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2022 | Buch

Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on BioGeoSciences

Modeling Natural Environments

herausgegeben von: Prof. Dr. Rolando Cardenas, Prof. Dr. Vladimir Mochalov, Prof. Dr. Oscar Parra, Prof. Dr. Osmel Martin

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Springer Proceedings in Earth and Environmental Sciences

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Über dieses Buch

This book features a selection of works presented in the 3rd International Conference on BioGeoSciences in a unified framework. It focuses on the physical and mathematical modelling of natural processes and environments at different spatial and temporal scales. This interdisciplinary book presents a comprehensive collection of case studies grouped according to the planetary ‘’spheres’’: lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, magnetosphere and biosphere. It serves as a valuable resource for scientists engaged in natural and exact sciences.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Opening Talk: What Pervades the Milky Way: The Snotty or the Stringy? Photoautotrophy or Chemoautotrophy?
Abstract
It is briefly reviewed the interdisciplinary area of the Quantification of Habitability, with emphasis in the energy sources needed to fuel metabolisms.
Rolando Cardenas, Noel Perez, Osmel Martin, Jorge Horvath

The Lithosphere and the Hydrosphere

Frontmatter
Diffusivity of Some Ions in Natural Bentonite
Abstract
In this work the diffusivity of some transition ions in natural bentonite is determined. The greater diffusivity responds to interaction of the heterogeneous system of solution-ash mass with Cr (III) ion and the smaller one with Pb (II) ions. The behavior is described by factors such as charge of the ion and structure of the aquo-complexes.
Julio Omar Prieto García, Noor Gehan Geulamussein, Yailet Albernas Carvajal, Alfredo Curbelo Sánchez, Mixary Enríquez García, Ángel Mollineda Trujillo
Cassava Husk Powder as an Eco-Friendly Adsorbent for the Removal of Nickel (II) Ions
Abstract
Here, the potential of cassava husk powder as a ecofriendly bio-sorbent of nickel (Ni) ions in aqueous media was presented. This bio-material was characterized as sorbent using several physical properties and analytical techniques which displayed a product with adequate properties as bio-sorbent toward Ni (II) ions. The sorption process was studied via six kinetic models and seven thermodynamic models. The kinetic Elovich model and the liquid film diffusion model both provided a high degree of correlation with the experimental data at 45 °C which suggests a chemisorption process. The thermodynamic studied displayed an excellent correlation with the Temkin model which suggests a uniform distribution of binding energies. From these analyses, the activation energy (Ea), the change of the standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), the standard enthalpy (ΔH°) and the standard entropy (ΔS°) of the sorption process were estimated using the thermodynamic equilibrium coefficients. This study revealed that Ni (II) ions adsorption process in cassava husk powder was reversible, exothermic, and with strong electrostatic interaction between metal and sorbent surface. The cassava husk powder showed an adsorption capacity of qe (25 °C) = 1.388 mg/g and qe (45 °C) = 1.265 mg/g. The bio-adsorbent is a low-cost alternative and promising green technology for efficient large-scale Ni (II) ions removal from industrial wastewater. It is an affordable technology that could also help reduce pollution in the environment.
Lisdelys González-Rodríguez, Julio Omar Prieto García, Lien Rodríguez-López, Yoan Hidalgo-Rosa, Manuel A. Treto-Suaréz, Mixary Garcia Enriquez, Ángel Mollineda Trujillo
Study of the Hydrodynamic Transport of Nitrate as a Pollutant of Rivers
Abstract
The problems of pollution are more and more debated in the international environment due to the dysfunctions that can cause to the ecology and the biodiversity. This work aims to solve the case of non-stationary one-dimensional equation of dispersion-advection that includes terms of chemical-biological reactance and loads that may be spilled. For the attainment of such purpose, we offered the theoretical basis on which this study is based. It is the solution in quadrature for problems of the parabolic type that model the concentration of the nitrate like pollutant in a river, valuing a single source of pollutants in the right semi-axis. The analytic solution for the cases of Zero index cases of the coefficient of the Riemann problem is obtained using the results of (Estrada Hernández, Y. (2015) Solución de problemas para ecuaciones en derivadas parciales de tipo parabólico e hiperbólico con condiciones de contorno dadas por semiejes., Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas (UCLV) Cuba).
Roxana Pérez García, Lorgio Félix Batard Martínez, Yanelis Estrada Hernández, Jorge Alberto Cárdenas Pestana
Diagnosis of the Land Cover/Use Effect on Nutrient Discharge from Three Biobio River Sub-Basins
