments in CM programs across the three universities. The survey results show that high school counsellors, friends and peers were not significantly influential on the respondents’ decision to pursue a CM program. Parental influence was also noted, which is however not statistically significant. The survey respondents disagreed that: (i) working in the construction industry requires getting dirty; and (ii) there is no place for women in the male-dominated construction industry. Although with a perception of longer working hours in the industry that provides ample remuneration, they would like to see themselves in the industry for the next ten years. These findings have implications to CM educators in their recruitment and retention strategies towards sustainable increment of female students in CM programs.

B. L. Oo, E. C. Widjaja

Chapter 72. Financial Simulation in Operation and Maintenance of Railway Transportation: A Case Study of Greater Jakarta Light Rail Transit

Railway transportation is one of the promising infrastructure sectors that potentially become economic backbone of Indonesia in the future years. Greater Jakarta Light Rail Transit (LRT) is a railway project development that aims to provide alternative accessibility for commuters and in longer run expected to reduce vehicles population. Although other sectors are already familiar with contracting out operation and maintenance, the application for railway sector is relatively new either for regulator, operator and also supporting industries. This research aims to contribute financial simulation of operation and maintenance particularly in Greater Jakarta LRT project to help the regulator in gaining insight, producing better regulatory framework and propose the best contract for business entity. The result shows that procurement of rolling stock for about US$126 million shall supported by the government meanwhile depot construction that estimated around US$20.87 million belong to private responsibility. The concept of operation and maintenance contract in this research produce significant rate of return for business, government has the opportunity to provide infrastructure and the people get reasonable tariff for their transportation cost.

H. Z. Rahman, P. Miraj, J. S. Petroceany

Chapter 73. Finding Academic Concerns on Real Estate of U.S. and China: A Topic Modeling Based Exploration

Real estate industry is important for national economy. China and the U.S. are the world’s major economies where real estate both plays an important role during the Global Financial Crisis of 2008. Academic paper is the common form to present scholars’ opinions which are usually the most scientific and objective knowledge of a discipline. However, traditional review methods with manual inspection are considered to be time-consuming, subjective and inefficient to process them. A large-scale review gathering systematic data to find academic concerns on real estate is missing. With recent big data technologies, especially the structural topic modeling approach, we make a contribution to the understanding of experts’ views about real estate by analyzing the abstracts of all related academic papers in SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI and CSCD databases. Besides, we compare the topical differences when scholars discuss real estate issues in China and the U.S., respectively. The structural topic model indicates that the data set of the collected 1027 abstracts can be abstracted into 9 topics, which represent the major academic concerns of real estate issues in the two countries. Furthermore, we find that the real estate research of the U.S. focuses more on Financial/Bubbles, Environment/Substance, Credit/Mortgage/Crisis, Causality Test Methods, and Politics/Equality, while China’s studies address more on Urbanization, Rural Real Estate, Commercial Housing, and Foreign Investment/Other Industries. Finally, we analyze the differences of topical prevalence between China and the U.S., and find that the major differences can be derived from distinguishing features of development stage of real estate, the national economy, the stress of connections with finance and effect towards real world, the research methods employed and the political and racial background, in the two countries.

Z. R. Zhang, M. S. Qiang, H. C. Jiang

Chapter 74. From Paper-Based to Cloud-Based Safety Information System in Infrastructure Construction Projects

This research aims to develop a cloud-based safety information and communication system in infrastructure construction projects. To achieve this aim, the current paper-based construction safety management was reviewed. Following this, a cloud-based safety information and communication system, which incorporates geographic information system (GIS) and Global Position System (GPS), has been designed and developed. Google Drive was chosen as the system database and hosting web server, where the Google Docs, Sheets and Forms are tailored to accurately capture on-site safety data with mobile devices. The captured data with its actual construction activity location is automatically synchronized in Google Fusion Tables and the processed safety information is visualized simultaneously on Google Maps together with the project’s general information. Both data capturing and visualization processes are managed in a single web interface, bringing easy-to-use benefits to end users. The system was trial tested with a real case project, which confirmed its usability and benefits. The system developed in this research has potential applications in managing safety in infrastructure construction projects.

Patrick X. W. Zou, Percy K. Y. Lun, Palaneeswaran Ekambaram, Sheirf Mohamed, Dean Cipolla

Chapter 75. Game Analysis of Stakeholders in Urban Renewal Based on Maximization of Social Welfare

Urban renewal is one of the important ways in the urbanization process of China. Compared to the new construction, the rights of stakeholders in urban renewal are more complex and the game is more intense. Based on the principle of maximizing social welfare, this article establishes renewal game model, constructs the utility function to analyze the equilibrium condition of the game, and then puts forward four kinds of urban renewal model, they are, respectively, government direct implementation, residents self-raised, developers’ participation and government and market coordination. Comparative analysis found that the mode of government provides policies and developers participate in with support of the villagers are both likely to achieve win. From the analysis of the comprehensiveness of social and economic, it’s indispensable both to ensure the government policies support the developers’ profit requirement and coordinate the residents to participate in actively. The theoretical model is used in the demonstration of transformation of Lieder village of Guangzhou and expected benefits of government, villagers and developers quantified to be 92.21, 177.93, 3134.04 million Yuan respectively, which meet the pursuit of the economic interests of the parties. The study also confirmed that the three indispensable conditions for the balanced game and successful decisions are fairness of policies government provides, support of the villagers and developers’ financial strength.

J. F. Li, Y. S. Wang, N. Lu, Y. Du, Y. Zhang, F. F. Liu

Chapter 76. Game-Based Construction Process Learning for Students’ Education: A Case Study of Concreting Game

On site construction process such as concreting usually follow a standard process, the degree of process proficiency will impact the construction quality directly. So it is very important and necessary to educate students who will become the construction manager on construction process before starting their onsite construction work. Previous construction learning is apart from classroom and construction site, it is hard for students to image and know the steps of construction process. Nowadays 3D game-based process learning becomes a great tool in engineering education, which can solve this problem effectively. This paper presents a game-based concreting process course to educate 60 junior students majoring in civil engineering. Its objectives are 3 folds: (1) to develop the specific game simulation of concreting process; (2) to design an easy recognized Graphical User Interface (GUI) for students; (3) to ensure good memories of students after learning. Final results of this game-based construction process learning course are fully illustrated.

Fei Feng, Zhiyang Lin, Wenfeng Yue, Ke Chen, Ming Kang, Yonghong Cao

Chapter 77. Identification and Assessment of Particulate Matters in Asphalt Fumes from Road Construction

The primary purpose of this study to increase the awareness of paving industry about the current practices used to reduce occupational exposure to asphalt fumes during the application of hot mix asphalt to construction. In this study, the effects of respirable particulate matters (PMs) in asphalt fumes are investigated through field collection and laboratory simulation. A total of fifty-eight PMs samples collected from the twelve asphalt road construction sites were used to assess the exposure levels of the road construction workers. While a total of thirty-two PMs samples collected from six asphalt mixture materials in laboratory aimed to identify the factors affecting the concentration levels of PMs. There is a variations of PMs exposures with job tasks of road construction workers. Both asphalt mixture types and asphalt paving temperature impacted on the concentration of PMs. The findings of this study are expected to help enhance the sustainability of pavement construction industry by improving the health and wellbeing of the workers.

D. Chong, M. Kobzeva, Y. H. Wang

Chapter 78. Identifying the Relationship Between Housing Market Development and Urbanization Process: Evidence from Jiangsu, China

China has been in a state of rapid urbanization for a long period of time, which has essentially affected the housing market. Investigation of the relationship between housing market and urbanization system has great significance but lacks of sufficient attention. This paper is thus intended to highlight the dynamics of the two systems quantitatively. Grey system models of housing market and urbanization are respectively adopted. With synergetic principles, order parameters are identified and supported by which the development functions could be formulated. An empirical analysis is performed using housing market and urbanization data of Jiangsu Province in the period of 2006 to 2014. The findings reveal that respectively 10 order parameters are chosen in the two systems and the development pace of the housing market in Jiangsu Province is quantitatively faster than that of urbanization. Through the order parameters, the results demonstrate that it is necessary to enhance the intrinsic quality of urbanization. The quality of urbanization could be comprehensively improved by promoting the citizenship of migrant workers, adjusting and upgrading the industrial structure and improving infrastructure investment, which provide references for the design of relevant governmental policies.

