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This book presents selected papers from the 3rd Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction – Expanding the Platform for Bridging Science and Policy Making, which was held at the Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University, Uji Campus from 19 to 21 March 2017. It was organised by the Global Alliance of Disaster Research Institutes (GADRI), which was established soon after the second Global Summit and the UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in March 2015, and is intended to support the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030.
The conference not only provided a platform for discussion and exchange of information on key current and future research projects on disaster risk reduction and management, but also promoted active dialogues through group discussion sessions that addressed various disaster research disciplines.
In this book, authors from various disciplines working at governmental and international organisations provide guidance to the science and technical community, discuss the current challenges, and evaluate the research needs and gaps in the context of climate change, sustainable development goals and other interlinked global disaster situations. Expert opinions from practitioners and researchers provide valuable insights into how to connect and engage in collaborative research with the international science and technical communities and other stakeholders to achieve the goals set out in the agenda of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. In addition, case studies and other evidence-based research papers highlight ongoing research projects and reflect the challenges encountered in information sharing by various stakeholders in the context of disaster risk reduction and management.
Chapter “Science and technology commitment to the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030” is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Overview of the 3rd Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Summary Report of the 3rd Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction: Expanding the Platform for Bridging Science and Policy Making (GSRIDRR 2017) Held at the Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, from 19th to 21st of March 2017

Abstract
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 draws our attention to work together towards reducing damages caused disasters to livelihoods and economies, especially in developing countries by 2030. This paper provides a brief summary of the 3rd Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction under the theme of Expanding the Platform for Bridging Science and Policy Making (GSRIDRR 2017) successfully organized by the Global Alliance of Disaster Research Institutes (GADRI), and the Disaster Prevention Research Institutes (DPRI), Kyoto University at DPRI, Kyoto University, Uji Campus, Kyoto, Japan, from 19th to 21st March 2017. It reflects upon the keynote speeches, group discussion session and other activities that took place during the summit.
Andrew Collins, Hirokazu Tatano, Wilma James

Chapter 2. Evaluating Current Research Status and Identifying Most Important Future Research Themes

Concept Notes for the Group Discussion Sessions
Abstract
This chapter focuses on group discussion sessions targeting the Priority Areas of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. Day one group discussion session efforts were on Priority Area One—Understanding Disaster Risks; and Day two emphasis was on Priority Areas 2, 3 and 4.
Hirokazu Tatano, Andrew Collins, Wilma James, Sameh Kantoush, Wei-Sen Li, Hirohiko Ishikawa, Tetsuya Sumi, Kaoru Takara, Srikantha Herath, Khalid Mosalam, James Mori, Fumihiko Imamura, Ryokei Yoshimura, Kelvin Berryman, Masahiro Chigira, Yuki Matsushi, Lori Peek, Subhajyoti Samaddar, Masamitsu Onishi, Tom De Groeve, Yuichi Ono, Charles Scawthorn, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler, Muneta Yokomatsu, Koji Suzuki, Irasema Alcántara Ayala, Norio Maki, Michinori Hatayama

Selected Papers from Keynote Speeches

Frontmatter

Chapter 3. Regional Science Engineering, Technology and Innovation (SETI) Support for Disaster Risk Reduction

Abstract
Two important agreements, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals and Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, are setting the stage for sustainable development leaving no one behind and actively pursuing strategies for disaster risk reduction at all levels. UNESCO Regional Science Bureau is working on pre-disaster actions especially by strengthening early warning systems, better building codes, capacity building and multi-hazard approaches for national policies. In this process, UNESCO is actively collaborating with other UN agencies and scientific entities to help underpin disaster risk reduction (DRR) with credible scientific data and analysis. At the regional level in Asia and the Pacific Region, UNESCO has developed a support strategy for international, interdisciplinary cooperation at community, national and regional levels. UNESCO actions bring together transdisciplinary actions between natural and social sciences, education, culture and communication areas. At the community level, the focus is on capacity building of resilient communities by utilising local and indigenous knowledge with smart communication technologies. The DRR capacities of UNESCO designated and affiliated sites (such as the World Heritage Sites, educational facilities, biosphere reserves and Global Geoparks) are being strengthened by contextualising DRR for sound integrated site management by fully complying with the principles of related programmes. In close cooperation with UNESCO’s category-2 centres and chairs, the data gathering, scientific analysis and dissemination capacity in early warning systems are being improved in key affected countries such as Indonesia, Philippines and Pakistan. The Regional Science Bureau will continue to work in collaboration with its regional and global partners on the use of science and technology to support the member states’ needs in disaster risk reduction and building sustainable resilience. This paper will focus on describing the regional support strategies in Asia and the Pacific Region and related key activities.
Shahbaz Khan