Abstract
Water is an essential resource for developing several human activities. The increase in nutrients transport to surface waters is one of the leading factors promoting water quality loss; mainly caused due to land-use changes. In this study, the contribution of nitrogen and total phosphorus to the surface water bodies in three sub-basins of the Biobio River dominated by native forests, forestry, and agriculture are compared. Nutrient sampling points were taken at each sub-basin during the summer of 2013 and 2014; obtained results were compared using the Mann-Whitney statistical analysis. Noticeable differences in total nitrogen concentration were observed between the sub-basins with agricultural and forestry dominance in summer 2013. Additionally, significant differences in the total nitrogen concentration are reported in the sub-basin dominated by agricultural coverage when compared to those dominated by forest lands and native forests in 2014 summer. No significant differences were found between the sub-basins of the Biobio River for the study period in the total phosphorus records. The study depicts that different soil covers play an important role in the total nitrogen retention, however, in the case of total phosphorus, results suggest that concentration is given by geological factors.
Rebeca Martínez-Retureta, Mauricio Aguayo, Lien Rodríguez-López, Iongel Duran-Llacer, Norberto José Abreu
An Improvement Method to Study the Spatio—Temporal Dynamics of Rancho Luna Beach´ Shoreline Applying Remote Sensing Tools
Abstract
The beaches constitute a very fragile and limited resource representing a huge weight on the economies of many countries and regions of the world. Constant monitoring of them is necessary because they are very fragile ecosystems but they are very expensive so the remote sensing techniques has proven to be an efficient alternative to assess the accretion-erosion processes. This research evaluates the spatial dynamics of the Rancho Luna beach shoreline by analyzing five the SPOT satellite images every two years, in the same seasonal period. A supervised classification was performed by the Maximum Likelihood method and 70 transects were defined every 10 m for the 700 m length of shoreline. An improvement of the traditional method to create the perpendicular transects is proposed and the methodology for this is presented. An erosive process is observed in 86% of defined transects and a loss of 8007.81 m2 of the beach area. The results of the study are in correspondence with previous studies based on direct measurements of beach profiles.
Laura Castellanos Torres, Alain Muñoz Caravaca, Iván Figueroa Reyes, Eugenio Olalde Chang, Minerva Sánchez Llull, Lester Caravaca Colina
Sea Surface Temperature Trends in the Southern Cuban Shelves for the Period 1982–2018
Abstract
This work has the objective to investigate the recent Sea Surface Temperature (SST) trends on southern Cuban shelves over the years 1982–2018 using monthly AVHRR SST NOAA product. This paper extends and updates the previous studies about SST on the Southern Cuban shelves with the aim of improving understanding of how global-scale climate changes translate into them and it could potentially help to better understand the influence of Sea Surface Temperature on mangroves deaths, coral bleaching, fisheries behavior and species displacement among others. The SST annual average has a value of 27.8784 °C and a range of 22.1774–2.4022 °C, for the western shelf, while for the eastern one it is 28.3395 °C with a range of 23.4504–32.0313 °C. The SST trend is 0.0168 °C yr-1 and 0.0156 °C yr-1, for western and eastern shelves respectively. During the last 36 years, the SST in the southwestern shelf has increased by 0.725 °C; while in the southeast it increases by 0.644 °C. If the current conditions that force the behavior of the climate in the Caribbean region are sustained, by 2050 a SST of up to 1,348 °C and 1,199 °C could be reached in the southwestern and southeastern Cuban shelves.
Alain Muñoz Caravaca, Laura Castellanos Torres, Liesvy Valladares Alfonso
Hydrodynamic Characteristics of the Nuevitas Bay, Camagüey, from the Numerical Simulation
Abstract
The hydrodynamic model D-Flow FM is used to perform the numerical simulation of the tide and the ocean currents. The model is forced with six principal tidal constituents, as atmospheric forcing: a constant wind with southwest direction and speed equal to 3.5 m/s is used. The tidal results obtained are validated by comparison comparing them with data obtained from the WXTIDE tidal prediction program. It is developed the calculation of the residence time of the bay based on the injection of a passive tracer as an instantaneous pulse in the domain. An unstructured triangular grid is obtained for the entire study area. The correlation coefficients resulting from the tide validation are greater than 0.90 and the residence time of the bay is equal to 32 days.
Liesvy Valladares Alfonso, Alain Muñoz Caravaca, Felivalentín Lamas Torres, Laura Castellanos Torres