Jing Du, Yifan Yang, Bing Jiang

Chapter 79. Impacts of Large Construction Projects on Residents’ Living Status in China: A Reservoir Project Case

An increasing number of NIMBY (not in my backyard) events caused by constructing large construction projects were publically reported in China. Negative impacts on local residents’ living status was a major concern raised by the opponents. However, hitherto how large construction projects influence residents’ living status is still not known. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the impacts of large construction projects on local residents’ living status and make suggestions for dealing with the resistance. A comparative case study of a reservoir project was undertaken in China. Data was collected through a mix of questionnaire-survey, archive files and face-to-face interviews. The results show the majority is dissatisfied with their current living status due to negative impacts on employment, family income and restrained income source. However, this project improved residence conditions and facilitated the acceptance of the rural corporate medical insurance. It is also found that monetary compensation is less sustainable than a mix of land and money. Recommendations for large construction sitting and resettlement plan design are provided.

W. S. Lin, Y. Ning, Y. L. Huang, M. J. Liu

Chapter 80. Improving Construction Safety Performance Through Error Management: A Literature Review

Human error is identified as a root cause of accidents in construction environments. Prevention of human errors is regarded as a key strategy to prevent accidents on construction site. However, as human errors cannot be completely eliminated, error management needs to be implemented to respond to the error and its consequences after an error has occurred on construction sites. The aim of this paper is to present a literature review of research on error management in the workplace environment, identify knowledge gaps, and suggest recommendations for future research. We reviewed the definitions of errors and the related concepts such as unsafe behaviors, violations, failure, incidents, accidents, error management. We also reviewed the strategies and principles of error management and error prevention. The results of review show that error management is an effective way to improve safety performance of construction work. It also provides a new approach for further research on the development of practical safety management for construction organizations.

Minh Tri Trinh, Yingbin Feng

Chapter 81. Improving Mentoring Relationships of Construction Management Professionals

Mentoring is usually undermined and often mistaken as managing and assigning work to individuals. This study examined various characteristics expected of new (mentees) and experienced construction management professionals (mentors) with a view to equipping the mentees with adequate knowledge and reduce mentoring relationship breakdown. Basic attributes required for the two parties to mentoring as well as basic factors for failure of mentoring relationships were obtained from existing relevant literature materials. Based on this, data were collected using close-ended questionnaires administered on various professionals mentees and mentors that are currently working in the construction industry. For effective mentoring, experienced professionals must be respectful, knowledgeable, honest, energetic, encourage communication, share past experience and possess good positive attitude. For mentees, they must be enthusiastic, willing to learn, respectful, motivated, energetic and be a good listener. Mentoring relationships fail due to various personal, attitudinal and organizational reasons. To improve the relationship, individual opinions should be allowed and respected and conversation should focus on personal beliefs and values. More so, construction organizations, that is, contracting and consulting firms should support mentoring by fostering good relationship among employee by assigning experienced and young professionals to the same task, multi-tasking of the young ones, etc.

A. E. Oke, C. O. Aigbavboa, M. M. Mutshaeni

Chapter 82. Index Decomposition Analysis of Building Energy Consumption in Chongqing: 2000–2014

Exploring the underlying driving factors of building energy consumption(BEC) can provide advices for future policy making. The purpose of this paper is to adopt Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method to analyze a decomposition of BEC in Chongqing during the study time 2000–2014. The research results have shown that the behavior effect is the most significant factor of increasing BEC in Chongqing. It has also found that the floor area effect, urbanization rate effect and population effect also have a positive impact on increasing BEC. However, the energy efficiency effect has had a dampening impact on BEC. Finally, we suggest that “a low-carbon lifestyle” is an effective way to control the future increasing of BEC both in the urban and rural region in Chongqing.

Xia Wang, Hong Ren, Weiguang Cai, Yan Liu

Chapter 83. Indicators for Guiding Sustainable Development of Townships in Mountainous Regions in Southwest China

There exist a large number of small mountainous townships in the Southwestern China. The sustainable development of mountainous townships in these areas is severely limited by the harsh and fragile ecological environment. It is urgent to come up with a system of indicators for guiding these areas to develop towards sustainable development, and this paper presents a system of indicators as a tool and guidelines for this purpose. The establishment of these indicators is based on the understanding of typical barriers affecting sustainable development for townships in mountainous regions in Southwest China. The validity of the indicator system is further analyzed and verified through the investigation of a number of mountainous townships in Southwest China.

Y. Chen, Y. T. Ren, Y. L. Huang, L. Y. Shen

Chapter 84. Influential Factors in Construction Industry of Yemen

Delay in the construction industry is a global phenomenon and are considered as one of the most persistent problems throughout the world. Its persistence lie in its significant cause to cost overrun which most often than not lead to abandoning the project. Although such in present more in some countries as against others, the construction industry of Yemen is no exception to it. The key controlling features of project success—time, cost, quality and safety—for a project are adversely affected by the impacts of such delays. The time extension in construction projects has many after effects among which the main are time extension, cost overrun, disputes, arbitrations and litigations. Previous studies have mostly emphasized on the major causes or the effects of project delays. The main purpose of this study is to identify the influential factors negatively affecting project successful completion on time. Using a picked set of 33 factors, this investigation at first recognized the key components influencing project completion in Yemen. A study has surrounded the reason of this survey and distributed to study. The result covers that the 5 critical factors which significantly impact to project successful completion including money cash flow during construction, the conflict between owners and other parties, delay in running bill payments for the contractor, poor project management, and slow decisions from the owner. The impact of (IF) contrarily impacts to time extension cost overrun, adversely influence to the fulfillment of the stakeholder, adversely influence to specialized specification and adversely influencing to satisfaction all meeting all the project goals/safety. These revelations are required to be basic obligations to Yemen construction industry in controlling the time and cost overpower being created.

Najib AL-Fadhali, Ng Kim Soon, Rozlin Zainal, Abd Rahman Ahmad, Abdel Hafiz Ali Hasaballah

Chapter 85. Investigating the Relationship Between Student Characteristics and Progression: An Archive Study

Progression has been seen as an indicator of a student’s academic development. Different students usually have different characteristics affecting student progression. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between students’ characteristics and progression. To achieve this objective, an archive study was performed to check 1547 Built Environment student records at Central Queensland University (CQUniversity). The student management data archive included all the students studying Built Environment programs at CQUniversity from the start of Term 1 2000 to the end of Term 3 2010. The Student Progression Unit (SPU) was used to measure the students’ progression. The analysis results indicated that the students with academic credit transfers performed better in terms of SPU than those without, and that the students who were in Building Surveying program received significantly higher SPU scores than those in other programs. In addition, the students’ gender, geographical location, socioeconomic status, and countries of birth did not significantly affect their SPUs. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the relationship between student characteristics and progression.

Josua Pienaar, Xianbo Zhao, Nadine Adams

Chapter 86. Key Parameters on Financial Loss of Construction Accidents in Hong Kong Construction Industry

Construction accidents happen all over the world. These cause construction progress delay, compensation and legal lability. This paper consists into two parts. The first part introduces a comprehensive structured interview study conducted from June to December 2013. The results included statistical findings of 949 construction accidents drawn from 117 construction projects in Hong Kong for the period from April 2007 to March 2012. The second part presents a regression model developed from the survey data together with validation. The paper summarized the research findings and analyzed the sampled research data by adopting the numerical model analysis. The numerical data including the main, standard derivation and majority of victim age, working trade, daily salary, day loss, hospitalization expense and medical expenses are presented for further research analysis. According to the research findings, most of the construction accidents happened to semi-skilled workers who are around 40 years old and their main daily salary is around HK$620. The main day loss and financial loss due to accidents are 17 days and HK$28,000 respectively. These findings implied that many accidents happened in middle age (40–56 year old) and semi-skilled labour (Salary below HK$1000). The paper then further analyzed the major factors influencing the financial loss due to accidents. The factors include but not limited to the salary loss, hospitalization expenses, idle loss, material loss, equipment loss, loss in salary of others and other costs (including investigation after accident, cleaning up site, bringing work up to standard etc.…). The paper concluded with presenting a regression model of financial loss in construction industry from accident cases with validated assessment. The regression model shows the significant parameters in numerical analysis which affect the financial loss. In addition, it predicts the estimated financial loss of construction accident. It is recommended to put more effort in accident prevention especially for general working trade labor and increasing the awareness and knowledge of working safety of the middle age worker and semi-skilled worker by providing more training or seminar etc.

