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Über dieses Buch

This proceedings book focuses on innovation, cooperation, and sustainable development in the fields of construction management and real estate. The book provides a detailed analysis and description of the disciplinary frontiers in the field of building management and real estate and how they can be promoted in the context of the epidemic. A wide variety of papers provide a reference value for both scholars and practitioners. The proceedings book is the documentation of “the 25th International Symposium on Advancement of Construction Management and Real Estate” (CRIOCM 2020), which was held at the School of Public Administration, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China, in 2020.



Methods for Improving the Microstructure of Recycled Concrete Aggregate: A Review

Concrete contribute to 33% of the total waste generated in Australia with the economic acceleration and the speed of urban development. Most of the concrete waste goes into landfills and considerably low quantity is recycled and reused as recycled concrete aggregate. Nevertheless, there are several limitations of re-using of recycled concrete aggregate, for instance high porosity, high water absorption rate, micro cracks in the interfacial transition zones. Due to those limitations, the concrete produced with recycled aggregate has low properties than the concrete made with natural aggregates. To improve the properties of recycled aggregate, many methods have been adopted. This paper provides an insight into the methods, advantages and disadvantages of methods to improve the properties of recycled aggregate, methods of autogenous healing under self-healing and autonomous healing under re-hydration, bacterial and micro-encapsulation methods, two-stage mixing approaches, which are used to increase the permeability of the recycled aggregate, which result in increased durability of the same, reduce the voids and the calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) content of the recycled aggregate, to improve the nanomechanical properties of the interfacial transition zones, removal or strengthening of weak parts or weak mortar layers of recycled aggregate by, mechanical grinding, heat grinding, pre-soaking in water, pre-soaking in acid, micro-wave assisted removal of mortar, spraying of immersion of polymer emulsion, submergence in sodium silicate solution, use of fly-ash, silica fume, metakaolin and ground granulated blast furnace slag under mineral admixtures. Carbon-curing, carbon conditioning and other CO2 carbonation approaches and submergence with diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution under crystal forming approaches.

Vivian W. Y. Tam, Harshana Wattage, Khoa N. Le

Environmental Impacts for Recycled Aggregate Concrete by Adopting Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)

The awareness of sustainability has emerged over the last few decades and been applied to different fields, including construction sector. However, some barriers exist incontestably hinder the movement of it, such as manufacturing of virgin aggregate concrete (VAC). Trying to cut down the greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted from the conventional concrete, recent research presents the interests on the replacement of virgin aggregate (VA) with recycled aggregate (RA). The advantages of RA replacement are well recognized, whilst the prerequisites for its usage should be considered are that the technical adequacy and the environmental acceptability. Having successfully proved by previous scholars that recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) processes, the comparative strength to the conventional concrete, its environmental impacts throughout the lifespan are still uncertain. Therefore, this study aims to identify how RAC influence the environment through reviewing previous articles by using life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, including cement content, transport distance, mixture design, and parameters involving in LCA stages, and LCA software. These factors and parameters lead to the limitations of current LCA accordingly. Despite that, a general conclusion can be made that RAC is beneficial to the environment.

Weiqi Xing, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Khoa N. Le, Jian Li Hao

Green Building Clusters for Residential Developments: Developing District Cooling Systems

Green building is widely discussed in may research arenas. There are millions of ways in developing and achieving “green status” using various green building rating tools. The main aim of green buildings is to design and construct environmentally, socially and economically sustainable buildings to reduce the negative impacts on the environment and the society as a whole. However, the real question is whether implanting one-off green building can face this challenge. Green buildings need to be integrated to the society and the cities. Even though integrating cities, into this concept is a long way ahead, this research aims to explore the possibility of developing green building clusters for mega residential projects in Australia. This paper presents a preliminary desk study of the proposed project. Currently there is an exponential growth in residential building developments within Australia. Therefore, this research identified the potential methods such as “district cooling system” as one of the resource sharing techniques among green buildings cluster in residential developments. District cooling system is one of such initiative used in Middle Eastern countries for residential developments where cooling is essential for most parts of the year. However, this is not widely used in Australia. This research study carried out a cost–benefit analysis based on a case study project. The research study reported that developing district cooling system is positive for energy savings and life-cycle costs, yet there are many challenges. Combining renewable energy sources into district cooling systems is one of the future directions identified.

I. M. Chethana S. Illankoon, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Khoa N. Le, W. Charith K. Fernando, Yujuan She

An Overview of Freeze and Thaw Cycles Affecting the Durability of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Exposure to severe temperatures is one of the critical effects on concrete damage. Additionally, the aggregate porosity (pores in the range of 0.1–0.5 μm) is the characteristic that influences freeze–thaw resistance due to the pore saturation resulting in the concrete deterioration. Freeze and thaw is a durability property which is the volumetric contraction and expansion of hardened concrete caused by abrupt temperature change in cold climes resulting in micro or macro cracks. The mechanism results in internal stresses, such as hydraulic pressure; osmotic pressure and pressure induced by the growth of crystals in pores and their interaction with pore walls. Additionally, this process causes internal relative humidity gradients within the cement paste matrix which leads to the reduction in concrete volume, i.e. drying shrinkage. The main aim of this study is to review the literature on procedures to evaluate freeze and thaw resistance of cycled aggregate in concrete, and some discussion on the treatments to enhance its durability has been included. The most relevant and cited paper in the Scopus and Web of Science databases were analysed to identify the effective treatments and mitigation processes to improve the resistance of recycled aggregate concrete under freeze and thaw cycles.

V. W. Y. Tam, A. C. J. Evangelista, M. Soomro

Supervision System on Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling: Lessons from Shenzhen, Hangzhou and Chongqing, China

A large amount of construction and demolition waste is generated owing to the rapid development of the construction industry. Of all the countries in the world, China produces the largest amount of construction and demolition waste. Currently, approximately 75% of Chinese cities are surrounded by a large volume of the waste. Proper management of construction and demolition waste is expected to improve the performance of construction and demolition waste recycling. Adopting supervision system on construction and demolition waste recycling plays an important role in effective waste management. However, there is a short of supervision system in China. This study analyses challenges in current supervision system, adopting site visits to three Chinese cities (Hangzhou, Shenzhen and Chongqing). Three challenges are identified in this study: (1) a lack of accurate estimation of waste quantity and distribution, (2) a lack of coordination among different government administration departments and (3) a lack of an effective waste tracing system. Corresponding recommendations are provided to policy makers in China, in order to improve the performance of construction and demolition waste management.

Mingxue Ma, Vivian W. Y. Tam, Khoa N. Le, Yahui Zhu

State-of-the-Art of BIM-Based LCA in the Building Sector

It is widely recognized that the integration of building information modeling (BIM) and life cycle assessment (LCA) can enhance sustainable development in the building sector. However, a comprehensive and in-depth understanding the state-of-the-art of BIM-based LCA is still scarce. This paper therefore intends to conduct a critical review and analysis of the integration of BIM and LCA in the building sector based on previous studies and provide research gaps and their future practice and development. A qualitative content analysis was adopted to analyze 71 publications. The research results indicate a growing interest in exploring the potential of BIM to facilitate the environmental performance assessment of buildings since 2013. Additionally, previous studies focused on the two topics: integration methods of BIM and LCA and the application of BIM-based LCA. Eight specific sub-topics was identified and classified within the two topics. Five sub-topics was classified within the former, including: drivers and barriers to BIM-based LCA; integrity and accuracy of data flow during integration processes; comparison and analysis of BIM software and LCA tools; material and components libraries for data structure; and effective ways to integrate BIM with LCA, and three sub-topics was classified, including: the evaluation and optimization of environmental impacts-being the most popular one; the evaluation of economic impacts of buildings; and comparative analysis and decision making of alternative scenarios. A framework is then proposed for systematically elaborating developments and gaps of BIM-based LCA. This study contributes to the architecture, engineering and construction literature by presenting the state-of-the-art of BIM-based LCA application and the future practice and development in the building sector.

Vivian W. Y. Tam, Yijun Zhou, Chethana Illankoon, N Le Khoa, Zhiyu Huang

A Study on the Urban Multi-center Spatial Structure Based on POI Data—Taking Guangzhou as an Example

Since the twenty-first century, China’s urbanization has entered a period of rapid development. With the expansion of the city scale and the rapid population aggregation, the urban activity characteristics and development trend become more and more complex, and various “urban diseases” problems occur frequently, such as traffic congestion in the city center due to the excessive concentration of urban functions, low land utilization rate leading to housing shortage and soaring land prices. In order to alleviate the above problems, in recent years, most cities in our country adopt the multi-center development strategy for the spatial structure, but the multi-center theory still suffers from limitations in its localization applications. Compared with the traditional survey research methods, POI data brings about new insights and innovative methods for the study of urban spatial structure, with smaller measurement errors. Under the background of a huge subway transportation system and the construction and development of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay area, the characteristics of its urban spatial structure and the development degree and trend of each center will be more special. This paper took Guangzhou City as an example, which is a megacity with rapid expansion of urban space. Based on the reorganized POI data crawled from Baidu map open platform, we adopted spatial kernel density analysis method and DBSCAN clustering method. Considering the multi-center structure characteristics of Guangzhou city, using ArcGIS software, this paper studied the overall layout of Guangzhou City as well as its structural characteristics of the following five kinds of urban functional spaces: living, business, employment, culture education and leisure. The results of this study showed that: (1) The polycentric spatial structure of Guangzhou is composed of many factors; (2) there exists a clear evidence that the urban spatial structure of Guangzhou has a typical multi center structure, with a circular distributions of denser inside and sparser outside; (3) different functional spaces present a multi-center structure with certain differentiations; (4) the centers of Guangzhou can get rid of unbalanced development problems by means of “unban coordination”.

Fan Wu, Yue Zheng, Zhiyuan Hu, Cheng Wen, Jiabin Duan, Yushi Peng, Yehuang Tu, Mingquan Wang

Organizational Interaction and Dilemma Governance Strategies in Response to the COVID-19 Epidemic

Frequent public emergencies are the significant symbol of risk society with serious social hazards. When public emergency responses are poor, the governance capabilities of relevant organizations face serious challenges in terms of heavy casualties, property losses, personal psychological shocks, and so on. Various organization dilemmas both cause and are intensified by organizational interaction abnormality or failure during the overall dilemma-governance process. As an acute respiratory infectious disease, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been causing worldwide infections since early 2020. It is a catastrophic public health emergency that is threatening the entire world. Thus, there is an urgent need to study interactions between organizations, as well as dilemma-governance strategies used to deal with the epidemic. Organizations related to epidemic prevention and control must be identified from epidemic-related online texts by data collectors, and the topic-oriented web crawler method is used to provide organizational interaction data to model the complex network of organizational interactions during the COVID-19 epidemic. In addition, the overall characteristics of the network should be analyzed with respect to network parameters such as degree, betweenness, and eigenvectors. Finally, fault analysis based on relative scales of maximal connected components must apply to determine critical nodes and edges to facilitate the formulation of dilemma-governance strategies. The paper provides innovative theoretical support for complex network application in public dilemma governance.

Lin Yang, Xinran Hu, Jiaming Lou

A Smart Data-Driven Fault Diagnosis Method for Sustainable and Healthy Building System Operations

Huge amounts of building operational data are being collected by the building automation system in modern buildings, providing an ideal platform for developing data-driven methods for building energy management. Compared with traditional human-centric building management methods, data-driven methods are more efficient and have attracted significant attention from academic researchers and industry professionals. The main challenge is how to effectively extract useful insights from massive building operational data, especially when the original data are noisy and of poor quality. This study proposes a data-driven diagnosis method for the sustainable and healthy operations of building services systems. The chiller system is selected as the research target, considering it generally consumes the most energy and has the greatest energy saving potential. The method is developed based on both unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques. Firstly, a steady-state detection method has been developed using unsupervised clustering analysis. It aims to automatically remove transient operational data to ensure the quality of the follow-up data analysis. Secondly, various supervised machine learning techniques have been used to develop classification models to identify typical faults in chiller operations. Thirdly, the method has been validated using actual chiller operational data. Different metrics, such as accuracy, fault detection rate, misdiagnosis rate and false alarm rate, have been adopted for performance evaluation. The method can be applied to enhance the efficiency for practical building management. The research outcomes are beneficial for the development of sustainable and healthy building energy management.

Xuyuan Liu, Xinghua Wang, Cheng Fan, Bufu Huang, Jiayuan Wang

A Review of Research on Project Transparency

At present, under the guidance of the government, “integration” has become the mainstream and trend in the construction industry, but there is still a problem of low project transparency in the construction industry. The low transparency of the project will make the participants of the project unable to effectively and comprehensively transmit information and cooperate effectively in the process of project implementation, which will have a great negative impact on the final results of the project. Project transparency mainly refers to the openness and sharing of various aspects among all participants in the whole process of construction project. Through sorting out and analyzing the existing literature on transparency and project management, this paper classifies the project transparency into three parts: information transparency, rule transparency and culture transparency, and expounds them separately. In addition, the influence of project transparency on the whole project is analyzed comprehensively. At present, there is a lack of research on project transparency, and there is no clear research results. In the future, we should strengthen the in-depth research on improving project transparency and the development of specific implementation measures, continue to combine with the actual situation, and deeply explore specific measures and methods to improve project transparency in all aspects, in order to produce more important guiding significance.

Qian Zhang

Housing Choices of Migrant Workers with Different Types of Employment: A Comparison Between Eastern, Central and Western China

With the outbreak of COVID-19, many informally employed migrant workers or employers in the informal sector are facing unprecedented challenges in terms of employment, housing, etc. These workers do not have access to health insurances, social securities, housing subsidies, or any other social welfare. Many of them are at risk of sharp income reduction or losing jobs because of having no labor contracts. Studies on informal employment of migrant workers often focus on labor protection. Few studies analyzed the role of informal employment in housing choices of migrant workers. This paper aims to fill this knowledge gap. Data from China Migrant Dynamic Survey 2017 were employed. Multiple logistic regression models were established. Comparisons were made between the three economic belts (i.e., eastern, central and western regions) of China. It was found that the influencing factors of housing choices of migrant workers varied from region to region, so do the influences. Informally employed migrant workers tended to live in informal housing (such as construction sites, abandoned factories, etc.), and places of employment. Formally employed migrant workers were more likely to live in dormitories provided by employers. Unexpectedly, the effect of formal employment on housing purchase of migrant workers was insignificant. The government should pay more attention to the housing issues of migrant workers in informal employment. Measures should be taken to improve the housing conditions of informally employed migrant workers. More housing options should be provided to them, such as incorporating them into the housing security system. Moreover, housing strategies should be specified according to the respective characteristics of different regions.

