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2024 | Buch

Proceedings of the 3rd International Civil Engineering and Architecture Conference

CEAC 2023, 17-20 March, Kyoto, Japan


Über dieses Buch

This book collects the scientific proceedings presented during the "2023 The 3rd International Civil Engineering and Architecture Conference” held in Kyoto in March 2023 with the aim of showing the latest advancements in theoretical and applied research in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) sector. Worldwide, the growing demand is for green and smart buildings that are perfectly integrated into the surrounding environment, have efficient energy and resource consumption, use environmentally friendly materials and renewable energies, favor recycling and reuse, and offer improved indoor comfort and air quality. The book provides readers with an overview of the ongoing transformation of the AEC industry presenting a thorough investigation of the emerging trends and challenges in the fields of green building design, construction and operation. Its content caters to researchers, engineers and architects working in the field of theoretical, experimental and practical civil engineering and architecture.​



Cement Mortar and Concrete Engineering Design and Performance

Waste Clay Brick Binders for Low-Carbon Concrete Pavement Construction

This study investigated the use of waste clay bricks (WCB) as a binder constituent in developing low-carbon pavement-grade geopolymer concrete. Blends of WCB with slag and/or fly ash were used as the aluminosilicate source materials. Sodium silicate in powder form was used as the activator to produce dry geopolymer binders. Considering the practical applicability, concrete was produced under ambient curing. Concrete with WCB in the binder showed higher compressive strengths than the concrete with only fly ash and slag in the binder and, a significant difference in flexural strength was not observed for different binder types. Maximum compressive strength of around 56 MPa at 28 days was recorded for concrete made with the ternary blend of WCB + slag + fly ash. The strength of concrete with WCB + slag was around 42 MPa. Sealing of samples to avoid contact with atmospheric air resulted in better strengths. Drying shrinkage of WCB-based concrete was investigated following the standard test procedure by subjecting it to initial curing in lime-saturated water and by a non-standard procedure of sealed curing. Compared to the standard method, the non-standard method resulted in higher drying shrinkage due to loss of moisture from the specimen. The initial flexural modulus for WCB-based concrete was higher than the concrete with slag + fly ash binder indicating the higher stiffness of WCB-based concrete. The environmental performance of the different binders used in concrete was assessed by estimating the carbon emissions and energy consumption. Compared to using ordinary Portland cement, the use of geopolymer binders can reduce carbon emissions by 70% and energy consumption by 81%. Among the geopolymers investigated in this study, the binder with WCB + slag + fly ash showed the best overall performance.

Janitha Migunthanna, Pathmanathan Rajeev, Jay Sanjayan
Effect of Superplasticizer on the Properties of Kenaf Fibre-Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete

The use of fibres in concrete production has attracted a lot of interest because of the low tensile properties of concrete. Lately, extensive studies have been conducted on the incorporation of different types of natural fibres in geopolymer composites as an environmentally friendly alternative to steel and synthetic fibres. However, the incorporation of natural fibres has a negative impact on workability in terms of properties in the fresh state. Several studies showed that the addition of the superplasticizer (SP) is one of the solutions to overcome this issue. But the performance of geopolymer concrete with the inclusion of kenaf fibres and different SP content is not studied yet. In this paper, the fresh and mechanical properties of kenaf fibre-reinforced geopolymer concrete (KFRGC) with the addition of different SP contents i.e., 0, 1, and 2%, are studied. The workability of KFRGC was dependent on the percentage of the SP. With the increase in the dosage of the SP, the workability was enhanced. However, the addition of the SP in a high percentage decreased the strength performance of the concrete. The best results were achieved with the addition of 1% which improved the workability of KFRGC by about 67%. These findings demonstrate the positive impact of using the appropriate percentage of SP on the performance of KFRGC in the fresh state.

F. N. A. A. Aziz, N. A. Al-Ghazali, A. D. Jasmi, N. A. M. Nasir, I. A. Karim
Investigation on the Effect of Pulverized Black Tea Waste (PBTW) and Eggshell Powder (ESP) as Partial Replacement of Cement on the Mechanical Properties of Normal Weight Concrete

Pollution in the environment and the relatively high cost of solid waste disposal have been a paramount concern all throughout the world. This concern prompts the researchers to recycle black tea waste and eggshells. The purpose of this paper is to study Pulverized Black Tea Waste (PBTW) and Eggshell Powder (ESP) as a partial replacement for cement. The proponents used M20 Grade Concrete with a strength of 20 MPa on the 28th day of curing. Different concrete mixtures containing five replacement levels of cement were carried out with (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 12.5% by weight of) PBTW and ESP (by 12.5, 10, 7.5, 5, and 2.5%). The compressive strength, split-tensile strength, and flexural strength tests were used to show the effect of PBTW and ESP on the mechanical properties of concrete. Results indicated that 2.5% of PBTW and 12.5% of ESP slightly increased the compressive strength of the concrete by 3.11%. In contrast, PBTW and ESP show a significant decrease in Split-Tensile Strength and Flexural Strength compared to the controlled sample ranging from 36.74–49.50% to 16.66–38.91% respectively.

Kreezel Lyra Agcaoili, Myra Alvarez, Khaira Zarene Annani, Czarina Erika Lopez, Mark Clinton Salayo, Darrell Jed Vertucio, Cresencia Vahdanipour
Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Carbon Fiber Reinforced Cement

The objective of this study is to enhance the mechanical properties of high-early-strength cement for emergency repair of reinforced concrete infrastructure by incorporating short carbon fibers. The short carbon fibers, with weight ratios of 0.5 to 2.0% and lengths of 12 and 24 mm, were added to the high-early-strength cement and the resulting material was subjected to compressive and impact testing to determine its compressive strength and impact resistance. A micromechanical model was developed based on the results of the compressive testing to estimate the modulus of fiber-reinforced cement paste. The data from the experimental and micromechanical analyses were used as material parameters in a finite-element model, and the behavior of the fiber-reinforced cement under single impact testing was simulated using LS-DYNA.

Chang-Yu Kuo, Ying-Kuan Tsai, Yeou-Fong Li
Influence of Synthesized Nanosilica on Properties of Wood Ash Cement Mortar

The effect of incorporating synthesised nanosilica (NS) on selected properties of wood ash (WA) cement mortar was experimentally studied. The mortar was prepared by adding 1, 2, and 3% NS by weight of binder. The binder in this case is referred to as cement alone and cement replaced with 10% WA. A constant water-binder ratio of approximately 0.4 was maintained for cement pastes samples and 0.5 for mortar samples. Control sample was maintained as sample without the addition of WA nor NS. The tests performed are, setting times, flexural strength and compressive strength. The results showed reduction in setting times of WA cement mortar with 1 and 2% NS. Increased in flexural and compressive strength compared to the control sample were observed with WA cement mortar samples with 2% NS.

B. D. Ikotun, A. A. Raheem
Assessing the Impact of Petroleum Sludge Ash on the Compressive Strength of Fly Ash-Palm Oil Clinker Geopolymer Mortar

Oil industries are one of the most critical industries with substantial production and closely related to the public interest. Two major oil industries, namely petroleum and palm oil, represent primary sources of consumer groups in Malaysia. However, these sectors inevitably generate waste and require disposal systems. Massive amounts of petroleum sludge generated from the refinery process, possess toxic contaminants requiring careful disposal. Similarly, palm oil production generates a hefty amount of by-products from its extraction process. Encapsulating these wastes in a cementitious medium is considered a more feasible solution than converting them for landfilling. Therefore, this study aims to utilize two wastes from palm oil and petroleum industries as binder materials in a geopolymer framework. To achieve this, palm oil clinker and petroleum sludge as the by-products from those respective industries, were subjected to mechanical grinding and incineration processes to improve their reactivity. Palm oil clinker powder (POCP) was included in the geopolymer mixture to replace 2.00–10.00% of fly ash as the source material. After obtaining the optimum POCP replacement, 0.20–1.00% of petroleum sludge ash (PSA) to be included in the geopolymer mortar to assess its impact on geopolymerization. Compressive strength was evaluated on 7, 28, and 90 days to determine the optimum proportion of fly ash, palm oil clinker, and petroleum sludge ash in geopolymer, particularly the proportion that carries the least negative effect onto the compressive strength performance. Based on the results, the ratio of 91.30% fly ash, 7.60% POCP and 1.10% PSA provided the most significant strength improvement among its peers. The encapsulation task of petroleum sludge ash in geopolymer has been well performed by the fly ash—palm oil clinker blend. It provides new opportunities to explore the alternative disposal method for these industrial by-products.

Amalina Hanani Ismail, Andri Kusbiantoro, Yuyun Tajunnisa
Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Water Hyacinth Extract Utilized for Curing on the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Concrete

This study investigates the effect of water hyacinth extract (WHE) when used as a curing agent on the compressive strength and flexural strength of the Concrete. The efficiency of Water Hyacinth Extract (WHE) was evaluated by curing concrete samples using a ponding method with varying proportions of water and WHE (100–0%, 80–20%, 60–40%, 40–60%, 20–80%, 0–100%). The mixture proportion of 1:2.5:5 and a mixture ratio of 0.5 were cured in making concrete. Universal Testing Machine was used for this investigation in determining the Compressive and Flexural Strength of Concrete. Based on the result, the compressive strength sample cured with 20% water hyacinth extract for 28 days exhibited the highest compressive strength value of 16.23 MPa, while 80% WHE yields the highest flexural strength of 2.73 MPa. Results show that Water hyacinth extract is efficient and effective when utilized as a curing agent of concrete.

Kimberly B. Sison, Allyssa Mae C. Estanio, Christian R. Quebral, Patricia Mae D. Santos, Ron Dominic L. Alberto, Franz D. Santos
Development of Additive for Concrete 3D Printer by Using Local Materials

This paper aims to delineate the best economical, multi-functional, and eco-friendly local materials to be used as an additive and explore its potential to revolutionize the construction industry using 3D concrete. The authors investigate different additive materials used in preparing four mixes using Ordinary Portland Cement, white cement, reservoir sediments, dune sand, commercial sand, fine marble waste and bentonite. The two mixes showed the best compressive strength and durability results, containing fine marble waste and reservoir sediments. The mix WSS (30% white cement, 50% sand, 20% sediment) has resulted in a compressive strength ranging from 18 to 21 MPa after 28 days of curing. The mix WSM (30% white cement, 50% sand & 20% fine marble waste) recorded a compressive strength range from 15 to 17 MPa after 28 days of curing. The durability of the two mixes was tested under wet & dry cycles. The mixes have achieved the best durability results with a minor reduction in durability after several cycles of wetting and drying. Both mixes successfully work as an additive for crafting in a newly developed concrete 3D printer.

Mohsin Usman Qureshi, Amira Al-Shizawi, Ghassan Al-Kindi, Bushra Al-Sawafi, Yousuf Al-Balushi
Concrete Delamination Characterization by Multi-Channel Sur- Face Rayleigh Wave Measurement

A non-destructive testing (NDT) technique is adopted to analyse concrete delamination by utilizing multi-channel acquisition of surface Raleigh waves (R-waves). This study embarks on examining the behaviour of R-waves propagating in concrete containing delamination. The aim is to identify the promising properties of R-wave such as wavelet transforms (WT) attenuation coefficient and phase velocity for reliable assessment. Numerical simulations of wave motions were conducted, followed by data processing to obtain correlations between the respective R-waves properties and characteristics of delamination. Results of analysis revealed that the (WT) attenuation coefficient were sensitive to the presence of delamination, inferring that simple waveform analysis can enhance the characterization of sub-surface delamination existed in concrete structures.