Kai-Chi Ying, Guomin Zhang, Sujeeva Setunge

Chapter 87. Knowledge Transfer Between R&D Projects and Commercial Projects: A Conceptual Framework

Organizations increasingly invest in research and development (R&D) in order to remain competitive. To ensure that they retain both explicit and tacit knowledge and thus translating into commercial benefits, these organizations are leaning towards keeping their R&D operations in-house. One of the in-house R&D approaches that is gaining traction is the embedded R&D where the organization’s staff undertake R&D activities in parallel with their primary role within the organization. Despite the value in allowing their project based staff to also undertake research, there are few tools available to them that can optimize the value of this approach. The primary aim of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework that can enable successful knowledge transfer between R&D projects and commercial projects. Specifically, this paper examines the importance of structural embeddedness and cognitive embeddedness for successful knowledge transfer between R&D and commercial projects. The framework can provide guidance to organizations in its ability to consume knowledge and thus influence their ability to apply the knowledge in a commercial situation and hence better design their R&D activities.

Eric Too, Stewart Bird

Chapter 88. Life Cycle Costing for Insulated Pitched Roof Structures

Thermal insulation is one of the main factors considered for the energy efficiency in buildings. It is a requirement to insulate the walls, roofs and floor according to the necessary standards. The thermal insulation is given in Total R-Values and required R-Values are obtained through changing the insulation material, sarking material, air films and roof covering. Therefore there are many options available to obtain the required total R-Value. This research focused on developing life cycle costs for each of these different types of roofing solutions in pitched roof structures. For each of these options, life cycle cost is calculated and reported. Finally an analysis is done based on the life cycle cost figures. According to the research the maintenance cost of the pitched roofs amounts of 20% of the life cycle cost. Tiled roof has a higher disposal costs compared to metal roofs. Life cycle cost increases with the increment of the Total R-Value of the roof structure.

I. M. Chethana S. Illankoon, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Khoa N. Le

Chapter 89. Life-Cycle Cost Assessment of Durable Repair of Concrete Structures Based on Environmental Costs

This paper discusses the life-cycle cost assessment of concrete structures on the basis of durable repair technology from an environmental impact perspective. First, the five stages of concrete durability development are analyzed, and important influential factors are proposed. Second, a traditional model of life-cycle cost calculations is adopted for a comparison of the assessment results based on a case study. Two repair solutions for a degraded concrete structure in a coastal region of China are appraised by considering the environmental costs. To analyze the environmental impact, carbon emission is introduced as an environmental variable. The results of the assessment reveal that environmental cost has a significant influence on the selections of repair solutions. The life-cycle cost analysis of marine concrete structures is complex and dynamic and is influenced by many factors. Among the many influential factors, carbon emission is the one of most important and requires increased attention.

X. M. Mi, C. Y. Liu, D. W. Li, N. X. Han, F. Xing

Chapter 90. Literature Review on the Research Discipline of Low Carbon Cities in China

Low carbon city research has become a hot topic, and the research has presented a complex and scattered situation. However there is a lack of comprehensive review on the existing studies in this discipline field of research. The research data used in this paper are collated from the articles on the low carbon city in 198 journals which are Chinese core and the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index (CSSCI) journals. The high frequency keywords (HFK) in there research articles are identified from these 198 journals. These HFKs are further examined by using. By using EXCEL software, the co-word matrix, similar matrix and dissimilarity matrix are built; Furthermore, by using SPSS software, HFKs are classified into 14 clusters of low carbon city in china. These clusters show the status of the existing studies on low carbon cities in china; By mapping the strategic coordinates, we know the location of different classes. The understanding on the research status of the discipline of low carbon city in China can provide valuable references to make both researchers and practitioners get a better grasp of low carbon city study status.

X. Y. Du, T. K. Li, Z. H. G, L. Y. Shen

Chapter 91. Management Strategies for 5D-BIM Adoption in Hong Kong

5D-BIM, a well-acknowledged innovation in construction, has been recognized to have positive influence on project performance and organizational effectiveness by both academic scholars and industry practitioners. In spite of such awareness and recognition, its adoption is still in the early stage in Hong Kong quantity surveying due to various challenges. Therefore, this research aims at investigating how 5D-BIM can be fostered by providing an overview of innovation in Hong Kong quantity surveying firstly, then exploring the impacts of various management strategies on 5D-BIM adoption and followed by giving some implementation strategies finally. The results of the questionnaire survey study indicate that innovation (5D-BIM) adoption is positively predicted by innovation climate and learning transfer climate and that 5D-BIM adoption in heterogeneous construction parties are motivated by different factors of innovation and learning transfer climates (e.g., support for innovation, performance self-efficacy, openness to change are essential management strategy factors for innovation in client developers’ organizations; factors of support for innovation and openness to change are important to innovation in contractors’ organizations; and factors of resource supply and performance-outcome expectation are essential to innovation in consultants’ organizations). Then cases of 5D-BIM adoption in Hong Kong are offered to validate the survey findings and to serve as the basis for proposing 5D-BIM implementation strategies for major construction parties.

I. Y. S. Chan, A. M. M. Liu, B. Chen

Chapter 92. Method for Urban Rail Transit Project Financing Decision-Making Based on Triangular Fuzzy Number

There are many problems about urban rail transit project features huge construction investment, long recovery period, high financing risk, numerous subjects participating in decision during financing decision-making, fuzzy opinions and difficulty in quantization. A new project financing fuzzy multiple attribute decision making model is built in this paper. This model has comprehensive influences on various factors of urban rail transit project financing decision making. Through triangular fuzzy linguistic variable quantization expert group opinion and with full considerations given to the consistency between authority of expert opinion and group opinion, automatic sequencing decision over various financing models are made through application of this model. According to the case inspection, it manifests that better decision-making effect could be obtained through this model. Meanwhile, decision-making reference could be provided for urban rail transit project financing.

L. L. Yuan, Y. S. Wang, Y. Sun

Chapter 93. On Territorial Planning Reconfiguration in China: A Critical Review of the Existing Planning System

There are lots of contradictions, conflicts and overlaps among China’s diverse plans. One of the most noticed topics is how to get a coordination among so many types of plans, including the “multiple-plan coordination” from theory to practice. National economic and social development planning, overall urban planning, land use planning and ecological and environment protection planning mainly consist of the national spatial planning in China. At first, the paper has a review to the knowledge of national spatial planning domestic and overseas. Then, from the perspective of resource allocation, different types of planning on the same national spatial area cause the conflicts, and the pattern of control and development planning is the reason. Thirdly, based on the literature review, this paper gives theory ideas of national land spatial development, development planning should guide the space development, and control planning is given priority to control and forbidding, however, there should have the flexibility area between those two kinds of planning, where competition is the main means of deciding the land use of the region.

Liping Shan, Yuzhe Wu, Sheng Zheng

Chapter 94. On the Garbage Classification Mechanism Based on Repeated Games in Urban Network Organization

As a common social management problem in urban development, urban garbage classification often presents a “tragedy of the commons” situation because of its strong external resistance. The methods used include the comparative study of different management organization types, based on the hierarchical organization minimum authorized theory and repeated games theory. Results show urban garbage classification is extremely complex, which inevitably lead to ineffective, if took simple hierarchical organizational model. Faced with the failure of hierarchical organizations, there are two solutions: we’d better rely on market forces with reducing supervision costs at the external constraints level, and network organization based on repeated games may be a good choice at the internal mechanism level.

Teng Su, Yuzhe Wu

Chapter 95. Optimizing Life-Cycle Carbon Emissions for Achieving Concrete Credits in Australia

To fulfil the needs of the future, the Australian building sector seems to contemplate toward sustainable design. This paper presents a computer-aided model to calculate life-cycle carbon emissions for conventional and high-strength concrete to maximise Credit 19B.1: Life-cycle impacts—Concrete in the Green Star Design & As Built in Australia (GBCA 2015). The model has been built using Microsoft Excel and Visual Basic platforms, thus it is flexible and may be one of the simplest ways for concrete strength optimisation and its life-cycle carbon emissions. The model has been rigorously verified against manual calculation and existing findings such as ACI 211.4R-08 (American Concrete Institute 2008). Options to maximise Credit 19B.1 will be discussed for normal- and high-strength concrete containing aggregate, reclaimed water and alternative fine aggregate.