The Atmosphere and the Magnetosphere

Frontmatter
Hurricane Related Coastal Flooding in the Province of Ciego de Avila, Cuba: Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Study
Abstract
The province of Ciego de Avila has been impacted by hurricanes of different intensity since the end of the 20th Century. The most severe impacts have taken place during the last forty years. Hurricanes Kate (1985), George (1998), Ike (2008) and Irma (2017) are just four remarkable examples; the latter was a cat 5 in the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The aforementioned hurricanes and others have caused coastal flooding in both, the northern and southern coasts of the said province. Modeling coastal flooding as a natural phenomenon implies a complex research process, where risk areas, with emphasis in the most sensitive ones, have been spatially determined (Júcaro and Jagüeyal on the southern coast and Punta Alegre on the northern coast). The methods used to assess hazard, and the methodology to estimate risk are addressed in this work. Vulnerability values are also included, as they encompass critical factors upon which human beings may influence to minimize hurricane related risks; thus making possible the improvement of Disaster Contingency and Recovery Plans, aimed at preventing or mitigating social and economic damages. This is precisely the goal of this scientific output. Our results may be easily replicated in other places of Cuba, or even extrapolated to the island states of the Caribbean region.
Felipe Matos Pupo, Osvaldo E. Pérez López, Alexey Valero Jorge
Natural Emissions to Atmosphere: Biogenic Emissions in the Citrus Plantations of Western Cuba
Abstract
Biogenic volatile organic compounds emitted by terrestrial ecosystems play an important role in determining atmospheric constituents that control air quality and climate. These emissions include volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides from soil microorganisms. Considering that the extensive land used for citrus plantations may play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere, the objective of this study was to estimate biogenic emissions in the citrus plantations of Jagüey Grande and Ceiba. The GloBEIS model has the appropriate algorithms to make various estimates of emissions of various components, taking as input data meteorological, physiological and land use variables, among others. The main source data are from Institute of Meteorology of Cuba and The Citric Enterprise Jagüey. Approximately 66.25% of the biogenic emissions correspond to Jagüey Grande due to its greater cultivation area. The influence of the leaf area index on the emissions is evidenced. The highest emissions of total monoterpenes and other volatile organic compounds corresponded to the periods of highest temperature in the months of July and August and at 13 h due to the direct influence of this variable on the two emission processes of these species. We found that biogenic emissions for the year 2015 were almost entirely due to the emissions of Organic Volatile Biogenic Compounds (99.1%). The total monoterpenos emissions was (40.45%) and other Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (59.53%). Nitrogen monoxide emissions are influenced by temperature, in this case of the soil, reaching its maximum emission between 12 and 14 h.
Ricardo Manso, Yosdany González, Javier Bolufé, Rosemary López, Israel Borrajero, Juan Carlos Peláez, Miguel Aranguren
Equipment for Studying the Earth’s Magnetic Field
Abstract
The paper considers the possibilities of study of the Earth’s magnetic field using data not only from the magnetic observatory, but also from repeat stations and sensor networks. The first section describes the equipment of the magnetic observatory. The second section describes the possibility of using various instruments for absolute magnetic measurements at the observatory and at Repeat stations, as well as the specification of the fluxgate sensors developed at the Novosibirsk magnetic observatory. The third section discusses the possibility of building low-cost sensor networks as the basis for cost-effective measurements of the Earth’s magnetic field.
Sergey Y. Khomutov, Nikolay N. Semakov, Vladimir Mochalov