Foo Wei Lee, Yoke Bee Woon, Kok Zee Kwong, Ming Kun Yew

Advanced Building Materials and the Properties

Mix Design for Cellular Concrete Applied in Masonry Units Using Decyl Glucoside as a Foaming Agent for Construction in High Andean Cities in 2022

The research aimed was to find a suitable mix design of cellular concrete applied in masonry units using decyl glucoside as a foaming agent for construction in high Andean cities, because of the advantages this offers, being the main one, thermal comfort since high Andean cities suffer from low temperatures, meeting the compressive resistance standard for masonry units and reducing the dead load, due to cellular concrete is not currently very commercial. Therefore, this study experiments with seven different proportions of water, cement, fine/coarse sand and a foaming agent to achieve better resistance. The study is of descriptive level in that the experimental method is employed in which we use an observation card; for the mixing process, an industrial cement mixer was used, which allows us to integrate the foaming water with the aggregates. The compressive resistance results were favorable obtaining results of up to 260.7 kg/cm2 and lightening the weight up to about 30% of standard concrete, in the other trials lower compressive resistance were achieved, but with a weight even lighter and also a lower volume. The conclusions determine that it is possible to realize a cellular concrete using decyl glucoside meeting the strength standard for masonry units by achieving reduced volume and weight.

Flores Sánchez Diego Oswaldo, Hermosa Vargas Flor Milagros, Montoya Torres Vladimir Simón
Compressive Strength Performance of 7-Day Non-load Bearing Concrete Hollow Blocks with Pili Shell as Partial Replacement to Sand Using Box-Behnken Design

The Philippines is one of the leading distributors of Pili (Canarium ovatum) nut worldwide. Along with the rise of production of pili nut is the increase in the generation of residual waste specifically the pili nutshell. The present study aims to investigate the compressive strength of 7-day of non-load bearing concrete hollow block (CHB) using waste pili nutshell as partial replacement to sand in the production of non-load bearing concrete hollow block (CHB) using Box-Behnken design. The compressive strength blocks made with varying proportion of waste pili shells for fine aggregates, pili shell size, and cement-sand ratio were also evaluated for a constant curing day of seven days. The Pili shell proportions used were 3%, 6% and 9% of total sand volume. Pili shell size retained at sieve no.10, no.20 and no.30 were used. And lastly a cement-to-sand ratios of 0.5:7, 1:7, and 1.5:7 were adopted. Compressive test results showed that most of the CHB with Pili shells possessed higher compressive capacity compared to the ordinary CHB. Among the prepared 7-day composites, the highest compressive strength was 671.28 pound per square inch (psi) that was obtained by the sample with 6% pili shells that retained at sieve #10 with a mix ratio of 1.5: 7. Moreover, the present paper examines the interaction among the three parameters using Response Surface Methodology—Box Behnken Design (RSM-BBD) using three level factorial designs was used in this study. Sigma XL software suggested fifteen (15) experimental runs. Statistical testing such as Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) and ANOVA revealed the adequacy of the generated model to describe the fit of experimental data to predictor model.

Rizza Mae T. Rea, Jonille S. Soriano, James Paul Ramos, April Noemi Q. Opinaldo, Marian Capito, Manny Anthony Taguba
Circular Economy in Buildings: Service Life Considerations of Paint

Buildings and built environment are responsible for 40% of global CO2 emissions and resulting in climate change and other environmental issues. Life cycle research is a vital tool in understanding and resolving the myriad of multifaceted challenges which have made addressing the status quo complicated. Previous studies show that embodied energy research provides an opportunity to investigate the environmental impact of building materials. However, the emerging field of circular economy has recently presented a platform for a critical appraisal of the association between the lifespan of a material and the potentials for its circularity, as a means of increasing its sustainability. This paper embraces this challenge but further argues that extending the lifespan of a material has quantifiable benefits. The aim of this paper is to explore how the service life considerations of paint as a finishing material in buildings, can help to achieve the goals of circular economy and help reduce the life cycle embodied energy of buildings. The assessment was carried out using an input–output based hybrid approach (IOBHA) to calculate the life cycle embodied energy of the building with a service life of 50 years, and 10 years for the paint. Next, a sensitivity analysis was carried and it was assumed that the MSL was increased by 20% up to 100%, and then the LCEE was recalculated. The findings show that while the LCEE of the paint was 161.8 GJ, increasing the MSL by 80–100% can lead to a drop in the LCEE of the paint by up to 40%. Specific strategies were also recommended to facilitate the extension of the service life and enhance the circularity of paint.

Abdul Rauf, Attoye Daniel Efurosibina, Malik Khalfan, Shafiq Muhammed Tariq
Development of Rapid-Setting Repair Materials Through One-Part Geopolymer Technology

The development of geopolymer materials has been over 35 years. Compared with ordinary portland cement (OPC), geopolymer materials have many excellent properties such as high-early strength, nice durability, low carbon emission…etc. Therefore, geopolymer materials have great potential to replace OPC. In particular, geopolymer’s high early strength characteristics are very suitable as repair materials. However, the traditional geopolymer manufacturing process is mixed alkaline solution and aluminosilicate materials. The transportation and storage of alkaline solution will cause a significant burden on the factory, limiting the application and market willingness of geopolymer material. This study focuses on using solid-state activator to develop one-part geopolymer, which is “only adding water” to produce geopolymer. This study will try to develop [Rapid-setting repair geopolymer paste] and [Rapid-setting repair geopolymer mortar] and discuss the effect of solid activator dosage amount, type of solid activator, and solid activator fineness on the mechanical and workability properties of geopolymer materials. According to the experiment results, after curing for 2h, the compressive strength of [Rapid-setting repair geopolymer paste] can reach over 30 MPa, and the compressive strength can reach 100 Mpa after curing for 28 days. The compressive and flexural strength of [Rapid-setting repair geopolymer mortar] can reach over 60 and 10MPa, after curing for the day. The shrinkage rate can be controlled at lower than 0.1%. This study succeeded in developing a suitable repair material using one-part geopolymer technology. It is hoped that the practical application can be carried out after more testing in the future.

Wei-Hao Lee, Ying-Kuan Tsai, Chien-Chin Chen, De-Wei Gao
Reducing Embodied Energy of Floor Assembly: A Case for Using CLT in Mid-Rise Residential Buildings

Buildings’ energy consumption is estimated between 30 and 40% of its global use, resulting in various environmental impacts. There is a need to reduce the energy consumption by buildings in the construction phase, along with the operation phase, which is well-studied. Concrete is a construction material that is being used widely in the construction industry but has high embodied energy. In the move towards using low-energy materials, new materials and construction technologies are being developed and studied. In this regard, Cross lamented timber (CLT) can be a sustainable alternative due to its excellent load-carrying capabilities, and therefore has become an emerging choice in buildings as a low embodied energy material alternative. This paper aims to explore the potential initial embodied energy reduction benefits by comparing the initial embodied energy consumption of concrete floor systems and CLT floor systems for mid-rise residential buildings. An eight-story apartment building was used for this analysis. This study shows that replacing the reinforced concrete floor with a CLT floor results in more than four times reduction in embodied energy associated with floor construction. This demonstrates the need for careful selection of materials in buildings at the design stage to reduce their embodied energy and consider the use of CLT instead of reinforced concrete in this context. Results from this initial study also indicate the need for more studies to address the challenges associated with the adoption of this low embodied energy material.

Abdul Rauf, Muhammed Tariq Shafiq
The Relationship Between the Surface Characteristics and Corrosion Properties of Carbon Steel Affected by Abrasive Water-Jet Treatment

Abrasive water-jet treatment (AWT) is applied in this study as a promising surface cleaning method for steel structures. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of changes in the surface properties of steel on the corrosion characteristics of the base steel plate by AWT. The changes in the surface configuration and microstructure of the steel plate obtained at different standoff distances from AWT were compared to those of abrasive blasting. The surface characteristics of the specimens were evaluated for their roughness and micro-structural features. The test results showed that the smaller the standoff distance, the changes in microstructures generated from the increased plastic deformation layers during the AWT became distinct. As the energy reaching the substance during the AWT increased, found the increased surface hardening and the reduced grain size on the plastic deformation sections, which resulted in enhanced corrosion resistance. Hence, it was verified that AWT has a positive effect on the corrosion properties of the base metal as a surface cleaning technic for steel structures.

S. Park, S. Kainuma, T. Ikeda, Y. Toyota, T. Arakawa
Study of Mechanical Properties of Solvent Cement Connection for PVC Pipes

For the mechanical properties of pipe joints, existing studies have mainly focused on flexible joints of ductile iron pipes and concrete pipes, and there is a lack of research on the mechanical properties of adhesive bonded joint of PVC pipes. By combining axial pullout prototype tests and numerical simulations using ABAQUS, this study investigated the effects of pipe diameter, socket gap, and loading rate on the axial mechanical properties of PVC pipe adhesive joints. Moreover, by building a buried PVC pipeline with 4 pipe sections, this study investigated the dynamic response of the adhesive bonded joint under different load amplitudes and different travel directions. The results showed that the seismic performance of the adhesive bonded joint is weak, and its axial pullout force is inversely proportional to the socket gap and proportional to the pipe diameter, while the loading rate has limited effect on it; under buried conditions, the longitudinal stress distribution at the top of the pipe is highly discontinuous, and the maximum stress in the socket is proportional to the traffic load amplitude, and the longitudinal travel direction is more likely to cause the failure damage of the buried PVC pipeline with adhesive bonded joint.

Tao Wang, Shaowei Hu
Synthesis and Application of Graphene-Phase Biochar from Theobroma Cacao Pod Husks Using Slow Pyrolysis Technique in the Treatment of Fats, Oil, and Grease from Actual Wastewater

This research reports the applicability of the produced graphene-phase biochar (GPB) adsorbent in the treatment of actual wastewater contaminated by fats, oil, and grease (FOG) through the process of packed-bed column adsorption. The GPB was synthesized using acetic acid pre-treatment and heat treatment from biochar generated from the pod husks of Theobroma cacao. Column adsorption studies were performed by modification of the column parameters, specifically: the flow rate, bed height, and the initial influent concentration. The highest percentage removal was 99.70% which was recorded by employing the 20 ml min−1 flow rate, 150 mm bed height, and 78,880.0 mg L−1 of influent concentration. With these findings, it can be inferred that Theobroma cacao pod husks waste can be successfully employed for the treatment of fats, oil, and grease from actual wastewater from quick-service restaurants.

Jennice Mae D. Toledo, Karen B. Hubayan, Angel Ann M. Pacheco, Neil Harold C. Salvador, Charles Joshua O. Bravo, Allan R. Alzona

Reinforced Concrete Structural Engineering and Structural Mechanics

An Experimental Study on the Repair Evaluation of Deteriorated RC Beams Using Natural Frequency and Mechanical Behavior Related to Damage Condition

This study aims to quantitatively evaluate the repair of deteriorated RC beams for reuse through natural frequency and proposes a method that describes the mechanical behavior of structures. A static loading test was conducted to determine the load-carrying capacity and deformation performance of structures. To investigate the soundness of the RC beam based on the change of the natural frequency at each load stage, an impact vibration test (IVT) was conducted. Then, a higher vibration mode of natural frequencies, which can better reflect the degree of damage of a frame, was used as an evaluation index to represent the mechanical behavior of structures. The result confirmed that, although in case where IVT is challenging to perform due to location limitations, the damage condition can be estimated from the axial stiffness (EA) of RC beams by axial impact to measure the natural frequencies. Regarding the defined model of mechanical behavior, the results in each deteriorated pattern or load stage to be organized by level of damage. Accordingly, the reliability of the quantitative evaluation of repair effectiveness using the proposed method was verified.