Vivian W. Y. Tam, Khoa N. Le, Cuong N. N. Tran

Chapter 96. Paradigm Shift Towards Green Industry Restructuring: A Review of Industrial Land in China

Recent years, “Green” has become a crucial principle in the worldwide economy and environment sustainable development. A certain number of western countries resorts to take relevant projects and now, much have been done to achieve economic restructuring. For the purpose of investigating paradigm shift towards green industry restructuring of China, the paper starts with reviewing industrial park policy evolution from the 1980s and analyzes dilemmas of industrial land as well as industrial park construction thoroughly. Particularly, more attention will be paid on elucidating the contents of wantonly spread industrial park, mass energy consumption, together with environment stress in the study. Recommendations from the perspective of energy structure and local financial revenue are present for green transformation on the base of situations at home and abroad.

Jiaojiao Luo, Yuzhe Wu, Xiaoling Zhang

Chapter 97. Pilot Case Study of New Engineering Contracts (NECs) in Hong Kong—Joy or Tears?

The New Engineering Contract (NEC) is regarded as a series of standard contracts which promotes the execution of good project management principles and practices under a spirit of mutual trust and co-operation. This paper aims to illustrate the background knowledge and project performance of the first trial construction project procured with the New Engineering Contract Version 3—Engineering and Construction Contract (NEC3 ECC) in Hong Kong through a case study investigation. Various key performance indicators of the project were determined via documentary analysis and a series of in-depth interviews with the senior representatives of the key project stakeholders. Useful insights can be generated according to the hands-on experience derived from this trial project to the potential users of NEC3 ECC in the construction industry from other countries, in particular those where NEC3 ECC has not yet been adopted. The case study findings would benefit both the construction academics and industrial practitioners in elucidating the project performance of a real-life case study of applying NEC3 ECC in the East, providing more empirical evidence in the growing body of knowledge and developing a strong basis for future research such as an international comparison of project performance of NEC3 ECC construction projects between the East and the West.

D. W. M. Chan, J. H. L. Chan

Chapter 98. Potentials of TDR for Balancing Built Heritage Conservation and Compact Development in Hong Kong

Increasing world population has continually stressed the need for intensive but sustainable development. Vertical and high density compact development threat the built heritage conservation, especially the privately owned built heritage. Transfer of development rights (TDR) has been provided as one of the economic incentives by Hong Kong government to encourage the private owner to conserve the built heritage. TDR does not prevent new development when realizing the conservation goals. The research aims to analyze the contribution of TDR for built heritage conservation in Hong Kong from the social, economic, and environmental perspective of sustainable development. Then the research evaluated the implementation of TDR in Hong Kong, supplemented by the local interview to identify the difficulties in implementing TDR. The research found TDR is a proper method with great potentials to deal with the conservation of privately owned built heritage in Hong Kong, however, government support, public support and institutional cooperation should be improved in order to serve better for compact development.

Jun Hou, Edwin H. W. Chan

Chapter 99. Prioritizing Best Value Contributing Factors for Contractor Selection: An AHP Approach

Construction procurement has evolved from low-bid system to Best Value (BV). This paper presents BV based contractor selection mechanism using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). BV process postulates the selection of contractor who can deliver the project in best possible way in terms of budget, quality, customer satisfaction and other success criteria. AHP is used to prioritize BV contributing factors (CFs) critical to contractor selection. This paper examines the CFs identified from literature published from 2000 to 2015 and provides the project owners a methodology of quantifying their relative effects in selecting BV contractor. The results indicate that past performance is the most significant among the 15 factors considered in contractor selection followed by cost. This is mainly due to resistance to change which encourages reputation-based procurement in construction industry blocking way for new entrants. This study helps value based contractor selection rather than the traditional low bid system. Further, it can be used by all stakeholders in a contract: client for BV contractor selection, contractor for BV supplier and consultant for BV team selection. The study can be enhanced in future to include all parties to a contract and ensure a win-win-win contracting model.

Muhammad Hasnain, Fahim Ullah, Muhammad Jamaluddin Thaheem, Samad M. E. Sepasgozar

Chapter 100. Recycled Aggregate in Concrete Production: A New Approach

This paper investigates the use of carbon-conditioned recycled aggregate ($$\mathop {\text{RA}}\nolimits^{{\mathop {\text{CO}}\nolimits_{ 2} }}$$RACO2 ) in concrete production. Experimental work is conducted for $$\mathop {\text{RA}}\nolimits^{{\mathop {\text{CO}}\nolimits_{ 2} }}$$RACO2 with varying chamber pressure (0, 75 and 150 kPa), chamber duration (0, 30 and 90 min) and $$\mathop {\text{RA}}\nolimits^{{\mathop {\text{CO}}\nolimits_{ 2} }}$$RACO2 replacement percentages (0, 30 and 100%) for concrete production. Average of three results on compressive, tensile and flexible strength and modulus of elasticity at 28 curing days are compared. The process of carbon-conditioning refers to the pressurised exposure of recycled aggregate to carbon dioxide (CO2) for a certain period of time before concrete mixing. The entraining of CO2 assists to facilitate the negative properties of recycled aggregate that produces a deprived final recycled concrete as well as providing a superior calcium carbonate chemical reaction. Carbon-conditioning reduces porosity and water absorbency of recycled aggregate. In addition to improve recycled aggregate quality, CO2 emissions from the aggregate also help filling openings in the concrete composition, generating an improved bond matrix. These two traits assist in enhancing the recycled concrete properties.

Vivian W. Y. Tam, Anthony Butera, Khoa N. Le

Chapter 101. Recycled Ceramic Fine Aggregate for Masonry Mortar Production

Reduction and reuse of construction and demolition waste can minimize the consumption of natural and energy resource in the construction industry. In addition, high population growth followed by a large housing deficit in many countries emphasizes the need to obtain low-cost and technical-viable building material. This study presents experimental results of mechanical and physical characterization of ceramic waste fragments obtained from the renovation of the Construction Materials Laboratory of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. This material is crushed and sieved in producing recycled fine aggregate. This paper analyses the influence of recycled fine aggregate to produce masonry mortars. Different sand replacement by ceramic waste are investigated. The results show that the properties of the fresh mortar are mostly influenced by the absorption, shape, texture, and density of recycled fine aggregate. 100% sand replacement is found to have the most significant decrease in the mortar’s mechanical properties.

A. C. J. Evangelista, Vivian W. Y. Tam, J. Santos

Chapter 102. Remaking the Physical Disability Inclusion Score (PDIS) and the Visual Impairment Inclusion Score (VIIS) to Assess the Disability Inclusiveness of Commercial Facilities: A Pilot Study

In response to the calls for more researches in disability inclusive facilities, two tools namely the Physical Disability Inclusion Score (PDIS) and the Visual Impairment Inclusion Score (VIIS), which are simple, quantitative and more objective tools for assessing the disability inclusiveness of higher education buildings, were previously developed. Here the remaking of the tools to PDIS (Commercial) and VIIS (Commercial) for assessing respectively the physical disability and the visual impairment inclusiveness of commercial facilities are presented together with the pilot results. The Non-structural Fuzzy Decision Support System (NSFDSS), which is similar to the popular multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), is used to analyse the weighting of different assessment attributes in PDIS (Commercial) and VIIS (Commercial). In this pilot study, 6 respondents who are physically or visually impaired were invited to weight the attributes. On-site assessment of 6 commercial facilities in Hong Kong using PDIS (Commercial) and VIIS (Commercial) was also conducted to look for disability inclusive (and excluding) areas in shopping malls. At last, the research agenda on this theme including the use of information and communications technology (ICT) tools to assess building disability inclusiveness will be presented.

W. K. Lau, T. Y. M. Lam, W. M. Ho, W. K. Wu

Chapter 103. Research of Housing Price Based on Bid-Rent Theory

Using Bid-rent theory, this research studied how housing price changes with the change of its distance to city center in Kenli County, Shandong Province. We gathered housing price data from a housing trading platform, distance data from a map software. After the basic data processing, we established a regression model to show the relationship between housing price and the distance, which can help real estate development companies determine the investment strategy, and help citizens choose houses at a suitable price. In the end, the paper points out the further research plan.