Yijing Pan, Li Tao

Determinants of Migrant Workers’ Housing Pathways: Evidence from China

Since the economic reform in 1978, China has undergone rapid economic development. From the late 1980s to early 1990s, the first tide of migrant workers appeared in China. An increasing number of migrant workers left their hometowns to seek jobs in another place. Housing is a common challenge for migrant workers in their working destinations. Housing choices of migrant workers have been widely investigated, albeit from the static perspective. Few studies have looked into the housing pathways of migrant workers, or their housing choices from a dynamic point of view. Housing pathway is the result of interactions between social practices of households and housing over time and space. This paper explores the housing pathways of migrant workers and its determinants from three aspects, i.e., housing tenure, housing size, and housing quality. Data from CFPS 2014 and CFPS 2016 are employed. Multiple logistic regression is used. The results show that socio-economic characteristics, mobility characteristics, and life course affects the housing pathways of migrant workers significantly. However, the effects of the above-mentioned factors on housing tenure, housing size, and housing quality of migrant workers are different. Compared with migrant workers in the Western region, migrant workers in the other two regions (i.e., the Eastern region, and the Central region) are less likely to obtain full homeownership, but more likely to improve housing quality during migration. Unemployed migrant workers or those who drop out of the labor market have higher possibilities of losing homeownership. They are also more likely to reduce the housing size. On the other hand, migrant workers who are getting married are prone to increase the housing size. The old generation and the migrant workers who have larger family sizes and longer durations of migration are more likely to have housing sizes unchanged. Moreover, the housing qualities of migrant workers who maintain the status of unemployment tend to remain unchanged. It is also true for migrant workers with larger family sizes. Based on the empirical results, the government is suggested to provide more employment information, job training, and job opportunities for migrant workers who are at disadvantages in housing. At the regional level, it is better for local governments to promulgate preferential housing policies for migrant workers in economically developed areas, such as widening the coverage of public housing, and encouraging employers to provide accommodations.

Ri Wang, Li Tao

Using Fuzzy Cognitive Map to Identify the Factors Influencing the Cost of Prefabricated Buildings

In recent years, prefabricated buildings are rising in China gradually. It has the characteristics of saving, high efficiency, and green compared with the traditional cast-in-place buildings. However, the application of prefabricated buildings is slow-moving due to high cost. Fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is a combination of neural network and fuzzy logic, and it may effectively avoid the complexity of nonlinear models. Besides, its feedback mechanism may respond to the dynamic changes of the whole complex system of the prefabricated building cost. To effectively control the cost of prefabricated buildings, this paper identifies some influencing factors and constructs a causal model (i.e. FCM model) which is composed of nine concepts (nodes). Besides, predictive analysis and diagnostic analysis are carried out based on the FCM model. C1 (scale effect), C6 (PC component cost), C4 (standardization degree of PC components), and C8 (construction management level) have the greatest impact on the cost of prefabricated buildings are concluded. The possible root cause that affects the cost of prefabricated buildings is C1 (scale effect). Accordingly, suggestions are put forward to reduce the cost of prefabricated buildings. The research is helpful in promoting the development of prefabricated buildings as well as the transformation and upgrading of the construction industry.

Lan Luo, Xia Wu, Liang Cheng, Zhihao Tu

The Influence of Housing Prices on Urban Innovation Capacity: Review and Outlook

To investigate the influence of housing prices on urban innovation capacity, the author first analyzed the connotation and manifestation of urban innovation capacity. On this basis, the author further analyzed the mechanism and orientation of the influence of fast-rising housing prices from the three aspects of government, enterprises and individuals. The research result suggested that high housing prices may promote or inhibit urban innovation capacity through influencing the expenditure preference of local government, the innovation input of enterprises, and the decision-making of individuals on innovation and entrepreneurship. However, there is great controversy over the specific orientation of influence, as most researches favor that raising housing prices inhibit urban innovation capacity while a small minority of researches suggest that raising housing prices promote urban innovation capacity.

Ling Wu, Botong Song

A Critical Review on Data Preprocessing Techniques for Building Operational Data Analysis

The wide adoption of Building Automation System (BAS) and Building Energy Management System (BEMS) has provided building professionals with large amounts of building operational data for knowledge discovery. Considering the intrinsic complexity in building operations and common faults in data collections, data preprocessing has been recognized as an indispensable step in building operational data analysis. It can be used to enhance data quality by removing outliers and missing values, ensure data compatibility with data mining algorithms, and improve the sensitivity and reliability in data analysis. This study provides a comprehensive review on data preprocessing techniques in analyzing massive building operational data. The paper firstly reviews techniques for conventional data preprocessing tasks, including missing value imputation, outlier detection, data scaling, reduction and transformation. Afterwards, the paper proposes promising techniques for advanced data preprocessing tasks, including data partitioning, feature engineering, data augmentation and transfer learning. Based on the critical review, future research directions and potential applications for building data analysis has been summarized. This paper can provide a general picture on data preprocessing methods for building operational data analysis. The insights obtained are valuable for the development of advanced data-driven solutions for smart building energy management.

Cheng Fan, Meiling Chen, Xinghua Wang, Bufu Huang, Jiayuan Wang

A Bibliometric Analysis of EEG Based Mental Workload Assessment Research

This paper aims to provide a critical review of the recent literature for mental fatigue studies using Electroencephalogram (EEG) sensor. Mental fatigue could cause many failures and dangers in workplaces. To prevent adverse effects on performance and safety, many physiological sensors are used to detect metal fatigue, especially EEG sensor. To analyze the research frontiers, 519 related articles published between 2010 and 2019 were retrieved from the Web of Science. With text mining and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling, the number of published papers, major research countries and institutions, primary research topics and their contents were examined and discussed. It is found that with the increasing importance of work safety and technological progress, EEG based mental fatigue research has gradually become a hot research field, and many inter-discipline studies have emerged, for example, in the field of construction and education. This study provides a knowledge map of current EEG based research and suggests potential interdisciplinary studies for future research, especially in the construction industry.

Weilin Chen, Zhikun Ding

Management of Municipal Construction Waste Transportation by Integrating ABM and GIS Model: A Case Study of Shenzhen

Effective construction waste management (CWM) is a key challenge for global sustainable development. In particular, scientific transportation management of municipal construction waste (CW) is also an important way to reduce environmental pressure due to the scarcity of land resources and the lack of landfill facilities in most cities. Based on the hybrid simulation method, this paper implements dynamic regulations and analyzes the effects of different construction waste management policies by applying agent based modeling (ABM) simulation method, and designs transportation plans by loading geographic information system (GIS) data. Construction waste transportation in Shenzhen is taken as an example in which GIS and other required excel data are loaded into AnyLogic simulation software. According to the ABM simulation results, the optimal disposal route of CW transportation is identified. Simulation results show that this method can effectively provide regular path planning for waste transportation, and follow the transportation route stipulated by the traffic regulations of Shenzhen. The findings can also provide a guide for decision making of CW transportation plans.

Xiaoyan Cao, Zhikun Ding

The Perceived Value Scale Development for Recycled C&D Waste Products

The issue of construction and demolition (C&D) waste is getting more and more serious with the rapid development of urbanization in China. Recycled C&D waste products are applied widely by stakeholders as one of effective ways to solve the problem. At present, the promotion of recycled products is facing heavy barriers, while the future market for recycled products largely depends upon stakeholders’ perceived value. But few studies focus on constructing scales to measure stakeholders’ perceived value of recycled products. To fill this gap, this paper develops a three-dimensional perceived value scale including social value, economic value and environmental value. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data from Shenzhen, China. In total, 129 valid questionnaires were divided into two samples with which an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis were conducted respectively to verify the scale validity and reliability. Results showed that the developed scale has sound reliability and validity. The developed scale provides a new instrument for future construction and demolition waste management research.

Wanqi Nie, Zhikun Ding

To Reveal the Critical Influencing Factors for Safety Behaviors of Chinese Construction Workers from Stress Management Perspective: A Machine-Learning Approach

It has widely recognized that safety behaviors of construction workers contributed to majority of construction accidents. Given its significance, lot of resources have been inputted to improve safety behaviors of construction workers. However, unsafe behavior seems inevitable. Construction workers are also under excessive occupational stress, because of performing various demanding and repetitive tasks while in shortage of necessary job resources. Previous studies have claimed the relationships between stress and safety for workers from other countries and districts, while there is lack of study for Chinese construction workers. To fill in this research gap, current study aims to apply both traditional statistical methods and machine learning approach to examine the complicated interactions between task stressors, stress and safety behavior for construction workers in Mainland China. After an extensive literature review of relevant knowledge, a conceptual model was proposed to indicate the hypothesized relationships between task stressors, stress and safety behavior for construction workers. A questionnaire survey was administered among around seventy construction workers to collect empirical data. A series of statistical analyses were conducted to confirm the theoretical classification of stressors, stress and safety for construction workers. Decision tree algorithm in supervised machine learning approach was applied to develop model for Stressors–Stress–Safety interactions for construction workers. The results of current study revealed that task stressors can affect the safety of Chinese construction workers, both directly and indirectly through the stressors–stress–safety path. Implications of the findings were discussed and practical recommendations for managing task stressors and stress were made. Current study contributed to reveal the significant effect of task stressors and stress on safety behaviors of Chinese construction workers. The results of current study also support that machine learning method is applicable for studying the health and safety issues of construction workers.

Qi Liang, Yuan-yuan Qiu

The Impacts of Housing Affordability Stress on Social Integration of Married Migrant Workers: A Comparison of Six Cities in Eastern China

Migrant workers are experiencing increasingly severe stress (especially housing stress) in urban areas, largely due to the Hukou system and the soaring housing price. Housing stress generally refers to financial stress, and is usually measured by housing affordability index. Poor housing affordability undoubtedly affects housing consumption of migrant workers, and hinders them from integrating into the local society. Housing affordability stress was found to influence social integration of migrant workers, so were city-specific factors. Because housing costs and income levels vary from city to city, this paper aims to make comparisons concerning the effects of housing affordability stress which have seldom been made from the perspective of urban hierarchy. Cities in Eastern China have undergone the most rapid social and economic development, which attracts the largest number of migrant workers. We estimate an ordinal logistic regression model in six cities in Eastern China and data from 2014 Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey was employed. Besides the effect of housing affordability stress, the influences of individual characteristics, family factors, hometown features, and host city characteristics on social integration of migrant workers were looked into. It was found that social integration of married migrant workers associated with urban hierarchy, taking into account of individual characteristics, and features of migration, housing, neighborhood, and culture in the host city. Housing affordability stress could exert negative effects on social integration of married migrant workers, which varied in cities of different hierarchies. The effects of housing affordability stress on social integration of married migrant workers were significant in first-tier cities and third-tier cities, while the effects were insignificant in second-tier cities. The differences may be influenced by both married migrant workers’ residential expectations and local policies. Hence, local governments should improve the social integration of married migrant workers by taking into account of local conditions, such as urban hierarchy. Besides, Family-related characteristics (such as family scale and dual-career family) also imposed significant impacts on social integration of married migrant workers.

Lei Zhong, Li Tao

Prediction and Analysis of Water Supply-Demand Balance in Binzhou City

Binzhou, Shandong is located in the hinterland of the lower Yellow River Delta with the typical sub-humid warm temperate monsoon climate. The average per capita water resources in Binzhou (265 m3 per person) is considerably lower than the national standards (2100 m3 per person). To study the current situation of water resources utilization and supply pressure in Binzhou city, the grey system prediction model and quota prediction method were used to predict the near and long-term water demand. The results showed that the shortage of water resources in Binzhou would be more serious in the foreseeable future, with an estimated water shortage of 3.91 × 108 m3 in 2025 and 2.90 × 108 m3 in 2035. In the future, agricultural water consumption would still be the largest portion in Binzhou, but its increment would be rather small, and industrial water consumption would increase obviously, compared with 2018, the growth rates in 2025 and 2035 are 109.9% and 192.7%. The demand for domestic water and ecological water would rise due to the development of urbanization. Based on the prediction results of water supply-demand balance, over 3 × 108 m3 shortfall in water supply, Binzhou needs to improve the water supply capacity to meet the water demand of production and living.

Yuyuan Fu, Sheng Zheng, Yuzhe Wu

Theoretical Method and Application of Assessment on Water Resources Carrying Capacity: A Case Study of Binzhou, Shandong

The study of water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) has vital significance for coordination of water and society, economy along with ecology. The purpose of this paper was to analyze current concept and methods of evaluation on WRCC, then carry out the assessment and obtain the carrying status. Based on the review of research on WRCC, considering water quantity, quality and social economy factors, a comprehensive evaluation model was established by application of AHP-PCA method. Both subjective and objective conditions were taken into consideration simultaneously in this method. Binzhou City was taken as a case study to assessment the carrying status of its water resources. Calculating by the AHP-PCA Synthetic Evaluation model based on data from 2010 to 2017, it is considered that the WRCC of Binzhou was mainly affected by total population, total water supply and per capita water consumption. And the result showed that the evaluation values fluctuate between 2.10 and 2.75 in recent years, which indicated the WRCC was at the level of mild overload in this city. From the above conclusion, we learned that the sustainable development of Binzhou had been limited by the level of its WRCC. Therefore, some practical policies were provided.

Chengjie Zhang, Sheng Zheng, Yuzhe Wu

Resources Saving Performance Evaluation of Huizhou Residential Houses Design Scheme

The contradiction between the increasing demand for housing and the shortage of resources in Huizhou makes it important to consider saving resources when designing Huizhou houses. It is particularly important to evaluate the resources saving performance of the design scheme of Huizhou houses scientifically and accurately. This paper combined the resources saving items of the GB/T 50378-2019 “Evaluation Standards of Green Building” (ESGB) with BIM software’s to evaluate the performance of resources saving with the typical residential design scheme of Huizhou, and the original design scheme is optimized according to the evaluation results. The final results show that the optimized design scheme of residential house is more in line with the purpose of green building in the field of energy and material saving, and the capability of resources saving has been improved. The evaluation method proposed in this paper can accurately quantify the resources saving performance of residential house design scheme in Huizhou, which promotes the sustainable development of buildings.

