Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This book covers various current and emerging topics in construction management and real estate. Papers selected in this book cover a wide variety of topics such as new-type urbanization, planning and construction of smart city and eco-city, urban–rural infrastructure development, land use and development, housing market and housing policy, new theory and practice of construction project management, big data application, smart construction and BIM, international construction (i.e., belt and road project), green building, off-site prefabrication, rural rejuvenation and eco-civilization and other topics related to construction management and real estate. These papers provide useful references to both scholars and practitioners. This book is the documentation of “The 24th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate,” which was held in Chongqing, China.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Theme 1 New-Type Urbanization

Frontmatter

Building Adaption Model in Assessing Adaption Potential of Old Residential Quarters

The adaption of old residential quarters is conducive to improving the living conditions and quality of life of residents and realizing the sustainability of buildings. It is an important measure to solve the unbalanced and insufficient urban development. However the limited financial budget and the huge number to be renovated require a tool to determine the adaption potential of old residential quarters and then determine their adaption priorities. Therefore, combining with the characteristics of the old residential quarters, this paper constructs an evaluation system to assess the adaption potential of the old residential quarters from four aspects: the residents’ attitude, the performance of the quarters, the performance of the environment and the expected impact. The effective combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis makes the evaluation results of adaption potential more operable. According to this model, sorting the adaption potential of existing old residential quarters can determine a reasonable adaption priority and optimize the allocation of tight construction adaption budget.

Yiqi Lee, Jiaying Peng, Huanhuan Mu

Village-in-the-City Reconstruction Based on Social Exclusion Theory

Under the background of new-type urbanization, the village-in-the-city reconstruction should not only focus on the property owners, but also on the rights to housing of the floating population which has been much neglected for a long time. Based on social exclusion theory, this paper focus on the marginalized vulnerable group in the village-in-the-city reconstruction—the floating population. According to the village-in-the-city reconstruction in Hangzhou and based on field investigation, case study analysis and comparative analysis, this paper examines social exclusion as it affects the floating population and their efforts to find rental accommodation in the village-in-the-city. The study then compares their present situation with their actual rights to housing. The paper concludes with the policy implications that follow from the analysis.

Xujing Yu, Yuzhe Wu

Research on Effective Urban Governance: Problems and Measures

With the deepening of economic globalization and the constant quickening of the urbanization process, the economic structure and social structure of Chinese cities have undergone major changes. At the same time, urban governance also ushered in a new challenge. Effective urban governance is the key to adapting to the development of the new era and dealing with the growing needs of people for a better life and the contradictions with unbalanced development of urban governance in China. This paper systematically sorts out the main problems of current urban governance in China and puts forward several strategic countermeasures, aiming to improve our ability to participate in urban governance.

Yuanyuan Huang

Decoupling Elasticity and Influencing Factors of Industrial Carbon Emissions in Hangzhou City, China

As one of the earliest cities to step into the period of industrial developed in China, Hangzhou inevitably develops industrial economy at the cost of energy consumption. Industry sector is the major green-house gas emitter and most rapidly growing energy consuming sector. Identifying the decoupling relationship as well as the driving forces behind carbon emission is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. This study calculates carbon emissions based on energy consumption from industrial enterprises in Hangzhou for the periods 1998–2017, and uses Tapio decoupling elastic model to analyze the decoupling relationship between carbon emissions from industry sector and industrial economic growth in Hangzhou City, China. Then, the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition method has been used to decompose the driving factors of carbon emission from Hangzhou’s industrial enterprises. The results indicate that: (1) Overall, Hangzhou’s industrial decoupling state shows a trend from weak decoupling to strong decoupling in the study period. (2) Labor productivity (LP) and industry structure (IS) play positive roles in increasing industrial carbon emissions in Hangzhou, while the effect of energy intensity (EI) always plays a negative role. The industrial scale (P) effect shows a fluctuating trend, and the impact of the energy structure (ES) on carbon emissions has turned to be negative in recent years. These decomposed factors will greatly help to understand the internal mechanism between carbon emission and economic growth, and provide strategies for the future development of low-carbon industrial economy in Hangzhou City, China.

Yu Sun, Sheng Zheng, Yuzhe Wu

Resilience Influencing Factors of the Complex Urban Public Spaces Based on ISM and AHP

As a major kind of infrastructure in urban area, complex urban public spaces, such as complex rail transit station, multi-layer railway station, etc., are characterized by the complex system characteristics of openness, multi-floor structure, complex facility connections, and crowd people. The complex urban public spaces are threatened by various kinds of risks, such as fire and terrorist attack, due to the complex system characteristics. “Resilience” has been adopted in this study to demonstrate the ability that absorbing risk event disturbance, self-organization, learning and adaptation of complex urban public spaces. The system resilience is influenced by various kinds of factors, which deserves deep research. In response, this study conducted the evaluation for resilience influencing factors of the complex urban public spaces. Based on field investigation, literature review, and expert interview, the resilience influence factor system of the complex urban public space was established. A combined approach, Interpretative Structure Model (ISM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), was adopted to study the layer classification of the factor system and calculate the weights. Through the combined approach, the research results were obtained and the fundamental factor is “geographical location”, while the important factors are “economic development”, “physical structure”, “crowd density cluster”, and “government governance”. The obtained results could supply references for formulating strategies to improve resilience of complex urban public spaces, and it is also conductive to promote the safe operation of urban infrastructures.

Hui Xu, Jingchuan Yue, Maokang Du, Yongtao Tan, Yan Wang

Evaluation and Analysis of Urban Quality—A Case Study of Chongqing

In the process of urbanization, more and more attention has been paid to the high quality and sustainable development of cities. Therefore, based on the understanding of the concept of urban quality and the research results of domestic and foreign scholars on the evaluation indicator system of urban quality, this paper constructs a comprehensive evaluation indicator system of urban quality by adopting 40 evaluation indicators from five dimensions: economic development quality, ecological environment quality, cultural construction quality, social public quality and residents’ quality of life, and introduces the evaluation method of entropy value. On this basis, taking Chongqing as an example, this paper chooses the statistical data of Chongqing from 2010 to 2017 to measure the comprehensive evaluation indicator system of urban quality, and puts forward some suggestions for the urban quality level of Chongqing.

Peng Yu, Jingjing Yang, Gui Ye

Comparative Analysis on the Settlement Intention and Influencing Factors of Floating Population in the Process of Urbanization—Taking Chongqing as an Example

The floating population is crucial to China’s urbanization process and economic development. Under the background of new urbanization, it is of great significance to explore the migrants’ settlement intention to optimize the internal structure of the city. Based on the data of the 2017 dynamic monitoring data of the floating population, this paper takes the floating population whose household registration is Chongqing as the research object to analyze and compare the settlement intention and influencing factors of the floating population in different flow areas. The results show that the five dimensions of individual, work, housing, society and migration have a significant impact on their settlement intention, and the migration direction and housing factors are particularly significant. From these five perspectives, the local government should focus on improving the urban structure and formulating a more reasonable talent introduction policy to motivate migrants return to the local area and achieve permanent settlement.

Yumin Gao, Haiyan Jin, Yu Zhang

The Construction of Delicacy Management System for Urban Risk Prevention

Based on research of experiences of risk management and delicacy management in large cities at home and abroad, the concept of delicacy management for urban risk prevention is put forward in this paper. That is, under the current severe situation of urban safety management and the requirements of delicacy management, urban safety management must be carried out in a delicate way, which is the inevitable trend of urban safety management in the future and is different from the previous extensive management mode. In the delicacy mode, urban risk prevention should start from two aspects: the short-term work should be done by assessing the current risk points (identifying external risk factors), and combining delicacy management ideas with scientific urban management technology to ensure city safety. In the long run, it should be based on the construction of a scientific delicacy management system (to improve the city internal safety abilities). The two aspects work is consistent with the theory of urban operation risk.

Xiaoli Yan

Spatial and Temporal Variation and Fairness of Urban Amenities in Jiangsu Province

The Urban Amenities Evaluation Index provides the possibility of comparison between different cities and brings new ideas for the study of talent mobility and development. Based on the existing researches, this paper improves the amenities system, and takes 13 cities in Jiangsu Province as the research objects. It calculates the urban amenities index and urban amenities intensity of each city from 2007 to 2017, analyzes the spatial pattern changes, time and space differences, amenities balance and attraction of talents. The results show that: ① In 2007–2017, amenities index generally showed an upward trend, the volatility increased in the past 6 years, while the emission intensity showed a significant downward trend, but the decline slowed down year by year. ② The amenities space has obvious clustering characteristics, and the high amenities index area gathers in the southern part of Jiangsu. The strength of the amenities also gradually appears in the north high south low and the west high east low partition differences. ③ Amenities development is relatively average. ④ The amenities effect shows obvious regional differences: “High-high” type is located in the central and eastern parts of Jiangsu Province and Xuzhou City; “low–high” type gathers in the southern parts of Jiangsu Province; “high-low” type includes the northern parts of Jiangsu Province except Xuzsshou; the “low-low” type assembles in the southwestern parts of Jiangsu Province, which is radiated by Nanjing. This paper analyzes the time and space differences and effect clustering of urban amenities, which not only provides scientific basis for the development of urban development goals in Jiangsu Province, but also offers new ideas for regional researches of talent attraction and high-tech industry development.

Guang-hui Fu, Zi-yue Li

Urban Settlement Intention of Young Talents: An Empirical Study of Talent Apartments in Shanghai

With the rapid development of China's economy and the implementation of innovation strategy, talents have become the core element of urban development. Housing is a key factor to attract and retain young talents. Various studies have analyzed the role of talent housing in urban development. However, few have explored the residential experiences of these talents or their urban settlement intention. To fill in the research gaps, this paper aims to examine the socio-economic features, housing characteristics and residence plans of young talents. The effects of the abovementioned factors on urban settlement intention were examined by employing binary logistic regression, based on the data from a city-wide questionnaire survey in Shanghai. According to the analysis, Hukou is still an important factor affecting urban settlement intention of young talents. Housing characteristics have significant influences on their settlement intention. Our findings indicate that the government should strengthen the support for young talents in terms of their housing and career development. Attention should be paid to the layout and location of talent housing.

Wentan Guo, Li Tao

Research on Coupling Coordination Degree Between New-Type Urbanization and Ecological Civilization: A Case Study of Chongqing

Urbanization is widely regarded as an inevitable process of human progress and ecosystem is considered as the planet’s life-support systems for human and other forms of life. Hence, accurately measuring the relationship to promote the coordinated development between urbanization and ecosystem seems to be significant. In this study, the values of urbanization level and coupling coordination degree of 38 districts in Chongqing are calculated by Entire-Array-Polygon Evaluation Method and Coupling Coordination Degree Model. According to the calculation results, the figures of New-type Urbanization from three dimensions and ecological civilization, and coordination situation from four categories are constructed to provide reference for promoting the sustainable development of urbanization.

Yinghan Zhu, Liudan Jiao, Ya Wu, Hui Xu, Bei He

Theme 2 Planning and Construction of Smart City and Eco-city

Frontmatter

Experience Mining Based Innovative Method for Practicing Low Carbon City

More and more city want to practice low carbon city, different cities have different background and need different measures in order to achieve their specific LCC objective, so tailor-made measures for each city are needed. Low carbon city (LCC) measures must be selected in a way which have suitable for the characteristics of the city. This paper introduces an innovation method for setting LCC measure by using the Experience mining method. Chengdu are chosen as case cities to show the application of this method. The key findings from this study are: experience mining method can help different cities to select suitable measure to guide their LCC practice and the demonstration of the case city has further shown the effectiveness of this method. This paper provides a reference for urban decision makers to practice low-carbon, and can propose policy suggestions that conform to the characteristics of low-carbon construction for different cities.

Xiaoyun Du, Conghui Meng, Guangyu Cheng

Visualized Analysis of Knowledge Mapping of Eco-city Research in China

Recently, extensive attention has been devoted to eco-city theoretical research in China. Several findings and viewpoints are presented on the various perspectives explored by scholars in this area. However, insufficient efforts have been made to outline the framework because conflicting opinions exist regarding eco-city development. With the purpose of promoting the development of eco-city theory and defining the new research frontier in the field, current existing research outputs were analyzed and induced. A total number of 405 articles focusing on eco-city published in the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index between 1999 and 2016 were analyzed with a scientific visualization method using Citespace III software. This paper mainly focuses on author co-citation network, document co-citation network, keyword co-occurrence network and term burstiness. Visualized analysis of the literature provides a review of current research to identify the development of new emerging trends. According to these studies, the primary knowledge clusters of China’s eco-city research are system construction, environmental economy, complex community, construction approach, spatial structure, evaluation index and eco-city. Node documents in these clusters are concerned with foundational knowledge of eco-city studies. It is also noted that topics of eco-city research in China are generalized into three core paths, which are eco-city evolution, low-carbon city theory evolution and sustainable development theory evolution. Our research concludes that macro comprehensive studies have become gradually regional, characteristic, and specified. A low-carbon city evaluation system and a low-carbon developing strategy are at the forefront of current research.

Xingmin Liu, Shuyu Qian, Jingyang Zhou, Yuanyuan Li

Key Factors Analysis of Facilities and Services of Age-Friendly Community in Guangzhou

Under the circumstance of population aging at an accelerated pace, aging in place is the mainstream of China. The residential environment will directly affect senior citizens’ quality of life. By studying the living conditions and demands of the elderly in Guangzhou, it can be concluded that existing communities are not suitable enough for elderly to live in. By determining 16 factors of age-friendly community, and assigning weights to these factors based on the quantitative KANO model, the paper establishes an evaluation system for existing residential community facilities and services in Guangzhou. Factors were classified based on the KANO model into must-be quality factors, one-dimensional quality factors, attractive quality factors, indifferent quality factors and critical quality factors. Community age-friendly modification suggestions were made to construction phase and operating phase respectively. Emergency facilities, green landscapes, fitness and sports venue, amenity, life supporting facilities and intelligent/smart care services are pointed out as the key of modification.

Fan Wu, Yingyan Zeng

Coupling Coordination Between Transportation Carrying Capacity and Environment Carrying Capacity

The natural environmental degradation is especially challenging the rapid urbanization areas where urban development needs to swallow traffic noise and pollution of atmospheric environment caused by transportation development. Coordinated development of transportation and environment is very necessary for sustainable urban development. This study examined the coupling coordination development situation among the four municipalities in China. The results show that: (1) the value of transportation carrying capacity (TCC) in Tianjin and Chongqing show a fluctuating upward and TCC in Beijing and Shanghai present a decreasing trend for the surveyed period. (2) The value of environment carrying capacity (ECC) in Chongqing and Shanghai show a fluctuating increasing trend and ECC in Tianjin and Beijing decreased slightly. (3) The coupling development characteristics of the four municipalities are obvious, and the elements in each system interact with each other during the surveyed time period. Nevertheless, the degree of coordination between TCC and ECC in each city is lower, especially in Beijing.

Conghui Meng, Yitian Ren, Guangyu Cheng, Nan Yang

Decoupling Relationship Between Economic Growth and Industrial Wastewater Discharges: A Case Study of Four Municipalities in China

The excessive discharges of industrial wastewater accompanying rapid industrialization has caused severe water pollution problems and ecological environment degradation, especially in China. Decoupling economic development from wastewater discharges generated from various industrial production activities is regarded as an important indicator for evaluating water efficiency of the industrial sector. This study makes an attempt to propose a decoupling method based on the Tapio decoupling model to analyze the relationship between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges. Furthermore, from industrial and resource perspectives, the decoupling state is decomposed from four aspects, namely, technology, structure, ecology and efficiency. And the leading factors of decoupling are obtained based on the decomposition results. The following three main results are found. (1) The ordering of decoupling levels observed in the four municipalities are as follows: Chongqing > Shanghai > Tianjin > Beijing (2008–2017). (2) The decoupling relation between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges mainly shows two states: strong decoupling and weak decoupling. (3) The decomposition results show that the technology and efficiency effects are the main two drivers of decoupling relationship between economic growth and industrial wastewater discharges. Overall, the decoupling and decomposition results can help decision makers formulate tailor-made policy instruments at municipal level to achieve coordinated development of economic growth and water environment protection so as to support their sustainable development mission.

Xia Liao, Yitian Ren, Nan Yang, Tianheng Shu

Research on the Development Status and Tendency of General Hospital Buildings Under the Background of Smart City in the Future

With the rapid development of a new round of science and technology revolution in the world, Smart Medical has a profound impact on the healthcare fields. General hospitals, as one of the most important task, are responsible for the prevention and treatment of diseases. As the space bearer of most diagnosis and treatment activities, general hospital buildings have a great influence on the quality of medical service. So, what impact will it have on the future general hospitals, what opportunities and challenges will it bring to hospitals designs, which is worthy of our further consideration. Based on the background of smart city are developing in Smart Medical at a faster rate than we thought, this paper introduces a variety of smart medical technologies, such as hospital-specific intelligent systems and digital medical devices, from different perspectives in the medical and construction fields. Through extensive interdisciplinary literature review, to analyze the influence of the application of intelligent technology on the design concept and method of the general hospital. On this basis, the paper discusses the future development direction of general hospitals from the perspectives of planning layout, function streamlines and building energy conservation, and provides a reference for further promoting the construction of future general hospitals designs in China.

Shiyi Li

Development of Sponge Cities and Construction Strategies of Different Climate Zones in China

This paper briefly introduces the development status of sponge city with Chinese characteristics, and discusses the construction scheme of sponge city with 30 pilot cities according to different climatic zones in China. On this basis, we take Jinan city with warm temperate climate zone, Xiamen city with north and subtropical climate zone, and Shenzhen city with subtropical climate zone as examples, and summarize their climate characteristics, construction ideas and routes and relevant guarantee measures. This paper aims to explore the construction points of different types of climate zones by analyzing the current situation of sponge city construction with Chinese characteristics and the distribution of sponge cities, and form successful project experience, providing reference for sponge city construction strategy of other cities with similar climate.

Zhongjie Zhang, Lin Zhang

Water Quality Rehabilitation of the Tiankeng Drainage Canal

The water quality rehabilitation scheme of the Tiankeng Drainage Canal in Hengli Town, Dongguan, Guangdong, China was proposed by low impact development concept. The total length of the Tiankeng Drainage Canal is 4.538 km, of which the length of main drainage canal is 3.23 km and the total length of four branch drainage canals is 1.309 km. The drainage area of the Tiankeng Drainage Canal is 4.49 km2, and river slope is 0.08%. The water quality of the 1.559 km culvert section from Hengtian Drainage Station to South Ring Road and Zhongshan Middle Road is worse than Class V of the Environmental quality standards for surface waterGB3838-2002, and the average width of the culvert is 14.4 m. The section from the intersection of South Ring Road and Zhongshan Middle Road to Xincheng South Road is an open canal section with a length of about 1.670 km and the width of the canal is 8–20 m. The main ecological treatment facilities include (1) ecological gully for removing suspended solids, (2) advance bioretention system to treat the polluted canal water during dry season and stormwater during the rainy season, (3) floating contact oxidation reactors for aeration and plant absorption and landscape projects. The improved low impact techniques were used to treat the polluted water and stormwater in placement of the traditional sewer treatment plant. The total investment is lower than the traditional treatment scheme. The construction of the Tiankeng water quality rehabilitation project is planned to start in January 2019, and will be completed in December 2019.

Xiaoling Qin, Hui Chen, Jian Liu, Nian She, Zengwen Bu

Study on the Integrated Development Strategy of Ecotypic Old Towns in the Suburban Area—A Case Study of Yanfeng Town, Haikou

The development of tourism is promoted by the rise in city residents’ income and their demand for higher life quality. However, due to the accelerated pace of life, shortened leisure time, tourism in the suburban area is increasingly becoming an important way for urban residents to adjust their lives and relieve their stress. Therefore, how to achieve the sustainable development of suburban areas, promote the optimization and upgrading of the regional industry of the outskirts has become an urgent problem to be solved. This paper, from the perspective of Supply-side Structural Reform, based on the regional characteristics and historical background of an Ecotypic town in the suburban area, proposes the integrated development strategy for the optimized development and integration into the process of urbanization and, and taking Yanfeng town as an example, through field research, combined with the specific characteristics and requirements, puts forward planning proposals on integrated development, to provide reference for the development of China’s Ecotypic old towns in the suburb.

