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2024 | Buch

Proceedings of The 5th International Conference on Advances in Civil and Ecological Engineering Research

Proceedings of ACEER2023


Über dieses Buch

This book presents select proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Advances in Civil and Ecological Engineering Research (ACEER 2023). The book covers a wide range of topics, including construction engineering and management hydraulic and hydrologic engineering, air quality and atmospheric pollution, ecological risk assessment and management, restoration and protection of environment, water pollution and treatment, and water recourses engineering. This book also covers state-of-the-art technologies in building sustainable city, resilient buildings, and sustainable issues in relating to civil engineering. It will be useful for researchers and engineers working in the field of civil and ecological engineering.



Construction and Structural Engineering

Research on the Application of EPC in China’s Prefabricated Building Market: A Case Study of Shenzhen

The EPC has experienced rapid development in China over the past 10 years, having completed several experimental projects and entered the promotion phase. Notably, the development of EPC in Shenzhen has been particularly outstanding. This study has compiled and analyzed the overall situation of promoting EPC engineering general contracting in Shenzhen’s prefabricated building industry. A total of 85 prefabricated building projects involving the largest prefabricated construction company in Shenzhen were selected, and their construction area, prefabrication rate, and other indicators were analyzed. For one thing, a comparison was made with the overall distribution of prefabricated building projects in Shenzhen. For another thing, a comparison was made based on the time and regional distribution. Furthermore, rational thinking was applied to analyze the development of Shenzhen’s prefabricated building market, and reference suggestions were provided for the industry’s development through discussion.

Songyang Li, Hang Ma, Huan Liu, Jiayin Zhou
Safety Factors in the Use and Formation of Intelligent Economic Systems of Construction Enterprises: Definition and Assessment Features

The relevance and necessity of identifying safety factors for the use and formation of intelligent economic systems of construction companies is proven. The purpose of the study is to form a quantitative basis for the development and use of intelligent economic systems of construction companies, considering the influence of safety factors. As a result of studying the condition and development trends of the construction sector, it was determined that the construction sector is essential branch of the state’s economy, which affects its development and ensures the functioning of other spheres of activity. It reflects trends and is an indicator of the evolution of the state’s economy. The construction sector reacts more inertly to the changes taking place in the state, both in terms of development and the accumulation of negative phenomena. This especially applies to the development and implementation of intelligent economic systems. Proposed security factors for the use and formation of the intelligent economic system of building companies, the evaluation of which is based on the application of qualitative methods used for construction enterprises and regions. The presented indicators are determined by the level of national security, directions of use and formation of financial, economic and information security, features of stakeholder relations of construction enterprises. Safety indicators make it possible to build a quantitative basis for assessing the level of formation and use of an intelligent economic system for making informed management decisions. It has been established that the formation of information and analytical support for the implementation of security measures is mediocre, which indicates the need to implement directions for increasing their effectiveness.

Bieliatynskyi Andrii, Kostyantyn Mamonov, Vasyl Goi, Inna Khrystych, Lyudmyla Kovalenko
Architecture and Techniques of Environmental Control of Climatic Colonies in Italy and Abruzzo

The climatic colonies are a new typology of buildings, an unprecedented synthesis of health and educational structures, promoted by the National Fascist Party for the care and training of young people with the aim of physically and mentally “shaping” the new Italian, from the very early childhood. The buildings are complex “sanitary machines”, using distribution and construction solutions based on studies and experience gained since the 19th century to make buildings for the healthy treatment of tuberculosis and lung diseases (hospices and sanatoriums). The contribution starts with a study of the architectural, typological and construction characteristics of colonies, located in both marine and mountain environments, and focuses attention, in particular, on two of those built in Abruzzo in the 1920s during the Fascist Fascist period. The original functioning of the two buildings will be investigated, as well as the effectiveness of the solutions adopted to achieve internal comfort and the building-environment relationship. This study is aided by computer simulations. These themes are fundamental for guiding the recovery of this type of existing structure, and also consider recent and continuing climate change to which the entire planet is subjected.

Eleonora Laurini, Patrizia Montuori, John D. Murphy Jr.
Method for the Design of Local Temporary Buildings to Ensure the Sustainable Development of the Liquid Society

“Liquid modernity” with its continuous and rapid change and the need to safeguard the environment, which is severely compromised by anthropogenic action, find an answer in local impermanence, that is, the art of designing and implementing man-made spaces conceived for a specific time, which arise from the peculiarities of the place, coexist in synergy with the local environment and return to it at the end of the time of use. A metabolism thought out at the design stage, in which the characteristics of compatible places are predefined for the “birth” and “death” of the building organism. The paper describes the method for the design and realization of local temporary building organisms, defining a three-stage process analysis of local potential, identification of requirements, design stage, guarantors of the compliance of the construction process with both the dynamic lifestyle of modern man and the sustainability of the intervention. The project is the result of analyses that start from the area allowing its promotion and sustainable development, and at the same time the environmental and economic cost of the building intervention is reduced. A benefit therefore for both the community and the individual, in a scalar and cyclical process guaranteeing that sustainable development capable of involving environmental, economic and social aspects. The methodology described is verified through a case study in the territory of L’Aquila (Italy): the design of a temporary building organism that can be used either to upgrade an existing building or in constrained or emergency contexts.