Open Access

Chapter 4. Science and Technology Commitment to the Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030

Abstract
The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 was adopted by United Nations (UN) member states on 18 March 2015, at the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Japan. The Sendai Framework went on to be endorsed by the UN General Assembly in June 2015. The Sendai Framework is wide in scope. This paper uses many resources of already published material to enable the reader to access a more complete summary of the science and technology commitment to the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. In this paper on the role of science and technology engagement to provide evidence to inform policy and practice where possible, the author considered it important to emphasis the partnerships and learning she has been a part of and all significant statements that  are included in this  paper are in italicized quotes. The author is grateful for the many opportunities to engage at many levels with colleagues who also contributed so much to these opportunities for joint working and shared learning.
Virginia Murray

Chapter 5. Practical Point of View from Donors: “What We Expect from Science & Technology Group”

Application to Developing Countries
Abstract
The Japan International Cooperation Agency supports vulnerable countries affected by natural disasters through disaster risk reduction efforts while contributing to Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. At the UNISDR Science and Technology Conference on the Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 held at the UN, Geneva in January 2016, Takeya made a presentation at the plenary session on “JICA's Expectations to the Science community.” Implementation of the Sendai Framework in most vulnerable areas has always been a problem and Takeya will explore this from a donor’s practitioner point of view.
Kimio Takeya, Miki Inaoka

Chapter 6. Knowledge to Sustainable Practices: International Network for Transdisciplinary Education (INATE) Approach

Abstract
During the past few decades, we have seen great advances in science, technology, information and communications. Yet, real progress is still to be seen in our ability to solve pressing societal problems. The highly complex problems of today spawned by rapid global changes evolve too fast for us to adapt to such changes effectively.
Srikantha Herath

Chapter 7. Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre: A New European Initiative to Bridge Science and Policy

Abstract
As the science and knowledge service of the European Commission, the Joint Research Centre's mission is to support EU policies with independent evidence throughout the whole policy cycle. Faced with the risk of increasingly severe and frequent natural and man-made disasters, policy-makers and risk managers in disaster risk management (DR).
Tom De Groeve, Montserrat Marin Ferrer, Ian Clark, Karmen Poljanšek

Selected Papers from Presentations (Arranged in Country Alphabetical Order)

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. International Federation for Information Processing and Its Domain Committee on Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction

Abstract
The chapter describes the origin, goals and the main figures of Domain Committee on Information Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction (DCITDRR), established by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP). Key activity, such as international conferences organized by DCITDRR, and some of the scientific research projects of DCITDRR members are presented.
Dimiter Velev, Plamena Zlateva

Chapter 9. Research Capacity in Disaster Risk Reduction—An Indian Perspective

Abstract
The world is continuously experiencing natural hazards associated with threat of loss of lives and damage to property. At a large scale, many communities are strongly engaged in disaster risk reduction DRR activities; however, it is still a challenge how to integrate groups of scientific and technical networks for obtaining, sharing, and implementing collected data during the existing disasters, and based on these results, a policy making and implementation process can be generated. The 3rd Global Summit of Research Institutes for Disaster Risk Reduction (GSRIDRR-2017) expands the knowledge of natural or man-made disaster risks and enhances the scientific and technical research efforts as well as the key actions for policy roadmaps for DRR. For this, Global Alliance of Disaster Risk Institutes (GADRI) is contributed an important role to further facilitate the contributions of research institutes, local bodies and organizations for disaster risk reduction for plan a sustainable future.
Jaya Singh, Ajay Gairola