Yilong Cao, Akihiko Nishimura, Xiu Luo, Masao Okoshi, Wendong Tang, Hidekazu Nishimura
Finite Element Simulation of Externally-Prestressed Concrete Girders

The external prestressing (EP) technique has been noticeably used in either the strengthening of deteriorated reinforced concrete (RC) structures or the construction of long-span girders. This technique has many advantages in terms of its contribution to both flexural and shear capacity of RC girders, the ease of installation, and more convenient maintenance for tendons’ inspection and replacement. Considerable number of research have been experimentally investigated the contribution of EP tendons to enhance the capacity of RC girders. However, numerous factors were found to affect the performance of EP RC girders that require further investigation. The main purpose of this study is to develop a three-dimensional finite-element model that is able to simulate the entire behavior of EP RC girders. In this model, appropriate geometrical elements are used to represent the behavior of the concrete, steel reinforcement and EP tendons. The EP tendons are modelled with truss elements connected to the concrete at specific locations, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Sensitivity analysis is performed for finite element modelling of specimens in order to optimize the mesh size and the number of nodes per element. The numerical predictions of the finite element model are compared with various configurations and materials of EP tendons. It is shown that the numerical predictions compare very well with experimental measurements in terms of ultimate loading capacities, load–deflection relationships and failure modes. The numerical predictions are used to provide useful information of the cracking progress and strain profiles of the simulated girders.

Said Elkholy, Ahmed Godat, Saif Elabsi
Dilated Brick Masonary Infills to Avoid the Diagonal Compression Struts During Lateral Reversed Cyclic Load

In high seismicity areas such as Indonesia, brick masonry has been widely applied as a partition as well as infills in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. One of the disadvantages of using brick masonry infilled in RC buildings is that the diagonal compression struts may occur during the earthquake shaking, which may influence the seismic performance of its structure. Due to its diagonal strut, the columns will undergo additional axial and shear loads. The situation may collapse columns early. This study proposes the dilated brick masonry infill to overcome the above disadvantage. The advantage of its dilated brick masonry was obtained through structural testing of three 1:4 scaled-down RC frame specimens applied to lateral reversed cyclic loading. The specimens include one bare frame, one with full masonry infill, and one with dilated masonry infill. For the specimen with the dilatation masonry, there was a dilatation of about 20 mm between the masonry and columns. During structural testing, the deformations of specimens were measured. The cracks pattern of the columns and masonry was also drawn to observe the failure mechanism of the specimens. Comparing the experimental results shows that the dilated masonry infill has suitably avoided the diagonal strut on the masonry infill. As we predicted, the ductility of the frame with dilated masonry was similar to the bare frame without significantly reducing its seismic capacity. The observation during the test showed that the interface between masonry infills and the beams was weak. The applied static reversed lateral loading made the area experience shear stress—the cracks on the masonry started from its area. Strengthening of its interface areas is required to apply this proposed dilated masonry infill.

Jafril Tanjung, Maidiawati, Yulia Hayati, Masrilayanti
Effect of Longitudinal Tension Bars on Performance of Composite Light Gauge Steel and Concrete of a Plate Structure

This paper studied the performance of composite light gauge steel and concrete applied on a plate structure. A light gauge steel section is initially proposed to replace longitudinal bars on resisting tension stress at the lower zone of the plate section. Experimental tests have been conducted for six specimens: three specimens of composite light gauge steel and concrete and three other composite specimens with longitudinal reinforcing bars, which were so-called hybrid specimens. A static monotonic load was applied to each specimen until the ultimate condition reached. It was observed that the first crack occurred at the bending moment zone for the hybrid section and around the two-point loads. Compression crashes on the top fiber and diagonal shear failure resist the specimen to obtain a higher capacity. The structural stiffness decreased for additional tension bars within the range of 10.2–20.8%. About the structural ductility, the hybrid specimens had 1.55–1.71 lower than the composite specimens.

Sabril Haris, Rendy Thamrin, Mutia Fitriani, Syukriati
Influence of Axial Load on the Ductility of Type “C” Reinforced Concrete Walls with Longitudinal Reinforcement Variation in the Cores

Type “C” shear walls are structural elements with a great capacity to absorb seismic forces that are commonly used in elevator boxes. The present research aims to show the effect of the axial load from 980.6 to 7844.8 KN on the ductility of the walls called (M1) and (M2), also evaluating the ductility in relation to variation of reinforcement longitudinal in the cores, for which trilinear diagrams of moment–curvature of both walls were generated. The results showed that the increase in axial load is inversely proportional to the ductility of the wall. On the other hand, the increase in axial load is directly proportional to the values of moments at each point of the moment–curvature diagram, but inversely proportional to the curvature at the points of the yield of steel and exhaustion of the maximum capacity. The increase in the amount of steel in the cores in the M1 was not optimal, since when comparing the ductility in both walls, the M1 presents less ductility because there is more steel in the traction zone.

Meyer David Hilario Martel, Jhon Josue Canchanya Taipe, Janela Azucena Condor Gonzalez, Johan James Hinostroza Yucra
Study on Masonry Soil Joint Adding Rock Salt

This study is about strengthening joints in masonry construction, commonly used in Nepal’s mountainous areas. Generally, mud mortar has been used for joints of masonry buildings in Nepal. However, after the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, the use of cement is recommended to ensure earthquake resistance, but it has not been widely used due to the high cost of the material. Therefore, we are attempting to strengthen the earthquake resistance of masonry buildings by reinforcing locally available soil with inexpensive materials. We have already reported on the joint properties using soil and lime in a separate paper. In the present paper, the addition of rock salt in addition to soil and lime has been used, and a large increase in strength was observed. Although the strength increase was more pronounced when red soil was used, the strength increase due to rock salt was also observed for other soils. This is different from the effect of lime. This paper reports the results of the strength increase when rock salt and other materials were added.

Masashi Ouji
The Approximate Equation for Global Buckling Load of Grid Shell Domes

The goal of this study is to propose an approximate equation to evaluate the global buckling load of dome grid shell. For considering the influence of overall stiffness for grid shells, the effective stiffness is defined according to past research. Different from conventionally mechanical methods, this study adopts regression analysis based on a software named “1stOpt” to forecast the relationship between buckling load factors $$\lambda$$ λ , geometric parameter and effective stiffness. Through the linear buckling analysis, the dome grid shell models with different geometric parameters, in a total of 1225 cases, are analyzed to build the relationship and establish the dataset. By inputting the dataset into the 1stOpt, a suitably approximate equation is fitted with high precision.

Baoxin Liu, Pei-Shan Chen, Jialiang Jin, Xiangdong Yan
Experimental Test of Perforated Steel Plate Shear Wall Under Cyclic Load

Steel Plate Shear Wall is a steel frame system with stiffeners that are effective in resisting lateral forces. The shear wall functions as a fuse, so the failure mechanism is expected to occur in the plate first. The shear wall plate is designed to be relatively thin to achieve this mechanism, but the appropriate thickness will be challenging in low-rise buildings. The perforations given to the shear wall panels aim to reduce the shear capacity and stiffness of the plate. This research is an experimental test on three specimens of shear wall plates. Tests are only carried out on shear wall plates without beams and columns. Variations in the form of the percentage of perforation area are given to the specimen to see the cyclic behavior of the plate when receiving lateral loads. The percentage is obtained from the ratio of the perforation area to the total plate area. The type of perforation used is circular, with a diameter of 65 mm. The test results show that the shear wall plate has a stable hysteresis curve for all specimens. The different inelastic behavior can be seen from the hysteresis curve pattern formed during the test.

Nidiasari, Rendy Thamrin, Sabril Haris, Ronny Purba
Identification of Column Bases’ Stiffnesses in Steel Moment-Resisting Frames Based on Fishbone Model and Bayesian Inference

This paper presents a method of identifying the stiffness of column bases in steel frames based on the fishbone model and the hierarchical Bayesian update method. In this study, the fishbone model considering the flexibility of column bases can be used to update the rotational and shear stiffness of the column base, which is impossible in the traditional model updating method because the previous model assumes that the column bases are fully rigid. First, the steel frame is simplified into a fishbone model considering the flexibility of the column bases, and thus the eigenvalue problem of the fishbone model is established. Then, the shear stiffness and rotational stiffness of the column base of the fishbone model are identified using incomplete modal data based on the hierarchical Bayesian model updating algorithm. The effectiveness of this method is numerically studied by using a 5-story steel frame model using the first fourth frequencies and the corresponding lateral components of the mode shapes.

Jing He, Xiaohua Li
A Finite Element Analysis on Behavior of a T-stub Type Gusset Plate in Different Bolted Connection Configurations

Configurations play a crucial role in the mechanical behaviors of bolted connections in steel structures. This study provides a visual characterization of the influence of different configurations on the bolted connection by introducing three configurations, namely the collinear, rectangular, and circular bolt configurations. A popular T-stub type steel gusset plate is introduced, and three types of loading conditions are implemented. A three-dimensional numerical analysis is comprehensively developed in a linear elastic framework, followed by a mathematical derivation to interpret the results. Instead of a one-rules-all condition, the results imply that different configurations excel under different loading conditions. The study provides an instructive guidance in choosing the most effective bolted connection configuration in the practical field of resisting the corresponding primary loading condition for connecting different structural components.

Ruoyu Zheng, Zeyu Zhang

Seismic Design and Seismic Response of Building Structures

Displacement Performance of 8 Storeys Hotel Building Using Nonlinear Time History Analysis Method

Acknowledging the responses of a structure under a particular type of loading is the utmost importance aspect of structure’s designing and analysing. Seismic load are one of the most important type of loading, therefore dynamic analysis should be performed in order to evaluate the performance of a structure which is subjected to earthquake load. Among all the dynamic analysis methods, non-linear time history seismic analysis method is more accurate, because it generates a real earthquake load on a structure and analyzes the response of the structure. In this study, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete building is observed subjected to an earthquake motion by nonlinear time history analysis method. Different parametric studies have been performed to investigate its responses during an earthquake. An eight storeys hotel building is analyzed using finite element analysis software. Two earthquakes ground motion, namely El Centro (1940) and Kobe earthquake are applied at the base of the structure and the seismic capacities at structural and element levels are evaluated according to the guideline of ATC-40. Formation of plastic hinges is used as the basis of local performance evaluation and storey drift is used as the basis for evaluating global performance. It has been observed that for Kobe and El Centro earthquake ground motions, the structure meets the performance objective in serviceability of ATC-40 as Immediate Occupancy (IO) and Damage Control (DC).

