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2023 | Buch

Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Construction, Architecture and Technosphere Safety


herausgegeben von: Andrey A. Radionov, Dmitrii V. Ulrikh, Svetlana S. Timofeeva, Vladimir N. Alekhin, Vadim R. Gasiyarov

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book highlights recent findings in civil and environmental engineering and urban planning, and provides an overview of the state of the art in these fields, mainly in Russia and Eastern Europe. A broad range of topics and issues in modern engineering are discussed, including construction, buildings and structures, advanced materials, innovative technology, methods and techniques in civil engineering, heating, gas supply, water supply and sewerage, foundation engineering, BIM, structural reliability, durability and monitoring, special and unique structures construction (bridge, tunnel, road, railway engineering), design and construction of hydraulic structures, concrete engineering, urban regeneration and sustainable development, urban transport system, engineering structure safety and disaster prevention, water resources engineering, water and wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse of wastewater, etc. The volume gathers selected papers from the 6th International Conference on Construction, Architecture and Technosphere Safety (ICCATS), held in Sochi, Russia in September 2022. The authors are experts in various fields of engineering, and all papers have been carefully reviewed.



Industrial and Сivil Engineering

Blast-Induced Seismicity Impact on the Stability of Hydraulic Structures

In this article we analyze the influence of the blast-induced seismicity on the stability of hydraulic structures. It is known that when hydraulic tunnels are constructed during blasting works, both on the surface and in the underground space, one should take into account the influence of seismic effects on their stability. The task of forecasting and ensuring the stability of mine workings during earthquakes is very challenging because residual deformations appear in the rocks within shot points. Notably, during construction, blasting operations are often performed in the immediate vicinity of underground mines. This is the reason for limiting the number of massive blasts when the action of seismic waves should be taken into account. The analysis of this problem allowed us to conclude that under the influence of a seismic force, underground blasts can be used near existing dams and hydraulic structures and it does not have a dangerous influence on them.

U. A. Yatimov, A. J. Yatimov, N. S. Safaraliev, I. A. Yatimov, L. D. Safarov
Modeling of Connection Nodes of Elements Rod Structures

The article deals with the design of spatial rod coverings and their nodal connections. The main goal is to find new solutions for nodal joints and methods for their manufacture. Current developments of nodal joints have many disadvantages that lead to high labor costs and high consumption of steel. It turns out that original and effective solutions for nodes exist in nature. For an unconventional solution of technical problems, architectural bionics productively uses the nodes and details of natural systems. Natural tubular structures, such as bones, trunks, branches, have excellent mechanical properties due to their minimal weight and maximum moment of inertia. Bionics allows you to simulate the connections elements of coating based on natural analogs. The creation of new nodes for spatial rod coverings can be done by 3D printing using metal powder. This makes it possible to switch to industrial fabrication of nodal elements. 3D printed parts are highly accurate and reliable. Based on this research, bionics and 3D printing with powdered metal will help to succeed in the development of new spatial systems.

I. Alaverdov, N. Buzalo, N. Tsaritova, A. Kurbanova, I. Platonova
The Actuality of Geotechnical Monitoring on the Example of Construction Objects in Tyumen

The article discusses about the actuality of timely geotechnical monitoring of the buildings and surrounding structures. Analysis of the regulatory standards, regarding the geotechnical monitoring requirements, was done. As part of the implementation of geotechnical monitoring complex research of 16 objects in one of the microdistricts of Tyumen were carried out. The order of that research was the control of the mechanical safety of buildings and structures. The article presents the results and analysis of its implementation. So, for one of the objects in Tyumen, geotechnical monitoring revealed the need the stabilization of continuous uneven settlements. To investigate the current situation was made of the stress-strain state analysis of the soil base at the moment and after the completion of filtration consolidation under the conditions of the initial state of the building, constructed according to the project, and taking into account different types of soil reinforcement. Authors presents the results of choosing the method of the differential settlements stabilization as part of construction scientific-technical support. Conducting timely geotechnical monitoring allows to detect the possibility of an emergency at an early stage and take the necessary measures to solve the problem of soil base and foundation strengthening. Analysis of the regulatory standards, regarding the geotechnical monitoring requirements, was done. Authors presents the results of buildings geotechnical monitoring in one of Tyumen districts for mechanical safety control purposing and choosing the method of the differential settlements stabilization as part of construction scientific-technical support.