Donglang Yang, Zhongfei Cui, Luyao Zhao

Chapter 104. Research on Cost Risks for EPC Project Using Entropy-Weight Evaluation Method

Fixed-price contract is usually adopted for EPC-type project, the abbreviation of Engineering-Procurement-Construction. It is commonly appreciated that fixed-price contract will present more risks to general contractor, in particular when EPC project is implemented, which engages a long process of construction. It is crucial to evaluate properly these cost risks in order to identify proper measures to control them. Considering the characteristics of EPC project, an integrated research method is adopted to evaluate cost risks. Checklist method and expert investigation method are used to identify cost risks in EPC project. The expert scoring method and entropy-weight calculation method are used to evaluate the cost risk factors by presenting relative individual risk factors. ABC classification method is taken to rank the risks according to their importance. The analysis results by using these methods help identify effective corresponding strategies to reduce cost risks in the process of implementing EPC project. The evaluation results on the key cost risks can help general contractors better plan risk management measures in their practice.

Jiali Liu, Jinjin Chen, Liyin Shen

Chapter 105. Research on Dynamic Fuzzy Multi-objective Optimization of Engineering Projects Considering Risk Factors

The coordination among multiple objectives of engineering projects is essential in project management, directly influencing the achievement of goals of cost, schedule and quality. Nowadays, engineering projects are becoming huge in investment scale, long in period and filled with risks, having stricter requirements in the management of coordination among multiple objectives. Therefore, analysing and optimizing multiple objectives of engineering projects is the basis of realizing the balance of the objectives. Considering comprehensively the risk factors and the dynamic of the environment, we can make the optimization more consistent with the actual situation and providing theoretical basis to the practical management. This paper focused on the multi-objective optimization of engineering projects, based upon traditional theories of multi-objective optimization, using Fuzzy Set Theory, Dynamic Optimization Theory, showing the impact of risk factors and dynamic environmental factors, and built a common model considering risk factors and dynamic environmental factors. Combining with the common model, a dynamic fuzzy multi-objective optimization model of engineering projects considering risk factors is built. A kind of Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is selected to solve the model. An example is showed in this paper, which verified the feasibility and reasonability of the model built by this paper.

R. X. Ding, X. Q. Wang, T. T. Han, M. X. Li, N. N. Xia

Chapter 106. Research on Evaluation of Xi’an Shantytown Renovation Projects’ Social Benefit

This research was based on questionnaire survey data of Xi’an shantytown residents in April 2016. According to literature analysis and the actual situation, we determined social benefit evaluation indexes, and used Factor Analysis to evaluate Xi’an shantytown renovation projects’ social benefit. The evaluation results showed that, Xi’an shantytown renovation projects have achieved relatively good social benefit on the whole, among which, the aspects of infrastructure construction and the residents living in harmony have obvious improvement, and the aspects of regional development and residents’ life quality also obtained certain social benefit, but the residents’ social activities and education development gained relatively poor social benefit. In view of this, this article put forward suggestions from three aspects: completing the infrastructure construction, increase the residents’ social activities, and implementing “people-oriented” transformation strategy.

Yang Donglang, Zhao Luyao, Cui Zhongfei

Chapter 107. Research on Performance of Construction Enterprises Based on Informatization and Contract Management

With the increasing development of information technology and fierce competition in construction industry, contract management is needed in construction enterprises to improve its performance. Thus this article explore the relationship of informatization, contract management and performance of construction enterprise via questionnaire survey, the findings show that the enterprise contract management is an indispensable mediator factor of the relationship between enterprise informatization and its performance.

Bing Zhang, Sujie Hu

Chapter 108. Research on the Comprehensive Economic Strength of Macro Regional Distribution in Urbanization

Urban development must first integrate into the macro distribution of regional area, namely urban agglomeration distribution, in which cities and towns could seek their respective functions and orientations, making themselves necessary function nodes in the essential construction of urban clusters, thus further more promoting the transformation of the regional pattern from single center drive into multi-center development and the economic development from non-balanced and incoordinated into non-balanced but coordinated. Cities and towns should play the roles of “points” and “poles” in the development of urban agglomeration. In combination with the position and function of economic capacity in the development of urban agglomeration, this article constructs the index system including six aspects and sixteen indicators—economic development level, the quality of economic development, industrial structure, three key demands, the level of urbanization, and the income of urban and rural residents etc. Sichuan Province is taken for example, to analyze its economic strength of urban agglomeration, thus to analyze the process of urbanization in this region and the division of labor, functional complementation and synergetic development of different cities and towns and different urban agglomerations.

Min Tian, Na Tang, Jie Han

Chapter 109. Research on the Housing Affordability of University Graduates in Guangzhou

For a long time, the housing affordability of urban residents is a focus of the real estate research. Analysing the residents’ housing affordability is the premise to make appropriate housing policies, release the housing needs of low-income groups continuously, and promote economic growth. Housing security policy often ignored new university graduates, an urban sandwich generation, who could not afford the housing by their slender incomes. In this paper, university graduates’ housing affordability is evaluated by two indices: one is the Residual Income Affordability (RIA), a common tool to estimate the housing affordability; the other is Housing Affordability Time (HAT), an original evaluation index established in this study. Sensitivity analysis is applied to housing price, graduates’ salary, loan interest rate, purchase tax, and first payment proportion to find out the important impact factors for graduates’ housing affordability. This study finds that university graduates, the dominant force of urban development, have weak housing affordability and should be paid more attention by the society. According to the characteristics of university graduates, suggestions of housing security and financial policies are proposed in this paper.

Fan Wu, Linghin Li, Mingjie Dai, Yiming Gao, Ruoshi Tang, Kaihang Lin, Kaijian Li, Haoqi Huang

Chapter 110. RFID-Enabled Management System Adoption and Use in Construction: Passing Through the Labyrinth with an Improved Technology Acceptance Model

The development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies has drawn notable attentions in recent studies in the construction industry. However, the initiatives of RFID technologies and RFID-enabled management systems are yet to be fully accepted and adopted in practice. The management systems seem caught in a labyrinth whereby technology developers complain that practitioners are notorious to embrace new technologies, while practitioners view the systems ‘disruptive’, if not useless altogether. By collecting qualitative research data from construction practitioners who are actively engaged in a RFID-enabled management platform implementation, this study explores the factors influencing these practitioners for accepting the system. An extended technology acceptance model (TAM) is proposed as a guiding framework to provide a better understanding of these practitioners’ adoption and use behaviors. Findings mesh with extended TAM indicating that ‘perceived usefulness’ and ‘perceived ease of use’ are of major influence to their attitude toward technology adoption. Moreover, the research demonstrates that the construction practitioners’ attitude are changing and heavily affected by the project managers who take the roles of system execution, or by peers who have harvested the benefits of such system. The findings of this study are not designed to be generalized but to offer a new perspective and insights to future TAM studies.

Y. H. Niu, W. S. Lu, D. D. Liu

Chapter 111. Risk and Risk Factors in Brownfield Development

Brownfield site development is subject to uncertainty of hidden environmental issue, legal liability, and social cost. The brownfield land market is known for its transparency concern in communicating valuable private information to aid redevelopment decision of the market actors. Therefore, a risk factor is defined as the communicable rational risk perception affecting choice or decision. This paper develops a conceptual frame to identify and organise brownfield development risk and risk factor from experienced professional and industry perspective. It is not based on direct consumer-driven risk perception. Instead it examines both the literature and theories to bring to upfront the problems of risk communication amongst key stakeholders who are influential to identify and affect the formation of risk factors and decision hierarchy in brownfield development processes. The clustered risk factors, systematically formed and validated, help the development of a brownfield risk evaluation tool, which has the potential to support private decision and public policy making, in the current economic structurally driven land use intensification and gentrification.

Hao Wu, Piyush Tiwari, Sun Sheng Han, Toong-Khuan Chan

Chapter 112. Risk Management in the Supply Chain of Essential Medicines

The purpose of this study was to determine the risks that are obtaining within the public sector supply chain of essential medicines in Zambia. This was related to implementing effective risk management system which could result in reduction and avoidance of medicine shortages and stock outs at health facilities. Literature was reviewed through desktop study of published studies on risk management and supply chain management of essential medicines. Data collection was conducted through discussion and interviews then validated using a questionnaire survey. Data was analysed and results showed that inadequate and inconsistent fund disbursement as well as weak information management systems were among the highest prioritized risks. The results provided the need to implement and maintain an effective risk management system that can improve the efficiency of the supply chain, which could result in improved availability of essential medicines at public health facilities in Zambia.