Yangzhi Yan, Haoyu Li, Tong Wang, Kunhui Ye

Do Smart Cities Make Us Smarter ?—Philosophical Discussion on Over-Dependence on Smart-Phones in Our Cities

In the recent decades, the term “smart city” has become more and more popular among researchers across a number of disciplines such as town planning, environmental studies, transport engineering and computer science. Most of the attention has been given to the application of technology into making our city more adaptable, sustainable and comfortable. However, we would like to raise a small question here amidst this wave of enthusiasm: Is smart city making us smarter, healthier and more active in other non-technological social aspects? Research attention given to topics with a pretext of “smart” has been growing in the last decade within higher education institutions as well as the society as a whole. Researching on any aspect with a pretext of “smart” is appealing these days because it is easy to get funding due to relatively clearly-defined deliverables of research outcomes in terms of technological advancement to be achieved from the study. On the other hand, how ordinary people should adapt to these fast moving “smart city” development so as to make our society more livable and amiable is a relatively less appealing topic as the deliverables are more difficult to define and measure. Hence, this aspect is usually relegated to a lower priority in most research agendas. In this paper, our objective is not to refute the importance of smart city concept. This paper is not an empirical analysis on the drawback of some smart city applications. We fully understand and appreciate the importance of smart city technologies to the various needs of urban development in any city. We wish, however, to raise the concern that smart city is developed to make human beings a more livable environment, but at the end, it is also human behaviour that determines how “livable” a society can be. In this paper, we will focus on the issues pertaining to the growing popularity of smart-phones which have become an indispensable part of our life in the development of smart cities. In this presentation, we would like to point out that while development of technological advancement for the sake of building smart cities is important and inevitable, more attention should also be given to the social responsibility of the general citizens in using these smart phones for the purpose of enjoying smart city outcomes. If smart cites are to be designed to make us smarter, we should be able to behave and live in a smarter way than before. By focusing on the use of smart phones in our cities, we would like to show that in reality, due to over-indulgence in these smart cities applications, the outcome could be the opposite, until we have learned to live in the smart way.

Ling Hin Li, Lu Wang

An Assessment Model for Urban Tourism Resources Carrying Capacity from the “Carrier-Load” Perspective

Tourism is an important part of urban economic development and can contribute to environmental protection. It is still great significance to the sustainable development of cities. This paper formulates an assessment model of urban tourism resource carrying capacity (UTRCC) from the “carrier-load” perspective. This model can be used to assess whether the urban tourism resources overloaded in the process towards sustainable urban development. The model provides references for sustainable urban tourism planning, development and management.

Hongman He, Wenzhu Luo, Guangyu Cheng, Liyin Shen

An Assessment Model for Land Carrying Capacity from the Social, Economic, and Environmental Sustainability Perspectives

Land resource is important to city sustainable development. This paper establishes an assessment model for land carrying capacity from the social, economic, and environmental sustainability perspectives. The model from land carriers and land loads dimensions can be applied to calculate example cities to assess the carrying state. This paper enriches the theory on land carrying capacity and can guide government departments in the construction of polices.

Wenzhu Luo, Yiman Jiang

Outstanding Research Questions on the Carrying Capacity of Megacities: Conception, Evaluation and Policy Responses

Cities are the primary area for the socioeconomic activities of human beings. In line with the unprecedented and continuous urbanization process, those mega cities worldwide have kept receiving plenty of in-flow immigrate populations, which present significant pressure upon the environment and resources systems of urban contexts. Therefore, the discussion surrounding carrying capacity, or the threshold of mega cities’ development has increasingly become one of the hotspots and mainstreams within the broad discipline of urban studies. This paper captures and delineates the research evolution of the conception, evaluation methods and related police instruments as well as responses within the research domain of megacities’ carrying capacity. Major up-to-date achievements have been synthesized align with these three research aspects of megacities’ carrying capacity. Outstanding research questions focusing on the carrying capacity of megacities are also identified and highlighted as heuristic guidance for future research works in the referred discipline.

Yitian Ren, Kwong Wing Chau, Jinhuan Wang, Zhi Liu, Liyin Shen

Estimation of Population Carrying Capacity of Land Resources: A Case Study of Chongqing

With the continuous development of urbanization, the population influx into the city, the pressure of urban land carrying population is becoming heavier and heavier. At this time, it is particularly important to calculate the load level of land population and find ways to alleviate the burden of land population according to the results of the calculation. From construction land and the relationship between land and grain, economy, this paper designs a method for calculating the carrying capacity of land. This paper predicts the carrying capacity of land population in Chongqing in 2020, and finds that the carrying capacity of land population in Chongqing is not overloaded at the well-off level, but overloaded at the affluent level.

Panxing Zhang

A Load-Carrier Perspective Method for Investigating Urban Public Service Carrying Capacity

The dramatic growth of urban population has made cities vulnerable in terms of achieving sustainable development and providing comfortable living standards for urban inhabitants. Under this background, more and more researchers begin to pay attention to the study of urban carrying capacity (UCC). However, public services carrying capacity, as an indispensable component of UCC, have not been systematically investigated. Previous studies have applied various methods to evaluate public services. They tent to regard the public services as a public product, while public services are one of the essential components of urban system, rather than a mere product, which should be studied as an important social resource. Therefore, this study introduces a load-carrier perspective method for investigating urban public service carrying capacity (UPSCC). The demonstration of four municipalities is used for the application of the innovative method. The demonstration shows that the carrying degree of urban public services of four municipalities is acceptable, and still have great potential to improve. The result of demonstration suggests that the load-carrier perspective method introduced in this study is able to help measure UPSCC.

Nan Yang, Xia Liao, Conghui Meng

A Framework to Evaluate Land Carrying Capacity of the Mountainous Mega City: A Case from Chongqing, China

Cities are facing various challenges in the process of urbanization. Land carrying capacity is an important basis for sustainable development, especially for mountainous mega cities. This study aims at formulating a framework to evaluate land carrying capacity of the mountainous mega city, 26 indicators are selected and classified as four subsystems including population, economy, eco-environment and construction. A mountainous mega city in China, Chongqing, is selected as a case to demonstrate this framework. The results show that there is a volatile increasing trend for land comprehensive carrying capacity in Chongqing during 2008–2017, different subsystems have different trends. This research can provide evaluation underpinnings for managers and planners of mountainous mega cities to optimize the sustainable urban development.

Guangyu Cheng, Conghui Meng, Zhen Zhou

Theme 3 Urban-Rural Infrastructure Development

Frontmatter

Investigating the Determinants of Resource Utilization Behavior of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

The generation of a large number of road engineering wastes poses a major challenge to the sustainable development of China's resources. The recycling of reclaimed asphalt pavement is an effective measure to alleviate this challenge. In order to analyze the differences between the contractor and the designer in the resource utilization behavior of reclaimed asphalt pavement, this paper combines the theory of planned behavior to design the survey scale, and through empirical analysis to explore the impact mechanism of the recycling utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavement by different parties. The results show that attitude towards behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control have significant positive effects on behavioral intention. The importance level from the largest to the smallest is the perceived behavioral control > attitude towards behavior > subjective norms. Perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention are the main factors affecting the actual behavior, and the degree of influence of perceived behavioral control is greater than the behavioral intention. For the designer, the most important factor affecting the behavioral intention is the perceived behavioral control. The most influential factor on the actual behavior is the behavioral intention. For the contractor, the attitude towards behavior is the most important influencing factor affecting the behavioral intention, and the most influential factor to the actual behavior is the perceived behavioral control. The research conclusions can provide reference for designing relevant measures and policies for RAP resource utilization management.

Dan Chong, Xiqing He

Safety-Risk Identification of Traffic Infrastructure Operation in Mountainous Townships

With the continuous advancement of new urbanization, the level of townships motorization has been improved. Residents travel conditions have significantly been improved. Vehicles have gradually become common tools for residents to travel. Because of the special geographical position in mountainous areas, construction of traffic infrastructure there is not sufficient, which leads to severe traffic operational safety issues. Improving road traffic safety in mountainous townships and reduce the occurrence of safety accidents has become an urgent problem to be solved in the development of mountainous areas. This paper aims to identify the safety-risk factors that affect the operation period of transport infrastructure in mountainous townships. Factor analysis method has been used to analyze the current situation of traffic infrastructure in the operation period in mountainous townships. Key influencing factors have been found out, and feasible suggestions are put forward to reduce the risk of traffic safety in operation period and promote the development of mountainous townships.

Yujuan She, Tianhong Jiang, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Jian Zuo, Yu Wang

Resilience Evaluation of Complex Urban Public Spaces

As a main kind of infrastructure in urban areas, the complex urban public spaces (CUPSs) (such as complex rail transit station, multi-layer railway station) are threatened by various kinds of disasters due to the multi-layer complicated network structure and crowd people. Resilience ability of the CUPSs shows high significance for disaster response and risk mitigation through absorbing and adapting the impact of disasters. In view of this, this paper formulated a theoretical framework to evaluate the resilience of the CUPSs. According to the implication of resilience, it is defined as the ratio between preparedness and vulnerability. Practically, the three level of practical index systems were established for the two dimensions, respectively. The methods Efficacy Coefficient Method (ECM) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) were adopted to determine the scores of preparedness and vulnerability, and further the resilience level of the CUPSs was measured. This paper evaluates the resilience of the CUPSs from the perspectives of system internal structure and external environment. The resilience evaluation of the CUPSs is conductive to promote urban infrastructure construction and development. Besides, the evaluation results could provide useful references for urban managers and decision makers.

Hui Xu, Yang Li, Yongtao Tan, Liudan Jiao, Yuting Yang, Xiaofeng Hu

Application of Pipeline Inspection and Evaluation in the Water Environment Treatment Project to Maozhou River

Drainage pipe network engineering is an important part of the water environment treatment project. The pipeline inspection and repair are complicated and difficult duo to its conceal. The authenticity, accuracy and scientificity of drainage pipe inspection and evaluation are particularly significant. An advanced closed-circuit television (CCTV) technology was used for pipeline inspection of the Maozhou River Urban Water Environment Rehabilitation Project in Shenzhen. Through the pipeline inspection and evaluation integration process, the functional and structural defects, defect levels and specific locations of the pipelines were judged. According to the inspection results, the rehabilitation indexes of the corresponding defective pipelines were calculated, and the Pareto chart was combined to carry out the overall analysis, so that the quality problems were quantified and visualized, and the main factors causing the quality problems were determined. Finally, some corrective measures were taken in a targeted manner.

Yu Miao, Jian Liu, Xiaoqiang Gong, Huaxiang Zhao, Pai Liu

Quantification of Carbon Footprint of Highway Pavement via Streamlined LCA: A Case Study of Zhuhai City, China

Transport infrastructure construction is very resource and energy intensive. While highway has the characteristics of flexibility and adaptability, however, it faces many problems such as poor pavement flatness, low speed, and serious environmental impact. Meanwhile, Zhuhai City as an important part of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA), its sustainable development index’ ranks higher than in many cities in China. This is also inseparable from the development model of Zhuhai City’s construction sector. In this study, the carbon emission of highway pavement was quantified through SLCA. Specifically, the life of highway pavement includes the material stage, construction stage, maintenance stage. The preliminary results show that the CF of highway pavement is over 50 thousand tonnes of CO2eq in 2017. The CF from per kilometer of expressway pavement is more than 3,000 tonnes CO2eq. The largest contributor is the material consumption stage, which accounts for 78%, followed by the construction stage (10%), the maintenance stage (12%). The highway density in Zhuhai City is 83 km/100 (km)2, which is at a lower level than other cities in GBA. This paper also uses scenario analysis to estimate and predict the CF of the highway pavement system in Zhuhai City (by 2030). Current findings have a certain significance for environmental protection research in the construction of transportation infrastructure in GBA. The method can also be applied to the quantification of CF of other cities or whole GBA highway pavement construction assessment.

Qian Liu, Ning Zhang, Jingjing Geng, Huabo Duan

Does Infrastructure Have Threshold Effect on Total Factor Productivity? Empirical Analysis Based on Panel Data of 256 Cities in China

China’s economic growth has gradually turned from factor-driven to innovation-driven. The efficiency of economic growth, which can be represented by total factor productivity (TFP), has attracted wide attention. Although the linear relationship between infrastructure and TFP has been widely studied by scholars, there may be a more complicated nonlinear relationship between them. This paper focuses on both economic infrastructure and social infrastructure and calculates the TFP of 256 cities at prefecture level or above in China from 2004 to 2015. The results of the threshold regression model show that infrastructure (road, bus, green area, hospital bed, etc.) does have threshold effects on TFP. When the threshold variable is infrastructure, the impact of infrastructure on TFP below the threshold value is higher than that impact above the threshold value. When the threshold variable is GDP per capita, the impact of infrastructure below the threshold value is lower than that impact above the threshold value. Furtherly, on the basis of empirical results, sample cities are divided into four categories, including initial stage, increasing stage, trapped stage, and stable stage. Their urban development paths, features, and spatial distributions are also studied. This paper finds that the infrastructure doesn’t promote TFP efficiently in most cities. For the purpose of improving the efficiency of economic growth, urban infrastructure investment and construction should pay more attention to the different effects of infrastructure on TFP in different urban stages.

Zhifeng Wang, Changwei Zhan, Lingyu Guo

Research on Risk Sharing of Construction Waste Recycling PPP Project Based on Game Theory

At present the disposal of construction waste in our country is extensive and backward, causing serious challenges to resource and environment. Construction waste recycling can reverse the harsh situation, and using the PPP model can effectively solve the fiscal problem, raise operation efficiency and reduce the project risk. In the process of construction waste utilization PPP project operation, establishing scientific and perfect risk sharing mechanism is the key to project success. In this paper, the stakeholders and their relationships in the construction waste comprehensive utilization PPP project were analyzed, and divided into three parts: government sector, pure investor and specialized company. The game processes is divided into stages of incomplete information and complete information, constructed into the two-phase tripartite bargaining game model in an asymmetry position, which provides a more effective solution for risk allocation, and the empirical analysis for the model was carried through a case, which constructs a complete risk set for construction waste recycling PPP project and determines rational allocation of risks to the three parties. The corresponding refined bayesian Nash equilibrium solution and the subgame refined Nash equilibrium solution are established and the proportion of the three parties sharing the risk is obtained. This model is helpful for all parties to clarify the risk responsibility of the PPP project of construction waste recycling, to increase the efficiency of project risk management, and to promote the development of construction waste industrialization in China.

Zhihua Luo, Yong Sun, Zhengxu Zhu

Public–Private Partnership (PPP) Infrastructure Projects in Bangladesh: Challenges and Opportunities

The government of Bangladesh has taken initiatives to implement infrastructure projects under Public–Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements. However, the policy makers, public sector clients, pressure groups and other stakeholders do not have clear understanding about PPPs and they have dilemma whether it is suitable for Bangladesh. This study explores the opinions of the construction professionals through questionnaire survey in Bangladesh about the opportunities and challenges for implementation of PPP infrastructure projects in Bangladesh. The survey result shows that 96% of respondents believe PPPs are “very important” or “important” for Bangladesh to develop its infrastructure because of: scarcity of public funds; lessening pressure of foreign loans from the government; providing uninterrupted public services; timely completion of infrastructure projects and quality of project works. The study also reveals that creating favorable business environment for the investors; preparing policy and guidelines; reducing political interventions; and preparing sound feasibility study will foster implementation of infrastructure projects under PPP models. The most challenging factors identified by the respondents are: interruption by the government; corruption in government sectors; lack of qualified local bidders/investors; acceptance of PPP projects by end users; and return on investment for the investors. If the identified critical issues are addressed properly by the government, Bangladesh could solve the existing problems with developing its infrastructures and would be emerged as one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

Md Abul Kalam Azad, Xiaohua Jin

Theme 4 Land Use and Development

Frontmatter

The Compensation Standard of Collective Land House Expropriation Under the Background of Urban Village Reconstruction—A Case of Xi'an City

With the official launching of the Three-Year Zero Action Plan for Shantytowns and Villages on Collective Land within the City Highway (2018–2020) (later referred to as “the Action Plan (2018–2020)”) on December 13, 2018, Xi'an was faced with the largest urban village transformation in history. Under the circumstance, this paper, combined with the practice of other cities in China, takes Xi'an as an example to carry out an empirical analysis by putting forward a new idea of building the compensation standard of collective land housing expropriation. It aims at to provide theoretical references for the establishment of a scientific, reasonable and long-term compensation mechanism for collective land housing expropriation.

Donglang Yang, Zhongping Shi

Research on Construction Land Supply for Mutual-Property Rights Housing

To ensure people’s housing rights and promote sustainable urbanization, governments have begun to favour the mode of mutual-property rights housing. Based on the spatial imbalance between the supply and demand in China’s real estate market, this paper proposes the cross-regional transactions of land vouchers as a source of land supply for mutual-property rights housing. The system was designed with Chongqing as the supplier and Shanghai as the demander. The results show that the cross-regional transactions of land vouchers can alleviate the problems of insufficient land quotas and promote the effective land supply for mutual-property rights housing in demanders; meanwhile, it can increase the value of suppliers’ land vouchers and accelerate the process of urbanization. In implementing this system, it is necessary to strengthen suppliers’ supervision of the land vouchers’ transaction mechanism and to improve the urban planning of demanders.

Yingchao Lin, Zhili Ma, Weiyan Hu

Theme 5 Housing Market and Housing Policy

Frontmatter

Study on Influencing Factors of Rebuilding Vacant Housing Into Long-Rent Apartments in Urban Areas

In recent years, housing price has increased rapidly in first and second-tier cities, and the pressure of buying houses has doubled. Therefore, renting apartments has become the inevitable trend in the real estate market. Developing long-Rent apartments by utilizing the stock of vacant hosing in urban areas has become a crucial strategy for Real estate agencies. By analyzing the status quo of vacant housing and long-rented apartments, this paper constructs a system dynamic model for the transformation of vacant Housing into long-rented apartments, and deeply analyzes the causal feedback relationship between the influencing factors of the transformation of vacant Housing into long-rented apartments, introduces the main factor regulating variables, and carries out simulation experiments. Finally, based on the influence factors and simulation results of the conversion between the two, relevant suggestions are put forward for the transformation of vacant housing into long-rented apartments.

Huanhuan Mu, Yiqi Lee, Jiaying Peng

Research on the Cognition and Participation of College Graduates Under the Policy of Both Housing Renting and Purchasing

The purpose of this paper is to empirically test cognition and willingness of college graduate to participate in the policy of “both housing renting and purchasing” and to provide evidence for the implementation of the policy. The method employed include literature analysis and questionnaire survey. The result shows that college graduate have very low awareness of the policy of “Housing Purchase and Renting” and the willingness to Participate is not strong. The government should strengthen policy propaganda, improve differentiated housing support policies, establish gradient supply system, and achieve balanced public services, promote the housing consumption of college graduates from “heavy purchase and light rent” to “rent and purchase simultaneously”.

Yu Yan

The Relationship Between Market Structure and Market Performance in Real Estate Based on Market Concentration Rate and Principal Component Analysis

This paper mainly studies the relationship between real estate market concentration and market performance. Firstly, With the data of 2007–2017 in China, it uses Concentration Rate, the Herfindahl–Hirschman Indices as well as the Entropy Index to calculate the real estate market concentration. Secondly, referring to the Principal Component Analysis method, the Market Concentration Synthesis Index is synthesized to assess the degree of real estate market concentration. With the ROA measuring market performance, this paper finally analyzes the relationship between market concentration and market performance. The empirical results demonstrate that the real estate market concentration present a rising tendency during the period of 2007–2017 in general and the concentration of real estate market is negatively correlated with market performance. For every unit increased by the Market Concentration Synthesis Index, the ROA decreased by 0.194%.