Masrilayanti, Ruddy Kurniawan, Jafril Tanjung, Muhazir Yunus
Analysis of Energy Dissipation Structure of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Additional Metal Damping

The seismic performance curve of single-particle-system is used to investigate the damping amount of additional dampers for reinforced concrete frame structures. The damping amount of the additional metal damper is researched and calculated. First, the original structure is simplified to a single-particle-system. The inter displacement angle of the structure is calculated according to the response spectrum. Then the target interlayer displacement angle of the original structure is set, the damping of the single-particle-system is calculated according to the target interlayer displacement angle. Finally, the damping amount of the multi-particle-system is derived from the damping amount of the single-particle-system, and the damping amount of the additional metal damping required for the multi-particle-system structure is calculated. The time history analysis of seismic response of the calculation model is carried out by Wilson-θ method, and the response value is obtained. At the same time, the hysteretic curve of the damper under earthquake action is drawn, the energy dissipation capacity of the damper is researched by the hysteretic curve. Some considerations are put forward for the design of reinforced concrete energy dissipation frame structures in the future.

Fangqian He, Ting Zhang, Yuchen Jiang
Discussion of “Strong Column—Weak Beam” in Capacity Design Method

The ideal failure mode of structures under strong earthquakes is one of the key factors to achieve the seismic fortification goal. The capacity design method is an important tool to ensure the failure mode of “strong column—weak beam” in different country design codes, but there are various differences in the design application, as well as in the observed failure modes after earthquake disasters. In terms of structural damage, this failure mode advocated by the capacity design method has not been totally realized. In order to explore the reasons, this paper takes the reinforced concrete frame structure as an example, sorts out the relevant provisions on “strong column—weak beam” in the capacity design method in New Zealand, the United States, Europe, Japan and China, summarizes the similarities and differences. Additionally, this paper also reflects on the inadequacies about design method of column moment magnification in China.

Lv Tao, Li Yingmin, Li Feng, Li Feng, Pan Cunrui, Feng Liqiang
Experimental Study of Cylindrical Steel Slit Damper for Passive Energy Dissipation

This paper presents a novel cylindrical steel slit damper, named the CSSD, designed for passive energy dissipation. The CSSD consists of a steel cylinder with multiple axial slit cuts to form strips, which dissipates energy by flexural yielding under the torsional deformation of the cylinder. In this study, we derived formulas to evaluate the initial torsional stiffness and torsional yield strength of the device. We then conducted cyclic loading tests on three specimens to verify the device's performance, and found that all specimens exhibited stable hysteretic behavior. The relationships between torque moment and torsional angle for the three specimens were discussed. The torsional stiffness and yield strength showed good consistency with the theoretical prediction. Results of this study indicate that the stiffness and strength of the CSSD can be easily modified or scaled up to meet actual structural requirements.

Shuai Feng, Hiroshi Tagawa, Xingchen Chen
Lintel Type Damping Device for Seismic Retrofit of Shear Wall Structure

The methods for improving the seismic performance of the structure are the increasing the strength or the ductility capacity of the structure. In order to increase the strength of the shear wall structure, there are methods to increase the cross section of the structural member as like the shear wall or beam, and increase the rebar amount, but these are unreasonable in terms of design and construction. Therefore, in order to improve the seismic performance of the shear wall structure, it is reasonable to improve the ductility capacity by using the damping device. In this study, the seismic performance of shear wall structures with the lintel type damping device was analyzed. It can be seen that the energy dissipation of the damping device is greatly increased after the nonlinear behavior of the shear wall structure, thereby reducing the damage of the main structural members.

GeeCheol Kim, YouSeong Kim, Joonho Lee
Simulation Analysis of Steel Frames Supported by Foundations at Different Ground Levels with the Self-Centering Column Base Joints on the Upper Ground

Due to the strong constraint conditions, the column on the upper ground of frames supported by foundations at different ground levels will have large residual deformation after the earthquake, the self-centering structure is useful to reduce the residual deformation. At present, there is no research on the application of self-centering structure to the structures supported by foundations at different ground levels. Therefore, in this paper, the self-centering structure is applied to the upper grounding to study the seismic performance of the steel structures supported by foundations at different ground levels. The seismic performance of the frame is simulated by finite element software and the results are analyzed. To study the seismic performance of steel frames, the structure of the self-centering column base joints and the form of steel frames are designed. Considering three design parameters, including the size of the slotted hole of the buckling restrained steel (BRS) plate and the connecting plate on foundation, the width of the dissipated section of the BRS plate and whether the connecting plate on foundation is arranged, five frame models are established by using the finite element software ABAQUS to simulate under the lateral cyclic loading. The effects of hysteretic curves, stiffness degradation, energy dissipation capacity, residual deformation and other seismic properties of each specimen were compared and analyzed. Research results show that the steel frame with the self-centering column on the upper ground has good self-center ability. However, the parameters of the steel frame with the self-centering column on the upper ground will affect the self-centering ability and seismic performance. The slotted hole can delay the plastic time of BRS plate, but has little effect on the overall residual deformation. The width of the dissipating position has a great influence on the self-centering effect and energy-dissipating capacity of the whole specimen. With the increase of the width, the dissipating capacity and stiffness of the structure increase, but the self-centering effect decreases. The connecting plate on foundation can provide certain energy dissipation capacity and stiffness under earthquake, but the overall residual deformation will increase.

Yang Zhenyu, Li Yingmin
Derivation of Response Spectra and Hysteretic Energy: A Case Study on 2023 Turkey-Syria Earthquake in Consideration of Structural Ductility

Structural response under strong ground motion has always been of concern in engineering seismology due to low predictability of seismic events and their devastating impact. The energy-based seismic design (EBSD) is proposed to capture the cumulative damage of the structure in terms of evaluating hysteretic energy, which is a more reasonable design method considering inelastic deformation of structures. On the other hand, structural ductility demand is another significant aspect of design. In this paper, the response spectra and hysteretic energy under different ductility factors are derived and quantified based on a selection of ground motion records from the recent 2023 Turkey-Syria earthquake mainshock (M7.7) and aftershock (M7.6). The results show that for the selected data, the peak value of acceleration response spectra significantly exceeds the design acceleration, and the hysteretic energy for M7.7 presents a relatively high value while the value for M7.6 is comparatively lower. Even if the evaluation for the M7.6 event is minor, it is worth considering the structural vulnerability under cumulative damage and residual influence from the mainshock.

Weiyi Shao
Dynamic Seismic Analysis and Design of the Clock Tower Structure

The project includes the analysis and structural design, according to the National Building Regulations of a building of 06 levels, the construction of a clock tower located in the district of Huaro—Province of Quispicanchi- Department of Cusco-Peru. The building has the following structural elements: The structure consists of reinforced concrete elements. It is a structure with a system of aporticado in the longitudinal and transversal directions. The roof system consists of columns, reinforced concrete beams, lightened slabs, stairs and masonry partitions. For the seismic analysis a three-dimensional model was elaborated considering all structural elements representing the beams and columns as linear elements (Frame), the lightened slabs as membrane elements (Membrane). Three degrees of freedom were considered at each level of the building (two translational and one rotational). The design spectrum of the seismic standard was used and a dynamic spectral analysis was performed. For the design of the elements, the values obtained in the dynamic analysis were scaled up to values equivalent to 80–90% of the static analysis using the regulatory formula H = ZUCS/R multiplied by the total weight of the building. The required design combinations are established according to the RNE Standard E.060 for reinforced concrete elements, being that the structure complies with symmetry, both in the distribution of masses and in the stiffness, adequate resistance, continuity in the structure, both in plan and in elevation, ductility of the connections, hyperstability and monolithism, lateral stiffness and rigid diaphragm. It is concluded that the design of the structure complies with all the regulatory bases of the RNE and also of the seismic-resistant analysis that is zoned according to its location.

Osorio Lobaton Gianpol Samuel, Castañeda Avila Jhiiviana Jhasmin, Mamani Huaman Rolando

Building Integrated Photovoltaics, Building Thermal Environment and Thermal Comfort

A Case Study on the Design Model of Sunroom in the New Rural Houses in West China from the Perspective of Carbon Emission

In the solar radiation enriched areas of west China, solar heat gain has a significant impact on the heating demand of houses, thus the application of solar energy technology in new rural houses is becoming popular. Taking a new rural house project in west China as a case, this paper studied a number of factors influencing solar energy utilization in sunroom with Design Builder software and came up with some results and recommendations for the design of sunroom from the perspective of carbon emission reduction: (1) If local new rural house has the attached sunroom and it is oriented to south direction, the carbon emissions of rural house can be reduced by about 20% per unit area. (2) Sunroom roof with southward slope can well reduce the heat load of the rural house. (3) Height of the sunroom should be not higher than that of its adjacent back wall, otherwise opaque partition structure is preferable to be used. (4) With the same land area and construction area of the case project, the recommendable width and depth of the south-facing sunroom is 4.8 and 3.9 m respectively.

Yiming Zhang, Yu Liu, Minmin Yang, Yufei Zou, Jie Song, Wenqiang Li
Watertightness Design and Experimental Evaluation of a Solar Panel Structure for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) Roofs

Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roof technology is gaining popularity and its durability is of concern to different interest groups—watertightness is an important aspect. This study proposes an optimized solar panel structure for BIPV roofs, which aims to achieve watertightness performance; further, watertightness experiments with static and dynamic rainfall (the max wind speed level was 12) were conducted based on GB/T 15227–2019 standard through third-party testing. The results show that the BIPV roof system proposed has good watertightness performance; the water leakage grade is “not severe”. In addition, this study compares the technology application differences of three BIPV roof prototypes and discusses the effectiveness of red dyed test strips in characterizing water leakages. The proposed structure can be a reference for architects and engineers in the early design stage of BIPV roofs, which effectively enhances the durability and the cost investment of waterproofing materials.

Dingqiu Chen, Shaohang Shi
Evaluation of PV Utilization Potential of University Building Roofs Based on PVsyst Software Simulation

Solar energy utilization is an important way to reduce energy consumption of university buildings and build a green low-carbon campus environment. With usually large and plain form, the roofs of college bulidin (CB) in universities may possess good basic conditions for PV utilization. To explore the actual potential of PV utilization of the roofs of existing FBC, this paper takes a FBC in a university in Xi'an area as an case for analysis. First of all, a CB close to the campus center with a moderate total area was selected as a typical research object; second, a roof PV utilization scheme was proposed based on the situation of the case building; third, PVsyst software was used for modeling and simulation, based on which calculation was conducted to evaluate the energy saving and economic benefits that the roof of the case building may generate; finally, the overall PV utilization potential of the roofs of all FBC in the university was calculated, limitations of this research were addressed and further researches was recommended.

Yufei Zou, Yu Liu, Jie Song, Yiming Zhang, Minmin Yang, Wenqiang Li
Reallocation of Supply Air in Large Indoor Spaces Considering Thermal Coupling

In large public indoor spaces, such as railway station and airport waiting halls, indoor thermal environment is not always homogenous due to non-uniform indoor occupant distributions. A conventional air conditioning system, which adopts a uniform air supply, easily leads to local overcooling or overheating. Therefore, this paper proposes a supply air reallocation method for a large indoor space to enhance the uniformity of the thermal environment and improve the occupants’ thermal comfort. In the proposed method, the large space is firstly divided into several subzones according to the layout of the supply air terminals. Then, a co-simulation platform, including a building energy model and a computational fluid dynamics (BEM-CFD) model, is established to simulate and identify the thermal coupling between different subzones. The supply air volume of each subzone is then optimized considering the thermal coupling characteristic. The proposed method was applied to a high-speed railway station in China to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results showed that, compared with the conventional uniform air supply method, the indoor thermal uniformity could be improved by 15.61–31.11% after reallocating supply air, being able to reduce the risk of local overcooling or overheating.