Mario M. J. Musonda, Erastus M. Mwanaumo, Didibhuku W. Thwala

Chapter 113. Rural Residential Land Transfer in China: Government-Driven or Market-Driven?

In recent years, several modes of rural residential land transfer have emerged in the rapid urbanization of China, which could be categorized as government-driven mode and market-driven mode. This paper, firstly, reviews the development history and drawbacks of the current rural residential land system, then analyzes the feasibility of government-driven mode according to the current literature, lastly, propose a market-driven mode of rural residential land transfer, namely, the market-driven nationalization, of which the superiority and feasibility are verified based on the IAD framework. The results indicate that (1) the present rural residential system highly restricts the capitalization of rural residential land, which not only leads to the waste of land resource, but also infringes the benefits of rural residents, also hinders the progress of urbanization. (2) The capitalization of rural residential land will play a significant role in the urbanization of China, but the government-driven mode, including the complete nationalization and complete privatization of rural residential land, is infeasible according to the actual national condition. (3) The market-driven nationalization of rural residential land is more of feasibility in capitalizing the idle capital of rural residential land, narrowing the rural-urban economic gap, and furthering the development of China’s urbanization.

Zhibin Mo, Yuzhe Wu, Jianfeng Ye

Chapter 114. Scenarios for Applying Big Data in Boosting Construction: A Review

The technologies of processing a large amount of data and extracting useful insights from the data have been revolutionizing a wide assortment of industries. Big data is applied in the construction industry across the world particularly in developed countries or regions, whilst studies on applying big data to boost construction have been conducted in various aspects, such as improving construction waste management, construction safety, and productivity. This study aims to review the applications of big data in boosting construction mainly by providing scenarios of the applications in construction industry with relevant existing studies supported. This study not only provides a clearer understanding of the scenarios of big data’s application in enhancing construction, but also it is a reference for figuring out how big data can be better used as a tool to improve construction management.

X. Chen, W. S. Lu

Chapter 115. Smart Gateway for Bridging BIM and Building

Building information modeling (BIM) has been emerging as a digital platform to create, exchange, and manage the information in a construction project. Over the past decades, researchers have explored various techniques, including laser scanning and sensing devices, to keep the BIM up-to-date. Their efforts have been conceptualized as bridging BIM and building (BBB). In the BBB framework, a key component is the smart gateway which is the middleware to ensure information input/out between the physical project layer and the BIM layer. The aims of this research is multifold: (1) to highlight the importance of smart gateway for BBB; (2) to generate the definition of the smart gateway based on existing gateways in other industries; and (3) to describe the essential functions of the smart gateway based on the BBB framework. Theoretically, with four major functions including device configuration and management, data filtering and processing, temporary information storage, and supplementary information input, the proposed smart gateway can significantly facilitate the integration between the physical project information with BIM. Future research will be conducted to develop and implement a prototype of the smart gateway in actual construction projects where multi data-acquisition devices are used.

K. Chen, W. S. Lu, F. Xue, L. Z. Zheng, D. D. Liu

Chapter 116. Spatial-Temporal Effects of Housing Price Caused by Metro Construction: A Perspective of Price-to-Rent Ratio

Metro often affects the features and prices of the real estate along, because it can greatly save transportation cost. Taking Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and the first stage of Line 2 as a case, this paper studied spatial-temporal effects of housing price caused by metro construction from a perspective of price-to-rent ratio by using GIS and basic statistical methods. The phenomena as follows were found. Firstly, the effect of metro stations on the price-to-rent ratio within 800 m around is relatively obvious, and it’s mainly an effect of promoting the price-to-rent ratio. Secondly, the range of metro station’s effect in downtown is wider than that in suburbs, but the effect degree in suburbs is greater than that in downtown. Thirdly, the opening of metro has an obvious effect of promoting the price-to-rent ratio, and it has begun to emerge in the planning and construction stages. Fourthly, before opening and early after opening, within 800 m around metro stations, the price-to-rent ratio within the scope of 0–200 m is relatively the lowest, but over the subsequent years it will tend to be such a stable state, closer to metro stations, higher price-to-rent ratio.

Fen Wang, Yuzhe Wu

Chapter 117. Stakeholder Analysis of Sustainable Construction in China

Despite increased prosperity in sustainable construction in China, numerous issues still exist hindering its further development. The process and outcome of green project evaluation is often criticised for lacking credibility and acceptability. To overcome this necessitates stakeholder engagement and the research presented has thoroughly analysed the stakeholders of sustainable construction in China through a series of interviews. As a result, 7 relevant stakeholder groups are identified comprising (1) government organizations; (2) owners; (3) designers; (4) contractors; (5) end-users; (6) non-governmental organizations; and (7) other relevant groups (e.g. material/technology providers, etc.) with respective characteristics illustrated in details. The relative importance of each stakeholder group is then rated by adopting the mean score ranking technique. The research findings are valuable for academia/practitioners to prioritise various stakeholder groups during their participation and therefore establish an effective and efficient participatory model assessing the life-cycle sustainability of green buildings in China.

Hongyang Li, S. Thomas Ng, Yahong Dong

Chapter 118. Strategic Factors Influencing Bid/No-Bid Decision of Pakistani Contractors

Construction firms must have the potential to deal with various bidding situations successfully in today’s highly spirited market. The first step that firms need to consider is whether to bid or not to bid when they receive a tender call. The contractors’ decision of bid/no-bid is affected by various factors. This research aims to analyze the strategic factors influencing the bid/no-bid decision of Pakistani contractors. Data was collected by means of questionnaire survey sent to 300 contractors registered with Pakistan Engineering Council. “Method of Bid evaluation of client”, “Financial position of firm” and “Availability of required material in the region” were identified as top 3 most critical factors influencing the bid/no-bid decision. Also, it was identified that the bid/no-bid decision is highly dependent on location and macro environment of contractors. This research involves the participants from construction industry of Pakistan; the future research can be extended to other service sectors and economies.

Ahsen Maqsoom, Malik Muhammad Farjad, Muhammad Sadaat Abbas, Muhammad Ehtesham-Ul-Haque, Muhammad Irfan, Aman Ullah Malik

Chapter 119. Study on the Affordable Housing Policy in China’s Urbanization Process

With the proposal of new urbanization strategy in China, people-centered urbanization turns to be the core, and the housing problem of the urban population becomes extremely important. In order to satisfy the primary needs of families with financial difficulties among the urban population, Chinese government made a great effort to establish a housing security system. However, actual execution process deviates from the original intention of the system. Local government as a dual agent of the economic development and housing security, it is not only to pursue efficiency mechanism, but also to meet the legitimacy mechanism. Under the incentive of efficiency mechanism and restraint of legitimacy mechanism, local government carries out the “goal displacement” in the implementation process of the housing security system. Therefore, this paper studied on the mechanism of housing security system, and further provided policy suggestions to the development of affordable housing in China’s urbanization process.

Wei Wang, Zhengrong Liu, Yuzhe Wu

Chapter 120. Suggestion for Improving Project Management Competency of Project General Contractors in China

General contract develops late in China, and it is not widely promoted. There are three kinds of general contract in Chinese construction market, EPC/turnkey, design-build and general contract for construction. But in practice of general contract in China, it is mainly limited to general contract for construction. By analyzing the current situation of China’s project general contract and the characteristic of three modes of project general contract, the author puts forward the capabilities of general contractors. Now general contractors in China mainly depend on enterprises merge or cooperation or alliance to improve their competencies in project management. What’s more, general contractors should improve their own competencies.