Hong Zhang, Nan Guo

Research on the Linkage Effect of Housing Prices in Bay Area Urban Agglomeration: A Case of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area

With the introduction of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) planning, the co-construction and integration of the GBA cities will inevitably lead to the linkage of housing prices between cities. This paper is to study the spillover effect and spatial linkage effect of housing prices in the urban agglomerations of GBA based on the method of vector autoregression model, Granger causality test and spatial autocorrelation test, so as to analyze its transmission mechanism and spatial dependence of housing prices. The results show: (1) The housing prices of 11 cities in GBA have obvious spillover effect, and there are different transmission ranges among them. (2) Guangzhou has the greatest influence on the housing prices of other Bay Area cities, which is the core city of housing price transmission in GBA. (3) There is obvious spatial dependence of housing prices of urban agglomeration in GBA. Therefore, in the process of promoting the construction of GBA, the government should consider the linkage effect of housing prices between cities and make different adjustments to them when regulating the real estate market.

Shuting Huang, Botong Song

Research on the Change Rules and Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Real Estate Corporate Bonds Based on Panel Data

With the improvement of the capital market, more and more real estate enterprises choose direct financing methods such as issuing stocks and bonds to raise funds. Although IPO and other stock financing methods have high cost and strict supervision, they are still well-favored. In contrast, real estate corporate bonds have the advantages of relatively low and fixed financing cost, however, the market conditions are not active enough, hindering the real estate enterprises from expanding the channels of funding sources comprehensively to some extent. In order to understand the bond financing situation of real estate enterprises comprehensively, this paper collects and organizes the panel data of real estate corporate bonds from 1998 to 2018 and conducts multi-dimensional statistical analysis from the perspectives of the bond characteristics ownership nature and regional distribution of enterprises to explore the change rules and spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of real estate corporate bonds. Meanwhile we apply a time series GMM model to study the impact of macroeconomics on the coupon rate of real estate corporate bonds, hoping to help the financing party and issuer of real estate corporate bonds and relevant regulatory authorities to formulate effective proposals.

Lutong Yu, Hong Zhang

Analysis on the Application of Asset Securitization Model in the Financing of Long-Rent Apartments in China

Since 2016, the central government has put forward the idea of establishing a long-term mechanism of the real estate market, developing the housing rental market and promoting both rent and purchase, and the long rent apartment market has developed rapidly. In the long rent apartment industry, there are pervasive problems such as large investment in the early stage, difficulty in making profits and slow capital turnover. However, ordinary financing methods have higher requirements for the emerging industry. Therefore, how to effectively obtain low-cost financing has become a huge problem faced by the industry. Compared with the traditional financing mode, asset securitization has the advantages of low cost and risk isolation. Therefore, starting with the financing dilemma of long rent apartments, this paper analyses the status quo of the application of asset securitization rent income right, CMBS and REITS-like mode in long rent apartments in China, and finally summarizes the application of asset securitization financing mode in long rent apartments.

Qunhong Liu, Shuoyang Li, Zhangsheng Liu

Urban Households’ Heterogeneous Demands for Living Space—From an Empirical Analysis of CHFS

The residential housing demand is the essential driving force for the development of real estate market. In order to predict the urban housing demand in the future, this paper focuses on how the householder’s personal characteristics and the family structure affect the demand for living space. Based on the micro-data of China Household Finance Survey (CHFS), a multiple linear regression model is conducted, and in addition to other conventional factors, this paper creatively incorporates the health status and living experience of householder into the model. After controlling the housing prices, the results show that education, rural living experience of householder and the per capita income of household have significant positive correlation with per capita living space; the number of cohabitants negatively affect the per capita living space; there is a U-shaped relationship between the age of the householder and the per capita living space. Besides, householder’s gender does not have much impact on the living space, but the health status of householder may affect the demand for living space. With the miniaturization of family size, the improvement of education level, and the process of urbanization, more and more people will pursue larger per capita living space, so that the demand for housing area will not drop in a short time.

Haiyan Jin, Yu Zhang

The Impact of Real Estate Investment on Economic Growth: Empirical Studies from 31 Chinese Provinces (2006–2016)

It's of great significance for social development to explore the true impact of real estate investment on economic growth. This paper selects the data of real estate investment, other investment, consumption and exports in 31 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) from 2006 to 2016 for empirical analysis. It uses the unit root test and co-integration test to establish a panel data model and obtain a linear regression equation. The research results indicate that real estate investment can promote economic growth, but the promotion is not great. Specifically, the impact factors of China's real estate investment, other investment, consumption and exports on economic growth are: 0.065, 0.089, 0.641 and 0.042, respectively. The impact on economic growth is positive, and the impact effects are significant.

Xinping Wen, Shuang Lei, Yanming Lv, Bingni Liao

Exploring Preference Ranking for House Transfer Inspection Using AHP

The house inspection is a necessary, important, and even legal procedure before the transfer of the ownership. Nevertheless, what inspection items should be considered and what priority should the inspection items go remain unclear. The research purposes are to discover and weight the inspection items for housing transfer and then to reveal their preference ranking as a basis for further training curriculum of related certificates. A literature review has set up a comprehensive basis for expert interviews that define 8 aspects including 38 inspection items for housing transfer. Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) theory, an expert survey collected 27 effective returns that verify and weight all items, and therefore, the preference ranking is disclosed. The top priority for housing transfer inspection among 8 aspects is Aspect water leaking/drainage that includes 3 inspection items in the top 5 priority among 38 items. The findings emphasize the importance of water leaking/drainage inspection and provide a solid basis for further training curriculum of related certificates.

Jieh-Haur Chen, His-Hua Pan, Po-Han Chen

How Many Low Income Housing Tax Credit Projects Will Be Preserved by Government at Year 30 and Beyond?

Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the largest federal Housing program of all. In 1989, congress extended service life of LIHTC projects to 30 years. About 100,000 projects will end service annually from this year. This paper regards government behavior as exogenous variable and constructs a tripartite evolutionary game model from the perspective of irrational person to explore the evolutionary behavior of the owner group after the service expiration of LIHTC project. The results suggest that there may be multiple evolutionary stabilization strategies for project owners. The government can control the difference between subsidies and development costs to affect the income of participating LIHTC, adjust the difference between fair market rent and the actual market rental to affect the income of choosing the rental vouchers, and finally influence the proportion of the owners choosing certain strategy.

Zhengxu Zhu, Botong Song, Xiaoqiang Gong

Theme 6 New Theory and Practice of Construction Project Management

Frontmatter

Hot Spot Analysis of Subcontract Management Based on Co-word Analysis

In recent years, subcontract management has attracted more and more scholars’ attention because of its important role in project success and the growth of general contractors, and has become a research hot spot in building sector. In order to comprehensively show the status quo of subcontract management research and look forward to future research trends, the article retrieves 345 foreign literatures and 397 Chinese literatures collected by SCI and CNKI database from 2000 to 2018 for co-word analysis, systematically analyzing of the trends and characteristics of domestic and foreign subcontract management research. Through multivariate statistics and social network analysis, the overall research structure of project subcontract management is visualized, and the cited literatures with high frequency are interpreted and the existing achievements are analyzed in depth. The results show that the subcontract management research shows the characteristics of scattered research field and small research scale. The construction schedule control, risk management, construction supply chain management and partnership have become the important research topics at home and abroad. Compared with the English literature, the Chinese literature is slightly lagging behind and needs to be further refined, deepened and systematized. This paper presents the overall research status of subcontract management at home and abroad, which can provide reference for the future research.

Saisai Zhang, Shaoyan Wu

Literature Research on Construction Supply Chain Management Based on Co-word Analysis

In recent years, construction supply chain management has attracted much attention from scholars and has become a hot topic in the building sector. To fully demonstrate the hotspots of the construction supply chain and look forward to future research trends, this paper analyzes 229 foreign literatures and 1037 Chinese literatures from 2000 to 2018 by retrieving published journal articles and master’s thesis. Multivariate statistics are used to study the statistical regularity of interdependence among variables, social networks are used to analyze the visual relationship of high-frequency keywords. Through in-depth analysis and interpretation of the high-frequency cited literature, the article concludes that risk management, supply chain coordination, material management, procurement management, partner selection and performance evaluation are common research hotspots at home and abroad. Revenue incentives and system integration are the focus of research in China. In terms of information technology, foreign countries have more extensive research in the Agile Construction Supply Chain (ACSC) and Building Information Model (BIM) than in China. This paper provides the research hotspot issues of construction supply chain management, and hopes to provide reference for future related research.

Xingyuan Zhang, Shaoyan Wu

SMART Construction Projects Framework: A Conceptual Framework for Construction Project Management in the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Applications of the key Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) technologies have the potential to overcome the challenges faced by the construction industry and improve project performance. However, the construction industry has not well-responded to the change, remaining as a laggard in technology adoption. While there are multiple barriers faced by the construction industry, one of the most significant barriers is the risks associated with technology adoption. Furthermore, limited research has been conducted to assess the impact of 4IR technologies on construction project management. This paper discusses the key 4IR technologies and applications that impact construction project management, which eventually affect project performance. More specific objectives are: (i) to identify the key 4IR technologies and its applications that have been implemented or have the potential in construction projects that will significantly affect construction project management; and (ii) to develop a SMART Construction Projects framework that consolidates the characteristics of construction projects, key technologies and its applications in the 4IR, which changes the processes of construction project management. Based on the findings from the literature review, construction projects are expected to be sustainable, mobile, automated with real-time capabilities and transparent in the 4IR. These characteristics will change construction project management processes in the 4IR. The findings of this research serve as a starting point for future research on how construction project management changes in the 4IR, which may provide valuable reference to the industry in navigating the 4IR and to prepare the industry in sense of enhancing and developing competencies of construction project managers in the era of 4IR.

Jasmine Ngo, Bon-Gang Hwang

Based on the F-AHP to Evaluate the Reinforced Concrete Structure Engineering

The comprehensive performance evaluation of reinforced concrete structure sense involves a wide range. Meanwhile it’s requires a lot of people, financial and material resources. Aiming at the disadvantage of high cost evaluation of reinforced concrete structure, this paper introduces the Fuzzy hierarchical analysis model to analyze the comprehensive performance evaluation of reinforced concrete engineering. And it’s applying the relevant literature, the F-AHP method and the Delphi method. Based on the evaluation of practical engineering, it was proved that the evaluation of this method was in accordance with the engineering practice. This result reduces the cost of comprehensive performance evaluation of reinforced concrete engineering effectively. In addition, the results of the study also provide the theoretical basis for evaluating the comprehensive performance of concrete engineering with the qualitative and quantitative aspects.

Le Wang, Jun Zhou

Effects of Brokerage Roles and Communication Direction on Communication Efficiency: A Case Study from a Chinese Construction Project

Organizational communication has been recognized as an essential factor in successful project management. However, scant attention is given to the structural aspects of communication such as the brokerage position (i.e., a position who bridges two or more disconnected individuals or groups) in the networks of construction projects. This paper aims to investigate the impacts of project participants’ different types of brokerage roles (i.e., coordinator, gatekeeper, representative, consultant, and liaison) and communication direction (external-oriented vs. internal-oriented) on their communication efficiency in construction projects. The hypothesized relationships are empirically tested based on the data collected from a large-scale construction project in China. Social network analysis is conducted to understand the relations between project stakeholders from different organizations as well as the features of communication networks in construction projects. The results of regression analyses demonstrate that a certain brokerage role—a consultant—is more likely to have higher communication efficiency while a gatekeeper and a representative tend to have lower efficiency. There is no statistical evidence that communication direction is significantly associated with communication efficiency. A deeper understanding of the effects of brokerage roles on communication efficiency provides valuable insights for developing practical strategies to improve organizational communication.

Wenxin Shen, Wenzhe Tang, SangHyun Lee

Application of Institutional Entrepreneurship Theory of Small and Medium-Sized Private Construction Enterprises to Flying Landscape Company

This paper analyzes the theoretical model of private enterprise institutional entrepreneurship, and takes Shenzhen based Flying Landscape Company (FLC) as an example to construct the institutional entrepreneurship model. The institutional entrepreneurship process is divided into three stages including foundation of change, theorization, and institutionalization, the specific institutional constraints are analyzed, and some institutional entrepreneurship tactics are adopted in the model. The application effects of the institutional entrepreneurship model to FLC are introduced. The results show that the theory of private enterprise institutional entrepreneurship is feasible and effective for the institutional innovation of small and medium-sized private construction enterprises.

Xiaoqiang Gong, Jian Liu, Yu Miao, Chunyu Zheng, Peng Liu, Pai Liu

Evaluating the Competitiveness of the Chinese Listed Construction Enterprises Based on OLS Regression Analysis Model

With rapid development of China’s construction market, construction enterprises in the country are facing stronger competition and greater challenges, leading the research on evaluating the competitiveness of construction state-owned enterprises and private enterprises become worthy of attention. Based on the principle of literature measure analysis, this paper establishes an index system for enterprise competitiveness evaluation, and uses the clustering factor method to conduct Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression analysis. The empirical sample uses the year 2017 cross-sectional data of 10 listed state-owned enterprises and 10 listed private enterprises in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock Exchanges. The result shows that the abilities of solvency, operation, research and development have different degrees of influence on the competitiveness of state-owned enterprises and private enterprises. Under the Chinese socialist market economy, the construction private enterprises have a gap of about 65% with the construction state-owned enterprises due to the lack of policies and resources. It is also necessary for the government to support them to catch up.

Yousong Wang, Yakun Li, Hongyang Li

Research Trend of Psychological Contract in Construction Management

Over the past three decades, psychological contract (PC) has elicited an increasing research attention in construction management (CM). However, a research trend of PC application in CM is unavailable. This study aims to address this gap by reviewing PC papers in CM from 1990 to 2019 to ascertain the status of this research area and identify future research directions. This review starts with the definition of PC, and then compares the difference between the PC for individuals and the PC for organizations. Subsequently, this paper identifies three research directions of PC application in CM, namely, human resource management, safety management and procurement management. Finally, this review proposes a dual-dimension framework and some suggestions for future theorizing about the PC application in CM. The findings of this study are believed to provide useful references for the future application of PC in CM.

Xiaoyan Jiang, Kun Lu, Bo Xia, Qing Chen

Will Construction Contract Compensation Induce Incentive Failure?—A Moderation Model Based on Reference Point Effect of Contract

Contract compensation is an important means of post-incentive. However, “incentive failure” phenomenon often occurs and reduces the performance efficiency of the contract. Based on the contract reference point theory, the contractor’s choice of performance behaviors will take the key clause in the initial contract as a reference point. However, the existing studies ignore the impact of contract compensation on initial contract reference point effect. A mediated moderation model of contract reference point effect is constructed. Using questionnaire survey to tests the model. The results show that: (1) without considering the compensation after the contract, the risk liability clause in the initial contract positively promotes the contractor’s performance behaviors through the intermediary of fairness perception; (2) considering the contract compensation, the contract compensation will take the fairness perception as the intermediary to negatively adjust the relationship between the contract risk liability clauses and the contractor’s performance behaviors, leading to the incentive failure of the construction contract compensation. The research shows that the reference point effect should be solidified in the design of construction contract. At the same time, the execution of construction project contract should ensure that the contract compensation is consistent with the expectation. The research provides a theoretical reference for reducing transaction cost and improving the efficiency of contract ex-post performance.

Jiandong Tang, Jie Li, Ling Yan

Assessment for the Correlation Between Stakeholder Motivation and Company Profitability in Construction Industry Based on a Human Motivation Theory

Construction industry highly relies upon the human resources to complete construction tasks. Thereby, overall profitability of the company may affect the human motivation and vice versa. Further, the inflation of a country can have pernicious implications to the profitability. Thereby, the aim of this paper is to present the empirical findings and the correlation between stakeholder motivation and profitability in relation to the inflation in these macro-economic conditions and come up with a human motivation theory. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used for stakeholders with both open ended and closed ended questions for the survey. Year-end financial data statements were analysed as quantitative data. The data of exchange rates were analysed as quantitative data of secondary data collection. Cronbach’s alpha (α) test was carried-out to measure the internal consistency. Principle components analysis (PCA) was done to reduce the redundancy of variables of questionnaires and define the major scales. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s test of sphericity to measure the sampling adequacy and Shapiro-Wilk (SW) test was done to test the null hypothesis ‘data distribution is equal to a normal distribution’. Pearson’s correlation test was executed to test the null hypothesis ‘the population correlation coefficient (ρ) is equal to zero’ to determine correlation and strength between exchange rates and the primary cost of the construction contractors.

Vivian W. Y. Tam, Harshana P. Wattage, Khoa N. Le

The Impact of Lean Construction on Construction Labour Productivity: A Systematic Review

The construction industry cannot resist the promise of lean production, whose impact on quality, cost, and safety are well-documented. This study investigates the impact of lean construction (LC) on construction labour productivity, with a focus on project/activity levels where LC takes off. It addresses the call to take account of production system analysis in researching construction sector productivity. Keywords like lean construction, productivity, and similar were sought in Scopus, yielding 25 relevant studies. Though few, these are empirical in nature, and most describe case studies and simulations testing LC practices. Value stream mapping (VSM) and the last planner system (LPS) remain the most popular LC practices. The hourly outputs approach predominated. Process efficiency was also used complementarily. All selected studies indicated that the impact of lean practice implementation is generally positive, despite the productivity measures. This allows the industry to see what improvements can be made in productivity and process efficiency.

Gao Shang, Toong-Khuan Chan

Content Analysis Based on Knowledge Graph: A Practice on Chinese Construction Contracts

The objective of this research is to present an innovative technique of extracting and presenting knowledge in construction documents. A construction project can generate a huge number of documents such as contract, correspondences, meeting minutes, quality and safety reports. Traditional document management methods cannot automatically process the information within the documents. Natural language processing is a promising tool to improve information extraction and knowledge management. In this article, we use a conditional random field model to extract domain terms from construction documents. Based on the extraction results, we transfer the contract into a knowledge graph. Then, we visualize the knowledge graphs and some tacit knowledge is found.

Qiqi Zhang, Zirui Hong, Xing Su

Named Entity Recognition for Chinese Construction Documents

Named Entity Recognition plays a critical role in many Natural Language Processing tasks such as information extraction, document classification and knowledge management. A construction document usually contains critical named entities and an effective NER method can provide a solid foundation for NLP applications, leading to a better efficiency of construction management. This paper focuses on NER for Chinese construction documents. The background and current challenges were introduced. An NER framework were proposed including the system structure, the annotation strategy and the model training approach. The result of a pilot test that implements the framework is presented and future research directions for improvements were discussed by the end of the paper.

Xing Su, Zirui Hong, Qiqi Zhang, Cong Xue, Xu Li

Developing a Benefits Management Framework for Public Construction Projects

Benefits Management (BM) has been utilized in various project contexts to tackle the limitations of traditional project management methods with an expectation of facilitating benefits realization. However, the implementation of BM in the construction industry is still in its infancy. Public construction projects, in particular, perform poorly in delivering target benefits. This study aims to develop a BM framework in the setting of public projects. A semi-structured interview and archive analysis of three cases were undertaken to identify key activities of BM and establish the BM framework. This study enriches benefits-related studies and practices by providing a lifecycle BM framework for public construction projects.

Xiao Liu, Yan Ning, Yadi Li

Barriers to the Adoption of Industrialised Building Systems in Developing Countries

The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers facing the adoption of Intelligent Building System in the Construction and Building Industry. The study used the Survey design. Well-structured questionnaires were administered to registered Construction professionals. Although just 120 questionnaires were returned, a total of 176 questionnaires were distributed to obtain information from construction professionals namely; Quantity surveyors, Architects, Engineers and Builders practising in Ondo State, Nigeria. Mean item score was used as the basic analytical tool for ranking in order of relative importance. Results showed a lot of barriers inhibiting the IBS adoption, of which Poor maintenance culture stands tallest, and closely behind it are Cost and Erratic power supply. The barrier that posed the least threat is, however, Organisational support. The study concluded that these barriers are common barriers facing Africa, and a lot of focus has to dwell on the positives that will arise from IBS adoption rather than focusing on the endless barriers.