Chapter 10. Evaluating the Success of Participatory Flood Risk Mapping—A Case Study from Dharavi, Mumbai

Abstract
In recent decades, several participatory tools and techniques have been introduced in disaster risk management. These tools vary from each other at great extent in terms of their structure, function, scope, facilitation process, required time and resources and so on; however, the sole objective of all of them is to ensure effective involvement of local communities in disaster risk management. If involving community in the decision-making process is simple and unidimensional, then one particular tool would be enough to ensure the objective. However, the multifaceted nature of community participation, the variety of ways to operationalize them and its numerous untested claims have created enormous confusion amongst researchers and practitioners to put the idea into practice. There is urgent need to systematically define the objectives of the community-based disaster risk management and examine how and what extent the participatory tools can ascertain those objectives. To address these issues, this study introduces a participatory flood risk mapping exercise in Mumbai, India. In this study, we unraveled how and what extent the participatory flood risk mapping exercise is effective to achieve the critical parameters of good participation. Thereafter, local community themselves evaluated the success of the participatory risk mapping to ascertain various participation yardsticks. This study is one of the pioneering works in identifying the factors accountable for effective public participation in disaster management and to validate them empirically.
Subhajyoti Samaddar, Hirokazu Tatano, Ram Sateesh Pasupuleti

Chapter 11. Grant for Global Sustainability Project: Enhancing the Urban Disaster Resilience of Kathmandu and Yangon Through Local Participatory Platform Activities

Abstract
Catastrophic disasters have been occurring frequently all over the world in recent years, killing hundreds of thousands of people. Urban disaster risk is also on the rise due to rapid urban growth and due to vulnerable buildings and infrastructure. Hence, the enhancement of urban resilience against disasters is one of the urgent and important global issues. A Grant for Global Sustainability (GGS) Project was implemented by the Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies (GSGES) of Kyoto University in the pilot cities of Kathmandu, Nepal, Yangon, and Myanmar, aiming to enhance the resilience of the two cities against disasters through capacity building of local stakeholders. Kathmandu tackled earthquake risk while Yangon tackled earthquake, cyclone, and fire risks. The two cities established a local platform where stakeholders can work together to understand and assess the disaster risk of the city, estimate probable disaster damages, propose policies, and make action plans. In order to facilitate these activities, local counterpart organizations were selected from local governments, universities, and NGOs. In addition, the local universities and NGOs and GSGES conducted several joint research on urban seismic risk assessment; wind vulnerability; disaster education; risk perception and housing safety; and social fairness of action plans and policies to support the enhancement of urban disaster resilience. The goals of this project were to contribute to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, to attain effective and robust science–policy interfaces at the local level, and to contribute to the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. The pilot cities are expected to transfer their experiences to other cities in their country and in neighboring countries. In order to disseminate the findings of the project and exchange information, international conferences were held twice, one at the beginning and another at the end of the three-year project.
Glenn Fernandez, Kenji Okazaki

Chapter 12. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Existing RC Buildings in Ranau, Sabah Malaysia

Abstract
Malaysia is located in a low seismicity area, thus the buildings in Malaysia were not designed as seismic resistant structures. However, on 5 June 2015, Malaysian was been shocked by the 5.9M Ranau Earthquake which killed 18 climbers of 5 nationalities and was recorded as the largest earthquake in Malaysia since 1976. The earthquake affected some buildings in the nearby area. The damaged associated with these events reflected the construction practice in Malaysia. The low awareness among the general public towards structural safety and the inability of regulatory bodies and technical professionals in maintaining quality standards in constructions has created an urgent need to educate the leaders, public, city planners, architects and the engineering professionals about the consequences of earthquakes. As a step in understanding the seismic risk to buildings in Malaysia, there is a need to determine the vulnerability of existing buildings, particularly in Ranau, Sabah, as this region has been identified as high seismicity area in Malaysia. When classes of buildings are considered for risk assessment, the vulnerability can be established in terms of their structural characteristics, and suitable modifiers to the vulnerability function can be established in terms of their geometrical characteristics. In this study, the seismic capacity of the selected existing RC buildings has been evaluated through nonlinear dynamic simulations. Seismic response has been analysed, considering various peaks and integral intensity measures and various response parameters, such as ductility. A structural performance and damage level for each studied type are presented.
Mariyana Aida Ab Kadir, Mohd Zamri Ramli, Azlan Adnan, Mohd Nur Asmawisham Alel