Weiping Jiang

Chapter 121. The Analysis of Rural Undergraduates’ Separation of Registered and Actual Residences and the Separation’s Influences on Land Use

As the development of Chinese urban and rural areas has experienced great changes these years, the rural undergraduates’ separation of registered and actual residences has become more and more obvious. The separation is influenced by the benefits which are embedded in the rural household registration especially the land values, and the separation has caused great influences on rural land use in turn. In order to figure out the features of the current separation and to deeply investigate the specific forms of the mutual influences between land and the separation, this paper carried out some relevant investigations and research. This paper firstly analyzed the tendency and the regional distribution characteristics of rural undergraduates’ separation of registered and actual residences through data processing and statistic about the information of the rural students’ household registration and the rural-urban transfers of household registration of students in Zhejiang University from 2013 to 2015. Secondly, to explore the causes and influence factors of rural undergraduates’ separation of registered and actual residences, this paper carried out questionnaire surveys among 212 rural undergraduates from all over the country and gathered relevant data and information, based on these specific survey statistics, this paper analyzed the influence factors on rural undergraduates’ decisions about the rural-urban transfer of household registration through building the Probit model. Besides, this paper also calculated the results of respondents’ value evaluations on various land values to further improve the survey results and enrich the survey conclusions. Given these results, this paper deeply researched the possible influences on land use by the separation. The general trend of the separation is being more and more obvious according to the information about household registration of students in Zhejiang University. The statistical results of the questionnaire survey show that the separation among the 212 respondents has reached 85.85%; The results show that only the gender and whether the main members of the family live in the towns have caused significant influences on the rural undergraduates’ transfer decisions, which indicates the rural undergraduates’ separations of registered and actual residences are very common among various families. Results of land value evaluation from the respondents show that the most treasured land values are the possible compensation for land acquisition and the homestead land, the agricultural land income and the collective economic dividends are less valued. This paper also analyzed that the main influences on land use caused by the separation.

Qiong Lin, Yanmei Ye

Chapter 122. The Decoupling Analysis Between Regional Building Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China

To sustain the economic growth in the future and control building energy consumption, building energy savings programs have emerged as an important strategic approach at the national level. This study is to quantity analyze the status quo decoupling relationship between economic development and building energy consumption from regional perspective in China. The outcome of this research shows that China’s building energy is strongly associated with the economy development, and the decoupling degree of building energy consumption and GDP will be largely influenced by the decoupling degree of building energy consumption and the tertiary industry output. Also it is difficult to realize the true meaning of decoupling in current China. On one hand, this research provides a reference to the relevant policy guidance in the building energy efficiency and economic development strategy. On the other hand, the upgrading of industrial structure, economic paradigm shift, technology development significantly are important practical implication for building energy conservation.

Ya Wu, Hang Yan

Chapter 123. The Demand for Senior Housing Grows. The Answer Is to Be Found in Various Models of Social “Enterprise”

By 2025, it is predicted that over-65s will represent 20% of the population of the European Union. This slice of the real estate market, however, is still extremely fragmented, with huge differences depending on the country and type of solutions. There is a certain discrepancy between countries in Europe. Basically, in some areas, senior housing is often a synonym of social housing, created to help disadvantaged sectors, often set up by age but also as disposable income. In Italy, the number of over-65 year olds will jump from 13 million to 16 million by 2030. And many of them like the idea of sharing communal areas and services. According to research undertaken by the Censis per Future concept lab, 89% over over-65s believes their income will increase, one million would like to renovate their homes and 530 thousand do not exclude the possibility of investing in real estate. Therefore, even in Italy cohousing for the elderly is making progress—a business model based on social enterprise. One of the most recent projects launched in Milan by Abitare Leggero—a social enterprise of three partners—comes under this particular scenario. The social enterprise does not directly buy the homes, but takes on all aspects of maintenance and management. The company signs the rental agreement, basically becoming the lessor and paying all rent in advance. This solution is of great benefit for the owners as well as for the tenants, especially for those who own entire small complexes. In Milan, alone there are dozens of complexes that have already been completed and are inhabited, with ground floor properties that are still empty as obliged for use for so-called compatible functions, such as retail, which are hard to lease. Social enterprise could be a solution for these areas, using them for communal social activities or services.

A. S. Pavesi, A. Ciaramella, M. Y. Leung, M. Gechelin

Chapter 124. The Effect of Contract Control on Contractors’ Cooperative Behavior: The Moderating Role of Owner Power

Although extant literature has shown that a contract plays a key role in inter-organizational relationships, how the contract affects cooperation remains controversial, and how contracts and power interact with each other remains unclear. To explain the existing controversy, this study examined the influence of contract control on contractors’ cooperative behavior, namely in-role and extra-role behavior, and the moderating role of owner power in fostering contractor cooperation based on the transaction cost economics theory. A survey was employed and data were collected based on 181 owner-contractor partnerships in the Chinese construction industry. Regression analyses indicate that contract control has a significantly positive impact on contractors’ in-role behavior, while little impact on contractors’ extra-role behavior; and when owner’s expert and coercive power are higher, contract control contributes more to contractors’ in-role behavior. The research findings highlight the importance of contracts and power and are conducive in providing guidelines for owners about how to apply contractual functions and owner power to promote cooperation with contractors.

X. K. Jiang, S. J. Zhang

Chapter 125. The Evaluation of Urban Renewal Policies in Shenzhen, China (2009–2016): An Analysis Based on Policy Instruments

Urban renewal is a realistic approach in the development of urban areas and is essential for major Chinese cities. It is increasingly becoming a trending topic in the urban planning domain and many researchers are focusing on how to formulate scientific and practical urban renewal policies using different policy instruments. This paper aims to analyze the urban renewal policies of Shenzhen, which was the first city in China to promulgate urban renewal legislation. In doing so, an analytical framework is established by focusing on three main policy instruments and several sub instruments within them. Shenzhen’s four main urban renewal policies issued between 2009 and 2016 are analyzed through the framework. Quantitative content analysis was used in the review and analysis of the data. The results shows that Environmental-type policies are most widely applied by the government in Shenzhen, and “Regulation Control” and “Goal-planning” are the two policy instruments that are most frequently adopted. On the other hand, the application of Supply-type polices and Demand-type polices were found to be inadequate, with only a few effective instruments being adopted. These findings provide strong implications for the improvement and development of urban renewal policies in China through these key findings.

Z. Y. Yi, A. Shrestha, L. Z. Wei, G. W. Liu

Chapter 126. The Improvement of Safety Climate of Migrant Workers Based on Social Mining Technologies

Construction workers’ risk-taking behaviour is one of the essential leading factors of construction accidents. Their decisions to behave unsafely could be seen as influenced by the safety climate, safety leadership and safety group pressure. A stable and positive safety climate, which is influenced by their leaders’ and co-workers’ behaviour and attitude, helps to reduce unsafe behaviour in construction crews. However, in construction crews consisted of migrant workers, the safety climate is usually immature and unstable. Workers’ social network plays an important part in construction safety management, and it is vital to obtain honest signals to assist safety research. Social mining is the technique to detect social network and relationships with information technologies to gain honest statistics from reality. The present paper introduced a system to explore real social network in construction crews and used it to explore the social relationships among a group of worker in metro construction. The introduced technology is able to gain a clearer image of the social network in real life and boost safety climate by tracking workers behaviour, mobility and providing targeted intervention programs.

Sheng Xu

Chapter 127. The Potential Cost Implications and Benefits from Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Malaysian Construction Industry

The construction industry is classified as one of the industries with continuous hectic growing vis-à-vis its unique characteristics and uncertainties throughout the project lifecycle. One of the salient factors in guaranteeing a successful completion of project is integration and collaboration of multidisciplinary, especially the first tier of professionals from architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) sectors. Thus, the industry is embracing numerous advanced information technology approaches and concepts such as Building Information Modeling (BIM) which intends to promote full integration and collaboration among all stakeholders. Despite the advantages exemplified from this paradigm, the reluctance of implementation by the local construction industry remains as the strongest obstacle. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the workability and applicability of BIM in the Malaysian construction industry, in terms of its potential cost implication and benefits. To generate thorough and acceptable outcomes, interviews are conducted with the limelight shed upon the BIM-related projects to depict the genuineness and reality-portrayal, in terms of opted cost benefits elements. The data collected from the interview session are analysed by utilizing framework analysis approach. The results exemplified BIM implementation level in Malaysian construction industry in relation to its actual practices and cost benefits. A BIM reference framework is also developed to depict as a guideline for interested adopters to envisage effective BIM adoption planning and future forethoughts.

LiWei Chin, ChangSaar Chai, HeapYih Chong, Aminah Md Yusof, NurFakhira bt Azmi

Chapter 128. The Researches on Construction Project Manager Competency and Its Application

Competency research is one of the hot topics in the study of contemporary management science, psychology, human resources and other disciplines. But the competency, a scenario concept, is the personal characteristics that is so closely linked with task background, job performance and so on. This paper explores the competency characteristics of the construction project manager and the application of the construction project manager competency by reviewing and summarizing the researches on construction project manager competency in recent years. The future researches on construction project manager competency will be discussed finally.