Bo Lan, Gongsheng Huang
Investigation on the Influence of Insolation on Winter Thermal Comfort of Outdoor Activity Space on Campus in a Cold Region of China

With the development of various outdoor activities on campus, students are spending increasingly more time in the outdoor space, so the outdoor environment has a more important impact on students’ physical and mental health. Targeting a typical outdoor activity space of a university in Xi’an city, which is located in the cold region of China, this paper investigated its winter thermal comfort performance through on-site measurement, a questionnaire survey, and statistical analysis. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software, and the functional relationship between TCV (thermal comfort voting value) and outdoor environmental parameters was established. Along with the questionnaire survey, solar radiation, wind speed, and air temperature of two specific positions (P1 and P2) was measured and recorded in real time. The results showed that, under similar clothing thermal resistance, in the area without sunlight (P1), the measured air temperatures range between 3.2 °C and 13.1 °C and wind speed range between 0 and 1.8 m/s. The survey respondents wanted to improve thermal comfort by increasing the temperature. In contrast, in the area with sunlight (P2), the temperature range between 3.6 °C and 16.2 °C and wind speed range between 0 and 1.9 m/s, the survey respondents wanted to improve the thermal comfort by decreasing the outdoor temperature. Such results imply that insolation significantly affects the winter thermal comfort sensation of outdoor activity space on campus.

Jie Song, Yu Liu, Wenqiang Li, Yufei Zou, Minmin Yang, Yiming Zhang, Hui Liu
A Novel Low-Temperature Personalized Radiant Cooler: Thermal Environment and Local Thermal Comfort Evaluation

A new personalized radiant cooler (PRC) is presented in this study, which uses an air-layer integrated radiative cooling unit (AiRCU) to create a microthermal environment for individuals. The AiRCU separates the air-contact surface from the radiant surface, which is able to enhance cooling capacity and reduce condensation risk simultaneously. An interesting issue is if the thermal comfort of the thermal environment built by the PRC should be satisfied. In this study, the PRC was experimentally prepared and a model for the thermal environment was developed using computational fluid dynamic. The cases of the PRC with the supply air temperature of 26.8 °C, 27.1 °C, 27.5 °C and the radiant surface temperature of 15 °C, 10 °C, 5 °C, which achieved the same operative temperature for the workstation, were investigated. The temperature and velocity distributions, and the thermal comfort indices were analyzed. The results indicated that the local thermal comfort of the PRC satisfies the comfort criteria specified in the ASHRAE Standard.

Yuying Liang, Gongsheng Huang
An Empirical Study of the Effects of Green Roof on the Outdoor and Indoor Thermal Environment of a College Buildings in Winter

With the continuous progress of urbanization, urban ecological problems have been widely concerned. The heat island effect produced in cities affects people's lives, and it is increasingly urgent to solve the problem of heat island. Roof greening is closely related to buildings. It is a new greening method, which has advantages in improving ecology, regulating climate and building energy conservation. The campus not only meets the greening needs of teachers and students for the environment, but also pays more and more attention to the energy-saving utilization of teaching buildings, college buildings and other buildings. In this context, campus roof greening came into being. In different seasons, roof greening will have a certain impact on the indoor and outdoor thermal environment of campus buildings. By means of on-site measurement, this paper scientifically and quantitatively explores its impact, and then analyzes the data to obtain experimental conclusions such as the insulation effect of the top floor indoor. It is hoped that this article can provide some reference for whether to use roof greening in buildings.

Minmin Yang, Yu Liu, Yiming Zhang, Yufei Zou, Jie Song, Ni Zhang

Sustainable and Creative Architectural Design

Passive Design Strategies with Thermal Capacity in Contemporary African Educational Architecture

In the harsh environment of Africa, the vernacular architecture detaches the indoor from the outdoor environment through natural materials with high thermal capacities. This method, inherited from craftsmanship and knowledge of local materials and climate, is essential in sustainable design. With the rise in construction in Africa, a new trend inspired by vernacular architecture seeks to renew its passive strategies to adapt to the outdoor climate. The challenge of affordable building in educational architecture requires methods to optimize the indoor environment inspired this study. This research aims to clarify the characteristics of contemporary educational architecture in Africa by illustrating how the regional style was reinvented by comparing the vernacular models and their modern derivations. The results demonstrate the design solution to combine spatial composition and wind environment. Further, the technique and knowledge of using the thermal capacity of local materials is a solution for the built environment in the climate change era.

Yen-Khang Nguyen-Tran, Minato Hashimoto, Ryo Murata
Sustainable House Design Thru Passive and Active Strategies with Python Language. Case Study Ras Al Khaimah (RAK), UAE

Based on the values of the electricity consumption in the residential stock in the Middle East it’s time to apply more and more sustainable strategies from the design stage by using advanced tools. It is our generation responsibility to improve the building design in order to reduce electricity consumption, therefore, to reduce CO2 emissions. Referring also to the SDG 11, UAE has done great effort in the green building sector. This study follows these efforts. This research evolves on the main points: active and passive strategies in a sustainable house in the United Arab Emirates. 1. Analyze the site selection (location, climate, microclimate), 2. Design Process, 3. Project progress: Active and Passive strategies, 4. Tools and resources, 5. Results. In conclusions, the aim of this study is to use the advanced tools available to explore the possibilities of active design strategy of sustainable house projects. In addition passive strategies are applied in order to have an economically sustainable building. The findings might help the industry to integrate advanced tools in early stages of design.

Aysha Alsheraifi, Lindita Bande, Alyazia Alsheraifi, Muhammad Iqbal
The Art of Sustainable Architecture Creation and Evaluation

The article is the study of the logics to create and evaluate the sustainable architecture. As it focuses on the solving of sustainability challenges, such as environmental crisis, their origin is revised with the purpose to investigate in ‘curing the roots rather than the fruits’. The study consists of two parts. The first is the search of the parallels in variety of concepts of sustainability interacting physical and mental attributes. Their constitution is revised, patterns of behavior or, alternatively, performance questing possibilities to make a change. It is theoretical considerations on analogy of particularities of sustainability in different fields, such as sociology, education, architecture, economy, and in the variety contexts of time as a result of study of national and international scientific literature, documents, and initiatives. The second part is the case study of clay possibilities for molding architectural solutions in such a form illustrating the prototype of evaluation of the levels of sustainability. The notion of the art embodies suggestion of the way of thinking as guidelines to create quality sustainable solutions rather than only the ultimate end by itself. Conclusions and proposals are given.

Dalia Augustinaite
The Effect of Geometry Parameters on Daylighting of School Buildings in the Gaza Strip

School buildings have a significant potential for daylighting to improve school students’ academic performance in terms of rational, behavioral, and physical aspects; of their education and activities. This paper discusses the role of geometry parameters, including building shape, annual sun exposure (ASE), and spatial daylight autonomy (sDA) of single-sided school buildings in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. The daylighting of five shapes was compared through computer simulations using ClimateStudio software. It has been noted that geometric shapes, such as L, C, H, F, and E-shapes, are the most popular shapes, especially in governmental schools in the Gaza Strip. Results showed that each shape has a different impact on daylighting. The E-shape performed the optimal shape, with 84.5% for sDA and 19.1% for ASE, with various design options to determine the stability of increasing or decreasing the amount of artificial light needed per day. A 40–60% window-to-wall ratio had the optimal daylighting quality performance. However, deeper rooms required a higher window-to-wall percentage to reduce the lighting demand.

Tawfiq Jebril, Yang Chen, Saji Hamed, Aly Hajjaj
Analysis Model for Industrialized Housing Design and Assembly Process

Industrialized housing construction comprises different connected activities that include many stakeholders and for which the plan of action is carried out itinerantly. This paper proposes and tests a conceptual analysis model for industrialized housing design and assembly process. Four projects from Ethiopia and China were selected as a comparative case study. Semi-structured interviews, document and literature reviews, and field studies were conducted. Abductive reasoning was applied for conceptual model development. The study’s findings revealed that the complexity of the design-construction process of industrialized housing could be simplified through the building component-based design and assembly process. Further, it provides three basic dimensions (i.e., material, technical, and assembly order) to understand and analyze industrialized house buildings. The study contributes a conceptual model to the industrialized house-building body of knowledge for a systematic view of the industrialized housing design and construction process.

Yidnekachew Tesmamma Daget, Hong Zhang
Visioning New Methodology for Creative Architecture in the Third Millennium of Knowledge Society

The most effective utilization of information and cutting-edge scientific understanding is essential to the fourth technological revolution of the twenty-first century. As new ideas frequently encounter a negative response from society, it is crucial to constructively use new technology, particularly in building systems and creative architectural design. A person needs substantial knowledge, a holistic approach, the ability to synthesize information about an item, and the development of new human values to interact positively with these technologies. Philosophy, science, art, architecture, and technology are all seen in today’s knowledge as components of a single, interacting cognitive system. According to the new techniques provided to help design and enhance thought translating to physical forms, the paper will study and analyze the effects of the thinking transformation shift in the third century on architectural space and design methodologies. In addition, the paper will introduce a methodology for future vision based on existing and emerging technologies and methods, which will shift lifestyle and improve quality of life. The psychological impossibility of inaction is the inability of thought, and technology and mass media can affect how a new thing is seen in advance.

Abeer Samy Yousef Mohamed
Lumiducts Implementation and Their Relation to Luminous Comfort in High Andean Homes in the District of Huamancaca-Peru in 2021

The insufficient research on lighting comfort in high Andean housing is irrelevant compared to thermal comfort. Therefore, the following study presents an eco-technique called lumiduct that allows increasing lighting in the required spaces; the design and construction process considers factors that must contribute to developing a low-cost and environmentally friendly model. The study research is on observing the influence of a lighting duct implemented in a House kitchen built with adobe in the southeastern district of Huamancaca, province of Chupaca, Junín region, Peru. The encountered problem shows that 75% of the district's population uses the kitchen constantly, even when 48% say it is the darkest and most inefficient space. This study is an Applied Research. It has been based on testing theories and performed on correlative levels, which aims to measure the relationship between two variables (lighting pipelines and high Andean housing). On the other hand, the results obtained allowed us to understand the lack of lighting comfort through the implementation of a lighting duct; evaluated through measurements with properly calibrated lux meters, showing a significant increase in internal illuminance, comparing the results obtained through the Dialux software.

L. Katherine Brañez, P. Paola Segura, T. Vladimir Montoya
Mars Habitat Design Thru Parametric Structures Based on United Arab Emirates Heritage

Mars exploration has started for decades; however, the recent missions show possibility of building a colony. Therefore, the design of a habitat for human colony is relevant. Life on Mars is challenging due to the excessive radiation. Therefore, the habitat design shall consider all elements of radiation protection, in addition to the atmosphere. The methodology followed in this study is as per the below steps: 1. Analysis of Mars conditions; understand the Mars soil, climate, and radiation. 2. Schematic Design, standards of living in space; analyze standards of habitat and evaluate schematic design options. 3. Connection to UAE Architectural Heritage. 4. Modelling and Simulations; Create and analyze the models in Rhino Grasshopper. 5. Findings and results. The aim of this study was to design a human habitat on Mars using parametric structures based on the heritage architecture of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study followed a set of steps including an analysis of Mars conditions, schematic design, connection to UAE architectural heritage, modeling and simulations, and findings and results. The main tools used in the study were Rhino and Grasshopper. The final design was selected based on the modeling and simulation results, with the goal of creating a habitat that is adapted to the conditions on Mars and the humans who will live in it. The findings of this study contribute to the ongoing efforts to define new spaces in other planets.