M. A. Stepanov
Prospects for the Use of Painted Ceramic Facing Materials Using Man-Made Waste

The production of ceramic products is one of the most material-intensive industries. The relevance of research is based on the need to develop new modern technologies and methods for the production of facing ceramic bricks, expanding the range of produced building ceramics, by introducing man-made waste into the composition of the ceramic charge. This is due to the annual increase in the volume of various non-recyclable industrial wastes, which can serve as cheap raw materials and modifiers that improve the properties of ceramics in some cases, and the depletion of natural clay raw materials used in the ceramics industry, which is an acute economic problem, as it affects the quality and cost. manufactured products. The study is aimed at the recycling and reuse of man-made waste, which will create a reserve of competitive raw materials for the production of facing bricks. The methods of utilization and processing of production wastes were studied, the advantages and disadvantages of each were identified, and the most optimal method was chosen, which was introduced into the technology of manufacturing ceramic facing bricks.

V. S. Romanyuk, L. V. Klimova, V. M. Kurdashov, A. I. Izvarin, V. S. Yatsenko
Parametric Studies of Intra-Modular Connections Stiffness

The article is focused on the study of the stiffness of intra-module connections of stacked modules buildings with corner columns. A review of literary sources devoted to this issue has been carried out. It was revealed that the vast majority of the compounds considered by the researchers are semi-rigid according to the classification of Eurocode. Therefore, within the article, data is provided on parametric numerical studies of the rotational stiffness of the used types of nodes with different parameters to establish the boundaries of rigid joints of a crossbar with a column of modular buildings. Within the study, five types of intra-module connections were considered: without stiffeners, with vertical stiffener, with horizontal stiffeners. The main variable parameter for nodes with a vertical stiffener was the height of the stiffener. For nodes with horizontal stiffeners, the variable parameters were the width and thickness of the stiffener, as well as the material of the main elements and welding. Based on the results of numerical studies of the parameters of rotational stiffness of intra-module connections, it was found that the high strength materials could slightly increase the rotational stiffness of joints; rigid nodes with vertical ribs have a lower material consumption compared to nodes with horizontal ribs; nodes with horizontal ribs have more increased load carrying ability.

V. Shirokov, T. Belash
Responsive Architecture as a Synthetic Field in Architecture and Construction

This paper reviews responsive architecture, a dynamically developing aspect of design and construction, encompassing fundamental engineering and technological principles, architectural and design content, and green architecture elements to meet the needs of society and the individual. The key thesis of responsive architecture is “nothing in nature is motionless”. As part of nature’s context, the individual has the right to exist in a sustainable environment, the development of which is shaped through environmental, economic, and social aspects. Our research characterizes the key directions of responsive architecture’s development and development prospects in the context of the current technological processes and social needs. Since responsive architecture is based on synthesis, we rely on materials from various design fields (including engineering and technical solutions, mobile form-making, green architecture, etc.). When elaborating on the concept of responsive architecture, we looked at the potential responsiveness of different urban environment items: element, object, and city fragment. We examined the following aspects: technologies for working with natural systems and landscaped environments; modeling sustainable systems; defining approaches to the use of form-making and designer tools to ensure the responsiveness of environmental elements.

M. Zolotareva, A. Ponomarev
Use of Soft Wood Waste in the Production of Wood Particle Boards

The article is devoted to the actual problem of using industrial waste in order to obtain composite materials based on special chips with the addition of shavings-waste. The involvement in the processing of unused woodworking waste in full contributes to both expanding the raw material base for the production of composite materials and improving the environmental situation by reducing the negative impact on the environment. An analysis of domestic and foreign experience indicates the effectiveness of the use of cellulose-containing waste in the production of various composite materials. The article presents the results of studies aimed at testing the hypothesis about the possibility of using soft wood waste in the outer layers of board materials obtained using particle board technology. The experimental studies were based on a complete factorial plan, the results of which revealed the main regularities of the process of composite structure formation and obtained mathematical models of its strength properties in the form of regression equations. It has been established that with a specific pressing time of 0.25 min/mm, a temperature of 190 °C and the addition of waste shavings to the outer layers of board materials from 3 to 7% by weight, a material with a tensile strength perpendicular to the board of at least 0.35 MPa will be obtained and strength in static bending not less than 18.2 MPa. The results obtained can be recommended for use in the production of board materials with the required strength properties.