Ayodeji Oke, Olayinka Omole, Clinton O. Aigbavboa

Chinese Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Project Development Characteristics: An Interview Study

Public-private partnership (PPP) is an institutionalized form of cooperation between public and private sectors in delivering mutual products and services. China has developed the largest number of projects and investments with the involvement of private entities among developing countries. However, when comparing with the developed countries, due to the unique economic, cultural, legal and political background, PPP has its country-specific characteristics. This paper aims to address the main characteristics for China in PPP industry development. In this paper, a theoretical review provided a big picture of the current conditions of Chinese PPP development. Later, an expert interview was used to better define the characteristics of Chinese PPP projects focusing on the impacts they could exert on operation and maintenance stage. The findings show that the characteristics can be addressed in four categories: conception, return mechanism, management mechanism and PPP formulating mechanism. This research has a twofold implication: it provides a means of Chinese PPP characteristics focusing on the problems towards the later operation and maintenance stage and therefore, it can help to optimize stakeholder relationships to increase the collaboration of public and private party in engaging in PPP projects, as well as inspiring other researchers in this field.

Liuyiyi Yang, Malindu Sandanayake, Sajani Jayasuriya, Hang Vu, Guomin Zhang

Perspectives on Criteria for Selection of Public-Financed Schemes of Public-Private Partnerships Infrastructure Projects

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) come in so many schemes and the selection of the right PPP model is crucial to the success of a project. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the criteria on the selection of the public-financed PPP scheme in developed and developing countries. Twenty-five PPP scheme selection criteria were identified based on a comprehensive review of existing literature and expert interviews. A web-based questionnaire survey was used to collect data with experienced PPP professionals from both industry and academic. The mean score ranking and Mann–Whitney U test was used to analyze the survey responses. The ranking results indicate that the top important criteria are related to the stability in political and legislation system as well as the mature legal system. The Mann–Whitney U test reveals that professionals from developed and developing countries view the importance of six out of 25 criteria differently. The results are hoped to develop the well-integrated decision-making framework for selection of the appropriate scheme for a particular project in both developing and developed countries.

Hang Vu, Guomin Zhang, Malindu Sandanayake, Liuyiyi Yang

Apply a Fuzzy Method to Perform Objective Allocation for Buildings Cost in Value Engineering Job Plan Process

Because of its benefits, value engineering (VE) has been applied in the public sector of construction industry through systematic VE job plan workshop. However, unsatisfactory VE workshop have often been reported used to the deficient in the traditional VE job plan, which has hampered the VE application for private projects. The function analysis phase plays a key role in delivering VE workshop outcomes, while how to efficiently and objectively allocate building cost to each function has long been a problem. Current study applied a fuzzy-based method to improve the traditional function cost allocation in terms of objectivity and efficiency. Triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs), as one of fuzzy methods, is applied to transfer the VE participants’ linguistic and vague evaluation of the function performance of the building elements into numerical values. A real case study was carried out to examine the proposed method. In the case study, a group of VE participants was able to establish a Function Analysis System Techniques (FAST) diagram for the case building, and give their linguistic evaluation in different degree about the function performance of specific building elements. The linguistic evaluation was then transferred to numerical value by TFNs algorithms in order to understand the function performance of building elements, which laid the ground for allocating cost of building elements to functions. The findings indicated that the function cost allocation through the TFNs are generally reasonable and reliable, which could be applied to benefit other VE projects. Current study was able to contribute to improve current VE practices by offering the way to objectively and efficiently allocate function cost.

Qi Liang, Mei-yung Leung, Zhiyuan Zhou

Exploring the Perspective of PPP Performance and Application Barriers Among Construction Professionals: A Case Study of Suzhou

Although Public-private partnership (PPP) has been widely used in developing infrastructure projects in China, research on the perspective of PPP among construction professionals is still limited, which has a negative influence on the performance level of PPP application. Based on literature review, this study conducted questionnaire survey in Suzhou to explore the perspectives of PPP project performance and critical barriers in PPP application among construction professionals. The main findings are: (1) Favorable legal regulations and policy support are the most important performance influencing factor of PPP project in terms of macro environment, reasonable financing plan is the most important performance influencing factor of PPP project regarding project characteristic, SPV’s comprehensive competitiveness is the most important performance influencing factor of PPP project as to project nature; (2) The most important performance evaluation indicators of PPP project are project sustainability and project quality; (3) Imperfect laws and regulations are the critical barriers in applying PPP relating with the macro environment. Weak contractual spirit of government is the critical barrier in PPP application relating with the public sector. The discrepancy of management philosophy are the critical application barriers relating with private sector and public-private relationship. The difficulty in operation and high cost are the critical barriers relating with the project nature in PPP application. The research findings are helpful to enhance our understanding of PPP application in China.

Qihao Sun, Shang Zhang, Linghui Tang, Wanhui Lv

Implementing Proactive Building Asset Management Through Deterioration Prediction: A Case Study in Australia

Buildings are critical assets in most owner’s asset packages. Maintaining and rehabilitating buildings under various constraints is a crucial challenge for most owners due to the complexity of building components and the uncertainty of their deteriorations. The Markov process based probabilistic approach is an effective solution to develop an asset deterioration prediction model helping owner implementing proactive building asset management. This paper takes one Australian city council as an example to discuss the benefits of an asset deterioration prediction model to the proactive building management and explain how to calibrate and validate the Markov transition matrices from the chronologic discrete assets condition datasets. Two identical findings are that curves derived from the short-period dataset are steeper than that from the long-period dataset, and C2, C3 curves derived from the short-period dataset are not significant.

Wenkai Luo, Guomin Zhang, Huu Dung Tran, Sujeeva Setunge, Lei Hou

Evidence-Based Scope for Reducing ‘Fire-Fighting’ in Project Management: The Global South Experience

Fire-fighting is a challenge faced by most project managers globally. However, most research efforts on the deepening of our understanding of project management problems have been limited to the global north, which makes it ineffective to generalize prescribed solutions. Adopting a cross-section survey strategy this study analysed instruments from 38 participants with largely project management designation from different industries in Africa and Asia. The data obtained established some similarities and differences between project management problems in the north and south. The project management practice in the global south is plagued by organizational and external factors as against the global north which is plagued majorly by organizational factors. One key implication of the finding is the need to pay more attention to the contextual project attributes like location and culture in the management of projects.

Obuks A. Ejohwomu, Samuel Adeniyi Adekunle, Clinton O. Aigbavboa

Does Internationalisation Matter to Corporate Social Performance? An Empirical Study on Chinese Listed Construction Companies

Opportunities in the international markets and Chinese government’s “one belt, one road” initiative drive Chinese construction companies to expand their business across nations’ borders. Operating in a more diversified environment indicates that they are faced with intensified pressures of stakeholders to conduct corporate social responsibility. However, whether internationalisation really matters to corporate social performance (CSP) or not is still a question to explore, especially in the context formed by the Chinese construction companies. The aim of the study is to explore the impacts of internationalisation on CSP and its four dimensions in the construction area. Using a panel data set of 85 Chinese listed construction companies with 499 firm-year observations over the period from 2010 to 2017, the degree of internationalisation is found to have no significant impacts on overall CSP, but has significant positive impacts on the environmental aspect of CSP. The relationship between the degree of internationalisation and the social aspect of CSP is tested to be negative. It is also indicated that a company with better financial performance and larger firm size is likely to perform a better CSP. The findings of the research contribute to the CSR area to further explore the influence of outside environment on the CSR implementation and evaluation from the perspective of internationalisation. With the promotion of “one belt, one road” initiatives, this topic helps understand and interpret the development and CSR strategies of the Chinese construction companies while internationalising.

Meng Ye, Weisheng Lu, Hui Guo, Roger Flanagan

Does Corporate Social Performance Drive Competitive Advantage? A Study of Chinese Listed Construction Companies

The term corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been intensely discussed across the world for over decades. Construction industry, however, is usually labeled as being relatively irresponsible for its adverse impacts on environment and relatively dangerous working condition on construction sites. The in-depth exploration of CSR issues has rarely been targeted. This empirical study investigates the impact of corporate social performance (CSP) on competitive advantage of Chinese listed construction companies. The hypothesis of this study is that corporate social performance is positively related to competitive advantage. Drawing on a dataset of 85 Chinese listed construction companies obtained from Hexun and Capital IQ database, the finding from structural equation model (SEM) provides strong evidence that CSP has a positive impact on competitive advantage. This result suggests that Chinese construction companies should promote their engagement in CSR activities and improve their CSR performance, thus gain a competitive advantage over their competitors.

Hui Guo, Weisheng Lu, Meng Ye, Roger Flanagan

How Do Different Professionals Communicate in Construction Projects? A Social Network Analysis Perspective

The communication in construction project organizations, which is known for multi-disciplinary communication, has long drawn the attention from academia and the industry. However, the description of how such communication take place is still under exploration. This paper utilize the empirical data of a construction project lead by Hong Kong Housing Authority (HKHA) to concretize the communication relationships between different professionals. Dynamic social network analysis (DSNA) is adopted to analyze the evolution of communication networks along the progress of the project. By interpreting the networks, it is found that every profession need to communicate with other and they communicate closely and frequently along the whole project without exception. It is also noticed that hierarchy is not a constraint of communication in construction projects, which may be an important difference from other projects. Future studies are encouraged to collect data from the contractor and consultant sides for a fuller picture of the communication among different stakeholders.

Jinying Xu, Weisheng Lu, Ke Chen

Research on Supply Chain Strategy Selection of Large-Scale Construction Project Based on SWOT-AHP

The rapid growth of national economy has led to more and more large-scale construction projects in China. The traditional project management mode is difficult to adapt to the requirements of the large construction projects. Inefficient exchange of information, massive waste of resources, and declining rate of profit have hindered the development of the large-scale construction projects. The SWOT method is used to analyze the supply chain of large-scale construction projects and 16 factors are obtained. The weight of judgment matrix is calculated by expert system scoring combined with analytic hierarchy process. According to the results, this article draws the strategic quadrilateral and obtains the order of supply chain strategy selection for large-scale construction projects. This article provides a new idea for selecting supply chain management strategy scientifically.

Jie Chen, Lianbo Zhu, Xiaojin Xu, Yilei Huang

Research on Operating Simulation System for Tower Crane Based on Parallel System Theory

Tower-crane-related accidents occur frequently, and branding the driver’s field of vision is hopefully conducive to reduce visibility-related accidents. The simulation system has become a hot topic and been widely used for training of the driver but rarely contribute to the real-time operations. This article applies the parallel system theory to simulation these systems, thus the virtual system can guide the real operations, in which multiple virtual screens are provided to the driver in blind lifts. This article proposes an overall framework and analyzes some key technologies of building the operating simulation system, including rapid differential modeling of tower cranes, high fidelity modeling of the construction site, and synchronization approach of them. Tests and feedbacks were conducted and collected respectively in laboratory and field. Results reveal that the framework of the simulation system is feasible and the performance is accurate and reliable. The response to the shortcomings and the next research plan is discussed.

Hao Peng, Yihua Mao, Xing Su

The Relationships of the Bid/No Bid Decision Factors Considered Among Local Contactors from Different Countries

Identification of the bid/no bid decision factors is an essential step in the decision. The objective of this study is to reveal the relationships of factors considered by local contractors from different countries, which can be more helpful to identify potentially important factors in different countries. One hypothesis is addressed that, the importance of factors perceived by local contractors from one country has a high relationship with that considered by local contractors from other countries. According to the rankings of identical factors in previous studies, the hypothesis is validated by the Spearman rank-order correlation test and the hierarchical cluster analysis. The outcome indicates that the hypothesis is not validated, while the importance of factors considered among local contractors from developed or developing countries are highly related, respectively. The outcome will be helpful to develop a high related list of potentially important factors in a country based on the factors identified in those countries with high homogeneity, which will be of interest to both academics and practitioners.

Guanghua Li, Chuan Chen, Jing Dai

Trends of Research on Cost Overruns in Public Projects: A Review Based on Content Analysis

Cost overruns in public projects is a common phenomenon that have been concerned by project stakeholders. In order to understand the current research and identify research gap on cost overruns in public project, content analysis method is applied to conduct a literature review with the help of Web of Science and Scopus. Based on detailed analysis of 36 targeted papers, current research are classified into five categories. One of the most popular research is identifying the reasons for public project cost overruns. It is suggested that future research should focus more on (1) the intrinsic correlation between factors influencing cost overruns and (2) the more comprehensive and practical solutions to reduce cost overruns.

Haiyan Liu, Rong Zhang, Yawen Cao

The Paradox of Small and Medium Construction Firms Sustainability in Less Developed Countries

Different construction firms from less developed countries have either introduced or adopted various policies, strategies, and support programs aimed at enabling the growth of construction industries. Although some strategy and supportive programs witnessed a little success, still many firms are experiencing many challenges that contribute to unsustainable growth. This study ought to identify potential strategies for small and medium firms in less developed countries for sustainable growth. Using a structured questionnaire and mean score analysis, twenty potential strategies were identified. The findings shows that, a certified training, recruitment of competent and qualified professionals, effective allocation and utilization of resources, strengthening of public-private-partnership, empowering local monetary organizations, use of quality local materials, abiding to professional ethics, reviewing short & long strategic plan, focusing on core business, maintaining low firm operational cost, adoption of joint venture with overseas firm and strategic alliance, ensure availability of modern equipment, guaranteeing stable financial of the firm and establishing good relationship and networking with stakeholders while ensuring client satisfaction were the highly ranked strategies for firm sustainability. It is proposed that a further study on strategy prioritization depending on a firm’s possessed attributes should be undertaken to come up with a strategy prioritization model.

Ramadhani Tekka, Kunhui Ye

Demand Forecasting Model and Economic Benefit of Charging Piles Based on BOT Mode

With the increase of energy and environmental pressures, the electric vehicle industry has developed rapidly under the support of national policies. At present, China's charging infrastructure and electric vehicle development are not coordinated, and the construction of charging infrastructure can help promote the development of the electric vehicle industry. Due to the high initial investment and operation and maintenance costs of the charging infrastructure construction project, it is necessary to conduct research on the financing method. This paper takes Southwest Petroleum University as an example to study the deployment strategy and financing methods of campus charging piles. Firstly, through the integer branch and bound method and field research, the demand forecasting model of the total amount for campus charging demand was created and solved, and the deployment strategy model was established with the lowest cost as the target to obtain the optimal solution of the charging piles. Then, based on the deployment strategy, the economic benefit analysis of the Build–Operate–Transfer (BOT) financing mode was carried out. Finally, suggestions for the future intelligent operation and maintenance management of charging piles were put forward. The conclusion of this paper complements the relevant literature of BOT charging pile project, which has theoretical contribution and practical significance.

Hongyu Long, Hongyong Liu, Lei Liu, Qinge Yang

Theme 7 Big Data Application, Smart Construction and BIM

Frontmatter

A BIM Based Digital Framework for Hotel Renovation Projects: An Integrated Application of 3D Scanning and Prefabrication Technology

The increasing demand on a comfortable and high-quality living environment has led to hotels being renovated every few years, and hotel renovations are required to be completed with shorter durations than ever before for the sake of cost effectiveness. In consideration of replications among hotel rooms, this paper proposes a BIM-based digital framework to shorten the renovation duration, save costs and reduce rework. The developed framework integrates building information modeling (BIM), 3D scanning and prefabrication technology to improve information utilization and reduce rework in hotel renovation projects. A holiday hotel renewal project was selected as a sample case to verify the framework. Compared with traditional renovation projects, the design changes of the case project were reduced by 30% and the total duration was saved by 15%. The proposed hotel renovation framework can provide a practical guide for future hotel building renovation projects.

Jindi Niu, Zhikun Ding

Building Information Modelling (BIM) for Infrastructure Projects: The Case of Australia

With the massive investments on the infrastructure over the coming years in Australia, Building Information Modelling (BIM) has become a one of the priorities in managing these massive projects. Over the next fifteen-year period, Australia focuses on 121 national significant infrastructure proposals worth of 58 billion dollars, to deliver best outcomes for Australia’s growing communities. Yet, Australia has a long way to go prior to mandating BIM national wide. There has been a visible rise in BIM adoption within the last couple of years, yet there are many speculations for the future and lot of discussion on the actual standpoint in BIM in Australia. Integrating innovative learning models with major advances in collaborative construction methods will help keep Australia abreast of this massive technological development. BIM will unlock new and more efficient ways of working, putting the world in a new digital construction era. Therefore, this review papers intends to focus on the current status of BIM in Australia for adopting it in infrastructure projects. Initially, this research identified the adoption of BIM in Australian context. Based on this analysis, this research study identified the status quo of BIM implementation in Australia and the steps that should be initiated in order to pave the way toward a smooth adoption of BIM in infrastructure projects in Australian context.

I. M. Chethana S. Illankoon, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Khoa N. Le, W. Charith K. Fernando

Big Data Adoption in the Singapore Construction Industry: Drivers, Challenges and Strategies

Big data (BD) has been a growing trend alongside the advancement of technologies and has the potential to overcome many of the existing challenges faced in the construction industry. However, the adoption of BD in the construction industry remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, there exists limited literature on BD in Singapore’s construction industry. In order to increase the utilization of BD for construction projects, this paper discusses the drivers and challenges of BD adoption in Singapore’s construction industry, among different construction roles and years of experience in their current role and recommends strategies to overcome the challenges to promote BD adoption. Nine drivers, twenty-two challenges, and eight strategies have been identified and assessed for their impact on BD adoption. All drivers, challenges and strategies were found to impact BD adoption. The top three drivers were found to be Technology Advancement (D1), Competitiveness (D5) and Government Plan and Policy (D2). The top three challenges were identified to be Data Collection (C9), Lack of Knowledge and Experience (C20) and Data Quality (C10). To overcome the challenges and promote BD adoption, the top three strategies are Clear Organization Structure (S6), Government Incentives (S2) and Training of Skilled Personnel (S1). The findings from this study provide a better understanding of the barriers and challenges of BD adoption in construction projects and provide a valuable reference to the industry in driving BD adoption, with the potential to be extended to the global construction industry.

Jasmine Ngo, Bon-Gang Hwang, Linda Ying Zi Chiam

Analyzing the Effectiveness of the Project Organization of BIM Implementation

Collaborating with design, engineering, and construction stakeholders to establish an effective project organization for driving building information modeling (BIM) implementation remains a challenge. For BIM implementation in the design and construction stages of projects delivered using the design-bid-build method, there are many types of BIM implementation organizations. Organizational effectiveness reflects an organization’s ability to realize its BIM application goals. This paper aims to analyze and compare the effectiveness of different organization types. Based on organizational effectiveness theory and using social network analysis methods, the authors proposed a quantitative approach to analyze the effectiveness of the different types of BIM implementation organizations. This approach was validated using a case study. The empirical results reveal that the owner-driven and architect-led organization type is the most effective, and the performance of owner-driven organization types is better than those driven by architects or contractors. When implementing BIM, project organizations should involve participants from a greater number of different disciplines. Project organizations should also build a greater number of direct social relationships between all project participants.

Wuyan Long, Liang Yuan, Bin Zhao

Simulation of Safety Evacuation of Personnel at Construction Site Based on BIM Technology

Safety evacuation of personnel in high-speed railway station under complex construction environment is particularly important. In this paper, the idea of safety evacuation simulation based on BIM technology is proposed, and the evacuation scheme is simulated and optimized through a case study. The results show that the construction site should be reasonably drawn out to ensure the smooth and safe vertical traffic such as stairs, which play an important role in improving evacuation efficiency. At the same time, safety evacuation simulation based on BIM technology is dynamic, visual and optimal. It can not only be used as the content of safety education and training, but also provide suggestions for the emergency plan formulation of spot.

Jiao Tang, Liqiong Yang, Kexin Liu

Virtual Annotations as Assistance for Construction Equipment Teleoperation

Construction equipment teleoperation is a promising solution when the site environment is hazardous to operators. However, limited situational awareness of the operator exists as one of the major bottlenecks for the implementation. Virtual annotations (VAs) have great potential to improve an operator’s situational awareness. This paper focuses on a VA-based system for construction equipment teleoperation. The background and the challenges were introduced, relative VA researches were reviewed, and a VA-aided construction equipment teleoperation system was proposed. A pilot test was conducted to investigate the potential of the proposed system and the results were analyzed. The potential research directions enlightened by the test were discussed at the end.