Chapter 13. Large Landslides in México in the Past 10 Years

Abstract
Due to its geographical location, Mexico is influenced by considerable natural hazards such as earthquakes, hurricanes, and landslides, among others. The states of Guerrero and Michoacán have been scenarios of large landslides like the ones of Cerro El Socorro at La Huahua, Michoacán, in October 2008; seven landslides in Mineral de Angangueo, Michoacán, in February 2010; and the landslides of La Pintada, Guerrero, in 2013—all of these linked to meteorological phenomena—causing damage to infrastructure as well as deaths, and in particular the wiping out of the population of La Pintada in Guerrero. This presentation outlines the evaluation of landslides through geophysical, seismic refraction, and geotechnical techniques. An evaluation of the economic and social vulnerability of the inhabitants of the three affected communities will also be presented.
Patricia Alarcón, José Beltrán, Jaime Verduzco

Chapter 14. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Management Under a Changing Climate: Bridging the Divide Through Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) Toward Sustainable Development Goals

Abstract
Climate change poses a grave threat in coastal areas which have already started feeling its impacts including flooding, increasing frequency and strength of typhoons and tropical storms, sea level rise, storm surges, etc. A clear strategy and action program is vital as countries progress toward their respective sustainable development objectives. Through Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) development and implementation in the region, countries in East Asia are progressing toward parallel Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) especially in objectives related to poverty, food security, economic progress and ecosystems conservation. Specific issues brought about by climate change like flooding, storm surges, sea level rise, disasters, pollution among others are also being addressed through management mechanisms and action plans put in place in their respective national development plans.
The Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of East Asia (SDS-SEA), a regional framework among country and non-country partners and collaborators, serves as a platform for regional collaboration under the framework of the Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA). A partnership arrangement specializing in integrated coastal and ocean governance of the Seas of East Asia, PEMSEA has 11 country and 20 non-country partners, all committed to the implementation of the SDS-SEA plan.
In this paper, two case studies are presented to demonstrate how the Sustainable Development of Coastal Areas (SDCA) framework can address various aspects of Sustainable Development on Habitat Protection Restoration and Management, Food Security and Livelihood Management, Pollution Reduction and Waste Management and the Natural and Human Induced Hazard Prevention and Management.
Da Nang, a city in the coastal area of Vietnam, is one of PEMSEA’s ICM sites that demonstrates how ICM projects are providing learning experiences at the local level, building capacities in hazard and vulnerability mapping and land and sea-use zoning, enhancing forecasting and early warning systems, natural and man-made defenses and emergency response and decreasing vulnerability, particularly of marginalized and impoverished coastal communities. With the evident impacts of climate change in the city, the implementation of ICM has provided a framework for comprehensive planning and management that enable its government to address disaster risk reduction through integrated governance programs. Since its adoption of ICM in 2000, Da Nang City has successfully overcome some of the weaknesses in its governance system and the limitations in the coordination and planning processes through integrated action plans to address climate change.
Guimaras, which is an island province located in the middle part of the Philippines, is also prone to natural disasters such as storm surges, flood, landslides, and soil erosion due to the impacts of climate change. Following the SDCA Framework, the Guimaras embraced ICM as main vehicle of its many programs and projects especially for sustainable development of its coastal areas through integrated management approach in implementing Ecosystem Conservation of Critical Habitat.
Johanna Diwa-Acallar

Chapter 15. Landslide Disaster Management in Sri Lanka

Abstract
Sri Lanka experiences landslides and slope failures during the periods of heavy rainfall, and their frequency and intensity have been observed to be increasing because of climate change impacts. This paper describes the role of National Building Research Organization (NBRO) that plays as the national focal point for landslide risk management. NBRO started landslide investigations since 1985. Identification of landslides, susceptibility assessment and mapping were the pioneering works of NBRO and implementation of Landslide Hazard Zonation Mapping Project (LHMP) resulted in a valuable outcome of preparing and updating hazard zonation maps over the past 25 years. Awareness creation, mitigation, monitoring and early warning activities in the country are other important functions of NBRO. Monitoring networks have been established for early warning. As a proactive action to minimize the adverse impacts of landslides, structural mitigation is being carried out by NBRO and several technically advanced slope stabilization techniques have been introduced with the international assistance as discussed by this paper giving some salient details.
Asiri Karunawardena