A. Titunin, T. Vakhnina, I. Susoeva, A. Titunin Junior
Assessing the Applicability of Sand Hydraulic Conductivity Calculation Techniques

Accurate evaluation of hydraulic conductivity is an important part of estimating water permeability of soils. The article describes the results of hydraulic conductivity evaluation for alluvial sands by field and laboratory methods, as well as by empirical equations. In field conditions, hydraulic conductivity was determined by pouring water in test pits, and in laboratory conditions—by filtration tube surveys. It was established that the discrepancy between the results obtained by laboratory methods and those obtained by field tests reaches 10–16%. Empirical formulas of Hazen, Kozeny-Carman, Slichter, Krüger, and Sauerbrey were used to calculate the hydraulic conductivity of sand. The deviation of the hydraulic conductivity value obtained by field survey from that obtained through calculation is 6–71%. The closest match was produced by the Krüger equation, which accounts for the specific surface area of particles. The article demonstrates that empirical equations based on effective diameter calculations give considerable errors in most cases. The error in determining hydraulic conductivity is also associated with the application of a standard set of sieves (to establish the grain size distribution of sand) featuring a large gap between opening sizes.

A. V. Nikitin, O. M. Zaborskaya
Lining Application by Means of Guniting (Using Machine TOR-1)

The development of construction technology fostered the need for the research. The authors applied the following general scientific methods: analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization, etc. The article considers the issues of lining application from the viewpoint of the material engineering and technology. The authors reviewed modern approaches to the application of various materials and defined the prospects for the development of new materials to apply linings. The research relevance is defined by the need to make optimal economic investments into lining organization as well as by the need to improve technical means considering the conditions the available regional materials are used in. Applying repair and refractory masses and mixes on the various surfaces by guniting is the most convenient way to make a high-quality lining. The article considers the equipment for dry mix guniting. It analyzes the key advantages of guniting machines. The practical part describes the projected universal shotcrete machine for lining on various surfaces, taking into account the conditions of use of available regional materials. The possibility to adjust machine disc squeezing allows applying the mixes of various fraction sizes. The developed version of the guniting machine Tor-1 has the following advantages: high performance, possibility to work with extra fine fractions (which is even more relevant for thermal generating units). It is suggested producing the most wearable discs of alloyed, high-chromium steel 95KH18. The authors propose using the gunned mass TMTsV produced by Ogneupor, LLC (Magnitogorsk, Russia) as a preferential material for shocreting.

M. B. Permyakov, E. I. Pashkov, T. V. Krasnova
Impact of the Coolant Flow Velocity on the Thermal Condition of Flat-Plate Solar Collectors

The issues of effective operation of flat-plate solar collectors in the Voronezh region and under other RF climatic conditions have been considered. The impact of the coolant flow velocity in the absorber tubes on the radiation-generated thermal condition has been estimated, exemplified by a solar energy utilization system for the hot water supply of cottages in the warm season. The results of calculations and analysis of the water flow rate and velocity impact on the temperature difference occurring in a standard solar collector are provided. Studies have shown that to achieve the required coolant temperature, the velocity should be within 0.02–0.03 m/s, which corresponds to a flow rate of 0.001–0.0015 kg/s in a meander-type absorber. The values of the optimal interval of the coolant velocity in the tubes leads to an increase in the efficiency of the collector, since it does not cause a drop in efficiency due to approaching the stagnation temperature. Dependence has been proposed for designing solar systems installed in the northern latitude regions, which allows justifying the choice of the circulating coolant velocity and, consequently, total flow rate in the absorption tubes.

T. V. Shchukina, A. S. Efanova, I. S. Kurasov
Polymer-Cement Concrete Based on Polyvinyl Acetate Dispersion for Construction 3D Printing

This work is devoted to determining the applicability of polymer-cement concretes containing polyvinyl acetate dispersion as a printing material for a construction 3D printing. In the theoretical part of the work, a review of the literature on polymer-cement concretes is given, the properties that mixtures for additive technologies in construction should have are determined, the advantages of using polymer-cement compositions for construction 3D printing are given. In the practical part of the work, samples of polymer-cement fine-grained concrete were made with the replacement of part of the cement with polyvinyl acetate dispersion in an amount of 0–20%. The results of determining the compressive strength of samples aged 1, 3, 7 and 28 days are presented, the rheological parameters and setting times are measured, the appearance of thixotropy of mixtures containing a polymer component is experimentally shown. Polymer-cement concretes, with many positive characteristics required for construction 3D printing, tend to significantly reduce strength in the first days of hardening when replacing part of the cement with a polymer. This is a disadvantage, but can be solved by introducing a polymer component into the composition without reducing the amount of cement. It is concluded that the use of polymer-cement concretes in construction 3D printing is promising, but further study of this issue is required.