Zirui Hong, Qiqi Zhang, Xing Su

A Scientometric Analysis of BIM and GIS Research

With the development of smart city, spatial information management has become a hot research topic. BIM is a building information modeling technology which solves the information management problem of the whole building life cycle. Its applications will promote the simultaneous construction of physical and digital cities. 3D GIS is a comprehensive database that collects, stores, and imports all types of spatial data. It also provides reliable spatial data for different types of users for planning, design and management. The integration of BIM and GIS plays a crucial role in the construction of smart city. This study conducted a scientometric review of global BIM-GIS related research between 2005 and 2018 through co-author analysis, co-word analysis, co-citation analysis, keywords analysis and subject analysis.

Liwei Luo, Zhikun Ding, Kairui Zheng

Research on the Influencing Factors of VR Experiential Safety Training Adoption

Currently, the situation of safe production in Chinese construction industry is still very serious. Construction workers as the main implementer of the project, strengthening their safety education training is conducive to the safety production management. Traditional training cannot meet the needs of modern safety education due to lack of physical experience, and the addition of virtual reality(VR) technology brings new opportunities and challenges to safety education training. VR experiential safety training has the obvious advantages of simulating the construction site, rich training types, significant training effects, safety, etc., but it is not widely used in China's construction industry. It is necessary to explore the factors that influence the adoption of VR experiential safety training. Therefore, this paper takes the construction enterprise as the entry point, after reading the relevant literature, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and Technology-Organization-Environment Framework Model (UTAUT-TOE) are combined to construct a theoretical model for the adoption of VR experiential safety training, and the questionnaire was designed to investigate. By analyzing the collected 337 valid questionnaires and using the structural equation model to verify the research hypothesis, the following research conclusions were obtained: performance expectations, effort expectations, organizational factors, and corporate innovation can directly influence the adoption intention, and the degree of influence of innovation is the biggest; the adoption intention, enterprise innovation, organizational factors can directly affect the adoption behavior, and other factors can be indirectly affected. Finally, in view of the adoption of VR experiential safety training for construction enterprises, the paper puts forward relevant countermeasures and suggestions from the perspectives of construction enterprises, suppliers of VR products and the government.

Cui Ma, Ping Wang

Comparative Study on 3D Management Software of Substation

Three-dimensional digital technology has been applied in substation design and construction which improved the designing efficiency and increased the degree of visualization for engineering construction in China. However, the application of 3D design software mainly solved the design problem at a certain stage. But, no more attention is paid to the full life cycle by three-dimensional technology, and there were fewer studies and applications on the full life cycle management platform. This paper is based on a literature review about 3D applications in the substation engineering field and mainstream 3D design software. Compare existing substation 3D design platforms and analyze their strengths and weaknesses in terms of functionality and professionalism. Other than this, the three-dimensional design software is evaluated and analyzed by the gray comprehensive evaluation method. Each software solution is calculated according to the weights and values of six indicators, to obtain the optimal solution. Combined with the optimal solution and the actual management requirements of the substation, the functional modules, and platform architecture of the substation digital 3D management platform based on the whole process management are explored to provide a basic framework for the specific design and implementation of the platform in the future.

Wei Guo, Rui Liu, Fan Liu, Shaoyuan Lin, Yangsen Li

Solving BIM Data Interoperability Problem by Game Theory: From Perspective of BIM Software Developers

In recent years, BIM technology has been the research focus in AEC industry. It can integrate information from diverse project stakeholders, achieve collaborative management at the stage of design, construction and operations. Therefore, various types of BIM software will be used during a building life-cycle, which leads to poor BIM data interoperability. Software developers is a key stakeholder in solving interoperability problem. However, few research paid little attention to this problem. To cover this gap, game theory that used to study decision-makers’ strategic choices is applied to analyze software developers’ behavior. Game theory model from the perspective of BIM software developer was developed to analyze their strategies in the market. Seven critical factors determining developer’s behavior have been figured out and corresponded policy suggestions has been proposed to promote BIM data interoperability.

Rongsheng Liu, Zhikun Ding

Comparison of 3D Reconstruction Methods: Image-Based and Laser-Scanning-Based

Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction methods have been utilized to describe the geometric dimensions of objects, which is essential for construction progress monitoring for management purposes. The two major approaches are laser-scanning-based and image-based methods. The acquired point cloud models are the primary data of the 3D reconstruction and can be used to generate 3D models. Thus, the accuracy of the point clouds data is an essential factor in producing a precise model. This project aims to investigate the cost-effectiveness of both methods by comparing the results in terms of accuracy, cost and time efficiency, and flexibility. Case studies are carried out on the underground passage of the university connecting the North and South campuses. The results showed that the accuracy for the laser-scanning-based method is insignificantly better than the image-based method in term of accuracy. However, the laser-scanning-based method requires an expensive instrument and skillful operator to obtain a precise model. Image-based method are able to process the data automatically, and it is a relatively cheap method that can be utilized by any person. In term of flexibility, the overall performances of the image-based method are reasonably better than the laser-scanning based method.

Ying Lo, Hong Huang, Shucheng Ge, Zhijin Wang, Cheng Zhang, Lei Fan

Evaluation of Point Cloud Processing Software for 3D Reconstruction

In 3D reconstruction, point cloud plays an essential role in holding the geometric information of the target object. After acquiring the data through the 3D laser scanner or image-based method, several point cloud software currently available on the market is selected to analyze and process the point cloud. In this paper, efforts are made to convert the point cloud into a simplified 3D model or a geometric mesh model. Then, each software used in the Scan-to-BIM process is evaluated exhaustively. Functional assessments for the software application include formats that can be imported and exported, the ability to process and analyze data, and the capability to model 3D models or meshes.

Shucheng Ge, Zhijin Wang, Ying Lo, Jingjing Zhang, Ran Zang, Cheng Zhang

A CV-Based Automatic Method of Acquiring and Processing Operation Data on Construction Site

Image data of construction site is often of large volume and difficult to handle. This paper introduces a computer-vision-based automatic method of acquiring and processing this kind of data. A deep convolutional neural network along with region proposal network is used for on-site object detection including workers, materials and machines, followed by a light-weighed network to determine the real-time interaction between workers and working objects. A practical implication of the two network models and their experimental results is a scenario-based security and productivity management system and its basic structure is also introduced in this paper.

Hui Li, Hongling Guo, Zhihui Zhang

Applied Research on BIM+GIS Integration Technology in Subway Project Management

With the development of urbanization, the construction of rail transit has developed rapidly. According to systematic analysis of existing research, 17 potential problems of subway project under the traditional project management mode are identified from the three aspects of cost, schedule and quality. Furthermore, with the semi-structured interview and on-site research, the identified problems could be summarized into 13 items. Aiming at solving the problems like insufficient information construction and information sharing delay in traditional project, this paper proposes a framework of information management cloud platform based on BIM+GIS integration technology: From the perspective of the project life cycle, the data generated in the planning-design-bidding-construction-operation and maintenance process are collected by software integration, and the data are fused by BIM+GIS data fusion interface. In addition, this study deeply analyzes the application of BIM+GIS integration technology in subway project management from three aspects: planning and design, virtual construction, and collaborative management. The research also specifically discuss the application of BIM+GIS technology in Shenzhen subway line to increase the informatization level of subway project construction management and develop the delicacy management with the whole life cycle.

Jin Wang, Jiayuan Wang, Bo Yu, Xingchong Wang

Research on BIM Private Cloud Platforms of the Owner Based on Life-Cycle Theory

This paper targets the problems of traditional BIM cloud platforms, such as the single functionality, the problematic two-way transfer of lightweight data, and the difficult control of data security. It is based on the BIM collaboration theory, the cloud computing theory as well as the life cycle theory etc., with the requirements for collaborative management in construction projects as its core in order to build BIM cloud platform lead by the owner. This paper puts forward a system design and implementation scheme for private BIM cloud platforms, which realizes the diversification of cloud platform functions, the bidirectional transmission of cloud data and the protection of data privacy. At the same time, this paper designs the application mechanism of cloud platform based on the life cycle theory to meet the use of BIM cloud platform in the whole process from project decision-making stage to operation and maintenance.

Sinan Liang, Yufan Zhang, Jinyong Liang, Qizhi Ye, Libing Lin, Diewei Xuan, Ditian Guan

Developing Roadmaps for the Mandatory Use of Building Information Modeling: Lessons from Singapore and the UK

The government intervention and mandates are good drivers for building information modeling (BIM) implementation. However, it is still unclear how and when to make such mandates. This study aims to investigate the roadmaps of BIM mandating in two benchmark countries, namely, Singapore and the UK. The results demonstrate that a two-phase development pattern is observed. In the first phase, considerable focus is often placed on one specific implementation area (e.g., the building sector) to rapidly increase the use of BIM. In this phase, mandating the BIM is an effective measure. Standards that provide guidance on BIM implementation are also important. In the second phase, the use of BIM is expanded to other implementation areas, such as infrastructure and smart city and improved to a higher collaboration level. Correspondingly, the standards and guidance are extended to these new implementation areas and higher collaboration requirements. General roadmap for the mandatory use of BIM is also presented. The results can provide a useful reference for countries and regions that intend to develop roadmaps to increase their BIM maturity level and enhance readiness to accept and implement BIM.

Rui Jiang, Chengke Wu, Xiang Lei, Peng Wu, Wenchi Shou

Big Data for Community Resilience Assessment: A Critical Review of Selected Global Tools

As the global call to build sustainable cities becomes louder, the community resilience concept is also fast becoming popular in the global scientific and policy discourse. To put this concept in perspective, a lot of methodologies have been developed in the last two decades. This paper critically reviews 12 selected global community resilience assessment tools using content analysis. The results show that none of the selected tools use big data for their assessments, they mainly rely on literature review, stakeholders’ input, expert opinions and field testing. The results also show that the selected tools are mostly formulated using top-down approaches and only half of them provide action plans after their resilience assessment. Most of the tools also do not account for cross-scale relationships and temporal dynamism. The study concludes that new community resilience assessment tools need to employ iterative processes, encourage participation, and incorporate the use of big data, machine learning and artificial intelligence to take care of spatiotemporal dynamism.

Mohammed Abdul-Rahman, Edwin H. W. Chan, X. Li, Man Sing Wong, Pengpeng Xu

Analysis on the Application Policy and Maturity of BIM Technology in China

As a hot concept in the construction field in recent years, BIM technology has attracted extensive attention of relevant practitioners. With the vigorous support of China's policy, BIM has developed rapidly in China. However, what is the BIM technology policy? How big is the gap with developed countries in Europe and America? What is the distribution of policies issued by various provinces and cities? What is the difference? What is the impact on the application and development of Chinese BIM technology? There are few scholars concerned about the policy analysis of these columns. Based on this, this paper studies the above problems and finds that the main obstacles to the promotion of domestic BIM technology are as follows: firstly, the relevant policy support issued by the state is not comprehensive and specific enough; secondly, the progress of implementing BIM technology policy by local governments is quite different; thirdly, the degree of BIM technology cooperation among project participants varies greatly; fourthly, the BIM-related technical talent team is not perfect. According to this, some reasonable countermeasures are put forward to solve the policy conflict between the central and local governments, effectively narrow the unbalanced development of BIM technology in various provinces, cities and regions, make the participants use BIM technology more efficiently in the project, increase the investment of talents to make long-term development, so as to promote the better and faster development of BIM technology in China.

Zhengzheng Luo, Yibin Ao, Yan Wang

Architectural Design for Additive Manufacturing Construction: Lesson Learned from Design for Additive Manufacturing

Additive Manufacturing (AM) is widely studied in many fields, including aeronautics, automotive, medicine, and construction. Some researchers expect AM to benefit construction practice in terms of reducing waste, alleviating time overrun, and breaking design limitations. With the high-level customizability of AM construction, designers are less constrained, e.g., by design standardization, in designing bio-inspired forms, natural curves, and uniqueness in construction projects. Nevertheless, AM technology also faces challenges, such as high printing cost, inability to print, and weak structure during a layer-by-layer printing process. Design for Additive Manufacturing (DfAM) has, therefore, been proposed for the construction industry. This paper revisits the lessons learned from the problems and the DfAM solutions to real-life cases. First, due to AM’s capability to construct without casting molds, self-support structure, e.g., plate and shell structure, should be included in the designs. Secondly, according to DfAM guidelines, a large amount of temporary support structure, overhang, thin feature, and flat surface are among the major factors affecting the efficiency of AM. In comparison, there are several architectural elements, such as long-span structure, cantilever part, thin wall, and flat roof can be the barriers to AM in construction. In order to promote the application of AM in construction and achieve higher efficiency, new DfAM guidelines for the construction sector are demanded.

Vikrom Laovisutthichai, Weisheng Lu, Fan Xue

A Machine Learning-Based Approach for BIM Object Localization

This research is positioned in the growing need for Building Information Modelling (BIM) localization to effectively use global BIM resources in a locality. It focuses on BIM objects, which are not only the primary ‘building blocks’ of modelling but also the fundamental elements conveying the BIM information. The problem here is that BIM objects from global libraries may contain general, ambiguous, inconsistent, and missing information, thus incurring considerable manual adjustment efforts to use BIM objects of this kind in local projects. This paper aims to propose a machine learning (ML)-based approach to automatically localize (i.e., enrich and modify) BIM objects and their associated information to suit the local needs. The approach comprises of three steps: (1) characterizing a BIM object; (2) developing a local object configurator (LOC) based on ML; and (3) training, calibrating, and applying the LOC for bulk BIM objects localization. This study contributes a methodological framework to develop the ML approach for BIM object localization. The outcomes of the study can also boost the development of local BIM object libraries at both industry and company level.

Jing Wang, Weisheng Lu, Fan Xue, Meng Ye

A Framework of Biot Intelligent Monitoring System for Building Exteriors

The quality and safety of building exteriors is closely related to people’s life and property safety, and social stability as well. The extant monitoring system of building exteriors is criticized for the insufficient technological application and the imperfect management practice that is heavily dependent on human judgment. Through an extensive literature review on the implementation of information communication technologies, including Internet of Things (IoT) and building information model (BIM), in the quality and safety management of building exteriors, a framework of BIoT (a combination of BIM and IoT) intelligent monitoring system for building exteriors is conceptualized. Sensors shall be utilized to automatically collect data about the building quality and safety status, and the real-time sensor data will be integrated into the BIM centered database to form a digital twin. Cloud storage and data analysis is then conducted to dynamically monitor the building quality and safety status. Once an emergency occurs, BIM-based virtual simulation and warning will be automatically initiated to support the follow-up decision making. The proposed framework is conducive to realizing the dynamic and intelligent monitoring on the quality and safety of building exteriors and the data-driven decision-making support, and it can enrich the BIM applications in facility management.

Haotian Liu, Hongdi Wang, Chenyue He

Research on Building 3D Collaborative Design Management Platform Based on Data Security Technology

With the continuous advancement of smart city construction, the three-dimensional collaborative design mode combining multiple majors has received more and more attention. This paper will build a three-dimensional collaborative design data management platform based on mature data security technology: firstly, analyzing the necessity of platform construction; then elaborating the construction of the 3D collaborative design management platform in three stages of before, during and after the three-dimensional collaborative design based on the perspective of data security technology; finally, the feasibility of the data management platform is discussed.

Shiming Yuan, Changjian Fang, Zhongjun Wen, Hongyong Liu

Theme 8 International Construction

Frontmatter

Investigation of the Performance of Chinese Contractors on Political Risks Management in International Market

The performance of Chinese contractors is evaluated from the perspective of the characteristics of overseas business of Chinese contractors and its political risks. In this research, further analyses on the fund and pricing model of Chinese Contractors overseas projects were made based on the results of this research projects, as well as their ability to withstand political risks and coping strategies were considered. This research is based on questionnaire data in which 91.1% (328 projects) of the contractors came from large state-owned enterprises, while only 8.9% (42 projects) came from non-state-owned enterprises. This also reflects that China's overseas project contracting is dominated by state-owned enterprises. Among them, 57.6% (213 projects) are contracted by enterprises through the establishment of local subsidiaries, and 42.4% (157 projects) are contracted overseas in the name of parent companies. This survey reflects the general situation of political risks of Chinese contractors in overseas project management. In general, Chinese contractors are facing higher political risks, and they do not attach enough importance to political risks, and their ability to deal with political risks. However, this study is a useful reference for managing the political risks for international contractors when expanding into this emerging market.

Safi Ullah, Xiaopeng Deng, Tengyuan Chang

Research on Personal Safety Risk of Labor Service in Africa from the Perspective of Contractors

The “Belt and Road” Initiative creates great opportunities open to Chinese International Construction Enterprises (ICEs). Compared with domestic projects, foreign projects are facing complicated external environment. The personal safety of engineers threatened by terrorism, contagious disease, kidnap, etc. The probability of personal safety risk also increases dramatically. Africa, as one of the regions with most frequent foreign economic and trade exchanges in China, has signed a great number of construction projects with ICEs. Every year millions of engineers and labors heading for Africa. However, the serious condition of frequent accident in labor personnel safety needs close attention as construction industry has been universally regarded as one of the most dangerous industries in the world. Therefore, this paper identified the personnel security risks faced by ICEs staff in Africa to illuminating the importance and urgency of overseas labor safety issues. Mixed methods are utilized to analysis risk events and risk factors. Finally, this paper identified three risk events(armed conflict event, criminal crime event, disease and accidental injury event) from case study and 36 risk factors are from politics, economy, society and culture, natural environment, contractor enterprises and engineering personnel themselves.

Pengcheng Xiang, Zhaoying Ye, Chi Jin, Sanshan Wei, Aiping Deng

External Factors Affecting Investment in Overseas Electric Power Projects

Power grid overseas investment projects can be of a great support for the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). However, electric power projects are complex and risky because of their dynamic environment. This research is aimed at investigating the importance of the external factors affecting investment in overseas electric power projects from the perspective of foreign direct investment (FDI). An evaluation indicator system of 7 risk indicators was developed, depending on risk sources, these indicators were specified to 29 sub-indicators. TOPSIS method was used to analyze the importance of different external risk factors by calculating closeness coefficient. The results show that the most critical external risk in electric power projects is “political risk”. This research contributes to the investment risk literature by investigating external risk factors from the perspective of FDI, particularly in the overseas context.

Kodad Rajaa, Jingfeng Yuan, Lei Zhang, Junwei Ma, Lei Zhang

Theme 9 Green Building

Frontmatter

Zero Construction and Demolition Waste Management Practice: A Case Study in Shenzhen, China

With the gradual advancement of urbanization in China, the waste generated in the construction or demolition activities has grown rapidly in recent years. The continuous increase in C&D waste introduces a series of environmental and social problems. A case study of zero waste project in China is taken as an example to demonstrate management principles. The following management recommendations are summarized: (1) Legislation first: mandatory measures, (2) Policy support: lower price and adjustment of tax policy, (3) Overall planning: forming a comprehensive utilization equalizer, (4) Promotion and demonstration: awareness and intentions of green, energy saving and emission reduction. The findings provide references for project managers to improve C&D waste recycling, promote the awareness of construction and demolition waste recycling industry.

Mengjie Shi, Zhikun Ding

Extracting Group-Level Factors of Energy-Saving Behaviors Based on Group Dynamic

The building sector is responsible for nearly 32% of global energy use and 19% of total energy-related greenhouse gas emission. Around 80% of energy consumption variation is caused by occupant behavior. Hence, changing people’s energy-using behavior has been considered as a relatively low-cost and sustainable method for reducing building energy consumption. An in-depth understanding of determinant factors of occupants’ energy-saving behavior is a significant prerequisite for behavioral improvement. Previous studies focused on individual-level factors, ignoring the group-level factors that may affect occupant behavior. However, there group-level factors remain paramount importance, because most occupants interact with each other in shared space. To fill this research gap, this study explored the influence of the group-level factors on individual energy-saving behavior based on group dynamic theory. An empirical study was conducted in the shared space contextualized in college student dormitories in Zhuhai, China. Literature bibliometric and semi-structured interviews were initially conducted to identify group-level factors affecting energy-saving behavior. Questionnaire survey was used for data collection and structural equation modeling was then used for analyzing factorial interactions. It is indicated that descriptive norm exerts the greatest positive effect on individuals to conserve energy, followed by group interaction, while the effect of perceived self-transcendence group value seems minimal. The present study contributes to the body of knowledge by clarifying the mechanism of individual energy-saving behavior with a group-level perspective. Besides, findings of this empirical study provide a guideline for improving behavioral change strategies regarding energy conservation with establishing group-based mechanisms.