Stefania De Gregorio, Pierluigi De Berardinis
Monitoring of Bridges Damage Based on the System Transfer Function Maps from Sensors Datasets

To ensure the normal service of the bridge, it is necessary to detect and evaluate the health status of the bridge structure. This work provides a novel framework for damage detection in trusses bridges through analyzing of displacement sensors datasets and plotting the frequency maps of bridge system transfer function (TF). First, the bridge finite element model under random load is analysis, and the cumulative damages are considered and introduced to bridge model. The datasets of the sensors installed in bridge are compiled in both static and transient types. Finally, the bridge structure TF is determined by applying the principles of open loop control system on bridge structure and then plotting the frequency maps. The results show that the system becomes unstable in frequency maps when damage evolves in bridge structure.

Dangui Guo, Weixing Hong, Wael A. Altabey
Bridges Damage Assessment Techniques Improvement Through Machine Learning Algorithm

The main goal of this paper is improving bridges structures health detection results to solve the problems of large errors of detection and poor efficiency of detection in the traditional models of detection. A bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) model based on data classification technique is designed by using the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm. First, the sensor network is used to collect the health status data of the bridge structure, and the kernel principal component analysis is used to process the sensor datasets to remove the redundant features and reduce the classification feature scale. Second, adopt on the k-NN algorithm, the learning of the sensor datasets, and the optimum parameters of the bridge structure health state (SHS) to establish the optimal bridge SHS detection model. The optimum parameters of classification model are determined by the genetic optimization algorithm (GOA). Finally, the bridge SHM model is analyzed by using the most significant indexes of testing for its effectiveness and superiority. The results show that the proposed model has a classification results of the bridge SHS with higher precision, lower modeling time. The overall performance of proposed classification model is significantly better than exists methods, and the current method performance are recorded 97.4%, 93.7%, and 91.3%, for accuracy rate, recall rate, and F-score respectively. This indicates that the current SHM model provides an effective tool for bridge structure health research.

Liping Zhou, Weixing Hong, Wael A. Altabey
Numerical and Theoretical Study on Shear Capacity of Segmental Joints in UHPC-RC Composite Beam Bridge

Excellent shear performance of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) beam segmental joints is dependent on the shear keys. To investigate the shear performance of segmental joints, the existing shear capacity prediction equation were evaluated based on the design of a bridge. Moreover, a refined finite element model (FEM) of UHPC beam bridge segmental joints was established and discussed in detail. The obtained results shown that the shear capacity predicted value of Chen equation is 57% and 18% lower than AASHTO and JSCE codes, indicating that Chen equation can predict the shear capacity of UHPC joints safely. By developing a refined model of the segmental joints, the loads it bears in different directions are calculated. Both tensile and compressive stresses are small, which satisfies the requirements of basic combination loads and ensures the safety of the structure.

Yun Shen, Jianluan Li
Study on the Influence of Temperature Rise on the Stress Change of Prefabricated Cantilever Composite Subgrade (PCCS)

In this paper, a new type of precast cantilever composite foundation structure for mountainous highway is studied, and the influence of temperature rise on the stress of the structure is analyzed. Under the load of temperature rise, the stress state of the PCCS structure is significantly improved, and its value is greater than the stress of the structure under static load. The temperature load mainly has great influence on the stress state of the connecting steel bar and bolt, but has little influence on the concrete members. The stress state of the connected steel bar and bolt under the global temperature rising case has little difference with that under the local temperature rising case, while the stress state of the concrete members under the global temperature rising case is greater than that under the local temperature rising case.

Xiaoxiang Cao, Liang Yin, Cheng Peng, Zhigang Wu, Shengwei Yang
Construction Technology of Tunnel Lining Vault Embedded Pipe Timely Grouting

In order to solve the grouting problem of tunnel lining vault cavity and local uncompacting, based on the project example of Qing-shiling tunnel and Yin-dongxia tunnel of Baoping Expressway, combined with the existing tunnel vault grouting construction technology, a construction method of embedded pipe grouting for tunnel lining vault is proposed, and the key construction technology and the best parameter index of pipe grouting are given. The engineering practice proves that the grouting method has good construction effect and can provide technical reference for similar tunnel lining defect treatment construction.