A. Puzatova, S. Sokolnikova, M. Dmitrieva
General Formula of Beams Strengthening

The article proposes one of the approaches to implement the introducing methodology idea for determining strengthening with a general formula. Combining equations recommendations at different parts of beams in the form of a general formula are given. Equations variants for determining strengthening in the form of the general formula have been given by the example of a simple beam calculation under diverse loading schemes. The proposed format distinctive features for the final formulas have been noted in comparison with the traditional ones with writing equations discrete form. The mathematical apparatuses wide usage possibility for general formulas transformation and analysis of the stress–strain state in beams has been shown. Thanks to the elimination of multiple calculations of forces in individual sections used in general problem-solving methods, the use of a joint formula can significantly reduce the number of calculations. The proposed joint record in the form of a single formula, instead of multiple formulas for different sections of the element, simplifies the procedure for adapting the automated calculation methods using simpler algorithms. It is important to state that using the expressions for calculating forces in the form of a joint equation allows us to apply more rational methods of problem-solving, in particular for securing stability and dynamics of structures. It is worth mentioning that the proposed algorithm for formation of a joint equation for beams can be extended to other structures in accordance with proposed methodology.

A. A. Sobakin, V. K. Fedorov
Determining the Water Demand of Fine Aggregates

For the effective design of concrete and mortar compositions, it is important to know the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of their components, in particular, aggregates, including artificial aggregates. One of the essential characteristics affecting the quality of fine aggregates is water demand. Determining the water demand of sand in a solution using well-known methods depends on the composition of the solution and its liquid phase and cannot objectively characterize its quality. Water demand, defined as the amount of water held by the surface forces of water particles, is more suitable for assessing the quality of fine aggregates. The wetting power of grains is a determining factor in the water demand of dense sands, such as sands for heavy concretes. When developing a new method for determining the water demand of sand, our task was to use the positive aspects of two methods–drying and measuring electrical conductivity. The advantage of the proposed method is the continuous change and recording of dehydration parameters and the clear distinction between free and bound moisture at standard temperatures. The developed method consists in the continuous measurement of the electrical conductivity of pre-moistened sand during dehydration with a room temperature air flow, recording a characteristic point on a graph of conductivity over time, and determining the moisture content corresponding to the water demand of the sand using the weight method. We proved that the method is sufficiently accurate and reproducible when using sands with a wide range of grain compositions.

I. L. Kostiunina, A. L. Rozovskii, S. N. Pogorelov
Increasing the Energy Efficiency of Buildings

Current trends and perspectives on building construction and renovation are primarily concerned with a rational usage of energy resources, a comfortable indoor climate and a reduced impact on the environment. New requirements for consumer qualities of housing, modern trends in the field of energy and resource conservation require the development of new structural solutions of buildings, modern organizational and economic directions of the industry development based on progressive achievements of science and technology, which will allow to introduce modern efficient materials and technologies into production, to solve the issues of creating a comfortable living environment. The most promising way of tackling this problem is converting to energy-efficient houses. The main heat loss in buildings occurs in the enclosure structures, which account for 30–35% of the total heat loss of a building. A high thermal protection of a building or a structure can be ensured by using efficient thermal insulating, structural building materials like cellular concrete. The unique thermal properties of cellular concrete are primarily due to porosity. Its structure produces a significant number (up to 90%) of artificially created air cavities, ensuring self-regulation comfort of living areas. The use of fiber-reinforced concrete structures in construction will help to reduce labor costs for reinforcement work, steel and concrete consumption by reducing the thickness of constructions, combine the technological operations of concrete mix preparation and its reinforcement. It has important properties for the construction industry, such as improvement of air exchange, moisture and thermal properties of the walls and sustainable structures.