Jiaolan Zhu, Patrick X. W. Zou, Jiayuan Wang, Zhikun Ding

Utilisation of CO2 Concrete for the Production of a Living Lab

The methodology of carbon-conditioning involves the sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) into recycled concrete aggregate in order to acquire a concrete know as CO2 concrete. Carbon-conditioning not only increases the properties of recycled aggregate and recycled aggregate concrete but also entraps carbon dioxide which otherwise would be released into the earth’s atmosphere. The mechanism by which the recycled aggregate is improved involves the conversion of calcium hydroxide, found in such objects as cement paste, into calcium carbonate. The smaller calcium carbonate crystals fill air voids in the weak recycled aggregate transforming the material into CO2 aggregate. The injection of CO2 is completed by placing recycled aggregate into a sealed chamber before exposing it pure pressurised carbon dioxide. The method accelerates the natural phenomenon of carbonation permitting recycled aggregate to be completely densified and improved. Whilst it is known that CO2 concrete improves upon recycled aggregate concrete as a material, it is unknown if CO2 concrete can successfully be administered into a real life application. This paper provides evidence that CO2 concrete can indeed be utilised in a real life, living lab scenario. Four slabs of 3 by 2.6 m and 200 mm deep were placed for the implementation of cattle drinking stations. Two slabs are made up of 15% recycled aggregate CO2 concrete whilst the remainder comprised of 100% recycled aggregate CO2 concrete. The slabs were subjected to non-destructives tests all attaining a similar compressive strength of over 40 MPa. The slabs also experienced a visual inspection to attain the effect of the environment as well as heavy cattle damage. After two months no visual degradation has begun demonstrating the strength of CO2 concrete. The living lab style of examination indicates that CO2 concrete has latent characteristic exhibiting the ability to withstand tremendous loads. The examination provides evidence which showing that CO2 concrete has the potential to be utilised on a larger scale.

Vivian W. Y. Tam, Anthony Butera, Khoa N. Le, Mingxue Ma

Theory of Planned Behavior Based Analysis of Public Buildings’ Intention to Participate in Emission Trading Scheme

As a market-based, cost-effective, and international compatible mechanism, Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) has emerged as an increasingly popular and important policy tool to control and mitigate carbon emissions. It has been applied in many energy-intensive industries such as electric, power, and steel industry. However, it appears that carbon trading practice finds limited application in building sector. This study presents an identification and analysis on the fundamental reasons hindering the public buildings’ intention to participate in Emission Trading System by utilizing the binary logit model based on the theory planned behavior. Research data are collected through questionnaire survey in Guangdong Province which is the first carbon trading pilot which extends its coverage to building sector. As a result, five causes have been identified, and discussions on their importance order have been conducted. The findings provide essential information to relevant decision-makers for identifying the focal areas and taking due actions to further promote the effective operation of ETS in China.

Xiangnan Song, Ruidong Chang, Zhi Sun, Shiju Liao

A Framework to Understand the Vulnerability of C&D Waste Recycling Networks

The construction industry exerts tremendous impacts on the environment, particularly C&D waste has become one of the major pollutants generated by the construction industry. The recycling of C&D waste could generate various benefits from environmental, economic and social aspects. To improve the effects of recycling measures and inform the planning of recycling facilities, the paper develops the concept of “socio-ecological-economic vulnerability” and aims to propose a framework to understand the vulnerability of the regional C&D waste recycling network. The ecological vulnerability aspect includes factors such as energy, water, emission, biodiversity, etc. The social vulnerability aspect includes factors such as occupational health and safety, social acceptance, employment, etc. The economic vulnerability aspect includes factors such as supply fluctuations, demand fluctuations, operation risks, etc. These factors then develop to the ecological vulnerability index, social vulnerability index, and economic vulnerability index. Finally, all the index aggregates to the social-ecological-economic vulnerability for C&D waste recycling networks. By using the vulnerability assessment, relevant decision makers could identify the weakest parts of the regional recycling network in various dimensions, and any endeavors to improve the performance of these parts is an optimization of the whole regional recycling network.

Jian Zuo, Hongping Yuan, George Zillante, Huanyu Wu, Jiayuan Wang, Si Chen

Comparative Analysis of National Policies on Construction and Demolition Waste Management in China and Japan

In the age of greater environmental awareness, sustainable development in construction sector could be very significant. Despite of increasing awareness of recycling by industry, the practice of construction and demolition waste management is not well-planned in China. Japan has promoted orderly and effective management in handling the waste with reinforced legislations. This paper reviews the existing national policies on construction and demolition waste management in both Japan and China. It aims to find out the reasons behind the performance gap. Comparative analysis is used to compare existing national policies from four perspectives, including regulations and codes, incentives, stakeholders’ responsibilities and supervisory. The findings reveal the reasons attributed to low recycling rate in China, including (a) incoherent and uncooperative policies, (b) failure to guide practice, (c) recycling as a voluntary option, (d) ignorance of responsibilities on related stakeholders, (e) involvement of excess official departments, (f) light punishment, (g) weak monitoring.

Mingxue Ma, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Khoa N. Le, Yahui Zhu, Wengui Li

Applying Advanced Technologies in Construction and Demolition Waste Management: A Review

With the adverse impacts of construction and demolition (C&D) waste on society, environment and economics, the waste management issues brought by C&D activities have received extensive attention worldwide. Advanced technologies have been increasingly adopted with the rapid development of technology to efficiently solve these issues. To handle the management problems with advanced technologies, a considerable number of publications have been published among world-famous peer-reviewed journals relate with C&D waste management during the past decades. But, there is a lack of a comprehensive examination on the research trend of advanced technologies in this discipline currently. As a result, this paper outlines the mainstream topics of research trend in field of C&D waste management through investigating publications from 2000 to 2019. A total of 52 papers were collected after the issue-by-issue filtering process. Analysis of the major reasons for applying advanced technologies in this discipline was conducted. This paper illustrates the current limitations and potential research interests and provides an overall picture of the existing applications of advanced technologies adopted in this discipline. According to the results of this study, stakeholders and researchers can obtain a deeper knowledge of the research trend of this discipline.

Zhengdao Li, Yiyu Zhao, Zhe Chen, Bo Yu, Xulu Lai, Mingcong Hu

Study on the Environmental Impacts of Fixed Disposal of Demolition Waste Based on LCA: A Case Study of Recycled Bricks

Due to the large-scale demolition waste generated by large-scale urban renewal projects, the environmental impacts caused by the demolition wastes during recycling cannot be ignored. However, existing research lacks the entire life cycle carbon emission assessment of demolition waste, and few studies involve the removal of carbon emissions from the waste recycling stage. In order to quantitatively evaluate the environmental impacts of the fixed disposal of demolition waste, this study uses the entire life cycle assessment theory, based on the basic data of energy consumption in four stages of demolition stage, collecting and sorting, transportation, and recycling stage. Considering the environmental cost and environmental benefit of the entire life cycle of fixed disposal, the environmental impacts assessment model of the entire life cycle of fixed disposal is established. The carbon emissions generated by fixed disposal at all stages of the life cycle were measured, and the environmental benefits of recycled building materials were taken into account to compare with the carbon emissions generated by traditional landfill. Exploring the causes of carbon emissions from various stages of fixed disposal and the environmental benefits of recycled building materials produced during the waste recycling stage, proposing energy-saving and emission reduction, and determining the fixed disposal method for low-carbon emission demolition waste, have reference value. The study can effectively evaluate the environmental benefits of fixed disposal, and provide a reference for the development of demolition waste resource management policies.

Kunyang Chen, Jiayuan Wang, Bo Yu, Jingrong Zhang

Identifying Influential Factors of the Development of Construction Waste Recycling Industry in China

The recycling industry of construction waste is developed with enormous unbalance in different cities of China. The aim of this study is to explore which factors have effect on the development of construction waste recycling industry. Based on PEST theory, this study established the research framework from political, economical, social and technological aspects. Literature review was employed to summarize the factors influencing the development of the construction waste recycling industry under this framework. The results showed that policy instruments play a critical role in promoting the development of recycling industry. The commonly used regulatory policy instruments include setting targets for construction waste recycling, making laws and regulations, and establishing technological standards. Market-based policy instruments, such as landfill fee or tax, financial subsidy and green building evaluation standards are widely applied in both developed and developing economies. For informational policy instruments, the usage of recycled product certification marks, information platform, publicity and education are identified as effective approaches to improve the level of recycling. From economical aspect, the local economic development level indicated by per capita GDP has impact on recycling industry. Social factors consist of the natural resource, landfill space and environmental awareness of the public and construction industry in local area. Lastly, the advancement of technical facilities was recognized. This study provides a basis for further quantitatively explore the factors affecting the development of construction waste recycling industry in China.

Jingru Li, Yun Yao, Han Liu

Study on Management of Large-Scale Urban Demolition Waste Based on GIS

The urbanization process not only promotes the development and transformation of the city, but also produces a large number of demolition waste. However, due to the decentralization of basic data and related technical support, there is currently a lack of large-scale construction waste management methods, which leads to major problems in the management of urban-scale demolition waste. The purpose of this study is to provide decision makers with information management tools for urban scale and project scale. Based on the study of the basic properties, economic benefits and environmental impact analysis of demolition waste, this paper uses the spatial analysis function of Web GIS, and uses JavaScript, HTML, JSP and other development languages. EditPlus text editor is also used as a development tool. At the same time, a lightweight visualization method of massive digital surface model data and urban demolition waste data in the network environment is proposed. Three-dimensional visualization data resources are organized and managed using the three-dimensional data format G1TF. This method can realize information management of demolition waste at city scale, and provide theoretical and practical reference for stakeholders according to economic benefits and environmental impacts.

Jingrong Zhang, Jiayuan Wang, Bo Yu, Kunyang Chen

Scheme Evaluation of Energy-Saving Renovation of Enclosure Structure of Long-Rent Apartment

In recent years, owing to the development of national policy and the change of social demand, long-rent apartments have gradually become essential in urban development. In the first and second-tier cities in China, the difficulties of purchasing houses and poor rental environment have brought great troubles to the vast number of non-native tenants. However, the development of long-rent apartments not only integrates a large number of existing housing, improves the rental environment, but also promotes the large-scale development of China’s rental industry to a certain extent. Most of existing buildings have a long-life span without energy-saving and relevant environmental protection equipment installed. Thus, as time goes on, more energy has been consumed, leading to environmental impacts. On the other hand, while a large number of existing buildings, such as residential and factory buildings, are transformed into long-rent apartments by changing outer appearance and inner space division of buildings, issues of energy conservation and green construction have not been involved. In consequence, this paper tries to develop a complete set of evaluation system for the energy-saving renovation plan of the long-rent apartment enclosure structure by using method of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), energy simulation software and interview to compare and select energy-saving renovation schemes for buildings. In the evaluation system, analysis of the costs of building energy-saving renovation with the economic and environmental benefits is included, providing developers to have more favorable choices for social development in building renovation. This evaluation method will help increase the enthusiasm of developers for energy-saving renovation and benefit the diversified development of green buildings in China.

Shenghan Li, Hongye Zheng

Quantifying the Carbon Footprint of Newly-Constructed Buildings by Using Life Cycle Assessment: A Case Study of Shenzhen City, China

China’s building construction sector accounts for almost half of the world’s building construction by floor area. Associated with the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA, including 11 cities) driving forward, there will be over one trillion yuan to boost urban construction and development in the coming decade. However, the booming of the construction sector will inevitably consume a large number of resources and energy. How to build the GBA sustainably is full of challenges. Take Shenzhen city as an example, which plays a leading role in building GBA; this study is designed to quantify environmental impacts (measured by carbon footprint, CF, or CO2eq) of newly-constructed buildings in Shenzhen by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The results show that CF has fallen sharply from a peak of 12 million tonnes (Mt) in 2003 to around 2.02 Mt in 2017 because of the fast decrease of buildings’ construction activities, which is associated with the decline of the number of the new permanent population. Residential building accounts for the largest share (50.4%) of the CF since it is still the main driver in Shenzhen city. The largest proportion of emissions comes from the embodied emissions of building materials, accounting for 87%. Meanwhile, this study took green buildings into considered and quantified the CF reduction from 2012 to 2017 to examine the development of green building practices in Shenzhen city. Although the reduction rate of the CF has risen continuously with the application of green buildings, the reduction in the rate of the CF was only 0.5% in 2017. The minimum requirements for green buildings in material saving and material resource utilization aspects should be further improved. Overall, these findings could provide not only technical, scientific evidence for policy-makers to promote the sustainable development of the building sector in Shenzhen and GBA, but also illustrate sustainable transition in other cities.

Jingjing Geng, Huabo Duan, Yuanyuan Huang, Qian Liu

Simulating Urban Building Energy Dynamic with Inter-Building-Effects (Ibes) Linked Building Networks

With rapid urbanization in past decades, the energy consumption of cities is climbing with accelerating speed. Buildings, as the major infrastructure in cities, consume the largest portions of annual produced energy. Therefore, understanding the energy-consuming dynamics of buildings is critical for decision-makers to propose feasible solutions to enable more sustainable and healthy development. Urban building energy simulation models as conventional tools to predict building energy flex lack efficiency and often neglected inter-building-effects of adjacent buildings. Therefore, to develop a reliable and efficient urban building simulation model, this study implemented City GML data format to rapidly construct urban building IDF files that incorporate IBEs. With a validation test, the proposed method shows a significant improvement in modeling running time and simulation accuracy.

Rui Ma, Jiayu Chen, Xiaowei Luo

An Integrated Prediction Model for Building Energy Consumption: A Case Study

As a large energy consumer, the building sector accounts for 30–40% of energy consumption and around 40% of carbon emissions. How to improve energy efficiency in the building sector has become an urgent issue in urban sustainable development. Building energy prediction is a flexible and cost-efficient approach to improve energy efficiency. Green buildings can also improve energy efficiency but the energy saving is still lower than expected. Hence, is it is very important to improve the energy efficiency of green buildings. However, research on green building energy consumption prediction is not sufficient. To improve prediction accuracy, an integration model for energy consumption forecast was proposed. Data were collected from a green building for one year period in Shenzhen. Results showed that the proposed model had higher prediction accuracy, which validated the integration model. Meanwhile, the eight typical building operational patterns of energy consumption were identified according to the hour, month and day type. Model can be used to evaluate different design schemes and building operation strategies as well as real-time fault detection and diagnosis. The proposed model will improve the energy efficiency of green buildings; reduce building energy consumption and carbon emissions.

Ting Hu, Zhikun Ding

A Review of Automated Control Strategies of Blinds Considering Glare Prevention and Energy Saving

In recent years, a large number of studies have shown that shading devices have great potential in saving energy, improving indoor thermal comfort as well as preventing glare. As a passive strategy, the shading devices have great value to improve building performance sustainably. Appropriately, the shading control strategies can effectively utilize daylight in interior space that benefit an occupant’s health, well-being, and productivity by preventing glare and overheating while indoor lighting, cooling and heating loads are reduced. The venetian blinds are the most widely used in buildings at present due to its dynamically adjustable performance. Currently, more and more automatic venetian blinds control strategies have been developed to overcome the shortcomings of manual operation. It is also necessary to find the optimal shading control strategy to prevent indoor glare and to enhance the efficiency of energy saving. However, there is a lack of systematically review related to these research fields. This paper presents a review of the control strategies of the venetian blinds in various previous studies and analyzes the effects of different control strategies on indoor daylighting, glare prevention, thermal comfort and energy consumption. The review identifies current challenges and provides significant theoretical guidance for future research. At the same time, it also provides building design professionals with suggestive strategies and concepts of pre-shading design.

Shenghan Li, Lijun Deng

Energy Consumption Prediction for a Recreation Facility Using Data-Driven Techniques

Leisure centres are multifunctional buildings that have irregular energy consumption patterns and consume more energy compared to most building types. However, they have little representation in building performance energy prediction literature. This work presents an energy consumption prediction effort for a leisure centre using data-driven techniques, namely Light-gbm, support vector regression and multi-linear regression models. Climatic and energy use data collected over sixteen months were pre-processed, normalized and split into training and testing sets for regression analysis. The results showed that the ensemble-based Lightgbm model had superior performance in a multi-input prediction setting. The support vector regression model and multi-linear regression had a marginal difference between themselves at the prediction task. The MAE, RMSE and R2 evaluation metrics ranged from good to very good among the created models. The previous energy consumption observation is determined as the essential variable for energy consumption at this multi-functional building type. The developed predictive models can be an alternative method for the better attainment of efficient energy management.

Paul Banda, Muhammed A. Bhuiyan, Kevin Zhang, Andy Song

Research on Energy Consumption Analysis and Optimization of Dormitory Buildings Based on Data Mining

Data mining (DM) is gradually applied to building energy domain with its high efficiency and intelligence to solve the problems that traditional statistical methods can’t effectively identify hidden knowledge in massive data. This study aims to construct a DM framework to analyze and optimize the dormitory building energy consumption. The daily energy consumption of each dormitory is recorded by smart meters in real time. Combining with the student basic information, the exploration analysis, cluster analysis, and decision tree are used to explore the students’ energy consumption characteristics. Finally, a dynamic optimization model is built to optimize the building energy. The results show that it can achieve energy saving potential of 15.8% through change the allocation of students, which is conducive to building energy efficiency.

Jiayuan Wang, Zhuoling Zhong, Cheng Fan, Bo Yu, Yong Sun

Innovative Construction Waste Treatment Technology for Subway Projects

In order to improve the treatment efficiency of the construction waste in the subway projects, solve the problem of no-storage for construction waste and realize resource reuse, this paper analyzes the traditional construction waste treatment process, an ecological technology of construction waste treatment was developed mainly based on zero emission & 4R (reduce, reuse, recycle, revolution) concept, centrifugal solid–liquid separation technology and high speed suspended solid settlement technology. The subway construction waste can be accurately divided into gravel, sand, silt and clay by four-stage treatment process, and the treated waste can be fully recycled. The dewatered clay can be directly used for clay grouting for the shield tunnel construction, or is made into permeable bricks. The silts can be made up into backfill, planting soils and bricks. The gravel and sand can be directly used as coarse and fine aggregates or mixed soil of the sponge city facilities. This innovative process is far more efficient than the traditional treatment method, and there is no secondary pollution and cost savings. The newly developed technology is the leading construction waste treatment technology in the world, and it can be also applied to the construction waste of other infrastructure tunnels and foundation pits of buildings. It has great application potential and hopes to provide some ideas for the development of construction waste treatment and environmental protection in China's subway construction projects.

Jian Liu, Xingxiu Wang, Lingyi Wu

Improving Energy Efficiency and Indoor Thermal Comfort: A Review of Passive Measures for Building Envelope

Construction consumed a large proportion of energy, accounting for about 40 percent of global energy consumption. However, a large part of the building's energy consumption is considered to improve indoor thermal comfort. Recent research showed that the application of passive envelope measures can effectively improve the thermal performance of building envelope and reduce the demand for active system, providing effective solutions for improving energy conservation and indoor thermal comfort. This paper provides a review on improving building energy efficiency and indoor thermal comfort by passive measures implemented to the building envelope in recently decade. In this review paper, firstly, the concept of indoor thermal comfort is introduced. Then, the review of the three specific passive envelope measures for improving energy efficiency and indoor thermal comfort is presented. Finally, a few useful recommendations for future work are presented for greater improvement.

Shenghan Li, Zhenxiong Wen

Policy Evaluation of Construction Waste Resource Utilisation Based on S-CAD Method: Taking Shandong as an Example

Scientific policy evaluation is not only the measure of the effectiveness of policy implementation, but also the periodic summary of policy application, so as to provide a basis for subsequent policy revision. Taking Shandong province’s “Opinions on Further Strengthening the Management of Urban Construction Waste (CW) to Promote Resource Utilisation” as an example, this paper uses S-CAD method to deconstruct the values/stances, goals, strategies and expected results of the CW recycling policy from the perspective of Shandong provincial government and systematically evaluates the logicality of policy elements, the adequacy of resource input and the feasibility of policy implementation. Results show that the policy has a high logical consistency, and the policy design “effect” is good; the strategies are insufficient to achieve the goals, and the resource utilisation “efficiency” is low; the key “related views” are resistant to the policy, and the policy “benefit” is poor.