The Biosphere

Frontmatter
Thermodynamic Analysis of Some Reactions of Selenium, Telurium, Arsenic, Antimony and Derivatives in Chemosynthesis
Abstract
In the present research it is stipulated when taking ΔHo, ΔGo and ΔSo an approximation of the occurrence of reactions under the scheme: CO2 + O2 + X → CH2O + Y, where X can be As, Sb, Te, Se and derivatives and Y X oxidation products, verifiable from redox potentials under standard conditions in chemosynthesis processes. In addition, these values of state functions allow us to predict interfering reactions that can affect the process of obtaining energy for nitrogen, sulfur, iron and hydrogen bacteria. Finally, we propose a series of reactions that are justified from the thermodynamic point of view allowing the process of chemosynthesis without the presence of dioxygen.
Julio Omar Prieto García, Noor Gehan Geulamussein, Yailet Albernas Carvajal, Noel Pérez Díaz, Daimel Castillo Díaz
Impact of the Chicxulub Asteroid: Potential Implications on Phyotoplankton and Anammox Bacteria
Abstract
In this paper, from the photobiological point of view, the emergence and evolution of the photosynthesis of the phytoplankton primary producers is approached after the impact of a large asteroid on our planet. Coupled, the influence of temperature drop and ocean acidification on primary chemosynthetic producers, specifically, anammox bacteria, was studied. As a massive impact prototype, the asteroid of Chicxulub was considered, an event that occurred about 65 million years ago and of which there are traces in several places of the national geography including the City of Santa Clara. Corresponding to our results, although the occurrence of catastrophic events can drastically affect the habitability of ecosystems and the planet in general, life as a complex phenomenon shows enormous resilience to disturbances of this nature. An appreciable and relatively rapid recovery of phytoplankton photosynthetic activity after an event like Chicxulub is evidence of this.
Noel Perez, Osmel Martin, Rolando Cardenas Ortiz, Yoel Sanchez Alvarez
Darwinian Evolution from a Generational Point of View
Abstract
The potential implications of an extended generational overlap in the context of the biological evolution of our planet are discussed. A special emphasis is made on the replication patterns exhibited by contemporary bacteria considered as a feasible prototype of the first forms of life in our planet. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the existence of a large number of overlapping generations could act as an important source of individual variability for those ancestral species, impacting the way that well-established processes like natural selection and biological evolution operate in nature, a principle that, probably, could also be applied to the prebiotic era.
Osmel Martin, José Suarez-Lezcano, Yoelsy Leyva
Technical and Economic Viability of Agricultural Residue-Based Power Generation in Southern Chile Through Discrete Location Models
Abstract
The Chilean Energy Policy establishes that by the year 2050, 70% of its energy should come from renewable sources to reduce dependence on energy imports and to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Agricultural residues may contribute to producing energy from a local renewable source. The present study evaluates the economic viability of operating power plants with agricultural residue from cereal crops in southern Chile. To achieve the aim of the study, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and discrete location models were used to identify the optimal location for a power plant based on the distance to the power grid and the access cost to biomass. The best location for a power plant with a capacity of 50 MWe was 11 km from the Victoria electric substation, with a demand of cereal straw of 293,600 t/yr. Additionally, the Levelized Cost of Electricity for a 50 MWe agricultural residue-based power plant was $77/MWh, which was greater than the average marginal cost of electricity at point-of-connection. Moreover, the results show that it is not cost-effective to generate electricity from agricultural residues, unless the cost of straw is below $12.13/t. Finally, sensitivity analysis showed the net present value is very sensitive to the marginal cost of electricity from the power grid and biomass costs.
Jorge Jimenez, Cristian Rivas, Rodrigo De La Fuente
Comparative Study Between a Deterministic and Stochastic model’s for the Hematopoietic Reconstitution
Abstract
The dynamics of the processes of cell maturation and regeneration is a branch currently in development for medicine, so taking advantage of the facilities of mathematics to model and solve environmental problems, different models of differential equations have been developed to describe these processes. From the existing deterministic models, the particular case of the hematopoietic cell is chosen, for of a comparative study on the influence of the medium on the process of cell maturation. For this, a probabilistic model of differential equations with six compartments is used. The stochastic term or environmental noise in this particular case modeled by a Weiner process. Using randomly selected diffusion coefficients, a preliminary mathematical comparison of the deterministic and stochastic systems is achieved for subsequent biological analysis. The inclusion of this term makes it possible to perform an analysis conditioned on the influence of the medium of the different processes of cellular maturation, in this case, of the hematopoietic cell.
Dennis Lumpuy Obregón, Miguel Ángel Martínez Hernández

Information Technologies in BioGeoSciences

Frontmatter
Image Modification to Reduce Eye Strain
Abstract
Variants of image modification in order to reduce eye strain are considered. In this work, for the purpose of reducing the evaluation of the light emission to the eyes, it is proposed to use edge detection algorithms. Various examples of reducing eye strain based on the application of a convolution filter with a Laplace kernel, where the evaluation of the light emission to the eyes was reduced from 11.98 to 60.66 times, are given. The application of the obtained results to video files showed an average reduction in the light emission evaluation of more than 8 times compared to the original video files.
Vladimir Mochalov
Problems of the Commutative and Grouping Properties of the Addition of Floating Point Numbers in Modern Programming Languages
Abstract
The problems of precision of floating point computations of simple data types of modern programming languages are considered. Examples of loss of computational accuracy when performing addition operations are given. The examples under consideration are based on the accumulation of computational errors with a large number of operations performed. In modern programming languages, the commutative and grouping property for simple floating point data types does not always work. Examples are given in which it is shown that the sum changes significantly from the permutation of the numbers. When adding floating point numbers, grouping them together has different results. The problem considered in the work is of great importance for the organization of computations and, in particular, for the processing of massive data of measurements of the parameters of the external environment.
Vladimir Mochalov, Anastasia Mochalova
Metadaten
Titel
Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on BioGeoSciences
herausgegeben von
Prof. Dr. Rolando Cardenas
Prof. Dr. Vladimir Mochalov
Prof. Dr. Oscar Parra
Prof. Dr. Osmel Martin
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-88919-7
Print ISBN
978-3-030-88918-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-88919-7