Jose Berengueres, Lindita Bande, Aysha Alsheraifi, Afra Alnuaimi, Entesar Alawthali, Alanoud Ablooshi
An Experimental Study and Sensitivity Analysis of Design Parameters of Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) Roofs for Rain Noise Reduction

Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) roof performance in different types of buildings has attracted the attention of architects and engineers in recent years—sound reduction of lightweight buildings is a typical scenario. Laboratory experiments with artificial rain (rainfall intensity: 2 mm/min) were conducted to investigate the sound insulation performance of a lightweight BIPV roof; in addition, sensitivity analysis was conducted for five design parameters, including floor area, room height, length to width ratio of room (LWR), air temperature and atmospheric pressure intensity (310 cases in total). The results show that the A-weighting sound pressure level (LIA) ranges from 18.25 dB to 29.01 dB, with LWR having the greatest effect (decrease of 10.76 dB) on rain noise reduction and air temperature having the least effect (decrease of 0.70 dB). The data and analysis presented in this study can provide a reference for the performance evaluation of BIPV technology, so as to create a healthy and comfortable indoor acoustic environment through parameter optimization design.

Dingqiu Chen, Shaohang Shi
Low Carbon Design Strategy of Regional Airport Terminal Based on Building Carbon Emission Calculation Standard

The construction of regional airports in China is growing vigorously, which is in sharp contrast to the continuous operating losses. The low-carbon design of the terminal is of great significance to reduce the construction and operating cost of the project. Through the analysis of Building Carbon Emission Calculation Standard, combined with the case studies of domestic and foreign regional airports, based on the perspective of the whole life cycle of buildings, the low-carbon design strategy of regional airport terminals is analyzed and summarized from the three stages of building materials production and transportation, construction and demolition, and building operation respectively; The results were shown that the carbon emissions in the production and transportation stages of building materials can be reduced by modular and expandable systems, digital models for full process control, selecting building materials with low carbon emission factors and recyclable building materials, local building materials and lightweight structures; The carbon emissions in the construction and demolition stages can be reduced by adopting the prefabricated assembly technology and the reconstruction and reuse of existing buildings; The carbon emissions in the operation stages can be reduced by introducing natural lighting and ventilation, using renewable energy and increasing building carbon sinks. These design strategies can provide suggestions and ideas for the sustainable development of relevant venues in the future.

Xia Ye, Tao Li-ke, Guo Qin-en

Hydraulic Engineering and Flood Control

Coupled Hydrologic-Hydraulic Modeling-Based Flood Inundation Mapping for a Segment of the Tullahan River in Valenzuela City, Philippines

Anthropogenic activities brought about by accelerated urban expansion trigger changes in the hydrologic response of watersheds. The Philippines, being prone to the occurrence of extreme weather events and urban development, has experienced more frequent and more devastating floods that have caused damage to life and property throughout the years. Thus, the need for modern approaches to disaster risk and preparedness is essential to lessen the extent of damage that flood events bring to communities. This study was conducted to exhibit the capability of using a coupled hydrologic and hydraulic model to produce a flood inundation map for a segment of the Tullahan River in Valenzuela City, Philippines. A hydrology model was set up and calibrated using the Hydraulic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS), and simulations show that the peak discharge for the 10-year and 100-year return periods ranges from 11.88 cubic meters per second (cms) up to 23.48 cms. Based on the produced flood inundation map using Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS), the maximum flood depths reach up to 2.91 m, and the inundated area covered 0.9419 km2 for a storm with a 100-year return period which occurred close to the banks of the river at mid-stream. The findings of this study could help local planners in promoting the use of modern tools, such as computer models, in disaster-risk preparedness toward resilient communities.

Hiyasmine S. Pili, Franz D. Santos, Charena P. Baluyot, Kyla M. Manzanade, Yunika Aloha P. Cruz
Modeling of the Submersible Plate System to Counteract Erosion in the Huallaga River, Case: Yurimaguas—Loreto

At present, the lack of optimal riparian defense systems in the Peruvian Amazonian rivers has allowed the occurrence of natural disasters. The main objective of this report is to model different alternatives of plate batteries and simulate in Iber with flow rates and bathymetry of the area to find the most optimal alternative. The HEC-HMS software was also used to obtain the maximum flood flows for return periods of 25, 50, 100, 100, 200 and 500 years for use in IBER, which allows hydrodynamic simulations of rivers and watercourses, calculating floods and delimiting zones. The simulations were performed with the 200-year return flow, 21,749.6 m3/s. For this research 3 simulations were performed, which were divided into 3 different distributions of plate batteries, these in turn were divided into 2 different angles of attack. As the most relevant results, according to the distributions of water velocity, bottom stress, specific flow and erosion along the channel, and considering that the maximum values are far from the margin to be protected, the alternative distributions of the battery of plates that gave the best results in the channel were alternatives 1 and 3. Finally, it is concluded that the most optimal alternative and angle of attack is alternative 1 and the angle of 20°, thus counteracting erosion. Therefore, with the support of ANSYS software, the same conclusion was reached as for alternative 1, but with an angle of 25°, so that the optimal angles are 20–25 degrees.

Amanda Giron, Stefano Rottiers, Mitchel Jara
Soft Computing Method for Settling Velocity Prediction of Fine Sediment in Retention Structure

Most of the retention structures were polluted by various pollutants, particularly fine sediment carried by rainwater due to erosion. Fine sediment is the main cause of siltation which may cause numerous health and environmental problems. To date, the study on fine sediment is limited due to the technology constraint. Therefore, there is a need to formulate a mathematical model which is able to provide an acceptable level of accuracy for the settling velocity prediction of fine sediment. In this study, Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) and Gradient Boosted Trees (GBT) models were developed and trained by using the experimental data from Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) tests. Flow rate, particle sizes, vertical displacement and maximum depth were considered as the input while the settling velocity of fine sediment was kept as the output. The developed models were evaluated using a series of statistical analyses. For RBFN and GBT, model VI and model V respectively, has achieved the best performance in terms of coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean squared error. The findings show that GBT is more suitable than RBFN for the settling velocity prediction of fine sediment with a R2 value of 0.9591, MAE value of 0.000177 and RMSE value of 1.03E-05.

Ren Jie Chin, Sai Hin Lai, Wing Son Loh, Lloyd Ling, Eugene Zhen Xiang Soo, Yuk Feng Huang, Ya Qi Yeo
Research on Scour Monitoring Techniques for Bridge Pile Foundations

The scour of pile foundation is a key problem of the wading bridge structure, and the underwater pile foundation lies in a complicated environment, which is difficult to inspect directly. Therefore, the effective monitoring of scour for the bridge pile foundation is very important to ensure the safety of the bridge structure operation. The research status of scour monitoring techniques for the bridge pile foundation is summarized from two aspects of direct monitoring methods and indirect monitoring methods. At the same time, the research progress of determining whether the bridge pile foundations scour occurs, identifying the depth of bridge scour, identifying the degree of bridge scour and the protection of bridge scour are described and discussed. The development trend of scour monitoring techniques of the bridge pile foundation is proposed, and it is suggested that more attention should be paid to the research of direct monitoring equipment of the pile foundation for the underwater complex environment, embedded sensors with higher survival rate and accuracy, and the collaborative working method for monitoring the bridge pile foundation and other components of bridge.

Wenting Qiao, Qianen Xu, Yang Liu

Infrastructure Projects and Municipal Engineering

A Review of Approaches to Drainage System Management: Current Status and Future Research Directions

Throughout humans’ existence, drainage systems have been a very vital part of civilization and sanitation development. Drainage systems are coined to have purposively given way to the improvement of modern-day sanitation, through which disposal and transport of wastewater and stormwater were given priority in aid of public health and flood concerns. However, through time, the practices in drainage system management have also gradually changed. In this paper, approaches to drainage system management are reviewed through scholarly articles worldwide. Historical accounts of drainage system development are consulted to formulate the current approaches. Governmental action, especially governing legislations and ordinances to public utilization and prevention of urbanization-related problems (e.g., flooding) are also analyzed. Lastly, a greener approach to a drainage system is also viewed as essential in this review. Hence, Sustainable Drainage Systems and the technological approaches in this regard are reviewed to shed light on the current standing of drainage systems around the globe.

Gabriel Lloyd C. Malinay, Clariz D. Santos, Gayle Ann Marie B. Sarmiento, Franz D. Santos, David B. Sanson
Influence of Parameter Variation of Saturated–Unsaturated Soil on Deformation and Stability of Foundation Pit

The soil–water interaction of unsaturated soil has a significant impact on the characteristics of the soil. Capillary action makes the distribution range of unsaturated cohesive soil deep, and the effect of matric suction changes the characteristic parameters of the soil, affecting the deformation and stability of the foundation pit. In this paper, the theory of zonal shear strength of saturated–unsaturated soil is established. The physical and mechanical initial parameters of soil are obtained through tests. The deformation and slope stability of foundation pit are studied by finite element method. The theory is applied to the deformation and stability analysis of the foundation pit of the drainage pump station in Lanxi. When the excavation reaches a depth of 5 m, the error between the monitoring value of the horizontal displacement of the top of the foundation pit and the simulation result of the model is within 10% when considering the change of the unsaturated soil characteristic parameters; When the excavation reaches the depth of 9 m, considering the change of unsaturated soil characteristic parameters, the extreme value of stability coefficient of the foundation pit slope before and after adding steel support increased by 16.0% and 6.7% respectively. The theoretical model and numerical simulation results of saturated unsaturated soil in this paper are more consistent with the actual situation. The research results can be applied to the slope stability analysis of foundation pit excavation engineering.

Yongbiao Xu, Yinzhen Dong, Yingyuan Jiang, Jianfen Zhou, Qian Mao
An Urban Public Transport Resilience Assessment Methodology Based on a Two-Carbon Context

In 2020, China has proposed “peak carbon” and “carbon neutral” targets, of which active guidance for low-carbon travel will be crucial. Urban public transportation has the advantages of high capacity and high intensification, and its per capita energy consumption is extremely low compared with that of small cars. Therefore, the proportion of people traveling by public transportation in a city will directly affect the overall traffic resilience level of the city. In this regard, this paper takes Wuhan City, Hubei Province as an example, and through an extensive survey of residents’ travel characteristics, we count the threshold of residents’ willingness to still choose public transportation when faced with the phenomenon of connections, detours and transfers in public transportation. The total motorized trips were classified into four modes, including active public transportation mode, easy to replace the car mode, passive public transportation mode and not easy to replace the car mode. By fitting the relationship curves between their thresholds and the proportion of each type of travel mode, the corresponding assessment system of urban public transportation resilience is established, and finally the key nodes in the curves are identified according to the fitting results. And accordingly, the overall public transportation resilience characteristics of the city and the distribution of public transportation resilience in each region within the city are analyzed.