Lingxiao Wang, Xuexue Yang

Influence of Prefabricated Building Incentive Policy on Project Implementation Effect

To promote the development of prefabricated buildings, China's provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) have successively issued guiding documents for the development of prefabricated buildings, specified their own development goals and various incentive policies. Although various provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) have put forward various incentive policies, there are differences in the actual development of fabricated buildings. Therefore, this paper studies the impact of the incentive policies of fabricated buildings on their project implementation effect through correlation analysis. After coding the selected research samples through text analysis method based on the perspective of policy instruments, the distribution of the three types of policy instruments, namely supply-type, environmental-type and demand-type are counted respectively, and then the incentive policies of the provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) are quantified through policy scoring. After selecting three evaluation indexes for correlation analysis, it is found that the type of policy tool most used at present is the environmental-type, followed by the supply-type, and the demand-type accounts for the least. And the highest policy score among all provinces is Jiangsu province. Through the above analysis, it can provide reference for provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) to optimize or innovate the existing incentive policies, and promote the development of fabricated buildings.

Qingxiang Su, Shaoyan Wu, Pan Xing

The Reconstruction of Urban Center System Based on POI Data: A Case Study of Shenzhen

Identification and evaluation of urban center is one of the important contents of urban research and urban planning. Early development planning of Shenzhen focused on SEZ (special economic zones), which led to the polarization of SEZ and non-SEZ in the urban center system. With the help of spatial big data, limitations of traditional data are broken. Based on this, spatial pattern of Shenzhen central structure is analyzed, and then the evolution characteristics of Shenzhen central system are summarized. Using POI data of Shenzhen from 2010 to 2019, we comprehensively consider the influence of functional density and functional diversity on the determination of urban center, and measures the spatial structure of urban center in Shenzhen based on a simple and intuitive method to identify urban center. The research shows that the urban center based on POI data identification can better reflect the actual urban development. The urban center system of Shenzhen is in a growth trend, gathered in SEZ and transitional zone in the middle of Shenzhen and continuously expanding to the north of Shenzhen. The period from 2010 to 2015 is the fastest growing period of the urban center system in Shenzhen. From the perspective of urban macro level, spatial pattern of the urban center structure of Shenzhen shows the overall characteristics of moving from agglomeration in SEZ to balanced development within the whole urban, and the difference in the centrality level between SEZ and non-SEZ gradually decreases. Through the evaluation of existing plans, it is found that the urban planning of Shenzhen has played an important role in reconstructing the urban spatial structure and guiding the formation and development of the urban sub-center system outside the special zone.

Feihu Liu

Transformation and Spatial Evolution of Industrial Land in the Process of Urban Renewal in Shenzhen, China

With the continuous development of urbanization in China, megacities have entered the stage of urban renewal. In the process of continuous extension and expansion of the city, the edge distribution of the early old industrial areas has gradually evolved into the central area of the modern city. There is a huge contrast between the superior location conditions and inefficient land use, which makes the old industrial land become the most valuable stock zone. A spatial perspective is adopted to investigate the industrial land transformation, which is important to evaluate the spatial impacts of urban renewal yet has been rarely studied in existing literatures. Based on the urban renewal project planning data of old industrial zone from 2010 to 2018, this paper analyzes the function transformation and spatial pattern of old industrial land in Shenzhen. The research shows that the local reform on urban renewal system towards marketization has greatly promoted the industrial land transformation. The development of real estate market, the upgrading of industrial structure, and the strategic demand for intensive development of industrial land are the important factors that affect the transformation. Urban renewal has led to a sharp reduction in the scale of the old industrial land, and commercial and residential space and new industrial space are the main directions of the transformation of old industrial land. Under the innovative “urban renewal unit” system framework of Shenzhen, the redevelopment of old industrial zones have also contributed a lot of land for public facilities to local governments. The planned new industrial space is mainly located in the city center, while the new commercial and residential space gradually moves to the suburban areas. To achieve more sustainable urban development, more attention should be paid to balance the demand for industrial space and the erosion of the industrial space driven by property-led redevelopment in the urban renewal process.

Ke Chen, Yani Lai, Weiming Luo

Analysis of the Coordination Degree of the Construction Waste Recycling Policy Among Different Stakeholders

With the acceleration of the urbanization process, the continuous demolition of old buildings and the start of new projects in China, more and more attention have been paid to the negative impact on the environment exerted by a large number of construction waste. In recent years, the state and some local governments have successively issued policies on waste from construction and demolition. Although the main components of waste have recycling potential, the recycling rate in 2017 was only 5%. These measures can only be made full use if they are highly recognized by society. However, the effectiveness of the relevant policies is currently unknown. This article evaluates the current construction waste recycling policies from three different stakeholders: the government, enterprises, and universities. The coordination degree between three different stakeholders reflects the effectiveness of the policy. 158 online questionnaires were distributed, of which including 19 measures, and 132 valid responses were received. After sorting out the collected questionnaire data and importing it into the SPSS software, using the Kruskal–Wallis H test method, analyzed the coordination degree of the government, enterprises and universities on the same measure and their differences (expressed by P). The study results show that there are differences in the degree of recognition of the same measure between different stakeholders, which may be caused by the different nature of work. There are two “good coordinated measures”, which are “50% reduction in value-added tax” and “establishment Recycling quality standards”; 8 items are “moderate coordination”, including “achieve source emission reduction”, “land preferential use”, “information platform construction”, etc. There are 9 items that are “poor coordination”, including “establish classification standards”, “Who generates who pays”, “Regular release of resource utilization product price information”, etc. This study can provide a reference for improving the efficiency of construction waste resource management.

Zhiyu Huang, Hong Lang, Mingxue Ma

Determinants of Regional Economic Resilience in the Context of Global Depression: A Case Study of the Pearl River Delta, China

As economic globalization is deepened, the Pearl River Delta region is facing increasingly complex internal and external disturbance. In the context of global depression, this paper introduces the concept of “economic resilience” in order to understand the capability of the leading regions in the economic development of China to withstand the impacts of uncertainty. In this paper, it conducts quantitative analysis and qualitative explanation to the determinations of economic resilience of the Pearl River Delta region by using the fixed effects regression model. The results show that: ① The stronger unrelated variety and higher levels of regional innovation that a region has, the easier it will be to reduce or even eliminate the losses caused by the economic crisis; ② The regions with strong related variety, large scale of export base, a high proportion of regional fiscal expenditures, and a high ratio of SMEs have lower capabilities to resist economic risks and are more susceptible to crisis interference. Therefore, the government should focus on diversified industrial development and promote industrial transformation and upgrading; encourage innovation and increase investment in scientific research and development; optimize the structure of fiscal expenditures and improve the incentive mechanism of consumption to expand domestic demands; increase support for SMEs and avoid the losses caused by the economic crisis to SMEs.

Hanying Wang, Botong Song

Accessing Australia-China Supply Chains by Australian Home Builders

Along with the development of international trade and the increasing benefits of global sourcing, the Australian construction industry has started sourcing more products overseas, especially from China. The potential of sourcing from China has been recognised since the middle 1980s and trade between China and Australia has increased significantly. This study aims to examine the trade in building products between China and Australia. The objectives are to identify the specific products that are imported from China for use in the residential building sector in Australia. Building products such as steel, windows, tiles, joinery and sanitary wares are often procured in large quantities from China for the residential sector. Using data from 4 case studies, we determine that the main motivation for Australian builders to purchase increasing quantities of products is the lower prices that can be obtained from suppliers in China leading to both higher profits for these builders and lower building costs for home buyers. We will also discuss the risks for offshore supply especially in light of the increasing trade tensions and the recent disruptions cause by the pandemic.

Jinyun Liu, Toong Khuan Chan, Hao Hu

A Review of the Research on the Life Cycle Energy of Buildings Using Science Mapping

Building energy consumption is the main contributor to the total energy consumption, which has an increasing impact on the environment. A systematic and comprehensive life cycle perspective assessment of building energy is crucial to maintaining project sustainability. Building energy analysis from life cycle perspective has been increasingly favoured by scholars. However, contents and links of many literatures have not been summarized, and there is a lack of systematic literature research. This review-based study adopted a three-step workflow consisting of bibliometric literature search, science mapping (keywords analysis), and systematic discussion to mining the recent decade’s research of life cycle energy of buildings (LCE-B). Keywords analysis revealed the emerging research topics, such as Environmental impact, BIM, nZEBs and passive houses. A follow-up systematic discussion summarised mainstream research topics (e.g. trade-off between operating energy and embodied energy), discusses existing research gaps (e.g. stakeholder factors) and identified future research directions. This study helps scholars obtain an in-depth understanding of state-of-the-art LCE-B research, providing a comprehensive knowledge framework and allowing linkages on the current research field to future research trends.

Xulu Lai, Clyde Zhengdao Li, Limei Zhang, Yiyu Zhao, Zhe Chen, Shanyang Li

Research on the Competitive Mechanism Between Long-Term Rental Apartment and Traditional House Rental from the Perspective of Game Theory

After our country has repeatedly issued favorable policies on housing rental, long-term rental apartments have emerged at the current development of sharing economy. Long-term rental apartments have so many advantages traditional housing rental does not have that it is favored by the young generation. Although the permeability of long-term rental apartments is still relatively low compared with traditional house rental in the market, to a certain extent, the former affects the interests of the latter. The industry is increasingly divided. The emergence of “oligopoly” with strong comprehensive strength has become a new trend in the industry. Therefore, the emergence and development of long-term rental apartments will occupy the traditional housing rental market share. Based on the comparative analysis of their business models and rental prices, this paper establishes the dynamic game model of both in the long rent real estate market and the return equilibrium solution of the game is obtained by inverse induction. In this theory, this paper puts forward the competitive strategy of long-term rental apartments in the future real estate storage quantity market to make an effective balance between the steady operation of leasing and scale expansion.

Hui Liu

Scientific Mapping Analysis of Environmental Impacts of Construction and Demolition Waste

The environmental impacts of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) has become a serious problem all over the world. As a result, researches related with the environmental impacts of C&D waste have been significant increased during the past decades. However, a systematic review on the research trend of environmental impacts in the domain of C&D waste is lacking. Based on a selection of 111 articles related to the environmental impacts of C&D waste, this review-based study adopted scientific mapping methods to evaluating the recent decade’s C&D waste environmental impacts research. Through a three-step workflow of bibliometric literature search, scientometric analysis and qualitative discussion, this review identified the most influential journals, authors, articles, and countries in C&D waste environmental impacts studies from 2010 to 2019. Keywords analysis revealed the most concerned research topics of existing scholars, e.g. LCA, recycled aggregates, recycling. This paper provides the overall situation of C&D waste environmental impacts research in 2010–2019, and provides multi-disciplinary guidance for practitioners and researchers to link current research fields with future trends.

Kunyang Chen, Jiayuan Wang, Jingrong Zhang, Bo Yu

A Review on the Driving Factors of Green Building Development Based on Subjective Attitude

In recent years, green buildings have gradually become popular to minimize the negative impact of the construction industry on the environment, economy and society. In order to encourage the widespread adoption of green buildings, it is necessary to have a better understanding of the driving factors for achieving GB. And more and more studies have shown that people’s subjective attitudes play a vital role in the development of green buildings. Through a systematic review of existing literature, the driving factors that influence the development of green buildings based on subjective attitudes are comprehensively sorted out. Based on the identified sources, we divide these driving factors into two categories: external driving factors and internal driving factors. The external driving factors include stakeholder wishes, GB reputation, GB ecological value, GB economic value, etc., and internal driving factors include moral responsibility and reputation image. Based on the summary of the existing research results, the future research direction is proposed. The research results can provide beneficial reference for researchers to fully understand the current research work and provide convenience for further research in this field. Discussion of GB drivers will also allow governments and developers to better understand and implement THE GB project, thereby reducing the difficulty of implementation.

Shenghan Li, Yulin Wu

A Holistic Review of the Emerging Advanced Technologies in Prefabricated Construction Management

Emerging advanced technologies (EAT) have been regarded as significant technological innovation which will greatly help transform the construction industry and they have been adopted widely in the prefabricated construction. As the research on emerging advanced technologies in the management of prefabricated construction (MPC) has not been involved, various researchers require a state-of-the-art summary of EAT research and implementation in the MPC field. The purpose of this paper is to provide an objective and systematic summary of advance EAT by analyzing published EAT research in 10 leading journals during period from 2009 to 2019 in terms of the annual number of EAT papers, contributions of authors and countries, and research interest. Through a thorough review of selected papers from the state-of-the-art academic journals in the construction industry, the EAT research in the MPC field is reviewed and summarized. This study is of value in offering useful and original insights to summarize the advance status quo of EAT knowledge, helping researchers in related fields gain an in-depth understanding of underlying structure of EAT in the MPC and allow them to continue from the findings of studies.

Clyde Zhengdao Li, Mingcong Hu, Yiyu Zhao, Zhe Chen, Meiqin Xiong, Zhenchao Guo

A Review on Indoor Thermal Comfort Research in Transportation Buildings

Public transportation has become the most practical choice for people for reducing and controlling air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions caused by traffic congestion. However, the high density of people and the poor thermal environment in transportation buildings may affect passenger comfort, travel efficiency, and health. Accordingly, it is recommended to be considered in both building design and planning projects. This paper provides a very careful review of existing thermal comfort research on different types of transport station buildings. Firstly, a wide range of combined keywords in different accredited academic databases were searched. Then, the methods of thermal comfort assessment in transportation buildings, relevant influencing factors and improving solutions were scrutinized. Finally, the shortcomings were discussed and a few useful recommendations for future work are presented for greater improvement.

Zhenxiong Wen, Shenghan Li

Research on the Differentiation Mechanism of Commodity Residential Prices in Shenzhen

Urban house prices and their spatial variation are hot issues of continuous interest to urban geographers in the twenty-first century. Taking each residential district in Shenzhen as the object of the study, using the data of house price points in the community and the data of points of interest related to the living environment, we reveal the specific influence and spatial differences of the living environment on the house price through the quantitative analysis of geographically weighted regression from the two aspects of house price differences and their influencing factors. The results show that the house prices in Shenzhen are gradually decreasing in the east–west direction from Nanshan District and Futian District to the east, and in the north–south direction from Nanshan District and Futian District to the north; the average price of the ordinary residential community in Shenzhen shows obvious spatial differences, and high house prices are mainly distributed in the city center, near subway stations and high-grade closed communities. The spatial differentiation of housing prices is a structural manifestation and market-oriented response to the socio-spatial differentiation of cities, as well as a comprehensive reflection of the differences in the ability of cities to dispose of resources.