L. M. Vesova, A. A. Churakov
The Use of PVC Waste in Concrete with the Addition of PVAc

Studies of the flexural and compressive strength of concrete were carried out with the replacement of 20% of the volume of sand with crushed waste from PVC (polyvinyl chloride) panels and the addition of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) in the amount of 10% of the mass of cement. The tests were carried out on the 28th day of hardening of the samples in the mode of changing relative humidity from 90–95% in the first two days to 55–60% in the rest of the hardening time. The TiO2 photocatalyst was applied to the surface of the concrete to protect polymer concrete from UV irradiation and give it photocatalytic properties. A decrease in the workability of the mixture was recorded when PVC waste was added to the concrete composition, but the addition of PVAc to the mixture increased the workability to the minimum required value. The flexural strength of samples with PVC waste and the addition of PVAc decreased by 23.3%. Compressive strength decreased by 26.5% for these samples, and by 13.5% for concrete with PVC waste without the addition of PVAc.

S. Sokolnikova, A. Puzatova, M. Dmitrieva
Bearing Capacity and Deformability of Connections of Wooden Structures on TGC Dowel Plates

The results of a rather large selection of experimental studies on the determination of the bearing capacity and deformability of connections of wooden structures on plates with cylindrical dowels TGk 5 mm in diameter with a symmetric and no symmetric test scheme are presented. The relevance of the study is due to insufficient data on the bearing capacity and deformability of these joints in relation to some parameters when pressing composite wooden beams. Based on the data obtained, a statistical analysis of all the test results on determining the ultimate strength connections and the deformation connections by loading levels. The results of comparing the experimental data and calculations of the nagel joint according to the previously obtained calculated diagram of the deformation of the wood of the nagel nest with the nonlinear diagram of the deformation of the nagel for symmetric and no symmetric joints are also presented. Good convergence of calculation results with experimental data is obtained. The purpose of these studies is to obtain a short-term diagram of the deformation of the connections on the nagel plates of TGk for the possibility of a refined calculation of composite beams, to identify the patterns of strength and stiffness of the connections from the technological factors of pressing the nagel plates into the beams.

S. A. Isupov
Increasing the Resistance of Chloromagnesian Composites to Cracking Under Prolonged Water Saturation

This article presents the results of a study devoted to determining the effect of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) additives on the properties of magnesium chloride composites, in particular, on their resistance to long-term water saturation. Magnesium oxychloride cements (MOC), especially based on dolomites, are highly prone to cracking when exposed to water for a long time. This effect depends on the degree of crystallization of the main active component—magnesium oxide, which is part of their composition. With an improper degree of crystallization, an artificial stone is formed, which individual phases are capable of creating internal stresses leading to destruction during long water saturation. In this paper, we consider the ability of the STPP modifier to stabilize these phases, as well as its effect on some physical and mechanical properties of chlorine magnesia composites. During the research, methods of mathematical planning of the experiment, standard methods for studying strength characteristics and water absorption by weight were used. It has been shown that the introduction of STPP additive reduces the strength of composites, but contributes to an increase in their resistance to cracking during prolonged water saturation.

G. Averina, V. Koshelev, L. Kramar
Steady-State Nonlinear Heat and Mass Transfer in Multilayer Enclosing Structures of Buildings and Constructions

For various canonical forms, a generalized mathematical model of a nonlinear stationary convective-molecular process of heat transfer through multilayer enclosing structures is suggested. A one-dimensional boundary value problem of heat and mass transfer processes in the multilayer enclosing is formalized, which takes into account the processes of infiltration and exfiltration of the vapor-air mixture through the multilayer enclosing, as well as the presence of positive or negative and surface heat sources. Analytical closed solutions of the boundary value problem are obtained under conditions of unambiguity. Solutions of physical processes are analyzed depending on variable or constant thermophysical characteristics, sinks or heat sources. Boundary value problems of unrelated nonlinear stationary transfer and some algorithms for their solution for various bodies of classical forms are considered. Mathematical models are formalized, analytical and approximate solutions of boundary value problems of transfer are reduced to a dimensionless criterion form, which is convenient for large-scale transitions, practical applications, formulation of optimization problems and automation of control systems. Based on the results of closed general analytical solutions of a number of applied boundary value problems of heat and mass transfer, their physical interpretation is carried out. The results obtained make it possible to use them for practical calculations in the design of enclosing structures of buildings and constructions, thermal, engineering and electrical networks, the development of construction regulations for thermal protection of buildings, as well as in the calculations of multilayer structures of industrial thermal power and mechanical engineering equipment.