Dongshan Zhang, Bin Yang
Numerical Study on Performance of Single-Keyed Dry Joint of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) Under Combined Shear and Torsion Load

Under the vehicle load, segment joints are subjected to coupling effects of bending, shear, and torsion, while for dry joints, they are mainly subjected to a combination of shear and torsion, making them more prone to failure. In this study, to investigate the performance of single-keyed dry joint of ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) under combined shear and torsion load, finite element model (FEM) was carried out considering the effect of confining pressure. Then AASHTO code equations was chosen to predict the shear-torsion capacity of UHPC single-keyed dry joints. The results of FEM indicated that the increase of confining pressure can effectively improve the shear-torsional load capacity of the dry joints. Whereas the increase of confining pressure has little effect on the improvement of stiffness. From the failure mode of specimens, the specimens are damaged in the root of the shear key when confining pressure is less than 18 MPa. However, in view of the high confining pressure (when the confining pressure is greater than 18 MPa), the damaged surface of the specimen changes from the root of the male key to the feminine key. In addition, the evolution of AASHTO equation shows that the AASHTO code equations were overestimated the ultimate capacities of UHPC single-keyed dry joints under shear-torsion load.

Zening Xu, Yun Shen, Jing Yan
First Master-Permanentization Solution for Telecommunication Tower

Telecommunications development in Indonesia is growing rapidly, as it is in other emerging countries. With the expansion of this business, there is a very tight level of competition among Indonesian cellular operators as well as in the Tower Provider sector as a provider of supporting infrastructure services. Furthermore, the demand for infrastructure to support telecommunication systems has increased dramatically over the last decade, as the need to erect more towers. As a consequence, these two factors contribute to an increase in the demand for land to build the new tower. Need a solution to take advantage of the existing site, particularly the guyed mast tower, so that no new land is required. The novelty of this paper presents the First Master solution developed by Mitratel, one of Indonesia’s largest tower providers. This solution has been used in several locations and proven to use the existing guyed mast tower without turning off the tower transmission to ensure that the telecoms tower can still function.

Hastining Bagyo Astuti, Rosadi Makhdor, Detriana Margita Sari, Soekhatta Setiawan

Environmental Monitoring and Risk Assessment

Impacts of Tibetan Plateau Vortex Activities on the Ecological Environment in the Yellow River Basin

The Tibetan Plateau vortex (TPV) is the main rain-producing system over the Tibetan Plateau. Once it moves out of the plateau, it can cause heavy rainfall and even lead to flooding, soil erosion, and other impacts on the ecological environment to the east of the plateau, especially in the Yellow River Basin (YRB). Based on sounding data, ground-based observations and Tibetan plateau vortex (TPV) and shear line yearbooks from 1998 to 2018, and using synoptic analysis and statistical analysis methods, the activities and the precipitation of high-influence Tibetan Plateau vortices (HITPVs) activities and their impact on the ecological environment in the YRB are analyzed. The results indicate that the Tibetan Plateau vortices (TPVs) that did not move out of the plateau brought moderate rain and above to the upper reaches of the YRB in 1998 which are beneficial to enrich the water resources of the “water tower” of the YRB. Most of the moving-out TPVs (MTPVs) in 1998 caused moderate rain and above in the upper-middle reaches of the YRB or in the whole YRB, contributing to the enrichment of the water resources of the “water tower” of the YRB. However, the activities of the MTPVs were likely to cause heavy rainfall such as rainstorms and heavy rainstorms, which could result in local flooding and other natural disasters and damage to the local ecological environment in the middle reaches of the YRB. The HITPVs mostly moved eastward and northeastward during late May to mid-August, mainly affecting the middle or lower reaches of the YRB. In addition, these HITPVs had southeastward paths, spinning in the Hetao region. The HITPVs with eastward paths and spinning in the Hetao region influenced the whole YRB, mainly causing rainstorms and heavy rainstorms in the middle or lower reaches. All of the HITPVs resulted in damage to the local ecological environment of the YRB.

Shuhua Yu, Jun Peng, Wenliang Gao
Assessment of Wind Energy Resources in Fujian Sea Areas Based on WRF Model

Wind energy is an important energy source with a strong potential for development. China’s Fujian Sea areas is a key area for the development of offshore wind power. In this study, WRF model was used to simulate the wind field in Fujian Sea areas from 2019 to 2021, and the simulation data of WRF fit well with the measured data of buoy. According to the analysis, the maximum wind energy density in Fujian Sea areas is concentrated in the Taiwan Strait, the annual average wind energy density is distributed in the range of 400–700 W/m2, the seasonal average wind energy density distribution is small in spring and summer, large in autumn and winter, the monthly average wind energy density is the largest in October, November and December, and the maximum is more than 2000 W/m2. The main wind direction are NE and NNE. The results show that Fujian Sea areas is rich in wind energy, which is conducive to the promotion of offshore wind power development process.