Zhuoyuan Chen, Botong Song

Characterizing the Generation of Building Interior Decoration Waste: A Case Study in Guangzhou City

China has been striving to urbanize in recent years. Accordingly, decoration waste is triggering an enormous challenge to green development if effective management hardly adopted. Authentic statistics or accurate estimation of decoration waste generation can play crucial roles in handle this problem. This study takes Guangzhou city as an example, is designed to understand the generation and flows of decoration waste. The results show that a total of approximately 1.6 million metric tons of decoration waste generated from newly built residential and public buildings in Guangzhou city over the past two decades, and this amount has kept fast growth. Concrete waste and brick account for 78% of the total decoration waste. Moreover, the study found that the total recovery rate of newly-built decoration waste in Guangzhou in 2018 is only 8.6%. Increasing the recovery rate of decoration waste and decreasing the landfill rate can increase the potential economic value of recycling and significantly reduce the land use and potential environmental impact.

Jiajia Wang, Huabo Duan

A Systematic Design Approach for the Innovation of Supply Chain Resilience of Prefabrication

Prefabrication has been widely deployed as an integral part in the intelligent construction, of which prefabrication supply chain resilience (SCR) will play a significant role. However, when an emergency [e.g., the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19)] occurs, prefabrication’s life-cycle management will be seriously threatened. Besides, there exists efficiency and interaction challenges such as schedule delays, invisible progress, and fragmented information transmission. This article aims at developing an intelligent platform based on inclusive technologies, incorporating blockchain, building information modeling (BIM), and Internet of Things (IoT) to facilitate the real-time management of prefabrication supply chain. Specifically, from the perspective of stakeholders, this platform not only shares real-time interactive information management and control but also provides reliable support for decision making. As far as potential security issues are concerned, a blockchain framework is proposed to reveal how it helps to guarantee the reliability and authenticity of the entire supply chain. Under this platform, a case study in Shenzhen is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the platform. With the guarantee of interactive efficiency and data reliability, the prefabrication supply chain is considered to be more resilient to disruptions.

Clyde Zhengdao Li, Zhe Chen, Yiyu Zhao, Xulu Lai

Performance Assessments of Clustering-Based Methods for Smart Data-Driven Building Energy Anomaly Diagnosis

The wide adoption of building automation system has collected massive amounts of building operational data, which are of great value to facilitate the decision-making of building professionals. In the past few years, many data-driven approaches have been proposed for building energy anomaly diagnosis. Existing studies mainly utilized clustering analysis as the analytical tool as it can be applied with little prior knowledge. One of the most challenging problems is the performance assessment of clustering-based methods for building energy anomaly diagnosis, as there is no ground truth for validations. This study aims to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of different clustering algorithms in building energy anomaly diagnosis. To ensure the research validity and generalization performance, building energy data from 10 primary schools have been adopted for analysis. Manual labeling has been conducted to provide ground truths on building energy anomalies. A number of data-driven methods have been proposed for identifying daily energy anomalies using different feature extraction and clustering methods. The method effectiveness has been tested using the manually labeled data. This study helps to quantify the value of clustering-based methods in building energy anomaly diagnosis. The research outcomes are beneficial for the development of data-driven methods for smart building energy management.

Yan Yu, Cheng Fan, Jiayuan Wang

A Deep Recurrent Neural Network-Based Method for Automated Building System Fault Diagnosis

Faults in building system operations typically result in building functionality degradations and considerable energy wastes. Conventional approaches mainly rely on domain expertise and engineering experiences for decision makings, which are neither efficient and effective considering the great varieties in individual building system configurations and operating conditions. The wide existence of building operational data has provided ideal platform to develop data-driven approaches for building system fault diagnosis. Such approaches are capable of conducting accurate, automated and in-time controls over building systems and therefore, has drawn increasing attentions from both academia and building professionals. Existing studies mainly treated building operational data as cross-sectional data for developing fault diagnosis methods, while ignoring the temporal dependencies among building variables. To enhance the fault diagnosis performance, it is essential to explore the intrinsic temporal relationships in building operational data. Therefore, this study proposes a deep recurrent neural network-based methodology for building system fault diagnosis. The methodology has been validated using experimental data on building chiller systems. The results indicate that deep recurrent models can achieve an accuracy of at least 95% for seven typical faults in chiller systems. The research outcomes are helpful for enriching analytic tools for building system fault diagnosis.

Yichen Liu, Xinghua Wang, Cheng Fan, Bufu Huang, Jiayuan Wang

Automated Evaluation of Indoor Dimensional Tolerance Compliance Using the TLS Data and BIM

As commercial residential building prices are getting increasingly expensive, whether the dimensions of building components to be delivered conforms to the design codes is significantly important to the owner. However, the current dimension assessment is still manually conducted with field measurement, which is error-prone and time-consuming. To improve the assessment efficiency and accuracy, this study presents an automated geometric quality assessment technique which measures the dimensions of indoor components by means of the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The point cloud data obtained by the TLS is reversely reconstructed into a three-dimensional model, representing as-built model of the building. Building information model (BIM) stores rich geometric information, which represents as-designed model of the building. Then, “Scan-vs-BIM” systems, which are based on comparing the as-built point cloud model with as-designed BIM models, can effectively detect the dimension discrepancy of indoor components and provide decision-making basis for the local detection. Experiments using the commercial residential building are conducted and the result that the presented method can effectively and accurately evaluate the building dimensional tolerance compliance.

Dongdong Tang, Shenghan Li, Qian Wang, Silin Li, Ruying Cai, Yi Tan

A Review of the Application of CNN-Based Computer Vision in Civil Infrastructure Maintenance

Computer-vision and deep-learning techniques are being increasingly applied to the maintenance of civil infrastructure, such as inspecting, monitoring, and assessing infrastructure conditions, which overcome time-consuming and laborious compared with traditional technology. In this paper, the research progress of deep learning, the developments of convolutional neural network (CNN)-based computer vision in improving accuracy, reliability and generalized object detection capability and its application in civil infrastructure maintenance are reviewed. The main objectives are as follows: (1) clarify the application of deep learning in computer vision to help researchers systematically understand deep learning; (2) review the application of computer vision in civil infrastructure maintenance to help researchers pay more attention to its advantages; (3) encourage relevant personnel to use this research as a reference, take deep learning as an important method at the forefront of engineering management, generate more innovations in the construction field, and promote the development of the construction industry.

Ruying Cai, Jingru Li, Geng Li, Dongdong Tang, Yi Tan

The Uses of Social Network Analysis in the Field of Engineering Construction Management: A Review of the Literature

A bibliometric analysis of related publications on the uses of social network analysis in the field of engineering construction management is reported in this study in order to depict existing research activities and to identify future directions in this research field. These publications were retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. There is a notable growth associated with the body of knowledge on he uses of social network analysis in the field of engineering construction management. From the 513 retrieved literatures, 98 related literatures related to the uses of social network analysis in the field of engineering construction management were selected through reading abstracts for research and analysis. Through the comprehensive analysis of key words and related literature, it can be found that the application of social network analysis in the field of engineering construction management is mainly studied from the perspectives of stakeholders, construction projects and workers. The content of these publications mainly focuses on relationship among stakeholders, project risk research, information sharing among organizations, multi-agent collaborative management, information sharing and knowledge exchange among workers. These findings help to identify hotspots in the uses of social network analysis in the field of engineering construction management research. In addition, this study also puts forward the future research direction of the uses of social network analysis in the field of engineering construction management in order to provide reference for the research in the field of engineering construction management.

Qingshan Hao

Research on Environmental Benefits of Prefabricated Buildings—A Literature Review Method

Taking the topics related to prefabricated buildings in the core collection of Web of Science as the document source, the literature data of prefabricated buildings is exported through Web of Science, and Citespace analysis software is used to measure and visualize the literature data. Meanwhile, literature research on environmental benefits of prefabricated buildings is carried out. This paper summarizes the general trend of prefabricated buildings research in the past 10 years, and analyzes the early and recent concerns of prefabricated buildings. On this basis, combined with the relevant research literature on environmental benefits of prefabricated buildings in recent years, this paper summarizes the specific impact of prefabricated buildings on the environment, the energy conservation and emission reduction schemes of prefabricated buildings and the research methods of environmental benefits of prefabricated buildings, and analyzes the key research directions in this field in the future.

Zikui Yuan, Jiayuan Wang

Influencing Factors of Farmers’ Risk Perception on Returning Their Lands: Evidence from Chongqing, China

The purpose of this paper is to explore the risk perception and its influencing factors of farmers to return their lands in China. We use Ordered Probit Model to examine this topic based on primary data in Chongqing. Our finding indicates that (1) From the risk perception of homestead return: famers’ age, whether major family members settle in city, expectation of life quality after returning lands, trust of land-returning policy have a significant and negative impact on risk perception of famers’ returning. Meanwhile, stable residence lost after returning lands, unable to have enough compensation after returning lands have a significant and positive impact on the risk perception of farmers’ returning homestead (2) From the risk conception of contracted farmlands return: farmers, whether the family has a stable non-agricultural income, whether major family members have the new rural social pension insurance, expectation of life quality after returning lands, trust of land-returning policy have a significant and negative impact on the risk perception of farmers returning contracted farmlands. Meanwhile, variables unable to have stable employment for livelihood after returning lands, unable to have expenditure for pension and medical treatment after returning lands, unable to have enough compensation after returning lands have a significant and positive impact on the dependent variable the risk perception of farmers returning contracted farmlands.

Zhaolin Wang

Review on Building Energy Performance Labeling: Whole Life-Cycle Perspective

Building energy performance labeling is an important tool for countries around the world to carry out building energy conservation work. More attention should be paid to the development of building energy performance labeling for China, which has huge energy-saving potential. However, there is currently a lack of reflectiveness and summery on the research and development of building energy performance labeling. Therefore, a systematic literature review method and bibliometric statistical tool are used to analyze the current status, trends, and gaps. Through a review of 162 articles from 2007 to 2020, the focuses of the research on building energy performance labeling have been summarized from four perspectives: design, decision-making, evaluation, control and feedback. Future research directions and feasible improvement directions are also provided. Considering the environment, people, technology, and process management aspects, this paper generalized the reasons why the development of energy performance labeling in China is slow and proposed targeted solutions as references for further theoretical and practical research.

Fenglian Yi, Jiayuan Wang

Research on Green Evaluation of Mountainous Highway Construction

In the construction process of mountainous highways, it will exert greater pressure on the environment, consume resources, change the topography and landform, and bring about various pollutions, which are more and more valued and developed. The problem should be solved in the green evaluation of mountainous highway projects construction, which is how to discover the pollution in the construction process of mountainous highway projects and analyze them to further solve the pollution problems and effectively reduce resource consumption and environmental pollution. Scientific and objective evaluation of the construction system is an important part of the research on highway construction systems. In response to the above problems, people have introduced the concept of “green construction” in the construction field. As a result, this study aims to analyze the ecological environment of mountainous highways in the construction period and construct the highway green construction evaluation model. To obtain this goals, the concept and characteristics of green construction of mountainous highways is combined. Four impacts are analyzed including green construction environment, energy and resources conservation, construction technology management. Introducing self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network method, a highway green construction evaluation model is constructed. Lastly, a detailed case study was conducted to verify the empirical findings. The evaluation results are compared with the fuzzy comprehensiveness evaluation results, which show that green construction evaluation of mountain highway projects is good and consistent with the actual situation. The method provides a new way to objectively evaluate green construction evaluation of mountain highway projects. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by green evaluation of mountainous highway construction. In addition to that, the findings of this study can be used to improve construction management plans and select green construction technologies. The results can also provide a theoretical support for the mountainous highway construction green management.

Xiao-juan Li, Lu-lu Li

Innovation Input–Output Decoupling and Efficiency in Urbanized Area: Evidence from 153 Counties in the Yangtze River Delta, China

Innovation input and output and their relations in urbanized area plays an essential role in the improvement of national innovation capability. This paper explores the comprehensive level, decoupling type and relative efficiency of counties’ innovation input–output (I-O) of 153 counties (county-level cities) in the Yangtze River Delta, where has achieved the highest level of urbanization in China. The results show that: (1) The comprehensive level of counties’ innovation I-O presents a “pyramid” structure, which means few counties are at a high level while the majority counties stand in a low level. With regard to three provinces, Jiangsu is higher than Zhejiang than Anhui. (2) Over 80% of counties hold significant decoupling, in which nearly 40% belong to the negative decoupling type. They mainly distributed in Jiangsu, northern Zhejiang and northwestern Anhui, which the intensity of innovation output is relatively lower than the scale of input. (3) Around 20% of the counties’ innovation I-O are SBM efficiency with positive decoupling areas show higher innovation efficiency.

Zihan Cui, Guijun Li, Yulong Li

Construction of an Engineering Construction Quality Traceability System Based on the Internet of Things and Block-chain

Due to the urgent problems in the quality traceability of engineering construction, in this paper, we analyze the compatibility between the Internet of things technology, the Block-chain technology and engineering construction quality traceability requirements, and put forward the idea of constructing the whole process quality traceability system framework based on the Internet of things and Block-chain technology, design the overall system architecture, traceability process and query mechanism. Then, he effectiveness and usability of the system are evaluated by relevant professionals. Finally, the advantages of the system are analyzed by comparing with the traditional engineering management mode. The construction of engineering construction quality traceability system based on Internet of things and Block-chain technology can provide solutions for solving the whole process quality quality problem traceability, promote the solution of internal trust and supervision problems in engineering construction industry, and the innovation and development of engineering field.

Tao Li, Xiaoli Yan, Yingping Wu

The Impact of Industrial and Residential Land Supply Ratio on Economic Growth

The purpose of this paper is to optimize and adjust the proportion of industrial and residential land supply to promote sustainable economic growth in China under the condition that the total scale of industrial and residential land supply remains the same. Research methods: In this paper, panel data of industrial and residential land from 2006 to 2016 in 282 prefecture-level cities in China were selected and the ratio of the two was incorporated into CD production function to establish a regression model. Firstly, OLS estimation was carried out without considering spatial autocorrelation to investigate the influence of the proportion of the two types of land on economic growth. Then, OLS estimation residues are tested for spatial correlation. If there is significant spatial autocorrelation, a spatial regression model with spatial correlation is needed for estimation. Finally, geographical weighted regression model is used to analyze the spatial and temporal differences of proportional effect. Research results: The proportion of industrial and residential land supply has significant temporal and spatial difference in promoting the economic growth; Under the condition that the total scale of industrial and residential land remains the same, increasing the proportion of industrial and residential land supply has a promoting effect on China's economic growth. However, the number of cities playing a promoting role is decreasing, while the number of cities playing a restraining role is increasing. Moreover, the degree of influence is becoming smaller and less significant.