Jingru Li, Junpeng Li, Ruirui Xia

Chapter 129. The Rise of the Smart Circular City: Intelligent Modelling of Cities for Improved Waste Reuse and Environmental Effects

Cities around the globe are facing numerous challenges. Some give reason for concern, for example the extensive use of resources and the decline of air quality. The concept of the smart circular city provides opportunities to make cities more sustainable by applying smart solutions including smart data and smart logistics. Current developments are aimed at increased reuse of construction and demolition waste and assuring improved city environments for inhabitants. In this paper we present the application of such solutions in the City of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Environmental advantages have been sought in facilitating data-driven collection and reuse of construction and demolition waste as well as optimizing the transport of construction materials through the city, and thus the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and congestion. To support this analysis and process of reduced waste and emission, BIM and GIS have been applied to be able to mode the city and be able to know amounts of materials and emissions in the built environment and solutions of waste reuse and emission reduction. This paper is part of a wider development towards a smart and open 3D digital spatial city model to support various aims such as urban mining and city distribution.

R. Vrijhoef

Chapter 130. The Simulation and Evaluation Method and Technology of Passenger Flow in Urban Rail Terminal

In recent years, urban rail transportation develops rapidly for its advantages of high speed, safety and environmental friendliness. As the main node of urban rail transportation network, its terminal has distinct characteristics, such as large volume and high density of passenger flow. Accordingly, the main operation and management task of urban rail terminal is to improve its efficiency and safety. Based on the theory of discrete event modeling (DEM), a pedestrian model, which can evaluate and optimize passenger flow organization schemes, is developed via the complex system software AnyLogic. Taking the terminal of Shenzhen North on HuanZhong Line as an example, the method combining simulation and evaluation has been proposed and achieved, which gives a sound support for passenger flow optimization of the urban rail terminal. In addition, the spatio-temporal information of microscopic passenger flow and the maximum potential traffic benefits of promoting transit cards have been analyzed.

W. K. Huang, M. W. Hu, S. Y. Zhai

Chapter 131. The Supply and Demand for Green Housing in China: A Micro-Perspective

In order to achieve the goal of sustainable development, Chinese government has been endeavoring to facilitate the development of green buildings by a wide variety of policies in recent years. However, it is the market rather than the government that can stimulate the green building development in the long run. The role of market endogenous power has attracted a lot of attention. Based on the data of green-certified housing during 2008 and 2015 around China, this paper investigates the drivers of green housing market from both the supply and demand sides. The results suggest that in current China, only large enterprises and those listed on exchanges in Mainland China are prone to invest in green housing, and the state-owned enterprises have not taken the lead. From the demand side, the richer and older residents self-selected into the green housing projects, but the residents with higher educational attainment report higher willingness-to-pay for green housing. We also find that the residents know more about the green building certification and the features of green buildings are willing to pay more for green buildings, which implies that we can stimulate the green housing demand by providing more reliable information about green buildings.

L. Zhang, H. Liu, X. Wang, X. Tang

Chapter 132. Trend Analysis of the Labor Supply and Demand in China’s Construction Industry: 2016–2025

The construction industry is an important pillar industry of the national economy in the past, and as a labor-intensive industry, the labor force is the essential element to ensure the sustainable development of this industry. With the emergence of “shortage of migrant workers”, labor shortage of the construction industry is more severe recently. Based on the industry data this paper collected, this paper using multi-scenario analysis under different hypothesis to predict the trend of both labor supply and demand for China’s construction industry from 2016 to 2025. This paper finds that the overall labor shortages of China’s construction industry will appear during the period from the end of 2016 to 2018 in different scenarios. The findings implies that there will lead to urgent needs for construction industrialization. Moreover, the shortage in labor supply relative to demand will further improve the labor cost, which is, from another perspective, a good news for construction industrialization, because the relative cost of construction industrialization would be lower.

H. Ye, Y. Zhang

Chapter 133. Understanding Construction Technology Transfer from a ‘SCOT’ Perspective

Technology transfer (TT) has been of interest at global and national levels since the 1960s. It has gained growing attention in research since the introduction of the international code for technology transfer by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in 1985. The process has been studied from several angles, including economic transaction costs, international trade and strategic management. Much of research on TT in construction has largely assumed a mechanistic view on the nature of technology, as well as the process of transfer; widely conceptualized as physical artefacts, and a linear transferor-transferee relationship respectively. Such views effectively disregard the micro-processes and interactions that take place as part of the transfer process at the firm level. This study presents a different perspective on TT as a series of socio-technical interactions, and technology as a product of social construction. The theoretical framework of the social construction of technology (SCOT) is presented as an alternative to studying TT, to put into perspective, the socio-technical interactions between actors, technology and context. Through this theoretical lens, a more comprehensive understanding of the interactions between actors from transferor and transferee construction firms during the process of TT can be obtained.

K. Oti-Sarpong, R. Leiringer

Chapter 134. Urban Green Land Carbon-Sink in Different Functional Cities: The China Case

Urban green land carbon-sink (UGLC) is considered as significant for carbon-emissions reduction, and it is affected by many factors such as the city function. This paper analyzes the urban green land carbon-sink in different functional cities in China to provide important references to the Chinese government for allocating the national emission reduction targets to various cities. First, we classified 269 prefecture-level cities of China into six categories of functional cities, including integrated cities, industrial cities, transportation cities, cultural and tourist cities, larger-scale cities, and resource-dependent cities by employing the methods of principal components analysis and clustering analysis. Second, we used coefficient approach to evaluate the level of annual UGLC in these six types of city from 2005 to 2014. The results show significant difference of UGLC among the six types of cities. The level of per capita UGLC in industrial cities, transportation cities, larger-scale cities, and resource-dependent cities increased between 2005 and 2014, with the average annual growth rate being of 7.16, 10.48, 3.62 and 7.22% respectively. Integrated type city is the most significant contributor to the increasing of UGLC among these six types of cities, which increased by 5.90 tons per capita in the surveyed period: from 8.34077 × 10−3 tons per capita in 2005 to 14.24290 × 10−3 tons per capita in 2014, and the level of per capita UGLC in Integrated cites is larger than the other five types of cities. Meanwhile, UGLC in cultural and tourist cities increased from 2.22569 × 10−3 tons per capita to 7.39556 × 10−3 tons per capita between 2005 and 2008, lately decreased to 2.77142 × 10−3 tons per capita in 2009, and finally increased slowly in the following years.

Z. H. Huang, N. Xiong, X. L. Zhang, S. P. Li, L. Y. Shen

Chapter 135. Use of a Mobile BIM Application Integrated with Asset Tracking Technology Over a Cloud

Over the last decade, BIM and tracking have been explored by many researchers. Despite the extensive efforts in these domains, they have been mostly individually studied, and limited effort was made to fully integrate them into a single system. This study proposes a new development of a virtual mobile BIM platform for an on-site application by integrating the three systems: Building information modeling (BIM), Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), and inertial measurement units (IMU). The proposed system is created by 1) developing a low-cost tracking system using BLE and IMU, 2) developing a mobile BIM platform, and 3) integrating the developed components over a cloud. The tracking system is comprised of BLE-sensors, IMU sensors, and map knowledge. The mobile BIM platform is developed through data extraction from BIM and then integration into the tracking system. The study conducts a field experiment to demonstrate the capability of the system with respect to the real-time tracking information, the corresponding virtual BIM view, and communication. The test results show that the integration of the system is successful between the tracking system and the mobile BIM system, and that a new on-site communication tool using BIM and tracking is successfully implemented. In conclusion, the study advances the use of BIM and tracking with system integration that can improve the overall project management and coordination.

J. Park, Y. K. Cho

Chapter 136. Using Switching State-Space Model to Identify Work States Based on Movement Data

A key question in the construction industry is the productivity issue. With a variety of activities on sites from pip-installation to concrete placement, how to assess the working/non-working states in order to promote time allocation and productivity next time? This paper proposes to utilize switching state-space model integrated with first-difference random walk to recognize working and non-working behavioral modes through turning angles, step length, etc., containing four main steps: eliminate errors by forward/backward-averaging filter, establish the State-Space Model of a couple states with initial prior distributions that is called Switching State-Space Model (SSSM) enabling bidirectional transitions between states, estimate posterior distributions of parameters by Bayesian inference using Gibbs sampling, and analyze the objective work rate, time allocation, and productivity. A pilot study comprised of 24 workers from a housing project is finally conducted to test the proposed model and process.

Xincong Yang, Heng Li, Fenglai Wang, Xiaochun Luo, Dongping Cao
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