Keyuan Ding, Xueliang Liu, Ran Peng, Hanbang Ning
Advanced Intervention Phase of High-Speed Rail Construction Catenary and Track Synchronization Precise Measurement Fine Adjustment Exploration

In order to achieve high smoothness and high stability of high-speed railway catenary, the exploration of high-speed railway catenary equipment and track synchronous precise measurement and adjustment is carried out in early intervention stage. On the basis of elaborating the relationship between catenary and precise measurement network, this paper explores the implementation of synchronous precise measurement and adjustment of catenary and track in high-speed railway from four aspects of key contents, important guarantee, basic method and necessary measures, and lays a solid foundation for implementing ‘zero defect’ of dynamic acceptance of catenary through early intervention and whole process control.

Yonggui Li, Yajun Wang
Research on the Integrated Design Method of Construction and Maintenance in the Whole Life Cycle of Expressway

Aiming at the drawbacks of “emphasizing construction and ignoring operation” in the current engineering construction mode, the author studies the influencing factors and design methods of the integrated design of construction, management and maintenance of expressway bridges in the whole life cycle. According to the cost function curve of the whole life cycle, the method of optimizing the life cycle cost analysis is given. The integrated design of construction, management and maintenance throughout the life cycle can ensure the stability and continuity of the construction, management and maintenance of transportation facilities, realize the seamless connection of its construction, management and maintenance, and realize the continuity and traceability of engineering responsibilities. Reference is provided throughout the life cycle.

Xue-Feng Zhang

Urban Architectural Image and Urban Planning

Architectural Identity of the City of Tirana, Albania. Overview of the Past, Present, and Future Expectations with Focus on the Residential Buildings (Inner Circle)

The city of Tirana, the capital of Albania is undergoing thru large developments in the city center and suburbs. Will aspirations to enter int eh European Union the value of properties in the capital is increasing. Due to the fast development of the city, there is a need of the architectural assessment of this development with focus on the residential buildings. The city has an interesting history of architecture. The methodology of this study follows the below steps: Analysis of the city urban development Evaluation of the architectural history influences Current architectural language Future expectations of the city architectural identity Findings and results. The aim of this study is to understand and draw guidelines on how the future of the architectural identity of the city, referring to the residential buildings, might be. This result shall be based on the past and current developments of residential buildings. Since Albania is a developing country, this research might have an impact to the local authorities in understanding the critical need of preserving the architectural identity of the city for the future generations.

Lindita Bande, Brunilda Babameto
Factors Affecting the Formation of Architectural Space and Construction Systems in the Jordanian Vernacular Architecture

The research includes studying architectural space in heritage houses to identify the value of architectural spaces in Jordanian social life. The different structural systems, their characteristics, building materials, and the constituent elements of buildings were defined in the context of vernacular Jordanian architecture. This investigation has provided insights into the impact of the structural system on the architectural and interior spaces from several aspects. By highlighting on the abandonment of these inherited in the contemporary ages of Jordan. The study emphasizes the great advantages missed by this practice, as they represent a sustainable housing solution by adopting local building materials and promoting social sustainability. In addition, this form of buildings has a long lifespan, especially compared to different types of concrete buildings. However, despite the modern movements of abandoning inherited methods, there have been some attempts by local architects to revive these traditions. The research aims at explaining and clarifying interconnected construction design solutions in Jordanian vernacular architecture in a manner that promotes environmental sustainability, taking into account the material cost of the building, as a key role in choosing the building construction method, from an economic sustainability point of view. In its methodology, the research relied on description, analysis, and comparison through case studies of heritage buildings from different regions, in addition to modern buildings following inherited construction methods to illustrate the idea of the research.

Mohannad Tarrad, Umamah Ahmad
The Construction Typology and Its Relationship in the Architectural Image of the Buildings in the City of Oxapampa, a South German Colony Located Within the High Forest of the Department of Pasco in Central Peru

Our investigation had as objective, the study of the constructive typology that was developed in Oxapampa, this given that people from Germany and Austria arrived in Peru, who upon arriving in Oxapampa began with the development of an architecture which has both Austrian and German architecture that differs from the entire jungle region and even from the entire country, the architecture that the settlers impose is very well suited to the area due to the configuration of its climate, and they begin to exploit natural resources such as wood, for this reason it was possible to identify the constructive typology and the relationship it has with the architectural image. A data collection was carried out through observation sheets of the typological characteristics of the buildings located within the “Monumental Urban Environment”, this to analyze to what extent the constructive typology influences the architectural image of the buildings of the city. With the use of the descriptive statistical system we obtained results that define the architectural typology, the predominant materiality based on wood and how it relates to the architectural image. It was determined that the construction style contributes to safeguard the cultural heritage of Oxapampa; whose architectural use can be seen in the frontal elevation of each building within the zoning called “Monumental Urban Environment”, as well as the state of conservation influences the cultural valuation of the buildings under study, which represent a vernacular manifestation.

Diana Villegas, Vladimir Montoya
Transformation of Architectural Elements of Rumah Gaba-Gaba in Merauke Old Town, South of Papua: An Embodiment of Adaptation

Based on its history, the city of Merauke was a city that developed from the Old Town of Merauke which was formed because it was a post for the Dutch government in the early twentieth century. At that time, the Catholic Missionaries came along with old teachers from the Moluccas who taught education for indigenous Merauke people in the rural area. When the old teachers were on duty in the rural area of Merauke, they need housing in the city area that serves as a place for their families to live which later developed as the Rumah Gaba-Gaba. Then the purpose of this study is to find the form of adaptation that occurs in the architectural elements of the Rumah Gaba-Gaba which later became the forerunner of the uniqueness of the Old Town of Merauke and the development of other sectors in Merauke. The method used in this study is a qualitative method with direct observation and interview techniques (primary data) for 5 observed cases at the location of the Merauke Old Town residential area as well as content analysis and visual analysis (secondary data) in the architectural analysis of the original residence and the Merauke Old Town. The results of this study include an analysis of the adaptation and transformation of the architectural elements of the Rumah Gaba-Gaba (foundations, floors, walls, and roofs) brought by the Moluccans in Merauke.

Yashinta Irma Pratami Hematang, Harry Kurniawan
Research on the Reconstruction Strategy of Historic Districts Under the Background of Carbon Neutrality—Taking Qinzhou Historic Districts in Guangxi as an Example

With the change of urban development mode and the continuous improvement of people's living standards, the renovation and transformation of historical blocks is imperative for a city. The transformation process under the background of carbon neutrality should pay more attention to the concept of green, ecology and low carbon, while avoid blind and excessive transformation. Taking Qinzhou historic district as an example, this paper puts forward six transformation strategies, including overall planning, energy consumption reduction, micro-transformation, lighting transformation, traffic system transformation and tourism value development, based on the background of “Carbon Neutrality” and the three principles of ‘integrity, applicability and economy’, which provides a reference for the transformation of old blocks under the new situation.

Chuwei Ban, Fuqiang Li
Identifying the Influencing Factors for the Walkability of Business Streets Based on Urban Multi-source Data

Walkability tends to be crucial to the brick-and-mortar store in the current context. This study aims to identify the potential influencing factors of the business street, and reveal the multivariate causal relationship between street attributes and walking behavior. To explore such associations, we employed a structural equation model (SEM) to explain the links of multiple latent constructs and their observable indicators based on urban multi-source data and image segmentation techniques. The result revealed that Spatial Form, Street Facility, Retail Mix and Accessibility, these variables of the built environment, have a significant influence on pedestrians’ walking behavior in the business street. People prefer the wider street with shade from buildings on both sides rather than trees when shopping, which is unlike some previous studies at the community level. Moreover, convenient facilities for the subway and cars are more important to local customers compared with the bus.

Chendi Yang, Siu Ming Lo, Rui Ma
Drawing the Invisible: Visualizing Patterns of Occupation in Two Streets in Shanghai

From the many dynamics and urban planning features encountered in Shanghai, perhaps the two most iconic and recognizable are, on the one hand, the western urbanistic principles of the international settlements, and on the other, the Dan Wei-derived modern gated communities. Their foundations and historical contexts could not be further apart, yet the interaction between them has generated one of the world's most iconic and unique cities. These two approaches have been researched and compared from numerous perspectives, but the patterns of occupations taking place in their public spaces remain overlooked. This research proposes a methodology for mapping information in order to record and compare these patterns of occupations, aiming to understand their differences and similarities better, while also identifying findings that could be incorporated into modern architectural and urban design.

Glen Wash Ivanovic, Shinya Miyazaki
The ‘Integration Mode’ of Regeneration of Industrial Heritage, Magna Science Adventure Centre

The concept that valuable industrial heritage should be wisely conserved and reutilised in post-industrial societies has gradually been a consensus. Practices of heritage regeneration have become widespread in industrially developed countries. This study summarises current industrial heritage regeneration practices into three modes: ‘Continuation’, ‘Replacement’, and ‘Integration’. The third mode is rare in practice but regarded as significant research and practice value. This unique mode is detailly analysed through the literature review, archival research, and field research on a case, Magna Science Adventure Centre. The success of this case is thus attributed to its innovative regeneration design, which organically integrates the original and new identities of the steelworks in the fields of theme, function, structure, architectural form, etc. Further, the strengths, inadequacies and applicability of the third mode represented by this case are discussed. The ‘Integration’ mode of industrial heritage regeneration is considered worthy of further study and promotion if the relatively stringent prerequisites for implementing this mode can be achieved.

Chen Zhang, Zishen Bai
Interpreting the Urban Historical Area-Huishan Ancient Town as a Case Study

This paper examines the historical change process of urban historic districts through morphological research. This paper uses morphological theory to construct an analytical framework. Taking the ancient town of Huishan in Wuxi as an example, the relationship between the evolution process of spatial structure and spatial function is analyzed. Meanwhile, the transitional morphological characteristics are closely related to the social cultural background of each period. The conclusion of the study proposes that from the perspective of urban culture, the design of heritage sites should not only consider the conservation of physical forms, but also the social forms behind the physical forms are worth further consideration. In addition, this study also aims to provide the feasibility of western morphological theories in urban studies in China.

Ting Zhang, Fangqian He, Di Wang, Li Tao
Before Becoming an Independent Building: A Study of the Mixed Nature of Chemistry Laboratory Space from the 16th-18th Centuries

With the rapid development of science, the value of study in laboratory building for scientific research is becoming increasingly prominent. Focusing on the chemical science, this paper presents a historical study of the chemistry laboratory space before the formation of independent building from an architectural perspective. It is found that with the development and independence of chemistry, chemistry laboratory space passed through a state of mixture with private residence space, court space and pharmacy space, and eventually became independent building in institutions such as science societies and universities. Such a process also indicates a shift from practical-oriented chemistry practices to purely scientific research-oriented experimental activities. The study of the mixture of chemistry laboratory space helps to establish a systematic lineage of the evolution of laboratory building and provides a historical basis and broader perspective for the subsequent research.