Xu Yang, Rong-ping Hu

The Analysis of Second-Hand Housing Prices in Jiangmen City, Based on Semi-structured Interview and Hedonic Model

The soaring housing prices in Chinese cities have aroused wide concern from all walks of life. The limited land resources for real estate development make the demand for second-hand housing increase day by day, and second-hand housing has gradually become an important part of the real estate market. First of all, through semi-structured interviews, this paper analyzes the relationship between the price of second-hand housing in Jiangmen and its micro-attributes from the perspective of consumers and real estate agents. Then, by integrating the open data of and Baidu map POI, this paper establishes a Hedonic model to further confirm that the architectural characteristics, location characteristics and neighborhood characteristics of second-hand housing have a significant impact on its price. Among these factors, the year of construction, the degree of decoration, whether there is an elevator, the proximity to the school, and the proximity to the business district have significant positive impact on the price of second-hand housing. The factors of floor and floor area have a significant negative impact on the price of second-hand housing.

Jiajing Liao

An Application Mechanism of Automated Construction Drawing Review on BIM-Based

With the development of China's economy, the construction industry has become one of the important pillar industries supporting the national economy. In the process of industry development, construction drawing review is an important means to improve and guarantee the survey and design quality of construction projects, and to safeguard public interests and public safety. But now the drawing review work is still mainly done manually. The level and quality of drawing review personnel are uneven, and the understanding of the normative provisions cannot be completely consistent, resulting in inefficient omissions and human manipulation in the drawing review work. In order to adapt to the development of the times and realize the intelligent transformation of the industry, the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology for automated drawing review is an extremely important development direction for future construction drawing review. Based on the introduction of a reasonable drawing review information database and the standard clauses of parametric design specifications, this paper standardizes the BIM model of design drawings and extracts information, and realizes the compliance review of the BIM model of design drawings. Further, a reasonable process for automated drawing review was formed, and a smart drawing review application mechanism based on BIM technology was finally constructed. Based on case studies, this paper analyzes the application mechanism of intelligent drawing review, and improves the comprehensiveness and precision of construction drawing review. It points out the direction for the development of smart drawing review and conforms to the development trend of smart construction in the construction industry.

Yufan Zhang, Libing Lin, Yong Zhao, Weijun Jiang, Diewei Xuan, Jiaen Lu, Yu Xie, Sinan Liang

Research on the Node Importance of Urban Rail Transit Network from the Perspective of Complex Network Theory

With the rapid development of urban rail transit in China, how to make sure the safe operation of the urban rail transit system has been widely concerned. However, as a typical network structure, urban rail transit is composed of multiple stations. The importance of different sites on the whole network is also different. It is essential for the safe operation of the whole network by managing the significant stations. Therefore, this paper firstly uses the method of space L to establish the topological structure of the rail transit network. Secondly, based on the complex network theory, the five indicators—degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, passenger flow centrality and node property are used to evaluate the node importance of urban rail transit on the network. And then, an integrated model is used to identify the relative importance of nodes in urban rail transit. Finally, the case study is carried out in combination with China Chongqing Rail transit Line 3, which has important significance for the optimization of the urban rail transit network.

Min Luo, Liudan Jiao, Yinghan Zhu, Yu Zhang, Xiangnan Song

Community’s Interest in Brownfield Development: A Case in Melbourne

Brownfield developments may be theoretically and practically approached as the method and process to convert previous industrial land with environmental concern that mitigates problem occurs in the urbanisation processes. Given rapid urban growth and land supply constraint, urban brownfield is becoming attractive to developers and local government. Along with research focus on developer and planner’s perspectives, this paper investigates local community’s involvement in and its impact on brownfield developments. Local community suffers cost and risk associate with brownfield development which can be easily discounted or even ignored in development phases. It is important to understand community’s concerns, involvement and impacts. A brownfield project from Melbourne is studied by questionnaire surveys and face-to-face interviews. The local community confirms their awareness of the project although their involvement is low because many claimed their lack of in-depth knowledge of project effects. Obstructions and lack of motivation at local community level in brownfield development impose policy challenge and social risk.

Xuqing Li, Hao Wu, Huiying Hou

An Investigation on Office-Based Workplace Modification During the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Netherlands

This study sheds light on the office workplace environment and aims to investigate how organisations respond to the forces from the external environment (impact by COVID-19 pandemic) and how they modify their office workplace management strategically and operationally to suit the stakeholders’ needs and future development in the post COVID-19 period. A desktop study was conducted to provide the framework for the in-depth interviews with five corporate real estate managers and three workplace consultants. Thematic analysis including coding technique was adopted to analyse the qualitative data. The findings show that, during COVID-19 pandemic, most of the intended and implemented office workplace modifications are mainly related to two types of risk control: administrative control and personal protection. The environment control approach, such as modifying the building systems or redesigning the office area, has rarely been adopted in office workplace management during the COVID-19 pandemic so far. At a strategic level, organisations react to the external force by re-modelling their business and working towards to re-orient their corporate real estate strategies, such as portfolio transformation, agile portfolio strategies and redesign of the office workplace, etc. It is foreseen that office workplace management will encounter other challenges due to the uncertainties of the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of this study provide a practical lens to look at the future changes of office workplace environment.

Cynthia (Huiying) Hou, Hilde Remøy, Tuuli Jylhä, Herman Vande Putte

The Coupling Coordination Research between Urban Competitiveness and Real Estate Industry in Shenzhen

In this article, the comprehensive evaluation index of urban competitiveness and real estate development level of Shenzhen is constructed by combining principal component analysis and rank sum ratio comprehensive evaluation method. And then, the correlation between the two is analyzed through the linear regression model, and the coupling coordination model of the urban competitiveness and real estate development level of Shenzhen is built to analyze the coupling coordination evolution process of the two from 2009 to 2018. Based on the GM(1,1) grey prediction model, the coupling coordination relationship between the urban competitiveness and the development level of real estate industry is predicted in Shenzhen in 2019–2023. The research shows that the coupling between the development level of urban competitiveness and the development level of real estate industry in Shenzhen tends to be stable from 2009, and the coupling coordination degree of the two also increases gradually with the time going by, and the development level of urban competitiveness and the development level of the real estate industry in Shenzhen will develop towards high quality coupling coordination in 2019–2023.

Qi Gao

A New Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the Social Capital of Construction Project Teams

Team social capital plays a key role in positively affecting team performance. The construction project team is established temporarily to better achieve project targets, and the establishment and acquisition of its social capital became difficult in the process of construction because of the temporary characteristics. In the early stage of project construction, the construction project team often has a lot of implicit social capital which cannot be effectively utilized. Based on the Johari Window model in the cognitive psychology field, we propose a new model of construction project team’s social capital and divide the dimensions of a construction team’s social capital from a dynamic perspective, namely explicit social capital, private social capital, unknown social capital, and blind social capital. This paper explains the connotation of each type of social capital of the construction teams and discusses the strategies to transform the implicit social capital to explicit social capital, to provide the theoretical foundation and practical guidance for the establishment and cultivation of social capital in actual construction projects.

Yanqing Fang, Shuquan Li, Emmanuel Itodo Daniel

Making Sense of ‘Project Management’—Chinese Contractors’ Perspective

Despite the phenomenal growth of attention on project management in the Chinese construction sector, exploration of ground practices related project management is still lacking. The broader context is provided by introduction of marketization of the Chinese construction sector since 1978. What is notably absent in existing literature is understandings of practitioners’ responses to the introduced project management policy. The reported research adopts a sensemaking perspective to understand how Chinese practising managers enact to project management, bridging the macro-level policy announcement and micro process of practising managers’ enactment. Three contracting firms in Chongqing city region in South West China were selected as cases to study practising managers’ enactment to project management. It has been found that Chinese contracting firms establish their organizational identity of ‘general contractor’ which resulted large scale of layoff and redefined the relationship between management staff and construction labours as subcontracting. ‘Project manager’ has been established as an important professional role in construction management practices, although decision making rights about selecting subcontractors and suppliers are decentred into headquarters of contracting firms. The findings illustrate how practitioners’ enactment to ‘project management’ has resulted a complex plethora of hybrid practices, shaping and are shaped by the broader Chinese construction context.

Beibei Qin

Building Materials Supply Process Reengineering Under the Background of Blockchain Technology

There is a good foundation in the field of blockchain research in China, and it is necessary to accelerate the development of blockchain technology and industrial innovation. In order to better complete the combined application of blockchain technology in the field of construction research, working from the perspective of building materials supply in the construction industrialization, after screening with the the method of “Classification Analysis” and “Comparative Analysis”, the technologies that can be integrated with the traditional supply process under the background of blockchain technology are the “Supply Chain”, “Smart Contract” and “Internet of things". During process reengineering, the first step is to complete the digital transformation of the supply process; the second step is to integrate the blockchain technology to update the data storage management mode and change the user transaction information interaction form in each stage of the process. Finally, through the application,the building materials supply process model under the background of blockchain technology is obtained, and the process reengineering is completed.

Liyan Qiao, Zhongyi Cheng, Yuejun Liu

Safety Management Model of Construction Project Based on the Cooperation Between Owner and Contractor

In addition to the contractor's own inadequate safety management ability, a very important reason for the frequent occurrence of injuries and fatalities in project construction lies in the owner's lack of participation and support for the construction process. This paper analyzes the attributes of both owners and contractors and their game relationships and behavioral choices in project safety management, and based on the problems of owners and contractors in production safety management, it proposes a model in which owners and contractors are jointly committed to project safety management, which takes the safety management manuals, procedural documents and operating instructions jointly prepared before the start of construction as a model in which owners and contractors jointly implement safety management basis, by clarifying the respective safety responsibilities and obligations of the two parties, and regulating the safety management behavior of the owner and the contractor in the construction process, thereby reducing the differences between the two parties on safety issues in the project construction process, and exerting the respective advantages of the two parties to effectively prevent and control project injuries and fatalities.

Yuxuan Lu, Dan Zhang, Dawei Chen

Construction Safety Supervision: Target, Strategy and Top-Level Design

In order to solve the problems of vague objectives and Strategies of China's construction safety supervision, and the unreasonable distribution of main body responsibility, etc., analyzes the particularity of construction safety supervision from the production nature and industrial characteristics, and studies the target location and strategy selection of government construction safety supervision. while according to analyzes the existing problems of construction safety supervision, policy suggestions of systematic reform and innovation is put forward based on the logical path of top- level design from the legal system, system and mechanism aspects.

Dan Zhang, Yuxuan Lu, Dawei Chen

Scientometric Analysis and Scientific Trends on Land Trust

Modern land protection and biodiversity conservation depend greatly on the application of land trust. With the accelerated development of land trust organizations, the land trust has become the most effective land conservation method. To draw and analyze the current status of the research on the field of the land trust, we conduct the cluster analysis of co-citation and keywords co-occupation, and comb the evolution of international land trust research from 1990 to 2019. This article collected 1341 related documents included in the “Web of Science” database as the basic data for analysis, combined with bibliometrics method and visualization software to find out the landmark literature with high burst value, and study literature co-citation clusters in the network map. The results show that the main subject of collected literatures is related to ecology and environment. The hotspots of international land trust mainly cover four aspects: conserving private land by conservation easements, impact and response to climate change, collaborative governance, and community land trust (CLT). It is found that the land trust research has formed a clear co-citation cluster differentiation. By analyzing and sorting out the landmark literatures and hotspots in the field of the land trust, the purpose of this study is to provide researchers with more reference for research implementation.

Mingfeng Li, Chuan Yang, Lei Zhang

Study on the Factors Influencing the Satisfaction of Farm Household Land Trust Circulation—Taking Dengzhou City, Henan Province as an Example

From the perspective of farmers, this paper selects Dengzhou as the research area and explores the factors affecting the satisfaction of land trust circulation by constructing a structural equation model. The results show that the impact of family endowment and external environment on farmers’ satisfaction with land trust circulation is significant at the 5% level. When family endowment and external environment increase by one unit, the satisfaction of land trust circulation will increase by 0.104 and 0.827 units respectively, indicating that family endowment and external environment have a positive effect on improving farmers’ satisfaction with land trust circulation. Therefore, guaranteeing farmers’ rights and interests, increasing farmers’ income, strengthening local environmental governance, supporting facilities construction, and improving farmers’ living conditions are vital to promoting the circulation of land trusts.

Lei Zhang, Mingfeng Li, Chuan Yang

Temporal-Spatial Evolution Characteristics of Urban Land Green Use Efficiency in Urban Agglomerations—A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration

The green use of urban land in urban agglomerations is an important path for the social and economic development of urban agglomerations towards sustainable and integrated development. Take the Yangtze River Delta City Group as an example, using the undesired output super-efficient SBM model to measure the land green use efficiency of 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from 2003 to 2017. On this basis, using kernel density estimation and exploratory spatial data analysis methods to characterize and identify the temporal and spatial pattern evolution characteristics of urban land green use efficiency. The results indicated that: (1) The urban land green utilization efficiency value of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration is on the rise. The average efficiency value has increased from 0.736 in 2003 to 0.773 in 2017, and the number of effective decision-making units has increased from 11 to 13 cities. (2) During the study period, the difference in urban land use efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration evolved toward a magnified trend and evolved from two-level differentiation to single-polarization. The kernel density curves of each province have their shapes and trajectories in position, kurtosis, peak number, and tail. There is a significant positive global spatial autocorrelation of urban land use efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration. The local spatial pattern is dominated by HH and LL, supplemented by LH and HL, and geographical existence of spatial neighboring companion effect and spatial proximity spillover effect, forming a spatial pattern of “urban agglomeration and separation”. According to this, according to regional differences, implement different policies according to different regions and cities; Taking advantage of spatial proximity spillover effects and give play to the cooperative linkage effect of cities in improving the green utilization efficiency of land.

Xi Yang, Jiao Hou, Qingsong Li

Research on the Change of Land Use Agglomeration Based on Kernel Density Estimation and Hot Spot Analysis

The spatial agglomeration of land use is one of the most significant characteristics of the urban regional spatial pattern. It is of great significance to analyze the agglomeration changes to the guidance and management of land resources and the intensive and economical use of land in cities. This paper uses the current land use data of Baoshan District in Shanghai during the second and third national land survey to conduct kernel density estimation and hot spot analysis, and to explore the spatial agglomeration changes of various types of land use through comparison methods. The conclusions of the study show that during the period from the second national land survey to the third national land survey, Baoshan District has a large stock of construction land, commercial land agglomerates in a small area, and traffic land increases. According to the characteristics of different land use, relevant policy recommendations are put forward.