Ruirui Zhang, Qijun Chen, Chaowei Li

Risk Assessment on Construction Cost of Green Buildings Based on Structural Equation Model

In the construction stage, green buildings have increased cost input compared with traditional buildings, and their cost is threatened by numerous risk factors. Various stakeholders have an influence on construction cost that cannot be ignored. However, the existing research rarely analyzed the construction cost risk of green buildings from the perspective of stakeholders. In order to close such research gap, this study used structural equation modeling to explore key stakeholders and key risk factors that affect the construction cost of green buildings, and to conduct risk assessment on it. Initially, literature bibliometrics and semi-structured interviews were conducted to identify 31 cost risk factors related to various stakeholders and 3 components of green building construction cost. Questionnaire survey was used to collect data and structural equation modeling was then used for verifying the model hypothesis to identify key stakeholders and key risk factors. The identified key stakeholders and key risk factors were evaluated according to the impact coefficient, and finally divided into three levels. Results show that the design unit has the greatest impact on the construction cost of green buildings, followed by the construction unit, while the government sector seems to have the least impact. In addition, in the classification of risk levels, the key risk factors are mainly related to the owner, the design unit, the construction unit, and the material supplier. Findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for effective management on key risk factors for green building construction cost, which will further promotes the practical development of green buildings in China.

Zhilin He, Jiayuan Wang, Jie Li

Developing Building Energy Saving and Control Systems: A System Dynamics Approach

Building is the largest energy end-use worldwide, and hence energy saving and control in this regard has been the focus of attention for most countries over the recent several decades. Although a series of relevant standards are formulated in China, the actual building energy consumption always exceeds the design threshold. Revealed the previous studies regrading building energy saving, they focused mostly on some one-sided level, such as a technical or managerial level. Most of them, however, failed to discuss how to reduce building energy consumption in a systematic view, leading to poor intervention tactics of building energy saving to some extent. Therefore, this paper aims to facilitate the intervention in building energy conservation from a system perspective. Firstly, an integrated framework was used to deduce the connotation of a building energy saving and control system, determined by stakeholders, building energy consumption, and energy saving strategies. Secondly, system influencing factors were identified through literature retrieval. System Dynamics was then used to establish interactive subsystems on different levels, including macro governmental management subsystem, mesoscopic management subsystem, and micro energy use subsystem, respectively. This paper helps further predict the most efficient strategies on building energy conservation. Findings could be prior bases to research the system characteristics and evolution mechanism of building energy saving and control system in the future. Besides, it could better provide theoretical guidance for the dynamic precision intervention in building energy conservation on a systematic level.

Jie Li, Jiayuan Wang, Bo Yu

Life Cycle Energy Analysis of Vertical Greenery System (VGS) in Tropical Climate

Vertical greenery systems (VGS) has gained its popularity in the modern cities as it is proven to have various benefits, among which thermal benefits to achieve energy saving on buildings are significant. Current studies have been primarily focused on evaluating the impact of VGS on building energy use through reducing conduction heat gain, however, the energy consumed in producing, transporting, installing and maintaining the VGS has not been fully investigated. As most VGS supporting components are made of energy intensive materials, such as steel pipe and frame, it is essential to quantify the total energy consumed by VGS during its entire life-cycle stage for a better evaluation and propagation of VGS. The aim of this study is to explore the environmental impacts and the sustainability of VGS from the lifecycle energy (LCE) perspective. Specifically, the objectives are as follows: first to determine the overall LCE of three types of systems; and to identify the components with the highest impacts on LCE; finally, to recommend strategies to help the industry better manage the LCE of VGS. In this study, the life cycle energy analysis (LCEA) has been used to effectively capture the LCE generated from initialization, installation, maintenance, demolition of VGS. The energy data in each stage were collected from three types of VGS projects in Singapore that include carrier, planter and support system. From the results, carrier system is found to consume the highest LCE, followed by planter system and support system. When comparing the LCE with the energy that saved from lower building cooling load, it requires roughly 6.5–11.8 years to reach a balance of zero energy for different systems. The study is the first to present LCE of VGS in tropical climate and the results can be used as a reference for the future selection of VGS as well.

Ziyou Huang, Yujie Lu, Nyuk Hien Wong

Effectiveness of Innovative Intervention—Household Energy Saving Option (HESO) on Promoting Energy Conservation in Residential Buildings

Conventional household energy saving strategies, such as energy efficient investments, monetary rewards and social media campaigns, are usually costly and time-consuming, which imposes huge fiscal burden for government to implement these strategies. Hence, a more cost-efficient incentive on building energy conservation is critical to release these burdens while achieving energy saving goals. In the review of prior literature on different kinds of building energy incentives, this study proposed a hybrid intervention—Household Energy Saving Option (HESO) aiming to encourage households reduce energy usage with minimum cost and satisfying effects. A sample size of 189 households across different regions in Singapore were recruited and among them, 45 were assigned to experiment group, in which participants were offered an option that either wining rewards by achieving home energy saving goals or losing their initial joining fees as punishment. After two rounds of experiment with various energy saving goals, results showed that in the first round, treatment group achieved average energy reduction of 11.2% when setting energy saving target of 5%; and achieved 14.1% in second round when setting a higher energy saving goal of 10%; while control group did not show any changes in energy consumption. However, the effect of HESO on home energy saving decayed along time after the intervention, which indicates that this intervention is better to be conducted in a series form. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HESO can produce significant reduction in home energy consumption. The contribution of this study is to develop an innovative and cost-efficient incentive for home energy conservation and to exam the interaction between household energy reduction and households’ demographics.

Qian Xu, Yujie Lu, Bon-Gang Hwang

Understanding Illegal Waste Dumping Behaviours with Multi-Source Big Data: Visualized Evidences from Hong Kong

Illegal dumping refers to the unauthorised disposal of waste in public or private land, which impacts on the surrounding environment. In literature, many studies on minor offences focused on qualitative methods such as questionnaire surveys, of which the findings might be confined to social expectation bias, small sample size, questionnaire design and limited applicability. This study aims at understanding illegal dumping behaviour records in the big picture of urban big data from multiple sources, including demography, geography, economy, and household. We georeferenced the penalty records from January 2014 to June 2019 in Hong Kong and connected them to other data sources. We found that old urban areas were more prone to fly-tipping of building debris and half of the districts most stricken with fly-tipping of waste predominantly comprising renovation waste had a higher proportion of population residing in owner-occupied properties. The levels of income and education were found to have no direct impact on the tendency to commit illegal dumping behaviours. The findings in this paper, therefore, provide directions for the government in formulating policies to fight against illegal dumping.

Wendy M. W. Lee, Weisheng Lu, Fan Xue

Parametrized Modelling and Automatic Simulation-Driven Building Energy Prediction in Early Design

Building energy prediction, a critical status in the energy saving process, attracts much attentions in academia. In this study, an efficient building energy prediction approach for early design is proposed to enlarge the scope of application, accelerate the speed of energy prediction result feedback and reduce the operational complexity. The approach follows a two-stage framework. The Stage 1 is to establish mappings between building information model and the energy consumption level calculated by the EnergyPlus. A rapid 3D building modelling is also developed to satisfy the requirement of wide applicability in construction project. In light of the thermal simulation by EnergyPlus, a large variety of parameters in these model samples can be extracted as the database of the energy consumption prediction. With the help of GA-NN (Genetic Algorithm-Neural Network), a prediction model, in which the building design parameters are the inputs only needed, is developed in Stage 2 to predict the energy consumption level. A case study is carried out to verify the availability of the proposed two-stage approach. This study addresses the improvement in both generalization and efficiency and urges a wide diffusion of passive design approach, which can provide designers a reliable building energy consumption prediction tool.

Sha Liu, Xiang Li

A Conceptual Benefit—Output Model for Evaluating the Performance of Green Building

Recent years have witnessed the wide application of green buildings in the world. Properly measuring the performance of green buildings and comparing green schemes has been the cornerstone of governmental policies on energy conservation and carbon reduction, and play a crucial role in the formulation of competitive business strategies. At present, the academic community has given many evaluation methods for green buildings, but there are still many limitations, such as unscientific and inaccurate. Based on the existing disciplinary theory, this study introduces the “Benefit-Output” theoretical framework for evaluating green buildings, then a “Benefit-Output” conceptual model composed of physical and currency indicators is established. Based on this model, this research presents the gray correlation analysis method of combined weights to measure and compare the performance of multiple green projects. Through the comparison of three different types of examples in China, it is found that: the green building evaluation is more effective under the “Benefit-Output” conceptual model, and it also reflects the multi-dimensional meaning of green buildings.

Rui Liu, Xiaowei Wang, Kunhui Ye

The Barriers and Strategies of Conducting On-Site Sorting of Construction Waste: A Case Study of Suzhou

With the rapid development of economy and society in the past two decades, China is confronted with unprecedented pressure from the public demanding for sustainability. Construction waste, as a chief culprit undermining the sustainability has received increasing attention. Construction waste issues in China are particularly severe due to the massive construction waste generated on the one hand and poor construction waste management on the other hand. On-site sorting of construction waste is an effective measure of construction waste management to increase the reuse and recycling rate of construction waste. However, the implementation level of on-site sorting of construction waste is rather low. There is a pressing need to investigate the barriers against it. Therefore, this study analyzes the barriers of conducting on-site sorting of construction waste with a case study of Suzhou. The results indicate that the barriers include (1) lack of on-site management of sorting, and (2) low level of environmental awareness for construction company, (1) lack of on-site management, and (2) lack of advanced demolition technologies for demolition and transport company, and (1) lack of a mature market for recycled materials, and (2) insufficient technologies for construction waste recycling company. Based on the barriers identified, three targeted strategies are also proposed in this study, including improving environmental awareness, enhancing supervision of on-site sorting of construction waste, and providing some economic incentives. The research deliverables of this study are of benefit to researchers, practitioners and government to devise more evidence-based strategies to holistically improve construction waste management performance in China and beyond.

Zhikang Bao, Weisheng Lu, Bin Chi, Jianli Hao, Pengyun Miao, Xinxin Gao, Ziming Zhao, Baoquan Cheng

Smart Management of Construction and Demolition Waste: Review and Analysis

Successful implementation of construction and demolition (C&D) waste management is conducive to urban sustainability. With the rapid development of information and communication technology, smart management of C&D waste (SMCDW) is an inevitable trend. In the literature, more and more scholars have studied the application of emerging technologies or methods in C&D waste management, such as BIM and GIS. However, a comprehensive review of the main existing technologies or methods in SMCDW has not yet been systematically described and analyzed. To bridge this research gap, an analysis and review on the topic of SMCDW is conducted. Forty papers are retrieved according to a rigorous set of procedures. Through the analysis of these papers, five categories of existing technologies and methods in SMCDW are identified, including BIM, GIS, big data, AI and other particular technologies or methods. Among them, BIM has the highest application frequency and a wide range of applications, while GIS is the second one. Limited by the lack of data at this stage, the utilization of big data and AI is still less. Based on the analytical review, the limitations of previous studies are further summarized, such as the lack of comprehensive application of various technologies or methods, and the lack of exploration of SMCDW from the perspective of entire life cycle. Moreover, some potential future research directions are further suggested.

Zezhou Wu, Junjie Li

Theme 10 Off-site Prefabrication

Frontmatter

Design and Application of Prefabricated Substation Based on BIM Technology

As the core of advanced digital management application technology, BIM is widely used in various infrastructure construction. Prefabricated assembly substation uses advanced, reliable and environmentally friendly intelligent modular units to form an intensive closed substation. It takes digitization, networking and standardization of information as its basic requirements. Compared with conventional substation, it occupies less space, has shorter construction period, lower cost, no noise and no detection. Radiation-free and maintenance-free environment-friendly intelligent substation. A real digital information model of the whole substation depth is established by combining the Internet, big data, IoT and the construction process. Decomposition is performed in accordance with construction management and control steps to achieve model construction growth, according to Gantt chart schedule. The corresponding mechanism between the 2D code scan and the model is established, and the relationship between the digital model and the real nodes in the construction process is implemented. The life cycle of power transmission and transformation projects is facilitated by establishing appropriate management and control platform and developing the functional modules of the app. The Building Information Modeling technology is used to accurately calculate project quantities, strengthen the management and control of material cost information, provide efficient engineering quantities calculation and reduce cost. Based on the prefabricated assembly substation of 110 kV Longhua Center, this paper gives the corresponding case introduction and promotion suggestions from the aspects of prefabricated component production, assembly construction, information management technology and so on, aiming at applying it to the construction management stage of the substation industrialization project.

Clyde Zhengdao Li, Zhe Chen, Yiyu Zhao, Meizhuan Zhou, Limei Zhang

Review of Successful Strategies for Adopting Offsite Construction Technology

The adoption of Offsite Construction technology (OCT) has been viewed as a sustainable way of improving performance in the construction industry. The awareness and interest of OCT are increasing in all countries. Literature has repetitively appreciated the advantages, barriers and associated strategies for the adoption of OCT. Numerous studies have demonstrated the successful strategies for adoption of OCT in the global construction community. However, these strategies are seldom reviewed or classified especially in developing country context. Focusing on Tanzania construction industry this study aims to review and classify the strategies for promoting the adoption of OCT. The study adopted a mixed quantitative and qualitative, 29 strategies were obtained from existing literature. Interviews with 4 practitioners were conducted to confirm appropriate strategies for Tanzania. 12 strategies were selected and sent to six groups of construction practitioners based in Tanzania. A total of 117 questionnaires were collected. The top three ranks of strategies include “Promote research that geared towards the application of OCT”, “Low-cost loans and financial supports in OCT implementation” and “Developing mandatory OCT policies and regulations”. The paper also indicates four clusters based on aspects of strategic management namely, “Operation”, “Market”, “Management”, and “research development and information management”. This study provides empirical evidence of the important strategies, which are valuable references to the policymakers on deciding which strategy to prioritize more for practical adoption of OCT. Future research will investigate the causal relationships among the strategies and their impacts on the OCT adoption process.

Juma Hamisi Nzige, Guiwen Liu, Buberwa M. Tibesigwa, Dan Yinran

Evaluation of Barriers to Encourage Off-Site Construction in Sydney

Prefabricated construction has been promoted worldwide due to its potential to improve construction quality, safety, productivity and waste reduction. In Australia off-site construction is relatively small, 3% out of the total of construction industry, compared to other countries. However, construction within Sydney continues to rapidly expand with future forecasts of major building works indicating a furthermore increase in construction projects. These major building works which include apartments, commercial facilities and engineering developments are set to increase over the next year. Considering the currently prefabrication market in Sydney, this paper aims to identify the barriers limiting the offsite construction grown. A questionnaire survey and an interview were administered to experienced Sydney prefabrication professionals. Case studies are provided to present a correlation between the demand and supply of prefabrication components in Sydney.

A. C. J. Evangelista, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Zhiyu Huang

Research on Data Sharing Between Design and Production of PC Components

With the rapid development of building industrialization, the integration of prefabricated building and information management has attracted much attention. In the life cycle of a prefabricated building, the stages involved are complex, the parties involved are numerous, and the data information generated is diverse and numerous, which leads to the low efficiency of data information transmission and the inability to share with each other. The reason is that there is no unified data interaction format among stakeholders at all stages. However, there are few studies on data sharing at each stage in the existing literature, and even less studies on data interaction types between design stage and production stage. To help solve the data sharing problems encountered during prefabricated building construction, this research first identified and analyzed key factors that may have a significant impact on prefabricated component data sharing. Based on the identified factors, the challenges and corresponding functional requirements for increasing data sharing are determined. Then, a data transmission method based on Revit API is proposed. Revit API transmits data to the prefabricated factory on demand to achieve seamless connection between design information and production information. Based on the WPF application under Visual Studio 2013, the PC data sharing platform is developed to realize the start and close of data sharing events. The BIM model with in-depth design can export the blanking orders and processing drawings required by the prefabricated factory through data sharing, transform the design information into production information, and complete the delivery of prefabricated components, thereby improve data sharing efficiency, and better complete the refined management of prefabricated components.

Xingchong Wang, Jiayuan Wang, Min Zhou, Jin Wang

The Indicators System for the Supply Chain Performance of Prefabricated Construction Based on the Stakeholder Analysis

The prefabricated construction involves a large number of stages and stakeholders, and the behaviors of stakeholders based on cost-benefit have an important impact on the supply chain performance of prefabricated construction. The main stakeholders in each stage of the supply chain are identified, and both cost-benefit and behavior of each stakeholder are analyzed, then the influence of the stakeholder’s behavior on the supply chain performance is investigated. Using the Balanced Scorecard, we develop an indicators system for supply chain performance from the general contractor perspective, which can be divided into six dimensions (48 indicators), including finance, the degree of supply chain coupling, customers, internal processes, innovation and the development, and social responsibility.

Yue Yin, Youzhi Zhang, Zhenyu Liu

An International Comparative Analysis of Barriers to BIM Adoption in the AEC Industry

Building Information Modelling (BIM) has become a hot research theme to the improvement of the AEC (Architecture, Engineering, Construction) industry. It can produce a number of significant benefits for users. However, BIM adoption has been slower than expected due to the existence of barriers. To expand the BIM adoption in the AEC industry of these three countries, it is necessary to overcome the barriers to BIM adoption. The objectives of this study are to identify the critical barriers to BIM adoption and make an international comparison among Australia, Singapore and China. To achieve these objectives, a questionnaire survey was performed in Australia, Singapore and China, collecting 175 effective and complete responses from professionals. “Lack of tangible benefits” occupied the top position in the overall ranking. In addition, “lack of relevant expertise and knowledge”, “lack of subcontractors who can use BIM technology”, and “lack of BIM data in construction phase” was ranked top in Australia, Singapore and China, respectively. Furthermore, four, six and seven barriers received different scores between Australia and Singapore, Singapore and China, as well as Australia and China, respectively. Australia and Singapore had similar ranking of barriers, despite some differences in mean scores of barriers. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the barriers in different countries, thus facilitating enhancement of BIM adoption in these countries.

Xianbo Zhao

Prefabricated Building Quality Management Based on Information Frontier Technology

At the present stage, Prefabricated buildings are showing a good momentum of development, the whole industry chain each link research and implementation work steadily promoting development. However, its low level of informatization leads to such problems as low production efficiency, backward technical level and backward management concept. Moreover, the primary problem in various research work and implementation projects is the quality control of prefabricated buildings in the whole process. Aiming at the low efficiency of prefabricated building construction quality management and the quality management advantage of information frontier technology, this paper puts forward the prefabricated building quality management based on BIM + integration technology. Based on the detailed analysis and summary of the current situation of traditional building and prefabricated building quality management at home and abroad, and the implementation of information leading edge technology advantages in the construction industry, this paper studies the whole process quality management of prefabricated building based on BIM + integration technology. This paper analyzes the advantages and application points of cutting-edge information technologies, such as BIM technology, Internet of things technology, VR technology, etc., and studies the characteristics and application points of BIIM + integration technology. On this basis, the quality management system of prefabricated building with information frontier technology is constructed. Furthermore, by combining the key points of prefabricated building quality management and the entry point of quality control of information frontier technology, this paper puts forward six key points of prefabricated building quality management based on information frontier technology. Also, it provides a new idea for how to improve the quality management efficiency of prefabricated buildings. With the acceleration of information process and the rapid development of building industry, the application and popularization of prefabricated building information is imperative. Applying the management mode of information frontier technology to prefabricated buildings can further promote the development of prefabricated buildings and improve the quality of prefabricated buildings.

Min Zhou, Jiayuan Wang

Research on Production and Management Optimization of Assembled Prefabricated Component Enterprises Based on TOC Theory

Present researches about assembly enterprises mainly focus on the technical optimization of component production process. However, there are relatively few studies on pre-control cost in the production process of prefabricated components and optimization in the decision of whole business operation stage. Thus, this study firstly compares traditional manufacturing production, cast-in-place component production and prefabricated component production, and finds out respective characteristics and key points of prefabricated component production stage according to the current situation of prefabricated plant. Then, from the perspective of TOC theory, through the simulation process of prefabricated component production as an example, this study pre-controls and optimizes the cost of production process. Thirdly, from the DBR perspective of TOC theory, through a virtual prefabricated component manufacturing enterprise as an example, this paper determines, analyzes and ultimately eliminates the constraints in the whole process of prefabricated component production and operation stage. Finally, after the optimizing the stage of production and operation and in view of the current situation of prefabricated component manufacturing enterprises combined with TOC theory five-step method, corresponding suggestions are put forward.