Mingzhu Lei, Tong Cui

Information Technology and Modeling in Construction

Building Information Modeling-Based Virtual Reality System for Four-Dimensional Progress Simulation and Construction Safety Training

In recent years, BIM models have been regarded as a necessary item to be delivered in engineering projects. The owner's demand for BIM is no longer limited to the model itself, and further requires the subsequent application of BIM, of which 4D simulation is the most common extension application. Construction safety in AEC industry is an important issue. In practice, the planning of construction safety must be carried out in advance. That is, the occupational safety planning of the project should be taken into consideration at the design stage. In this way, the chance of reducing construction hazards can be greatly reduced. This research integrates BIM and virtual reality to develop “4D Progress Simulation” and “Occupational Safety Training Simulation” System to present the 4D simulation of the construction process in an immersive way. Through the immersive visual effects, the construction sequence and details of each activity in the 4D simulation can be clearly presented, so as to facilitate the identification of key construction problems and object conflicts in the process. In addition, designers can use the simulation system to check the occupational safety precautions and possible hazards during the construction process due to the immersive nature of immersive VR. An actual project is used for case studying to test the applicability of the system developed by this research. The results show that the simulation system developed by this research can indeed assist the engineers to grasp the construction sequence and construction details at the design stage. It can also prevent possible construction hazards in advance.

Kun-Chi Wang, Yuan-Hsiu Chou, Guan-Yu Chen, Jun-Jie Jiang
A Method for Semantic City Modeling

Semantic city models have been widely used in computer graphics, geomatics, gaming, planning, construction, and urban simulation. Different from the traditional geometric models which serve for visualization purposes only, semantic city models contain more information, such as location, classification, thematic attributes, functional aspects, and their logical and spatial interrelationships, which facilitate computers to understand the built environment better. However, the availability of such models, case-specificity of city object type and features, and unclear spatial semantics bring challenges to their application. Therefore, this study proposes a method, called OSMsc, for constructing semantic city models, including generating analytical layers for building, vegetation, waterbody, transportation, and UrbanTile objects, exploring the spatial semantics between city objects, calculating geometric properties, and outputting semantic city models in CityJSON format. In the end, this study selected a study area of Paris to demonstrate the construction process of the semantic city models, showing the potential of OSMsc in improving the availability, consistency, and spatial semantics of such models.

Rui Ma, Jiayu Chen, Chendi Yang, Xin Li
Analyzing the Awareness, Drivers, and Barriers of Building Information Modelling (BIM) Implementation for Sustainable Construction: Indonesia Construction Industry

The increasing sustainability issues that occur have encouraged the construction sector to adopt green and sustainable construction strategies. In Indonesia itself, regulations have been issued regarding the guidelines for the implementation of sustainable construction, which are contained in Indonesia’s Ministry of Public Works and Housing Regulation Number 9 of 2021. On the one hand, technological advances encourage us to continue innovating, and there is one technology in the construction field, namely building information modelling (BIM). The application of BIM allows for improved performance in the application of sustainability concepts in a project. To be able to implement something new into the existing workflow, it is necessary to measure the level of awareness, as well as the driver and barrier factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted to 60 respondents, and it was found that construction service players in Indonesia already have a high level of awareness of sustainable construction, BIM technology, and its regulations. Based on the knowledge of the construction service actors, the factors in the implementation of sustainable construction and BIM technology are also known. The knowledge of construction service actors in Indonesia regarding the implementation of BIM-based sustainable construction shows that the most relevant drivers are construction waste reduction (SC) and better visualization for stakeholder (BIM) and the most relevant barriers are lack of experts in sustainable construction (SC) and BIM implementation requires higher initial investment than conventional methods (BIM).

Cakraningrat Kencana Murti, Fadhilah Muslim
Integrating Cumulative Prospect Theory into a Cellular Automata Model for Building Evacuation with Obstacles

A reliable evacuation model plays an important role in building design, emergency systems, and safety management. The cellular automata (CA) model, widely applied in simulating evacuations, determines evacuees’ movement by probabilities in discrete space and time, and provides evacuees with rational moving decisions. However, people are not always rational. To fill this gap, in this study, cumulative prospect theory (CPT), a realistic decision-making model to describe the subjective outcomes and probabilities, was integrated into the CA model (i.e., CPT-CA) to mimic actual human decision-making behavior during evacuation in a room with obstacles. Two types of evacuation scenarios were used to validate our proposed model: one exit and two exits in the classrooms. The results showed that when the classroom with only one exit, the CPT-CA model can provide a relatively close, realistic evacuation time for building evacuation, while the advantages of this model are diminished when there are two exits. Our proposed CPT-CA model can help architects and engineers to adopt this building evacuation model for their building designs.

Dongli Gao, Eric Wai Ming Lee, Wei Xie, Xuanwen Liang, Ruifeng Cao, Qian Chen, Nan Jiang
Describing Construction Hazard Images Identified from Site Safety Surveillance Video

Construction accidents are a major cause of occupational fatalities globally. On-site hazard identification is crucial to prevent such accidents. CCTV is commonly used for safety surveillance on construction sites, and can be utilized for machine learning-based automatic hazard identification. A Construction Hazard Description System (CHDS) was developed in this study to systematically label site objects and describe hazard scenarios. CHDS builds on the ontology of Taiwan Occupational Safety and Health Administration (TOSHA) for hazard classification and construction accident risk scenarios. The system produces site images and associated hazard descriptions that can be used to train automated construction accident risk identification systems through machine learning. According to domain experts, CHDS is effective in assisting construction safety personnel in describing hazard images collected on site, achieving high accuracy rates in both attribute description and hazard classification. It is concluded the system has great potential in improving the task of captioning construction hazard images.

Wen-Der Yu, Wen-Ta Hsiao, Tao-Ming Cheng, Hung-Sheng Chiang, Chia-Yu Chang
A Computationally Efficient Method for Simulation-Based Evacuation Guidance Optimization

Effective evacuation guidance can help evacuees reach the exit as soon as possible in an emergency evacuation process to ensure their safety. However, due to the unstable mobility condition and crowd distribution, the guidance plan made in advance by comparing the distances to exits may not be the most effective, so it is necessary to provide real-time optimal guidance information in the plan. This study presents a computationally efficient evacuation plan optimization method that combines CTM (Cell Transmission Model)-based simulation and DRF (Directed Rooted Forest)-based planning. In this method, the simulation module predicts evacuation dynamics at a computational cost that does not grow with crowd size, while the planning module takes advantage of the simulation feedback to optimize the evacuation plan efficiently. The high efficiency is achieved by a DRF structure suitable for representing the evacuation plan and a node assignment optimization algorithm highly coupled with the CTM simulation. In addition, the feedback from the simulation is employed to evaluate the performance of new solutions, making the search more directional and accelerating the algorithm convergence. The proposed method may serve as the foundation for developing real-time evacuation guidance plans for large-scale crowded buildings.

Zhang Botao, S. M. Lo
Optimization of the Construction Subcontractor Selection Process for Residential Building Projects by Applying Blockchain Technology Through a Smart Contract

Nowadays, the construction industry has become the main and great engine of the global economic recovery after the effects of covid-19, generating around 10.7 trillion dollars worldwide, and it is residential construction, specifically, the one in charge of driving growth in the short term, thanks to the constant demand for residential spaces. In this sense, various challenges such as new technologies, the complexity of projects, and a growing competitive environment, force the main contractor to subcontract between 80 and 90% of the activities, thus evidencing that subcontracting is an applied and necessary process in every construction project, and making subcontractors the backbone of the procurement strategy. However, one of the main risks of subcontracting is the inadequate selection of the construction subcontractor, which is often based solely on the criteria of selecting the known subcontractor and the lowest price, which often leads to risks regarding the time, cost and quality of the project. For this reason, the present research aims to improve the selection of the construction subcontractor carried out by the main contractor, through the development of a new subcontractor selection process, adapted to the current selection process, in which a Smart Contract is incorporated to greatly contribute to trust in the selection process, thanks to the contribution of Blockchain technology, in this process, through security against data manipulation, transparency of the selection process executed, traceability of information in real time pertaining to the process followed, and automation in the selection of the subcontractor under pre-established criteria.

Josue Janampa, Jean Pierre Pinedo, Sandra Rodriguez, Karem Ulloa
Identifying the Stages of Fire Development from Compartment Temperatures with GMM-HMMs: A Case Study of Room Fires

It is essential for firefighters to identify the stages of fire development when conducting the fire emergency response operation. However, at present, the approaches for firefighters to identify the stages of fire development on the fireground mainly rely on subjective observation and judgment to the signs and symptoms changing on-site, which is highly unreliable and ambiguous. Therefore, to enhance firefighters’ situational awareness, a machine learning approach by using Gaussian Mixture Models and Hidden Markov Models (GMM-HMM) to automatically identify the stages of fire development from compartment temperatures is proposed in this paper. To provide enough data samples for unsupervised model training, the CFD-based fire simulation—Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS)—is applied to generate a large volume of simulated training data. Taking the ISO 9705 fire test room as our case study environment, we collect simulation data under 100 fire scenarios within this room to formulate the recognition model. By using the difference between the fire growth time in terms of the model estimated value and the actual value from HRR to evaluate the accuracy of the recognition, we find that the recognition model indicates an average of 98% accuracy within the 2 min error range in cross-validation, and acceptable performance of recognition are also found from the case examined by the real experimental data.

Hongqiang Fang, S. M. Lo
Determination of the Most Suitable Location of Evacuation Center for a Flood-Prone Community Using Multi-criteria Decision Analysis: The Case of Barangay Sapang Bayan, Bulacan, Philippines

Damage brought about by natural calamities is often hard to anticipate because of its sudden and unexpected timing. There have been modern approaches such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) that are now being explored to store, communicate, and display spatial data. Since engineering decisions often involve multiple factors to consider, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) method implies value judgment to come up with the best recommendations as solutions. Because of the unpredictability of natural calamities such as flooding and the extent of damage that they may bring, disaster risk management and planning have become important for communities across the world. This paper aimed to determine the most suitable location for an evacuation center for Barangay Sapang Bayan in Calumpit, Bulacan using GIS and AHP. The criteria that were considered and given weights were flood hazard parameters, flood risk parameters, and accessibility parameters. The weights that were used in overlaying the maps were generated using normalized values after the pair-wise comparison of each parameter. The results produced a suitability map showing that 8.98% of the study area is the most suitable locations for an evacuation center which can be found in places with far distances from the adjacent river and in areas of high elevation. Moreover, 25.86% of the total study area are suitable areas or can be considered evacuation center locations, and the rest of the barangay, 65.14%, was found to be the least to non-suitable locations. The findings of this study could aid planners and officials in imposing mitigation measures and guide them in improving their disaster response in times of calamities.

Charena P. Baluyot, Franz D. Santos, Clariz D. Santos, Hiyasmine S. Pili, Allan R. Alzona
Bridge Safety State Classification Based on Unsupervised Machine Learning

With the development of artificial intelligence and big data technology, it is becoming a research trend to combine structural health monitoring (SHM) with these new techniques in order to make the analysis more intelligent. Due to the complexity and uncertainty of the structure environments, there are still problems such as low feature extraction efficiency and low accuracy in the research on the multivariable correlation features for structural perception data. Recently, the advantages of generative adversarial networks for nonlinear feature extraction have been noticed and this method has the potential to be applied to structural health monitoring. In this paper, an abnormal state detection model of monitoring data will be designed through the generative adversarial network of unsupervised learning. The abnormal state caused by bridge damage will be detected from a data-driven perspective, which provides support for the classification of bridge safety state abnormalities.

Wei Xiang, Xiao Li, Feng-Liang Zhang
Proceedings of the 3rd International Civil Engineering and Architecture Conference
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Marco Casini
Springer Nature Singapore
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