Aijia Zhong, Guang Yang

Analysis of the Impact of Commercial Facilities on Residential Housing Prices—A Case Study of Nanjing

The surrounding commercial supporting factors have consistently been one of the important factors in judging the value of real estate. However, the judgment of commercial supporting factors is not so easy to judge as factors such as rail transit, hospitals, parks. To reflect commercial supporting factors, this article considers Starbucks, which has opened stores in commercial complexes, shopping centers and other high-level commercial service locations, and uses GIS to analyze second-hand housing prices in Nanjing. The results show that the developed commercial supporting areas with Starbucks stores within 1 km of the Nanjing community have a certain effect on the second-hand housing prices of the community, and the second-hand housing prices of the community are also affected by the community’s own factors and other location factors.

Qi Xuan, Guang Yang

The Industrial Linkages of the Real Estate Industry and Its Impact on the Economy Caused by the COVID-19 Pandemic

In Jan 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic appeared and the economies around the world have been affected to different degrees. The real estate industry is influencing the overall trend of the macro-economy due to its important industrial linkages with other sectors. This paper aims to analyze the recently published data of China’s input–output table in 2017 to find out the quantitative relationship between the real estate industry and other industrial sectors through classic Leontief and Ghoshian methods and also uses the hypothetical extraction method to further examine the industrial importance of the real estate industry from the perspective of total output. Finally, according to relevant data of the real estate industry in the first quarter of 2020, this paper estimates the associated losses of economic output.

Xiaoli Shi, Qianju Cheng, Menghan Xia

Analysis on the Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Commercial Outlets in the Main Urban Area of Chongqing Based on POI Data

Commercial outlets are closely related to regional economic development and residents’ daily life. Scientific and reasonable commercial outlets layout plays an important role in promoting regional economic development and improving residents’ living quality. A correct understanding of the spatial distribution characteristics of commercial outlets is conducive to understanding the current situation and trend of commercial development in this region, and to provide reference for the compilation of commercial planning in the future. Based on POI data, this paper analyzes the spatial distribution characteristics of commercial outlets in the main urban area of Chongqing by using the nearest neighbor index method, the kernel density analysis method and hot spot analysis method. The results show that: ① The commercial pattern of Chongqing's main urban area presents a general trend of agglomeration. ② The commercial outlets in the main urban area of Chongqing show a “one-axis multi-core” distribution model and a distribution state of “more in the middle and less in the north–south”. ③ The distribution of commercial outlets in Chongqing shows a trend of “high center-low periphery”. By comparing the model results with the actual situation, it is found that the distribution of existing commercial outlets does not match the distribution of actual demand. Moreover, it is found that the distribution of commercial outlets is closely related to the distribution of traffic routes. Therefore, it is suggested that the distribution of commercial outlets can be guided by planning or adjusting the traffic routes, so as to improve the coordination between the distribution of commercial outlets and the distribution of actual needs.

Xueqin Zhang

Summary of Research on Contract Risk Management of EPC General Contracting Project—Based on VOSviewer Knowledge Graph Analysis

With the improvement of China’s urbanization level and the development of the socialist market economy, the construction engineering industry is also facing new opportunities and challenges. As the most widely used EPC model in the field of engineering contracting, contract risk management is particularly important, not only related to the economic benefits of enterprises, but also has a significant impact on the improvement of the management level of general contractors in China. This article uses 264 articles of important industry journals in the 2016–2020 CNKI database and the Web of science core database as the data source to deeply analyze the research focus and trend of EPC general contracting project contract risk management. The conclusion shows that the research on the contract risk management of EPC general contracting projects has become mature, and the research interest has shown a downward trend in recent years. The research hotspots mainly focus on “EPC project pre-risk management”, “EPC project implementation process risk management” and “Three aspects of risk management in the later stage of EPC projects; the research hotspots of contract risk management of EPC general contracting projects in the future will mainly focus on emerging fields such as “informatization management” and “international engineering projects”. This has certain theoretical guiding significance for guiding EPC project contract risk management, improving construction project profit and improving the management level of China’s engineering enterprises.

Ying Wu

Identification of Spatial Economic Development Model in Chengyu Urban Agglomeration County by Applying Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis

Using the average Night-Time Light Data in the Chengyu Urban Agglomeration County from 2012 to 2019, the spatial weight matrix is defined based on the rook and arc distance contiguity, and the global and local spatial autocorrelation methods in the Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis are used to assess the spatial economic development model of the Chengyu Urban Agglomeration County. The results show that based on rook contiguity, the spatial autocorrelation intensity of the economic development of the Chengyu Urban Agglomeration County can be divided into four ups and downs: in the two phases of 2012–2014 and 2015–2017, the intensity of spatial autocorrelation was on the rise, and the polarization of economic layout was eased; in the two phases of 2014–2015 and 2017–2019, the intensity of spatial autocorrelation was on the decline, the polarization of the economic layout has intensified. Based on the arc distance contiguity, it is preliminarily inferred that the economic impact area of the counties of the Chengyu Urban Agglomeration is about 150 km. Under the two contiguity rules, the economy of the Chengyu Urban Agglomeration County shows a “dual-core” agglomeration development model centered on the downtown area of Chengdu and the main urban area of Chongqing. However, the economic development of other regions needs to be further explored and driven.

Zhenchuan Yang

Exploring the Job Satisfaction of Chinese Construction Professionals

Existing studies showed that the job satisfaction of construction professionals was generally low, and influenced by many factors. But there were few studies focusing on the investigation of construction professionals in China. In this study, the relevant theories were reviewed on the influencing factors of job satisfaction and the moderating effect of demographic factors on job satisfaction, with the aim to evaluate the current situation of job satisfaction of Chinese construction professionals, and to explore the differences of job satisfaction levels among construction professionals with various demographic features. Questionnaire survey was used to collect the perspectives about the job satisfaction from 449 Chinese construction professionals. Statistical analysis results showed that the construction professionals in China generally had a moderate high level of job satisfaction (3.360). The respondents were most satisfied with interpersonal relationship (3.953) and leadership and management (3.745), while they were least satisfied with job-related satisfaction (2.989) and salary and benefit (2.837). There were significant differences in some dimensions of job satisfaction among construction professionals with different backgrounds. This study enriches the job satisfaction research in the field of construction management, and provides valuable theoretical reference for managers in the construction industry to improve employee’s well-being and job performance.

Nan Li, Shang Zhang, Luyao Xing

Research on Cost and Benefit of BIM Application for Construction Enterprises in China

Building Information Modelling (BIM) was considered as an effective management tool in improving construction project performance. However, the research into the investment and return on BIM application in the context of the Chinese construction industry is still very limited. Through literature review, the cost factors and benefit indicators of BIM application in construction enterprises were identified, and an evaluation framework of BIM application cost and benefit for the construction enterprises was developed. The questionnaire survey was conducted with 37 BIM professionals to determine the critical cost factors and benefit indicators of BIM application in construction enterprises through the relative importance index (RII) approach. The results indicate that personnel salary (0.707), hardware cost associated with BIM software operation (0.680) and consulting service fee (0.647) are critical cost factors for BIM application, whereas reduction of change (0.847), improvement of design quality (0.847), and reduction of project rework (0.820) are critical benefit indicators for BIM application. The research results provide a theoretical basis for construction enterprises to formulate BIM development strategies.

Zhenwen Su, Shang Zhang, Xiang Ma

Review of Learning Causal Bayesian Network for Diagnostical Analysis in Construction Resources Management

With the increasing scale and complexity of infrastructure and building projects, construction resources must be managed and utilized to nearly full efficiency to meet the project needs and performance criteria. In recent decades, various computerized resource management systems have been deployed by contractors to keep daily records of resources including labor, material, and equipment, for the purposes of book-keeping and decision support. This paper discusses the learning of causal Bayesian network from data for knowledge acquisition, presentation, and decision support for diagnostic analysis of resources. The most important concept of Bayesian network learning, i.e., Markov blanket and d-separation, is studied for discovering the causal relationships among the decision variables and outcomes from data and then creating the Bayesian network for diagnostic analysis. One application is used to illustrate the Bayesian network learning for failure analysis of construction equipment.

Hongqin Fan, Zhenhua Huang

Examining Waste Generation from Construction Activities of High-Rise Building Projects in India

Economic growth and urbanization in developing countries lead to significant construction activities that generate a huge amount of waste, which is a key problem in various cities. In this regard, managing waste should become an important and integrated task in project execution. This study aims in examining waste generated from construction activities of high-rise residential building projects in Hyderabad, India with focus on two main materials of construction projects: reinforcement bar and concrete. The research follows qualitative approach by using two high-rise residential building as the case studies. Site observations on the activities related to the two materials were carried out. The results of the site observations were used as inputs to interview three project personnel of each case study for clarifications on the observations and to have in-depth exploration and understanding of the observations. The result of each project was presented, and cross-case analysis was conducted to compare similarities and differences on the factors related to the waste generation.

Janardhana Swamy Vegulla, Djoen San Santoso

Research on the Spatiotemporal Expansion of Chongqing Derived from Integrated DMSP-OLS and NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data

In the past few decades, China has been implementing a large-scale urbanization process, and this trend will continue to be maintained in the future decades. However, the temporal and spatial expansion of different cities shows different characteristics. This paper takes Chongqing as the research object as a typical representative of the development of cities in western China. Through the integration of NPP-VIIRS and DMSP-OLS data, a long-term and comparable integrated data set for the research object from 1992 to 2017 is formed. This research further selects the data of 1992, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017 as the research time nodes to explore the spatiotemporal expansion of Chongqing. The findings of the study are as follows: (1) The extent of urban expansion in Chongqing is showing an increasing trend as a whole, but the expansion of the main urban area in Chongqing is the main area, showing the obvious characteristics of “single-core expansion”; other areas have not achieved significant development. (2) The urban expansion of Chongqing showed different characteristics in different time periods, which was mainly affected by policy and national conditions changes. (3) The urban expansion elasticity coefficient in Chongqing is irrational in different stages. (4) The overall spatial distribution of Chongqing generally presents a “southwest-northeast” pattern. And its spatial evolution shows obvious characteristics of expansion first and then contraction with the spatial center of gravity moved to the northeast at the early stages and then to the southwest. The research suggests that Chongqing Municipal Government should pay attention to the construction and development of underdeveloped areas outside the main urban area to enhance the interconnection between different areas and strengthen the hierarchical and organic links between various areas, thus further to continuously improve the level of opening up of the city.

Fangchen Shi

Driving Factors Analysis on Urban Vibrancy: A Case Study of Chongqing Main Area

In line with the rapid urbanization, urban vibrancy has received more attention for it is an important indicator to promote urban sustainable development. However, there are few studies on the driving factors of urban activities in Chongqing from the micro-scale. By using kernel density analysis in ArcGIS and geographic detector tools, this paper investigates the urban vibrancy based on night lighting date and its driving factors in Chongqing main area, China. These driving factors can be divided into three categories, namely land use, transportation services, and public services. The empirical results show that: ① the spatial distribution of urban vibrancy in Chongqing main area presents the characteristics of “multi-core”; ② the differences among these driving factors of urban vibrancy is not significant, among which population density plays the most important role; ③ the effect of driving factors exhibits a synergistic enhancement of any two factors, which indicates that the influence of any two driving factors can further improve the difference of urban vibrancy.

Xi Chen

Quantitative Review of Cross-Regional Mega Infrastructure Operation and Maintenance Management Research

While developing economies has built many mega infrastructure projects that begin to serve the public, developed economies are facing aged mega infrastructure systems, that need better maintenance and management. Many scholars have studied the mega infrastructure operation and maintenance (O&M) even though the majority mainly focused on construction management. There lacks a thorough review of the research in mega infrastructure O&M management. In order to gain an overview of the cross-regional mega infrastructure operation and maintenance management research and to identify the hotspots and the evolution of the state of the art between1992 and 2020, this study used bibliometric analysis and social network analysis through CiteSpace and VOS Viewer to analyzed and visualize the relevant literature data of Web of Science. This research used 646 bibliographic data from the core collection of Web of Science. The keyword co-occurrence network and co-citation network analyses showed the hot research topics, influential publications, and evolution trend in mega infrastructure O&M management. This research contributes to the body of knowledge and can guide scholars about popular research topics and emerging ones in the area.

Lin Chen, Qiting Guo, Yuanxin Zhang, Xiaolong Xue, Zeyu Wang

Effectiveness of Prefabricated Construction in Major Public Health Emergency Management: A fsQCA Analysis

The construction and management of emergency medical facilities is critical during major public health crisis. In recent years, the outbreak of pandemics, such as SARS, Zika, Ebola, and COVID-19, has continuously driven higher requirements on the government's prevention and control capabilities. In response to the dire challenges of COVID-19, the ability to swiftly construct medical facilities to fight the epidemic, quickly and effectively prevent and control the spread of the virus, has been greatly valued globally. It is shown that compared with traditional on-site construction, prefabricated buildings, characterized by high productivities in factories, high quality, ease of cost estimation and management, short on-site construction time, and less labor intensive, have become a more practicable option and witnessed a surge for emergency medical buildings in fighting epidemics. This research aims to allude to the effectiveness of emergency management of major public health incidents from the perspective of the prefabricated buildings. Based on the framework of the prefabrication system to refine antecedent variables, this research employed the fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) to analyze 15 emergency medical projects, either the “Xiaotangshan” model or the “Combination of Peace and Warfare” model in China. Eight internal antecedent variables and three outcome variables were extracted from these cases to explore the antecedents and path configuration affecting the effectiveness of emergency management of major public health events. The finding of this study can serve as a reference for public agencies and industry leaders to improve the effectiveness of emergency management of major public health incidents by taking full advantage of prefabrication construction.