Shuyan Ji, Yuechuan Wang

Research on Investment Strategy of Building Industrialization from the Perspective of Policy Driven

The development of building industrialization conforms to the new trend of high efficiency, energy saving and environmental protection. The related government departments have formulated corresponding policies to promote the development of building industrialization. However, numerous building industrialization policies lack uniform standards. As a result, the policy incentive effect of building industrialization is not clear enough, which further affects the investment intention of investors in prefabricated buildings. Therefore, the paper selects 34 recently building industrialization policy documents issued by the country, provinces and cities as a sample, and using the content analysis method to perform quantitative analysis in four-level coding manner. Based on the break-even point theory, the investment strategy is analyzed from quantitative and qualitative policies aspects. Further, nine important policy directions to promote the development of China’s building industrialization will be determined, and a policy subsidy model will be constructed. Finally, combining with a practical project to analyze, the feasibility of the investment model is demonstrated, which is conducive to making scientific decisions.

Xuefeng Zhou, Wenshun Wang, Ke Shang, Kaiyu Sun, Fengling Fang, Yu Zhang

Risk Assessment of Prefabricated Buildings for Whole Life Cycle Based on Risk Matrix—VWAHP

With the transformation and upgrading of the traditional construction industry, prefabricated buildings have been applied more and more and become the driving force of modern building industrialization. At the same time, there are many risk factors in the whole life cycle including decision-making, design, transportation of PC components, construction and operation. Compared with traditional construction projects, prefabricated buildings require a higher level of expertise and management in addition to large scale and complexity. In addition, prefabricated buildings have a longer construction period and are prone to various risk factors in the whole life cycle. The risk assessment method of traditional buildings cannot be fully adapted to prefabricated buildings. While most of the existing research on risk of prefabricated building is one-sided, rarely considering the risk factors of the whole life cycle. Therefore, it is particularly important to build an objective and accurate risk assessment model. Based on the existing research on risk assessment of prefabricated buildings, a model of Variable Weight Analytic Hierarchy Process (VWAHP) with the risk matrix determining the index value is established in view of the whole life cycle and is applied to prefabricated buildings risk assessment. This paper establishes a risk evaluation index system based on the whole life cycle phase division of the prefabricated building project, then calculates the comprehensive risk score by using the model and finally carries on the concrete application research through the practical instance. The results show that, this model of Risk Matrix—VWAHP comprehensively takes into account the differences and impacts of various risk evaluation indexes, which avoids the shortcomings of traditional subjective analysis methods and makes the comprehensive risk assessment score more scientific and reasonable. The practical significance of this paper is to provide a basis and quantitative analysis method for the risk management and control of prefabricated buildings throughout whole life cycle, and to promote the sustainable development of prefabricated buildings and the reasonable risk control of decision makers.

Xuexue Yang, Qiang Liu

Review of Government Compensation Mechanisms for Prefabricated Buildings

In recent years, a series of policies have been issued from the central government to the local government, and the development of prefabricated buildings has entered a new era. However, in the process of development, it still faces major challenges such as high cost and low market share. In response to the national call, explore the importance of government subsidies to the development of prefabricated buildings. Through in-depth study and review of relevant literatures on the impact of government subsidy policies on the development of prefabricated buildings in China, this paper found that most scholars studied them on the basis of game theory, while a few scholars explored them from the perspectives of management economics and sensitivity analysis. It can be concluded from the literature that effective government incentive mechanism has a significant impact on the development of prefabricated buildings, and reasonable government subsidy policy is of great significance to promote the development of prefabricated buildings. However, scholars’ research is almost confined to the theoretical aspect, and the specific implementation details are not mentioned. At the same time, there are few scholars who study from multiple perspectives. All these make the relevant government departments lack a more comprehensive and systematic reference basis when formulating and implementing subsidy policies, and the domestic research needs to be in-depth.

Jiaying Peng, Huanhuan Mu, Yiqi Lee

Analysis of the Development of Chinese Prefabricated Buildings Based on SWOT Theory and Entropy Weight Method

Prefabricated buildings, a new type of construction, are a major approach to promoting the industrialization of buildings. In recent years, China advocates prefabricated buildings as a form of architecture. However, they remain at the initial stage of promotion, and numerous driving factors and constraints coexist. This work first analyzes the development of Chinese prefabricated buildings on the basis of SWOT theory, and it then summarizes 11 drivers and constraints. The weight of each development-influencing factor is obtained through questionnaire surveys and expert interviews and the entropy weight method. Results show that construction technology difficulty, construction cost, environmental protection, policy support, and production efficiency greatly affect the development of prefabricated buildings in China. In accordance with calculation and analytical results, this work proposes corresponding development strategies and recommendations, which provide a theoretical basis for promoting the development, construction, and operation management of China’s prefabricated buildings. The relevant theoretical results presented in this study may serve as a reference to relevant departments.

Linlin Xie, Yajiao Chen

Research on Construction Supply Chain Management Strategy Selection of the Large-Scale Assembly Enterprises Based on SWOT-AHP

Under the government’s incentive policies of vigorously promoting assembly construction, the large-scale assembly enterprises are flourishing in China. The traditional assembling enterprise management mode has some disadvantages, such as the lagging management means, low management efficiency. The fund, material and information flow of the management link are not coherent. As a result, the assembly component productions cannot meet the market demand, which greatly hinders the popularization and application of assembly technology. The SWOT analysis method is used to analyze the internal advantages, disadvantages, external opportunities and threats of these enterprises based on the construction supply chain management technology. The hierarchical analysis model is established based on the SWOT analysis results. The strategic quadrilateral is drawn by calculating the relative importance weight of the lowest level factor relative to the highest level factor in the hierarchical analysis model. Then, the order of selection of construction supply chain management strategy in the large-scale assembly enterprises is obtained, which is the growth SO strategy, reversed WO strategy, diversified ST strategy and defensive WT strategy. The research results will provide new strategic idea and scientific basis in the large assembly enterprises to use the construction supply chain management.

Xiaojin Xu, Lianbo Zhu, Jie Chen, Yilei Huang

Theme 11 Rural Rejuvenation and Eco-civilization

Frontmatter

Study on the Risks and Countermeasures of Rural Collective Construction Land Use Index Trading Under the Rural Revitalization Strategy

The 2017 Ninth National Congress Report and the 2018 Central No. 1 Document have successively proposed the rural revitalization strategy. This is an important measure to resolve China’s current social contradictions and is a physical need in line with China’s national conditions. The key to implementing the rural revitalization strategy lies in rural “three-zone” reforms such as rural housing sites, collectively-operated construction land, and land acquisition. Therefore, it is imperative to make good use of the live land policy, revitalize rural collective construction land, and demonstrate the value of rural land. Based on the research results of domestic and foreign scholars and field research, this paper deeply analyzes the practice of rural collective construction land use index promotion in all parts of the country. On this basis, by interpreting the connotation and requirements of rural revitalization strategy, the rural collective construction land index transaction is a primary carrier to implement the rural revitalization strategy, study its important role in the rural revitalization strategy, and point out the risks and problems in the reform. Finally, aiming at the dangers and difficulties, put forward the countermeasures and suggestions for improving the rural collective construction land index trading under the rural revitalization strategy, and strengthen the risk prevention, to play a greater role in accelerating the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy.

Jiangtao Fang

The Promotion of Rural Tourism to Rural Revitalization—A Case Study of Longmen County

Rural tourism plays an active role in optimizing industrial structure, improving rural environment, promoting the inheritance of local culture, and enhancing employment and income. Rural tourism is an important driving force for rural revitalization. Taking Longmen County of Huizhou City as an example, this paper used semi-structured interviews and questionnaires to investigate and analyze the current situation of rural tourism development, the distribution and development of rural tourism resources, residents’ participation and tourism talents in Longmen County. The study found that rural tourism in Longmen County is in the early stage of development with uneven distribution and development of tourism resources, low participation of residents, serious homogenization of characteristic tourism souvenirs, nonstandard service standards in tourism employee and lack of high-end employees. On this basis, some suggestions are put forward in the following: first, developing tourism industry as the core to comprehensively promote sustainable rural revitalization and enhancing the beauty of the countryside; second, digging deep into the cultural connotation and making scientific planning; third, perfecting tourism facilities and improving the participation of farmers; last, establishing a benefit sharing mechanism.

Ting Yuan, Shuailin Wu, Chenpeng Song, Zijin Liao, Zhigang Wu

The Influence of Government Green Prevention and Control on Farmers’ Pesticide Application

A large number of studies have shown that the overuse of traditional chemical pesticides has caused serious negative externalities. The government’s investment in green prevention and control technology has a certain impact on farmers’ drug application behavior. In this paper, a zero-growth demonstration base of peanut diseases and pests was established in Zoucheng, Shandong province. 300 peanut farmers in the demonstration area represented by Zhangzhuang town, Xiangshan town, Yishan town and Kanzhuang town, were selected as samples. In this paper, spatial econometric model is selected to explore the causal relationship between the government’s participation in technical training for farmers and the use of low-toxic and low-residual pesticides by neighboring farmers. The study found that both the technical training and the spillover effect of technical training significantly promoted the use of low-toxicity and low-residue pesticides by farmers themselves, and the conclusion was still valid after the robustness test. This paper holds that, on the one hand, the government should strengthen the training of rural leading cadres, give full play to the radiative role of demonstration farmers in adopting the new technology, so that farmers can have a deeper understanding and use of green prevention and control technology. On the other hand, we should continue to strengthen the construction of model villages, improve the technology extension centers at the county level that radiate technology to remote areas, and adopt green prevention and control technology to provide a good external environment for farmers.

Xinyan Shen, Yuzhe Wu, Li Zhou

Theme 12 Other Topics Related to Construction Management and Real Estate

Frontmatter

A Research Framework of Addressing Obstacles to the Implementation of Safeguards in Djibouti’s Construction Industry

Djibouti, a small developing country in the East Africa region, has been witnessing extraordinary growth in its construction market in recent years. However, achieving a safe work environment has remained an ongoing challenge to the country because of the poor implementation of construction safeguards in the local construction projects. As a result, the research team proposed a research framework that addresses the obstacles to the implementation of safeguards in Djibouti’s construction industry. Three research tasks were proposed. Firstly, specific obstacles that may hinder the adoption of construction safeguards in construction projects will be identified. Secondly, the causes of the obstacles will be investigated and finally, mitigation strategies that may help overcome these obstacles will be proposed. Although there have been considerable research efforts conducted on construction safety, little of them investigates the obstacles affecting the implementation of construction safeguards. Thus, the proposed research can contribute to the current body of knowledge of construction safety. Furthermore, the findings of this research can help industry practitioners come up with some strategies that are more effective in improving construction safety for the Djiboutian construction industry.

Abdoulrazack Ahmed Abdi, Fei-Lian Zhang, Ming Shan

Talent Training Mode of Engineering Management Professionals in Chinese Universities Based on Core Professional Competence

The integrated and intersecting knowledge, nondescript training program, duplicating curriculum structure design of engineering management specialty has led to unbalanced level of talents trained. In this paper, a core curriculum system of engineering management specialty is constructed based on the “core professional competence” talent training mode, and some ideas for reforming the training mode of engineering management talents based on the core professional competence, such as highlighting the personalized features of the talent training program, strengthening “engineering applications”, optimizing practice teaching system, building “information platform” curriculum module, and establishing “collaborative education platform” and so on are put forward, which may provide reference for the training of engineering management professionals in colleges and universities.

Xuetong Wang, Jingkuang Liu, Qianwei Yu, Dong Wang

Selection Criteria for Procurement System: A Systematic Literature Review

Choosing an appropriated procurement system is a complex and challenging task. A set of up-to-date procurement selection criteria (PSC) is critical to formalise the procurement system selection. The literature of procurement systems and selection criteria, however, is still relatively fragmented and remains unclear for how exactly PSC are identified. A systematic literature review of forty-three peer-reviewed journal articles from 1998 to 2017 relating to construction procurement system selection process is carried out to understand the existing theoretical and practical foundations of the field. The research aims to identify existing procurement system criteria, and how these criteria can be identified. The key findings are: (1) PSC are evolved to match the promotion of emerging procurement systems in the construction industry; (2) research topics have been moving to more complex areas; and (3) the challenges in identifying criteria in practice are identified. This paper provides the foundation and impetus for further investigation into procurement system selection practice.

Nan Zhao, Fei Ying, John Tookey

A Scoping Review of System Dynamics in Construction Industry: 1998–2018

The scoping review is a relatively new method for identifying a particular topic in a certain field, but not yet used in construction industry research. The purpose of this scoping review is to provide an overview of existing research into system dynamics (SD) in the construction industry. The study identifies a total of 71 related articles published from 1998 to 2018. The results show that (1) 20.97% of the articles cover construction safety management and risk control; (2) 14.52% cover construction waste and waste disposal methods; (3) 75.81% use independent SD simulation models. The SD method, with an extensive range of applications and strong modelling ability, has a positive significance for research into construction process management and long-term development planning.

Yuhuan Zhang, Jingxiao Zhang, Bo Xia, Martin Skitmore, Qing Chen

Job Stress Characteristics of Chinese Engineering Design Professionals: A Case Study of Suzhou

Previous research on psychological stress in the construction industry tends to focus on professionals working in construction organizations. The psychological stress problem among engineering design professionals (architect, structural designer, etc.) has been overlooked in the existing stress literature, despite their significant contributions to construction projects and the construction industry. Hence, the aim of this study is to: (1) identify the job stressors of engineering design professionals; (2) measure the stress level of engineering design professionals; and (3) explore the stress coping behavior of engineering design professionals. In order to achieve these research objectives, a questionnaire was distributed to engineering design professionals in Suzhou, China, in which 57 valid questionnaires were obtained. The statistical analysis results showed that the most significant job stressors of engineering design professionals are meeting project quality requirements, salary expectation, client’s requirement, and fast delivery of design work. The majority of engineering design professionals in Suzhou experience a high level of stress, with over 14% of them suffering from a very high level of stress. The most popular approaches adopted by engineering design professionals to cope with stress are traveling/vacationing, exercising, and communicating with family/friends. The research findings are valuable to assess the current stress situation of engineering design professionals in China.

Shang Zhang, Riza Yosia Sunindijo, Shane Galvin

Automatic Evaluation Mechanism for Comfort Level of Construction Workers Base on Multi-sensor and Deep Learning

In construction stage of a building, thermal comfort and clutter lever are essential for the health and productivity of workers. To improve the comfort level of construction workers, this paper proposes a mobile mechanism base on multi-sensor and deep learning, which can automatically evaluate the workers’ comfort level in real time. The mechanism for comfort level can be divided into the following four aspects: firstly, BIM provides spatial information on construction sites, which can be used to plan the route for comfort inspection for safety managers. Secondly, the Raspberry Pi was used to acquire the thermal comfort in real time by wireless transmission. Thirdly, a library of waste affecting the clutter level was established, and the convolutional neural network was used to identify the on-site clutter. Finally, fuzzy reasoning algorithms were used to integrate the data on thermal comfort and clutter lever and the comfort level was automatically evaluated. The proposed mobile mechanism was verified through a case study.

Hui Deng, Yu Wang, Yichuan Deng, Genjie Zhang

Assessing the Challenges with Monitoring the Safety Practices of Operatives on Construction Site in Ghana

The study assessed the challenges associated with monitoring the Safety Practices of operatives on construction sites in Ghana. Questionnaires were purposively distributed and retrieved from the construction operatives in the Kumasi Metropolis at a response rate of 84.13%. Mean score ranking and Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance were then employed to give an in-depth understanding of the findings. The reliability of the scale was checked using Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient. To confirm the degree of variation on the data, the study adopted the Coefficient of Variation (CV). The study discovered ten challenges associated with monitoring safety practices of operatives on construction site, namely; fragmented nature of construction industry, onerousness and variability of legislation, lack of financial benefit in safety, lack of bargaining power, lack of expertise or resource personnel, tight project deadline, lack of training and education, language barriers of the illiterate workers affecting the efficiency of training, subcontracting practices resulting in ambiguous or unclear responsibility for maintaining safety and unable to take weekly or daily or monthly data. The study revealed that “subcontracting practices resulting in unclear responsibility for maintaining safety” is the factor that restrains operative from monitoring safety practices on construction sites. The study recommended that responsibilities relating to safety monitoring on a construction site must be made clear enough to help ensure effective safety monitoring. The study suggests that further research should be embarked on to alleviate the challenges with monitoring the safety practices of construction operatives on sites.

Emmanuel Adinyira, Frank Ato Ghansah, James Cofie Danku

A Model for Occupational Health Risk Assessment of Decoration Workers

During the past decade, decoration industry has been flourishing quickly in China due to the increasing transactions on the housing market and continuous improvement of people’s demand for high-standard living and office environment. While decoration can bring people more comfortable living environments, many adverse health effects will be exerted on occupants and decoration workers. Nowadays, indoor decoration pollution is being paid more attention but people tend to only focus on resident health while ignoring that of the decoration workers. Therefore, this paper firstly decomposes the decoration process to identify the pollutants generated during the process and then analyzes their harmful effects to workers’ health. Secondly, a risk assessment model of occupational health damage of decoration workers is developed for calculating occupational health risks by combining Occupational Risk Index Method and Singapore Semi-quantitative Risk Assessment Method. Finally, taking a decoration project in a residential district of Nanjing, China as an example, occupational health damage risk of workers is measured to verify the feasibility of constructed model. The main purpose of this study is to systematically analyze the health risk caused by decoration pollution to the workers from both physical and chemical perspectives. This research identifies main hazardous substances and their hazards in decoration and lays the foundation for formulating control and management plans for decoration pollution. Moreover, it provides a basis for the decoration enterprises and relevant government departments to design reasonable management measures and regulations.

Hui Liu, Tingting Jiang, Ting Gao, Yue Fang, Peng Mao

Mental Health Issues in the Culturally Diverse Construction Workplace: A Literature Review

Mental health is a significant topic in the construction industry. In the context of globalization, there is a growing trend of diverse culture in the construction industry which may exacerbate the mental health issues of construction workforce. To better understand the mental health conditions in construction workplace within a diversified culture, a review of previous research studies in this area would be of great importance. This study aims to review literature on mental health in the culturally diverse construction workplace, investigate the research gaps, and provide suggestions of future research directions. Ten academic papers published between 2010 and 2018 were identified. Severe mental health problems were found among people who work in the construction industry with disparate cultures. The studies were identified into two cultural categories. Research on the cross-cultural aspect was mainly focused on the stress management of expatriate construction professionals, while multi-cultural studies primarily investigated the prevalence of mental health problems of construction migrant workers. Based on the research gaps, further research is needed on exploring the stress management of construction workers in a cross-cultural background, investigating the cultural-related stressors, and adopting mixed research approaches.

Qinjun Liu, Yingbin Feng, Kerry London, Liyaning Tang

Scaffold and Crane Work Health Safety Failure Incidents and Case Studies in Australia

The aim of this study is to determine whether construction processes involving erection, use and dismantling of temporary structures such as tower cranes and metal scaffolding in Australian high-rise construction sites have been in compliance with the existing Work Health and Safety (WHS) requirements. The research reviewed number of case studies in Sydney to investigate the causes of crane and scaffold safety incidents. The results of evaluation of these separate sites have shown that without stringent safety procedures in place to abide by the WHS Act and Regulations, major accidents associated with crane and scaffold with serious injuries including fatalities are inevitable. Results also found that a number of limiting factors including communication skills, regular maintenance, safety checks, safety culture and safety investments contribute to the severity of the incidents. It was evident that a lack of compliance in both tower crane and scaffolding services has impacted the construction industry greatly. In particular, the results highlighted the importance of educating all employees in regard to risks related to crane operation and use of scaffolding. The study recommends that regular maintenance checks must always be conducted to ensure all components of tower cranes and scaffolding are in working condition free from any defects.

Swapan Saha, Ziad Zarika, Payam Zekavat
Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner

    Bildnachweise