Dawei Ji, Lianjie Guo, Na Wang, Feifei Jiang, Yingzhi Cao, Hong Deng
Case Analysis of a Squall Line Process in Beijing Area in 2021

From 18:00 June 25, 2021 to 01:00 June 26, 2021 a squall line appeared in Beijing. Synoptic scale environment conditions, physics parameters fields, Beijing Doppler radar products are analyzed. Results are as follows. 1) At 500 hPa, Beijing was in front of trough which from mid-eastern inner Mongolia to central Hebei. Temperature trough lagging behind height trough over the baroclinic zone in the troposphere is favorable to system developing. Surface chart shows high east and low west situation. 2) Beijing located in the center of 850 hPa $$\theta_{se}$$ θ se high energy zone, which does benefit to accumulate and trigger of unstable energy for convective weather.3) Sounding analysis at 14:00 June 25 showed that the curve of temperature and dew point temperature was trumpet shape from bottom to top. The distribution form of upper dry and lower wet and the appropriate height of 0° layer and −20° layer were beneficial to the occurrence of large hail. The vertical shear of the wind direction was a clockwise rolling flow, when the low-level water vapor supply was sufficient, convection development was an important indicator of sever convective weather. 4) Reflectivity factor profile showed obvious echo wall, highly suspended strong echo, bounded weak echo region, the obvious jump of VIL, the appearance of ZDR column and KDP 4.3°/km at corresponding time indicated the occurrence of hail. Analysis of radial velocity map showed that the ambiguity of radial velocity is closely related to the extreme wind at ground stations.

Jianjun Geng, Lei Lei
Research on Ecological Environment Impacts Assessment During the Construction Period of Railway Projects

In recent years, with the rapid development of the national economy, China’s railway construction industry has flourished, becoming the period with the most completed railway construction since the founding of the People’s Republic of China. However, while greatly promoting the rapid development of regional economy, the construction of railway might lead to land occupation, vegetation destruction, changes in the natural environment within the construction area and the ecological environment along the line, and also might change the original landscape structure and ecosystem function, bringing certain pressure to the ecological environment. By establishing ecological environmental quality as assessment index system and taking Nanping-Longyan Railway as the study case, this study calculated the quality index of ecological environment and ecological environment assessment index of railway construction project during the construction period, and carried out classification and change analysis of the ecological environment status. The results showed as follows: the railway ecological environment quality index is continuously increasing, indicating that the engineering construction has a small impact on the ecological environment, standardized construction, and high environmental governance, boosting the continuous improvement of ecological environment quality. The purpose of this paper is to find out the real changes in the ecological environment in the process of railway construction, provide basic data for railway environmental protection, and evaluate the quality of railway ecological environment, in order to provide technical support for railway environmental management decision.

Jieyu Zhang, Yitong Yin, Xiuhong Li, Yanrong Lu, Yuying Zhang
Analysis of the Spatial Changes and Influencing Factors of Landscape Patterns Along the Fujian-Guangdong Interconnection

The Fujian-Guangdong Power Grid Project is of significant importance for the research on the changes in landscape patterns and the impact factors on biodiversity along the Fujian-Guangdong interconnection line, as it is a key project in the national “14th Five-Year Plan” for power development. This study aims to combine forest disturbance observation to assess the extent of forest destruction and recovery along the line and to analyze the influencing factors of landscape patterns and biodiversity changes using relevant indices. We utilized the COLD algorithm to monitor forest disturbances and calculated three landscape indices, including patch number, largest patch index, and Shannon’s diversity index. We found that the power grid project has caused certain damage to the forests, but they have been able to recover within 3 to 4 months after construction completion. Through index analysis, we observed that a 1000-m buffer zone is most suitable for analyzing the landscape pattern around the power station. Furthermore, factors such as the power of wind turbines and the age classification of the surrounding forests have an impact on the landscape pattern. These findings can provide assistance for ecological conservation and restoration along the Fujian-Guangdong interconnection line, as well as serve as a reference for future environmental analysis of power grid projects.

Jianxun Zhang, Guowei Chen, Chang Lu
Impact of Electric Power Grid Projects on Bird Diversity and the Suggestion of Bird Conservative Technology

The increasing number of power lines each year has a significant impact on bird biodiversity, while the control of birds at high risk from power grid projects is a guarantee of safe and reliable power grid operation. From both the perspective of safety and biodiversity conservation, how to achieve harmonious coexistence between birds and power grid projects has become an urgent scientific problem to be solved. This study investigates the impact of power grid projects on bird diversity by investigating birds in and around power grid projects in Fujian Province, and proposes suggestions for power grid projects to protect bird diversity. The results show that future power grid projects should try to avoid increased forest fragmentation, and temporary construction roads should be restored as soon as possible in order to preserve animal passage. The affected migratory birds in the power grid deployment area under study are mainly finches and a few raptors, and according to the migration pattern of these two types of birds, construction during the bird migration season in March and October should be avoided as much as possible during the construction of power grid, especially the night-time construction of large converter stations and substations.