Jiaxing Li, Wenhao Lin, Yuanxin Zhang, Zeyu Wang, Hashem Izadi Moud

A GIS-Based K-Mean Clustering Algorithm for Characteristic Towns in China

The unbalanced development among regions and city-towns has attracted considerable attention due to the rapid China’s urbanization process. What promote the characteristic town, a key node in China's urban system, to be the new driving force of China's urbanization development and national economic adjustment are population, living environment, rural vitality restoration and economic innovation. However, the unitary development of characteristic towns will exert an adverse impact on the long-term economic development. On the condition that previous academic work focuses less on the spatial clustering, spatial features based on the Chinese city-town system are thus introduced in this paper, and then the basic data is integrated through the Orange platform for statistical analysis. Finally, on the basis of the spatial featural visualization obtained through nearest-neighbor search, the K-mean algorithm and GIS tool are applied to perform the visualization and conduct spatial analysis of characteristic town. The results indicate that: (1) premised on the large gap in the towns’ quantity, the distance between characteristic towns and prefecture-level cities as well as major cities is quite different in diverse regions; (2) the characteristic towns can be divided into four types in space, where this four spatial clusters are gradually increasing from east to west; (3) different spatial characteristic types require various unfolding policies.

Zuo Zhang, Yuqian Dou, Chi Zhan, Qiumei Mao

Research on the Pricing of Endowment Real Estate Based on Principal Component Characteristic Price Model: Guangdong Case

Based on the principal component semi-logarithmic hedonic price model, 13 indicators are selected from three dimensions: subject characteristics, neighborhood characteristics and regional characteristics of pension institutions to study the pricing of 322 pension institutions in 21 prefectures and cities in Guangdong Province. The results show that the number of beds, the number of stars, the proportion of tertiary industry to GDP, per capita disposable income, per capita GDP, the change rate of service price index, the average price of commercial housing, the number of regional hospitals and the aging rate of population have a significant impact on the price of pension institutions.

Yu Yan

The Embedding and Construction of Community Network Public Space: Study on the Path of Community Governance Under the Background of Urbanization

Improving urban community governance is of great significance to the modernization of China's governance system and capacity. Community public space is the basic field of community governance and an important material carrier for the cultivation of community public spirit and publicity. However, in the modern society of continuous transformation in China, the reduction of the internal communication needs of community residents and the transformation of external communication forms have greatly eliminated the inward potential and outward tension of constructing community publicity in the traditional community public space, and the cultivation of community publicity is facing new challenges. With the development of digital information technology and people's active participation in the practice of network communication, the network public space has become a new space form. By extending and expanding people's social interaction through the network, the community network public space has assumed the function of cultivating community publicity. Therefore, to promote the embedding and construction of the community network public space has become the referable direction to explore the path of community governance in the current transitional society.

Cui Zhiyu, Zhou Ling, Jiang Xiaowen, Li Yanan

A Study on Benefit Distribution of Multi-agent Urban Residential Land Supply Based on Game Theory

Since the economic reform and opening up, the urbanization of China has been continuously advanced. Housing shortage has become one of the key problems for the sustainable development of megacities. The Chinese government has adopted the strategy of “multi-agent land supply” to expand land supply. Facing the government’s promotion and market demands, the benefits acquired during the land supply drive many stakeholders to implement pilot policies. Under the above background, this paper intends to construct the relationship network from the perspective of benefit distribution, analyze the benefit distribution among various agents and compare the difference between the urban land reserve mode and multi-agent land supply mode based on the game theory. The result showed that promoting the multi-agent land supply mode was more likely to achieve the Nash equilibrium and benefit distribution was more balanced along with the promotion of the policy.

Huayun Song, Hao Wang

Exploring Critical Success Factors for Fully Prefabricated Assembly Technology Adopted by Urban Tunnels

The application of fully prefabricated assembly technology in urban tunnel construction can effectively alleviate a series of negative problems caused by traditional cast-in-place construction techniques, such as traffic congestion and environmental pollution. Despite this, their prefabricated rate is relatively low and is yet to be improved. A potentially important reason is the lack of the comprehensive evaluation mechanism to determine the factors which can promote the development of fully prefabricated assembly technology in the urban tunnel projects. As a prelude to the development of such a mechanism, this paper aims to explore the critical factors for the successful application of full prefabricated assembly technology in urban tunnel construction. A thorough and comprehensive collection of various factors that can affect the success of constructing full prefabricated assembly urban tunnels were identified from a multi-stakeholder perspective. Through face-to-face and online questionnaire survey geared towards urban tunnel projects participants with fully prefabricated assembly technology experience, the opinions of various parties were sought and evaluated in relation to the selected success factors. The data are then analyzed with various statistical techniques in terms of mean score ranking, factor analysis, sensitivity analysis and other methods. The results uncover eight sets of critical factors: technology, building side, external environment, construction unit, scientific research team, factors of other participants, influencing factors of project construction, policies and laws. The first four common factors are more sensitive to full prefabricated assembly urban tunnels. The research findings are expected to promote the development of fully prefabricated assembly urban tunnel projects.

Yangbeibei Ji, Hongfei Wang, Tiancheng Zhang, Dan Chong

Factors Influencing the Adoption of Blockchain Technology in the Construction Industry: A System Dynamics Approach

The construction industry is always a slow adopter of innovative technologies than other sectors of the economy. Although some technologies, such as Building Information Modelling (BIM), robotics, among others, have been implemented, their adoption has faced some challenges. Blockchain technology is also considered a game-changer for the construction sector with the functionalities and capabilities to improve the construction supply chain, improve transparency, sustainability, and the like. Hence, this study using the system dynamics approach aims to conceptualize the complex causal interrelationship of the key factors influencing blockchain technology adoption in the construction industry. The analytical findings revealed that stakeholders’ awareness and satisfaction, support from top management, and the development of standardized and compatible blockchain solutions would enhance its adoption in construction firms and the construction industry. The study also emphasizes the need to integrate blockchain technology with the existing technologies towards facilitating the delivery of smart buildings and cities as well as enhancing the operation of modular integrated construction (MiC) projects both in Hong Kong and overseas

Timothy O. Olawumi, Stephen Ojo, Daniel W. M. Chan, Michael C. H. Yam

The Impact of Emotional States on Construction Hazard Perception and Recognition Abilities

Workers’ hazard identification abilities have been recognized as one of the main factors to reduce the construction accidents. If the construction workers can identify various hazards in a timely and accurate manner during the construction process, it can effectively avoid the occurrence of safety accidents. Based upon the recent discovery that emotional state impacts hazard risk perception. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between different emotions states and hazard identification abilities. To induce and measure the emotional state of 30 subjects, the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures were used. Subjects were ask to complete safety risk assessment form to test the hazard identification abilities. The results uncovered that subjects were in a state of positive emotions such as forgetfulness and excitement, their accuracy in hazard identification will decrease, and the feedback time will be shorter, making it easier to ignore the dangers around them. The research findings are expected to help construction workers avoid unsafe behaviors due to mental reasons, thus enhancing the construction safety management.

Dan Chong, Hao Su

Review of the Quantitative Analysis Methods for Social Life Cycle Assessment in Construction

The life cycle sustainability assessment (LCSA) of construction activities has become a subject of considerable interest globally. However, researchers are mainly devoted to analyzing economic and environmental impact assessment of buildings, and there is a lack of a review of the studies on social impact assessment. Therefore, this study aims to review the quantitative methods for social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) in construction through the bibliometric method. Most of the studies on social impact analysis have adopted qualitative and quantitative methods and this study mainly focuses on the studies that used quantitative analysis methods for social life cycle assessment owing to the space limitation. This study found that the research interest in the life cycle sustainability assessment is gradually rising, primarily focusing on case studies, method comparisons, and new frameworks. However, because social impact assessment has significant limitations in the quantification of inventory, the choice of indicators, and the method of impact assessment, this study proposes that the development of social impact factors in the construction field requires to make more extraordinary efforts in the development of new methods, new software, new technologies, decision-supporting tools, and databases.

X. Y. Jiang, X. R. Yao, S. N. Lyu

Impact of COVID-19 on the China-Australia Construction Supply Chain

The Australian construction industry has historically imported building materials from Europe, US and Japan but more recently seen dramatic increases in imports from Asia. The construction industry is heavily reliant on imports of building materials such as steel, windows, joinery, tiles, float glass and curtain walls from its top trading partner, China. The supply of these building materials was disrupted amid the confusion in response to the initial spread of the COVID virus in China leading to widespread lockdowns and the temporary closure of manufacturing plants. By March 2020, the virus has spread by infected international travelers across the globe bringing numerous cases into Australia. This study aims to examine the impact of COVID on the supply of building materials from China to Australia specifically focusing on the state of Victoria. The objectives of this study are to map out the risks that have crystalised on the China-Australia construction supply chain; examine the impact of upstream disruption in China on downstream activities; and assess how the timing of local pandemic outbreak impacts supply chain performance. Using procurement data from a residential builder, we observed disruption of production, delay, increase of shipping costs and loss from foreign exchange. The delay was up to two weeks due to the shutdown of manufacturing plants in China during the early stages of the pandemic. When the first wave of infections spread into Australia, its impact on the building and construction industry was minimal. The greater impact occurred when limits were placed on site workers during second wave of infections which desynchronised the Australian and Chinese sides of the supply chain. The builder experienced additional two-weeks delay on small scale residential projects and four-weeks delay on a large-scale residential project. These findings may assist the industry to find ways to manage future risk of disruptions to their supply chains.

Chigozie Victor Ndukwe, Jinyun Liu, Toong Khuan Chan

Provincial Resource and Environmental Carrying Capacity Evaluation for Territorial Spatial Planning: A Case Study of Zhejiang, China

In the context of the construction of ecological civilization, the evaluation of resource and environmental carrying capacity has been elevated to the starting point of the preparation of Territorial Spatial Planning, therefore it needs to provide support and guidance for the follow-up work. However, the traditional cognition and evaluation framework of carrying capacity failed to provide effective support for the preparation of Territorial Spatial Planning. Meanwhile, provincial level is at the core of the scale connection of Territorial Spatial Planning. From this, this article chooses the resource and environment carrying capacity at provincial level as object, combing and summarizing the main content of Territorial Spatial Planning, deriving its two major requirements for provincial resource and environment carrying capacity evaluation. Based on this, explore and build a brand-new cognition of carrying capacity for Territorial Spatial Planning at the provincial level. Finally, the above framework is applied to the case study of Zhejiang Province to provide ideas and reference for the development of relevant evaluation practices.

Huiyu Pan, Yuzhe Wu

Intervening Construction Workers’ Unsafe Behaviour with a Chatbot

As an effective method to reduce the unsafe behavior of construction workers, safety training has always been the hotspot of safety management research. In recent years, while there is an ever-growing research interest on developing effective training techniques and methods, few studies have improved safety training with the targeted interactions with construction workers. Therefore, based on natural language processing technology, this paper introduced the chatbot into construction safety training and designed a framework for personalized construction worker safety training on mobile phones. In particular, the single-round question and answer technique with the chatbot was introduced with an illustrative example. Through word segmentation, part-of-speech tagging, similarity calculation, and threshold comparison, questions and sentences from regulations could be compared to determine which sentence should be chosen as the most matching answer, and to improve workers’ ability to work safely. In this way, this research provided an innovative, adaptive, convenient and knowledge-rich personalized safety training approach, in the hope of reducing cognitive difficulty and increasing learning interests of construction workers.

Linfeng Zhou, Sheng Xu, Zhixia Qiu

A Review of BIM Data Exchange Method in BIM Collaboration

Nowadays, building information modeling (BIM) plays a crucial role in project collaboration. BIM information should be freely exchanged among different stakeholders for the purpose of collaboration. With the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), there are many novel data exchange methods for BIM information exchange. However, little literature has attempted to review the current status of BIM data exchange methods. This study aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the status quo of BIM data exchange methods, including file-based method, cloud-based method, and three local data exchange methods. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are identified. This paper reveals that more efforts should be paid for enhancing the capability to deal with large Industry Foundation Class (IFC) files; a more stable, consistent identifier that can uniquely and easily identify an object should be developed; more opportunity in integrating BIM with some emerging technologies, like blockchain, should be seized to solve the problems in BIM data exchange. This study presents an in-depth analysis of the current BIM data exchange method and helps the industry and academia to identify the existing gaps and future directions.

Jinfeng Lou, Weisheng Lu, Fan Xue

Classification of Photo-Realistic 3D Window Views in a High-Density City: The Case of Hong Kong

Window view is an intimate medium between occupants and nature, especially in high-density cities like Hong Kong; and thus belongs to the quality of a house or apartment. In literature, researchers found that window views of nature are vital to the occupants’ physical and psychological health and productivity improvement. Understanding the view situation at the urban level can facilitate urban environment optimization, urban planning and development policies, and smart city management. Currently, views of nature have been quantitatively studied in satellite images and cars’ cameras at a macro or micro level, respectively. However, as an essential supplement to the greenery view information hub at a mesoscale, few studies on efficient visualization and classification of window views at the urban level seem available. This paper presents an automatic approach that captures and classifies photo-realistic views at the windows in a 3D photogrammetric city model. First, by triangulating the window geometries from geo-matched 3D photogrammetric and 2D digital maps, the rich window semantics are registered to the 3D models. Then, the similar window views are visualized in batch with an appropriate focal length and field of view. Finally, the view at each window is analyzed and classified through transfer learning automatically. We applied the proposed approach to the 3D model of Hong Kong Island and found satisfactory results for identifying nature scenes or urban scenes. Once massively adopted, the presented approach can offer novel geographic indicators for billions of urban inhabitants and the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operation (AECO) industry.

Maosu Li, Fan Xue, Anthony G. O. Yeh, Weisheng Lu

Modular Construction: Design Considerations and Opportunities

The realization of Modular Construction (MC) is impeded by several barriers, e.g., initial investment, logistics constraints, and negative perception. Design, a profoundly creative process to alleviate difficulties in the built environment, is prospected to enhance this construction method. Under this circumstance, many guidelines, recommendations, and avoidances have been proposed to design. However, every coin has two sides. This research, therefore, argues that MC also provides new design opportunities, which have not been yet extensively investigated. It does so by comprehensive literature review and detailed archival study of successful case studies. The result unveils that although MC, by nature, may impose several design limitations, e.g., design simplification, standardization, and limited dimension, it can also serve demands and construct an outstanding architectural design by, for example, a composition of three-dimensional unit, mass customization, and product prototype. This research creates a balanced view of MC in a design process, and highlights the new approach for further design and research development in this discipline.