Chapter 16. Framework to Promote Multi-disciplinary Culture of Landslide Studies and Management

Summary
A multi-aspects and policy framework are a tool with numerous variations and contexts which are used to make conceptual distinctions and organize ideas toward the focusing subjects. One way, it is a simple tool for practicing approach. Other way it looks as a supportive arm of establishing various important strategies to practice in a society. The most important fact is that the validity of these frameworks has not been tested through interaction with the community and the policy makers. Secondly, these methods generally have their uses, but are unable to be implemented if the relative probability of the particular risk appears to be too low to be considered. Other reasons are usually combinations of above which facilitate sustainable development under disaster risk. Framework to promote multi-disciplinary culture of mitigation of landslides needs various understandings of scientific proven approach on investigation, planning, and execution work. Understanding of overall needs and requirements of a community at risk due to landslides broadly explains sustainability, social adoptability, and uniqueness. Mountain development policies ensure that population does not exceed carrying capacities of an area and will serve with low probabilities of being affected by landslides. Community-centered monitoring and early warning systems are highly adaptive mechanisms for a community living with landslides proven zones, so that the local people and village officers are capable of disaster preparedness and also operating the system in an emergency. Therefore, multi-disciplinary culture of the landslide disaster studies and management is giving an opportunity to facilitate various technical and social considerations erected in a common framework which addresses planned resilient human habitat in areas that are prone to landslides.
A. A. Virajh Dias, N. N. Katuwala, P. V. I. P. Perera

Chapter 17. Disaster Resilient Infrastructure

Abstract
Inducting the sustainable infrastructure rating systems enable assessment of the degree to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) compliance (Diaz-Sarachagaa et al. 2016). Day-to-day revenue and profit pressures relegate disaster preparedness to lower priorities. Policy-makers, processors, and community are taking serious note of disaster risk management targets and indicators. (Mitchell et al. 2013). Integrated assessments put in parenthesis disaster-proofing, technology innovation, SDG compliance and overarchingly, good governance (Lotze−Campen 2015) Integrated models: integrated assessment). Infrastructure sustainability assessment commenced with societal, environmental and economic costs, and value added spanning their life cycles. This was boosted to the next level with disaster preparedness and resilience charted by Hyogo and Sendai frameworks that focused on reduction of global disaster damage to critical infrastructure, access to multi-hazard early warning, strengthen resilience of aging and new critical infrastructure, spanning, water, transportation, telecommunications, education, health care, and sanitation (UNISDR 2015).
Bhumika Gupta, Salil K. Sen

Chapter 18. Drought Disaster in the Central Highlands of Vietnam: Relationship Between Land-Use Change and Drought Impact

Abstract
Over the past decades, drought becomes a global hazard with nearly half of the world’s countries suffered from drought, and it is arguably the biggest single threat from climate change. However, human activities which are reflected through land-use conversion are also inducing drought impact. This study aims at quantifying the effect of changes in land use to drought impact by the case of drought in the Central Highland of Vietnam. In this study, drought impact was modeled using Normal Different Drought Index (NDDI) retrieved from Landsat data, and it was multivariate regression analyzed with local statistical data on land-use pattern areas. Result confirms the dependency of drought impact on land-use change, whereas the reduction of local forest land and excessively expansion of industrial cropland are two main factors those lead to the increase of total drought-affected area in the highland (Pearson correlation coefficient, R = 1.00 and 0.98, respectively). Modification of agricultural crop plan, particularly modification of cultivated mechanism and crop structure, is an adaptation strategy to drought in the highland.
Nguyen Thi Thu Ha, Mai Trong Nhuan, Dinh Ngo-Thi, Nguyen Thien Phuong Thao
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