Chang Lu, Xi Li, Ying Deng, Jian Wang, Huaizhou Zheng, Mingfeng Zhang
Methodology for Monitoring the Ecological Environment of Railway Construction

As a linear project, the ecological environment along the railway construction project is complex and changeable, with a high proportion of tunnels and bridges, which makes ecological environmental protection management difficult and requires regular investigation and monitoring of the impact of construction on the ecological environment. Based on the characteristics of railway engineering, this study analyzes and summarizes the ecological environment monitoring scheme and technical methods during railway construction, and then puts forward relevant environmental protection measures. The results show that the ecological environment monitoring of railway construction is generally divided into four stages: preliminary investigation and analysis, monitoring sites, data collection and work results. The monitoring content from macro to micro, from ecosystem to plants, animals and other specific indicators. The main monitoring methods include manual investigation, remote sensing monitoring, infrared trigger camera trap, etc. According to the specific ecological characteristics and ecological problems, the construction of a scientific and complete ecological environment monitoring program for railway construction is conducive to mastering the trend of the ecological environment change in the process of railway construction, and implement the environmental protection measures and construction project environmental protection policies more pertinently.

Jieyu Zhang, Yuying Zhang, Xiuhong Li, Yanrong Lu, Yitong Yin
Analysis and Suggestions on Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution-Yongchuan District, Chongqing as an Example

Among various types of pollution, agricultural non-point source pollution (AGNPS), as an important component of water pollution, has received significant attention from countries around the world in the past forty years. Especially after the effectiveness of point source pollution prevention and control, AGNPS prevention and control has become an international problem, and the overall research on AGNPS prevention and control has also become a hot topic. The 14th Five Year Plan period is a period of in-depth promotion of AGNPS prevention and control, and China has also conducted many studies on AGNPS in recent decades. This study focuses on research and policies on AGNPS in recent years in China, and summarizes the existing problems in the field of agricultural non-point source, such as the lack of top-down full chain technology and a lack of comprehensive evaluation standards. At the same time, Taking Yongchuan District of Chongqing City as an example, the study analyzed the relationship between the concentration of major pollutants and rainfall, fertilizer and pesticide application, planting and livestock breeding in the Zhu Tuo section of AGNPS. Finally, the factors that need to be focused on controlling AGNPS are proposed, and the governance work should be carried out based on the full chain technology of monitoring, tracing, calculation, governance, and management. The study proposes that the entire system of AGNPS needs to be improved and targeted policies should be introduced in order to provide basic support for the control of AGNPS, thereby improving the ecological environment and achieving sustainable ecological development.

Yanrong Lu, Rongjin Yang, Zhang Le, Meiying Sun, Xiuhong Li
Role of Rare Taxa in the Structure and Function of Soil Fungal Community

Rare taxa are the potential force influencing function and structure of fungal communities and play an over-proportional role in soil ecosystems. We studied the typical Chernozem soil in Heilongjiang Province using high-throughput analysis techniques to investigate the role of rare taxa in function and structure of fungal communities in Chernozem. Coexistence of various low-abundance rare fungal taxa and few high-abundance fungal taxa were observed in Chernozem. Most of the rich and rare fungal taxa belonged to the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. No rare fungus from the phylum Mortierellomycota was detected. The primary environmental factor affecting the structure of rare fungal taxa was found to be soil pH, followed by water content. The rich fungal taxon Mortierella had a significantly positive correlation with total phosphorus and organic carbon (P < 0.05). The function prediction revealed 72 significantly different MetaCyc pathways in the two plots, and the rare taxa accounted for 80.56% of the total microbial community. The sulfate reduction pathway I was significantly different at P < 0.001, the octane oxidation pathway and the adenine and adenosine pathway were significantly different at 0.001 ≤ P < 0.01, and the remaining pathways were significantly different at 0.01 ≤ P < 0.05. In summary, the rare fungal taxa are of great significance to maintaining functional diversity and microbial structure of soil.

Jianfei Guan

Hydraulics, Hydrology and Water Resources Engineering

Experimental Study on Flow Capacity of a Typical Side Weir

The flow capacity of a side weir is an important factor to consider in its study, as it can significantly impact the relevant hydraulic parameters near the weir. In this study, a 1:50 scale physical model of a river was used to investigate the flow capacity of a side weir with a flood diversion angle of 31° and a height of 1 m. The results indicate that the discharge coefficient Cw of the side weir decreases with an increase in parameter $${{h_2 } / P}$$ h 2 / P , and increases with an increase in Fr1. Furthermore, the side weir outflow efficiency η decreases with an increase in downstream Fr2, but increases with an increase in parameter $${{h_2 } / P}$$ h 2 / P . The η has a stronger correlation with Fr2 and a relatively weaker correlation with parameter $${{h_2 } / P}$$ h 2 / P . The discharge coefficient Cw and outflow efficiency η of the side weir were fitted, and corresponding calculation formulas were proposed. The fitting formula for the discharge coefficient shows good correlation, with an error within 8%. However, the split ratio fitting formula has a relatively large error, with a maximum of about 28%. These findings can be used as a reference for design and operational management.