Vikrom Laovisutthichai, Weisheng Lu, Fan Xue

The Iron Triangle of BIM Adoption in Construction Project Organizations

Building Information modelling (BIM) is pervasively discussed and applied in the AEC/FM sector, however, its true adoption rate and quality are never ideal. This paper takes the human-organization-technology iron triangle as critical analysis lens of BIM adoption in construction project organizations. It systematically reviews the three vertexes (human, organization, and technology), the three edges (human-organization relationship, human-technology relationship, and technology-organization relationship), and the core (the human-organization-technology relationship) of the iron. On this review, it gives a comprehensive and fresh research and practical perspective for BIM adoption, states the importance of the balance among the human, organization, and technology, and identifies the key issues for future research in BIM adoption.

Jinying Xu, Weisheng Lu

Understanding Construction Waste Recycling in Hong Kong: SWOT Analysis of the Government’s Prevailing Initiatives

The Hong Kong government has implemented the Construction Waste Disposal Charging Scheme since 2006 to promote construction waste recycling among contractors. Under the scheme, in addition to the conventional approach of disposing construction waste at landfills, contractors are given the alternative options of dumping pure inert waste and waste with over 50% by weight being inert materials at public fills and off-site sorting facilities respectively. Yet, the effectiveness of the scheme is questionable. By adopting a mixed-method approach encompassing cross-sectoral learning, attendance of Court hearings and semi-structured interviews, this study aims at understanding the status quo of construction waste recycling in Hong Kong using SWOT analysis, a strategic planning technique from the business sector. Through identifying the inherent strengths and weaknesses of the government’s construction waste recycling initiatives, as well as the external opportunities and threats impacting the realization of such initiatives, we have formulated policy recommendations on how construction waste recycling can be boosted in the future. The findings in this paper provide a useful reference for the government’s long-term solutions to construction waste recycling in Hong Kong.

Wendy M. W. Lee, Weisheng Lu, Fan Xue

Construction Inspection Information Management with Consortium Blockchain

Blockchain can be regarded as a distributed database that records transaction data in a shared manner. This new technology is considered destructive and can transfer many data-driven industries, including construction. On the other hand, as one of the necessary measures to ensure quality, progress, and safety, construction inspection records still rely on paper. This leads to many problems, such as time-consuming, input errors, file loss, and even data manipulation. This research aims to develop a blockchain-based construction information management platform to expand blockchain applications in construction inspection management. First, conduct a literature review to explore blockchain technologies, types of blockchains, blockchain platforms, and existing construction inspection processes and issues. Based on the review, a method called design thinking is used to develop a blockchain prototype. As a result, a consortium blockchain prototype is developed to help inspection information management. The proposed solution is further illustrated through a semi-hypothetical case study. The research also discusses issues related to the current blockchain implementation, which provides numerous opportunities for further investigation. Not only limited to general discussions, one contribution of this research is the development of a configurable prototype so that construction stakeholders can follow and develop their blockchain-based solutions.

Liupengfei Wu, Weisheng Lu, Fan Xue

How Do Chinese International Construction Companies View Corporate Social Responsibility?

Corporate social responsibility has been widely accepted as an essential ethic norm for companies in conducting business. China is now catching up in this CSR cause. An emerging force, Chinese international construction companies (CICCs), provides a meaningful lens through which the CSR perception of construction companies in China can be investigated. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to better understand the way CSR is viewed by international construction companies in China. This is undertaken by content analysis of the 168 CSR/ESG reports of CICCs over the 10 years (2010–2019). To achieve this, a CSR indicator system was formed coving 38 reporting contents/indicators based on both CSR reporting guidelines for Chinese enterprises (i.e., CASS-CSR) and the contents of CSR reports collected. There are three main findings, firstly, there is an enriching trend of the CSR reporting over the 10 years, despite that verification of CSR information is still relatively new to CICCs. Secondly, community involvement is mostly welcomed by CICCs in CSR reports, although these activities reported are mainly conducted in their home countries (i.e., China). Lastly, innovations regarding to technology and environment protection as important competitive strategies have been largely adopted by CICCs in CSR reports. CICCs tend to disclose their remedial strategies while hiding their unfavorable performance. This study contributes to the understanding of CSR development in China. CICCs are encouraged to enhance CSR engagement to gain corporate reputation and competitive advantage.

Hui Guo, Weisheng Lu

Prospect of Architectonic Grammar Reconstruction from Dense 3D Point Clouds: Historical Building Information Modeling (HBIM) of Guangdong Cultural Heritages

Building information modeling (BIM) of cultural heritages, i.e., historic building information modeling (HBIM), advances the monitoring, maintenance, restoration, and virtual exhibitions of historical buildings. However, due to the elaborate styles and the unavoidable erosion and renovation, the reconstruction of HBIM from the prevalent raw data, such as point clouds and images, is very challenging, especially parametrical and semantic modeling. Recent studies have noticed the potential of architectonic grammar for facilitating parametric and semantic reconstruction. This paper investigates the manual modeling of cultural heritage with the architectonic grammar and proposes a roadmap consisting of four levels of automation, i.e., ‘calibration,’ ‘selection,’ ‘combination,’ and ‘generation,’ of the architectonic grammar reconstruction. Further quality improvement and cost analysis of these four levels show that ‘calibration’ and ‘selection’ are the most suitable options currently for real-world applications. This study inspires the future application of architectonic grammar to facilitate the parametric and semantic HBIM reconstruction and explores the prospect of a new HBIM reconstruction schema.

Jing Zhang, Maosu Li, Wenjin Zhang, Yijie Wu, Fan Xue

A Critical Review of Stakeholder Participation in Urban Renewal

Numerous cities around the world are suffering from serious rundown of inner city. It results in lots of core problems in urban development, such as pool living conditions, weak economic growth, increasing social problems, farmland abuse, and low efficiency in urban land use. As an effective way to solve these problems, urban renewal has became a public profile within the urban policies in many countries. Urban renewal involves many stakeholders, which is considered to be one of the important reasons for the complexity of urban renewal. Although various papers related to stakeholder engagement were published in the field of urban renewal, the role and influence of different stakeholders are indistinct and controversial. To fill this gap in literature, this study aims to provide a critical review of recent studies on the stakeholder of urban renewal with a combined methodology of bibliometric analysis and qualitative analysis. Firstly, the bibliometric records are collected from SCI database and SSCI database with the software of CiteSpace 5.6. Based on these papers, an overview of previous studies, including the contents of research trends and research focus among these papers are visualized by using CiteSpace 5.6. After that, stakeholders are identified by the classification and description of stakeholders. Besides, the conflict among stakeholders and how to coordinate the relationship between stakeholders are discussed. Finally, several interesting directions for future research are identified and recommended. This study can be an important reference source for researchers, and also contributes to the urban renewal decision-making in practices.

Dai Ju, Wang Binwei, Xu Kexi, Wei Linglin

Influencing Factors for Spatial Conflicts in the Resettled Community for Landless Peasants: A Perspective of Space Ternary Dialectics

The urbanization process in China has been extremely compressed in time and space, resulting in serious conflicts over any given time period. Resettled communities for landless peasants is a kind of transitional community between urban and rural communities. The behaviors with rural life habits are quite common in resettled communities, leading to serious spatial conflicts among residents in the community which is a big challenge to the community governance. The existing studies does not provide a rigorous and structured identification of these factors. Therefore, in order to provide theoretical guidance for the governance of the spatial conflicts of this kind of community, this paper proposed an analytical framework on factors influencing spatial conflicts. Firstly, this paper developed a three-dimensional theoretical framework for the influencing factors of spatial conflicts in resettled community based on Lefebvre’s ternary dialectical space view. Secondly, on the basis of three-dimensional theoretical framework, 26 influencing factors for spatial conflicts in resettled community were extracted through the collation of literature and content analysis. Finally an analytical framework on influencing factors of spatial conflicts in the resettled community for both conflict governance and government policy is developed. Also, suggestions are proposed to reduce the spatial conflicts in the resettled community for landless peasants. This paper helps to provide inspiration for the governance of resettled communities and the study on community spatial conflicts.

Hui Gao, Kexi Xu, Haijun Bao

Economic Analysis of Dynamic Substation Location and Capacity Determination

In order to realize the rationality of development sequence and layout of regional substation construction projects and the economic objectives of investment, this paper studies the one-time or stage problems of substation construction, constructs dynamic location and capacity model which explores the cost difference of different substation construction schemes. The model uses ergodic algorithm and harmony search optimization algorithm to adjust the search process and other parameters to improve the ability of global optimization and iteration of the model. Through the optimization constraint relationship, the comprehensive scheme comparison of new substation and expansion is realized, so as to achieve the cost target of the whole process and the minimum number of membership changes. Through a case study, it is proved that the cost management advantages of phased investment and cost of the high voltage line construction can not be ignored. The model provides a new analysis tool for multi-stage cost planning of regional substation location and capacity.

Shan Jiang, Hongchuan Dong, Yingbo Zhou, Geriletu Bao, Zhenyu Zhao

Evaluation of Urban Resilience Based on Entropy Weight Cloud Model—31 Provinces in China

In recent years, the frequent occurrence of extreme weather, urban overpopulation, resulting in excessive use of resources, serious environmental pollution, traffic congestion and other issues have become increasingly significant, has seriously affected the stability and order of the city, and gradually exposed the vulnerability of the urban system. In order to understand the level of urban resilience in China and strengthen the construction of resilient cities in China, a resilience index system including 16 secondary indicators from four dimensions of economic level, social development, ecological environment and infrastructure was proposed. Entropy Weight Method and Cloud Model were used to evaluate 31 provinces and cities. It was concluded that the urban resilience of Beijing was at a high level, while Hainan and Guizhou were at a low level, Shanghai and Jiangsu are at a higher level, Tianjin and Hebei are at a lower level, and Zhejiang and Shandong are at a medium level. This paper analyzes the calculation results and puts forward corresponding suggestions in order to promote the sustainable development of cities in China.

Jiali Deng, Liudan Jiao, Yinghan Zhu, Yu Zhang, Xiangnan Song

Research on the Development of Digital Twins in Construction Industry

With the development of the Internet of Things, big data, artificial intelligence and other technologies, driven by the emerging building information technology and smart city, digital twin technology has become an emerging research hotspot in the field of intelligent manufacturing and intelligent operation and maintenance of complex systems. This paper first sorts out the development of digital twin technology, the existing preliminary research planning and phased achievements, and then analyzes the application of digital twin technology in the construction industry from three aspects: the full life cycle of architecture, the smart site and the smart city. The research shows that digital twin technology can virtualize the building entity, transmit the data collected by sensors and so on, realize the comprehensive management and control of the building entity, and improve the building construction and operation efficiency. However, digital twin technology is not mature, and the interaction between entity and virtual body can be better realized by combining with other technical means such as AR. Finally, points out that digital twin technology development trend and prospect in the construction industry, the researchers in the field of management and control for complex systems provide certain reference.

Jing Li

Research Review on Digital Technology of 3D Printing for Construction

3D printing technology is a new technology that realizes building energy conservation and green development, and is the key to solving the high energy consumption and high pollution in the traditional building process. Based on the basic principles and characteristics of 3D printing technology, this article reviews the status quo of 3D printing technology at home and abroad and its research status in the construction field, and analyzes the existing problems that 3D printing technology cannot be effectively applied in the construction industry. Looking forward to the future application prospects of 3D printing technology in the construction industry, it provides a reference for a systematic and comprehensive understanding of construction 3D printing technology.

Meijiao Rao, Guodong Wu

Land Use Type Priority Oriented Layers Automated Clipping in GIS System

Along with the increasing information and intellectualized management requirements of land and resources, operations for assigning new attribute values to fields while clipping layers are more frequent in actual business. It is a practical problem that how to deal with the sliver polygon with high efficiency, high quality and sustainability. In this paper, based on the current research on the fusion processing method of sliver polygons, combined with the characteristics of land use data and related constraints, from the point of view of the geographical configuration priority and spatial similarity, design a set of clipping processes about land use layers based on geographical configuration prioritization and spatial similarity. While ensuring the high precision and high quality of the layer clipping, the land configuration priority is incorporated into the spot fusion constraint conditions. Finally, an improved automated clipping method that takes into account the preferential allocation of land types is applied to land use layers. The experiment verifies the practical feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

Chunting Wu, Yuzhe Wu, Zhenhong Du

Family Migration Decisions of Floating Population and Its Influencing Factors—A Case of Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

Familization of migration is a significant feature and development trend of floating population in current China. Achieving the stable and high-quality family migration of the floating population is an integral part of the development of people-oriented and sharing-type urbanization. In this paper, the dynamic monitoring data of floating population in Hubei province from 2013 to 2015 was used to analyze the family migration decisions of floating population, and MLogit model was used to investigate the influencing factors of different migration patterns. The results show that the family size of floating population in Hubei province tends to be smaller and more stable; the factors such as family size, number of children and urban characteristic have significant influence on the migration pattern of floating population. On the basis of this, the paper suggests that the government should strengthen the active guidance to the group that has advantages in family migration, alleviate the pressure of left-behind members’ family-care of the semi-family migration families, and promote the stable employment and social integration of the accompanying migrants.

Yanan Li, Jiaxin Meng, Chan Xiong, Zhe Zhu, Shiman Wu, Shanhai Wang

Enlightenment of the Kennedy Space Center of the United States to Development of Space Tourism in Hainan, China

The international influence of Hainan International Tourism Island is not high, which need to create special tourism products to increase their international influence and competitiveness. Aerospace tourism is a new hot spot for sustainable tourism. The construction of Wenchang Space Theme Park in Hainan, China, will greatly enhance the international appeal of Hainan tourism. Kennedy Space Center is the world’s most open space center, and its successful operation experience can provide reference for Wenchang’s aerospace tourism development. Based on the development experience of the Kennedy Space Center, combined with the existing actual conditions in Hainan, the following suggestions are made for the development of space tourism in Hainan (1) Hainan International Tourism Island should identify the development orientation, build the Center of National Aerospace Science and Technology Education under global and open horizon, through the education and publicity of aerospace in order to promote the development of the space tourism market gradually; (2) It is also should be supposed to enhance the plan positioning, to integrate the tourism resources of the northern part of Hainan Island, and to create a new growth pole Hainan tourism; (3)At the same time, it should deepen the product orientation, make a deep integration of tropical coastal resources and space tourism, create a unique tourism product which the other places difficult to copy. (4) it also should be supposed to strengthen infrastructure construction, to get rid of the obstacles which can hinder the coordinated development of the island, in order to provide the shoring of foundation for resource complementarity and visitors interacting of the island. (5) At last it should build a high level of space center official Website, the official microblogging, WeChat and other networks and new media, carry out overseas marketing actively, and expand the influence of the international market constantly.

Xiaochun Wang, Zhenwei Wang, Zuo Zhang
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