Xiaowei Han, Haifeng Zhang, Nan Yi, Guanglei Gao
The Sustainable Development Model of Rural Domestic Sewage Treatment in China

With the successive promulgation of rural environmental governance policies in China, rural sewage treatment has become a hot topic. In response to the problem of traditional unified sewage collection and treatment model being difficult to adapt to in rural China, this article systematically investigates academic literature and engineering projects in China since 2000. The main problems existing in the existing rural governance are: the design scale of the project is too large; the water quality of the project inlet design is too high; the sewage pipe network is blocked and damaged; the sewage treatment facilities are not acclimated to the local conditions. Therefore, this article proposes a new model of rural sewage treatment and resource utilization that is ‘source separation, classified discharge, qualitative treatment, and recycling’, and provides three utilization scenarios and suitable technologies. In addition, it also explores the economic performance of this new model. The new sewage treatment concept proposed in this study will provide reference for further improving the rural sewage treatment rate in China.

Xinying Fan, Xiaotao Gao, Ming Cai, Hao Ma, Jian Fu, Zhengwei Li
Comparative Study on Real-Time Economic Operation Algorithm of Three Gorges Hydropower Station

The study of flood season stage has significant scientific significance and value in achieving the dual goals of flood control and drought resistance in reservoirs. However, existing research on staging schemes often focuses on a single hydrological indicator for staging calculations, which makes it difficult to comprehensively measure the hydrological characteristics of the basin and is not closely integrated with reservoir scheduling. In response to this problem, this study takes the Longtan Reservoir in Guangxi as the research object, first analyzing the three indicators of rainfall, flood, and flow in the Longtan Basin, and then using circular distribution method, fuzzy statistical test method, and the fuzzy set analysis method and the multi-index identification method are used to calculate the flood season staging. Finally, the flood season staging scheme of Longtan Reservoir is determined based on the reservoir operation mode, and the advantages and disadvantages of the four staging methods are analyzed in all aspects. The results show that the staging scheme combined with the reservoir operation mode can not only consider the nodes of hydrological index changes in the flood season, but also take into account the shipping and water storage needs of the reservoir, compared to directly using nodes for staging, it has stronger applicability. This study can provide theoretical basis and reference for the determination of reservoir flood season staging plans.

Kui Huang, Zhenyu Mu, Xuanyu Shi, Xueshan Ai, Jiajun Guo, Jie Ding
Flood Forecast and Control for Urban Rivers Using LSTM Neural-Network

To make better prediction and control of river water navigation in a Danish city - Vejle, the Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) neural-network model is adopted to predict the water-level nearby a high flooding-risk area using correlated historical data. A set of feedback control solutions are developed based on the extension of the obtained LSTM model to automatically regulate a distribution-gate system, which guides the coming stream-flow into separated urban rivers. The proposed control solutions are tested in simulation based on four historic events, and it can be observed that two floods at the critical areas since 2017 could have been prevented by balancing flow-splits using automatic feedback control, which was manually controlled in the past. This study demonstrates a clear and promising potential to use machine learning methods for supporting development of smart cities and their climate adaption strategies.

Lars-Eric Ertlmeier, Zhenyu Yang, Benjamin Refsgaard
Spatial Variation of Agricultural Drought Vulnerability in Eastern Agricultural Zone of Qinghai Province, China

Based on the statistical indicators of 14 counties in the agricultural area of eastern Qinghai, the evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability were studied by using principal component analysis and weighted synthesis method. Then, the vulnerability of the risk-bearing body was analyzed by using GIS The barrier degree model was established to analyze the barrier degree of each indicator. The spatial distribution map of drought vulnerability in the eastern part of Qinghai and the barrier index of each indicator were obtained. The results show a trend of increasing from the central part to the north and south; drought vulnerability in the agricultural production environment shows the highest in the Naoshan area, followed by the Qianshan area, and the lowest in the Chuanshui area. According to the barrier degree index, precipitation, per capita net income of farmers and gross regional product are derived as the main causes of disaster management.

Youwen Zhang, Xueqin Cao, Rentian Shu

Geotechnical Engineering

A Review on Application of Soft Computing Techniques in Geotechnical Engineering

Numerous test results, mathematical relationships, and in-the-moment analysis and design are all components of geotechnical issues. Additionally, due to smart infrastructure and materials, the research trend in engineering nowadays is shifting toward intelligent tools and their ability to tackle engineering problems. Artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM), genetic algorithms (GA), and particle swarm optimization algorithms (PSO), among other soft computing techniques, have made significant progress in recent years in solving geotechnical issues. Based on a review of more than 800 published research, this study discusses the applicability of soft computing techniques in the current environment. Traditional methods, such as regression analysis and trial-and-error techniques, take time and could be more effective. Additionally, most geotechnical designs require considerable experimental data and may require laborious work. A novel methodology for soft computing approaches has emerged to solve the problems mentioned above. This paper presents soil problems and geotechnical challenges while examining recent developments and the potential applications of soft computing.

T. V. Nagaraju, Mantena Sireesha, B. M. Sunil, Shaik Subhan Alisha
Study on Enhanced Oil Recovery Technology of Tight Reservoir Modified in Highly Deviated Well: A Case Study of the L183 Area in the Huaqing Oilfield Ordos Basin, China

Chang 6 sandstone reservoir in Huaqing oilfield is a typical tight reservoir. The whole reservoir presents the characteristics of obvious non Darcy seepage, widespread development of natural fractures, large proportion of low production and low efficiency wells, and low production of single wells developed by conventional vertical wells. Based on the mechanism of highly deviated wells improving oil production rate, aiming at the problems of low recovery degree and fracture development induced by water injection during the development of tight reservoirs, this paper verifies the feasibility and superiority of highly deviated wells in tight reservoirs through indoor numerical simulation and field actual effect evaluation. The research results indicate that: (1) The highly deviated wells in the study area adopt advanced fine layered water injection development method, and the regional formation pressure is maintained at a level of over 120%. By utilizing the role of closed well infiltration and displacement, the seepage range is increased and the oil recovery rate is significantly improved. (2) Through numerical simulation combined with actual field test results, it has been proven that the concept of reducing the number of fracturing sections by combining cost control in highly inclined well areas, and the optimal perforation control degree is achieved at 10–20 m per well, with a reasonable flow to saturation ratio of less than 1.0, can maximize the benefits. It is concluded that the development of highly deviated wells in the L183 area of Huaqing oilfield provides strong support for the optimization design of fracturing parameters of thick reservoirs with tight interlayer, and provides theoretical guidance and technical support for their field application.

Ce Wang, Xizhu Zhu, Tianhao Jiang, Libiao Li, Fangxin Song, Ping Zheng, Jiuli Gu
Suitability Evaluation of Subsurface Space Development and Utilization in Langfang North Three Counties, Hebei Province

This article is on the basis of the analysis of geological environmental factors such as topography, engineering geology, hydrogeology, and geological environmental issues in the Langfang north three counties, Hebei Province. According to the study of the interaction between geological environment elements and subsurface space development, a geological environment suitability evaluation index system for different depths of subsurface space development has been established. This article evaluates the suitability of the development and utilization of the shallow (0 ~ −18m), medium(−22 ~ −50 m) and deep (Below 70 m) subsurface space at different depths in this area according to the four levels of unsuitable, less appropriate, more appropriate and appropriate by the analytic hierarchy process. The results show that more than 70% of shallow and deep layers the study area is suitable or more suitable for the development and utilization of subsurface space. Among them, the suitable area for shallow subsurface space development accounts for 31.23%, the more suitable area accounts for 53.63%, the less suitable area accounts for 12.27%, and the unsuitable area accounts for 2.87%; The middle suitable area accounts for 7.45%, the more suitable area accounts for 46.61%, and the less suitable area accounts for 34.48%; The proportion of unsuitable areas is 11.95%; The deep suitable area accounts for 30.81%, the more suitable area accounts for 43.86%, and the less suitable area accounts for 22.72%; The proportion of unsuitable areas is 2.62%. The evaluation results can provide geoscientific basis for the planning of subsurface space development and utilization in the study area.

Dong Du, Xinliang Guo, Yaonan Bai, Chuanming Ma, Hongwei Liu, Jinjie Miao, Jing Zhang
Spatial Distribution, Influencing Factors and Suitability Evaluation of Rural Tourism - An Example from Guizhou, China

Clarifying the spatial distribution, influencing factors, and spatial suitability of rural tourism is of great significance for the industry authorities to optimize the layout and practitioners to select sites scientifically. Using 1200 tourist villages in Guizhou Province as the research sample, the spatial distribution, influencing factors, and suitability of tourist villages are studied using the Nearest Neighbor Index, GeoDetector, and Suitability Evaluation Model. It is found that: the spatial distribution of tourist villages is neither random nor dispersed but shows a significant tendency to cluster in a specific local space. Multiple factors significantly influence the spatial heterogeneity of tourist villages. Distance to tourist attractions, accessibility to urban areas, distance to ethnic villages, distance to ecological villages, distance to main rivers, and distance to featured agri-products are the major factors affecting the spatial heterogeneity of tourist villages. Tourist villages mainly surround tourist attractions, neighboring cultural villages, conveniently accessible to urban areas, close to ecological villages, along with main rivers, and nearby featured agri-products. And the tourism village distribution is remarkably correlated with the above factors. It presents a distribution consistent with distance decay. It is estimated that the area suitable for developing rural tourism in Guizhou is limited. The highly suitable, relatively suitable, and generally suitable areas for developing rural tourism are only about 1.38%, 6.95%, and 11.35% of the total area, respectively. Approximately 80.32% of the area in Guizhou is still not suitable for developing rural tourism.

Yan Xiang, Junwei Zhao, Yanlin Hou

Coastal Engineering and Fluid Mechanics

Coastline Change Monitoring by Remote Sensing in Coastal Zone of Bohai Bay in China

Coasts are the zone between the sea and the land, influenced by the dual effects of the exchange of materials between land and sea. It is an important reference for sea and land changes that reflect climate change and human activities. Monitoring shoreline changes has become an important task in the ecological environment protection, economic development of the bay. In this paper, coastline changes, bay area and shoreline characteristics of Bohai Bay in northern China were investigated over a 40-year period using multi-dated Landsat TM/ETM satellite image data from 1975 to 2015. The results show that the total coastline length of Bohai Bay increased by 761 km in the past 40 years, but the bay area showed a decreasing trend, which decreased by 18%; the artificial coastline showed a clear increasing trend year by year, while the natural coastline change was relatively weak and acutely disappeared, More than 95% of the coastline's length was made up of artificial coastline along Bohai Bay; the factors influencing the shoreline change of Bohai Bay had significant temporal heterogeneity, and then the leading factor was the anthropogenic development activities (reclamation engineering and port construction), mainly concentrated in the three key regions of Caofeidian Port, Tianjin Port and Huanghua Port in Bohai Bay. With the expansion of development and exploitation of marine activities, the impact of human activities on the evolution of coastal zone is becoming more and more obvious, according to an analysis of the change of the bay coast and the bay area under the influence of hydrodynamic, sedimentary, and natural evolution environment. The study reveals the characteristics and influencing factors of coastal change in Bohai Bay, which can provide the necessary scientific basis for the development and construction, comprehensive management and coastal environmental protection of the Bohai Bay region.

Hualiang Xie, Jie Han, Huaiyuan Li, Shuhua Zuo, Zhiyuan Han
The Progress and Management Suggestions for the Renovation and Restoration of Sea Area and Coastal Zone

In recent years, the central government has invested in supporting 74 coastal zone renovation and restoration projects through sea area use funds, achieving a series of significant results. However, there are some problems such as a lack of comprehensive planning, incomplete management systems, unscientific implementation plans for some projects, and delayed implementation progress as well. Given the current progress and management status of coastal zone renovation and restoration projects, the article recommends the marine administrative departments to establish a management system, strengthen project supervision during and after the event, scientifically formulate and strictly implement renovation and restoration plans, broaden funding channels for renovation and restoration projects, innovate incentive mechanisms for renovation and restoration projects, promote the informatization construction of renovation and restoration project management, and proposed the ecological restoration concept of giving priority to natural restoration to promote the construction of marine ecological civilization and the development of marine economy in coastal areas.

Dawei Ji, Jian Zhang, Shiyue Fan, Yuanjun Wang, Yingzhi Cao, Hong Deng
Building an Economic Argumentation Model for Vessel Train

Vessel train has emerged as an innovative mode of transport organization and also as an intelligent ship-navigating technique. In this paper, we focus on the economic efficiency of vessel train for inland shipping and analyze the influence factors of economic efficiency. Based on the current situation of inland waterborne transport in China, we build an economic argumentation model for vessel train in inland waterways. Then, a case study is performed for the fairway along the Yangtze River trunk line that extends from Wuhan to Shanghai in the middle and lower reaches. The economic efficiency of the vessel train is estimated, and a sensitivity analysis is conducted for crew salary, identified as an important influence factor of economic efficiency. The results show that intelligent platooning cannot dramatically reduce the operating cost of vessel train under the current average crew salary in China. But as the crews’ salary continues to rise, vessel train is bound to have a bright prospect in the future.

Fangfang Jiao, Wendi Liu, Jingjing Lin
Numerical Investigation of Turbulence Models for Swirling Nitrogen/Air

In this paper, different turbulence models are researched by simulating a non-reactive swirl flow of the non-premixed cyclone burner in comparison with the experimental results. Based on the velocity analyses, obvious recirculation zone (CRZ) and jet zone (SJ) exist in the experiments and influences the swirl flow. However, the laminar flow model, SST k-w, standard k-w cannot simulate these two vital regions as same accurate as the RNG model, especially for the declination angles. Comparing the axial velocity curve and tangential velocity curve, axial velocity and tangential velocity peaks and trough position and velocity magnitude of the RNG k-ε model are the closest to the experimental results, which can fully predict the swirl characteristics. The structure of the vortex is fully represented by RNG model, and the CRZ and SJ at the burner outlet are well captured. Thus, the RNG model is most suitable for the swirl flows. Based on the simulation results of the RNG model, the CRZ and SJ are folded, corrugated, and have completely asymmetrical behavior due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. It may cause the turbulence models without swirl corrections to be unable to simulate the important swirl flow characteristics correctly, while the RNG model has considered the swirl influence in the turbulence viscosity correction. Therefore, a suitable swirl flow correction considering the swirl number is important in turbulence models for such simulations.

Aoshuang Ding, Nenghui Wang, Zaixing Yang, Wenqing Mei, Lin Chen, Congyang Xiao, Hai Wu, Siyang Yi
Proceedings of The 5th International Conference on Advances in Civil and Ecological Engineering Research
herausgegeben von
Chih-Huang Weng
Springer Nature Singapore
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