R. A. Sadykov, A. K. Mukhametzianova
Modeling of Construction Objects When Considering Repair Characteristics

The paper considers the possibilities of modeling construction projects, when repair processes are implemented for them. An analysis of the significance of the parameters of construction objects when considering their maintainability is carried out. It was suggested that assessments of the significance of the maintainability status parameters should be carried out, and the selection of the optimal set of indicators was required. Nine indicators were selected. The method of extreme grouping was used in the selection of indicators for modeling. This is due to the fact that the cost of computing resources increases as the number of parameters increases. The formation of classification models of repair is carried out. The results are given, which provide standards for the parameters of repair models, as well as the minimum permissible degree of similarity by models. Based on the results of the classification, there are opportunities for the state of construction projects to be determined. The analysis demonstrated good performance of the proposed models.

Ya. Lvovich, I. Lvovich, A. Preobrazhenskiy, Yu. Preobrazhenskiy
Static Three-Point Bending Tests on 3D Printed Multilayer Composite Plates

The article presents the results of static tests for three-point bending of composite three-layer plates with continuous outer layers and tetrachiral honeycomb core. The plates were made using 3D printing (stereolithographic printing), and the procedure of laboratory additive manufacturing has been described in detail. Four series of samples were tested, varying in the discretization (number of elementary cells) of the filler. Samples within the series differ in the thickness of tetrachiral honeycombs, but the volume of their solid body is the same. As a result of the tests, graphs of the displacement dependence of the load were obtained. It has been shown that the thickness of the honeycomb core significantly affects the strength of the composites, despite the decrease in the thickness of the ribs of the honeycomb core, namely: the thicker the sample, the greater the bending strength it has, even with the decrease in the thickness of the walls of the honeycomb core ribs.

I. A. Solovev, M. V. Shitikova, A. V. Mazaev
Stress–Strain Properties of Concrete at Early Freezing

Studies show that the influence of negative temperatures is manifested both in the strengthening of the concrete structure and in its destruction. The destruction of concrete is associated primarily with the formation of ice in the pores. The resulting forces act destructively on the concrete structure if it does not have a certain strength. Strengthening of concrete occurs due to microcracks, a decrease in the concentration of tensile stresses at the mouths of cracks. Thus, it has been established that concrete, due to the presence of a liquid phase, continues to harden even at negative temperatures, but the quantitative side of this phenomenon has not been studied enough. The article provides an analysis of temperature deformations and changes in the structure of concrete during freezing, which depend on the resulting action of two groups of mutually opposite forces—freezing forces at the phase boundaries and internal pressure forces of the formed ice that violate the internal connection of concrete components. In this article, the products formed during the hydration of silicate minerals at low positive and negative temperatures are also considered, which differ markedly in their composition from those arising under normal conditions.

R. T. Brzhanov, M. K. Suimenova, G. I. Esbolay, K. M. Shaikhieyva, B. S. Akmurzaeva
A Modified Implicit Scheme for the Numerical Dynamic Analysis of Beam Elements Considering Nonlocal in Time Internal Damping

In the present paper, the problem on numerical dynamic simulation of bending structural elements made of orthotropic materials, such as composites and nanomaterials, is considered. The modeling of damping properties of such materials, including those that are initiated by internal friction in the material, is of particular concern. Damping parameters of the proposed numerical model are nonlocal in time. Such a model provides the results allowing one to approximate enough reliably the dissipative properties of constructional elements made of composite materials. The nonlocal in time damping model, known as “damping with memory”, is embedded into the finite element method algorithm. An equilibrium equation for a beam element in motion is solved numerically utilizing an implicit scheme. The damping matrix for the proposed model is derived from the condition of stationarity of the total deformation energy of the moving mechanical system. The provided analysis of the one-dimensional nonlocal in time design model has shown that the modified implicit scheme allows one to increase the accuracy of the experimental data approximation.

V. N. Sidorov, E. S. Badina, E. P. Detina
Optimizing the Structure of Construction Mixes for 3D Printing

The paper presents experimental studies on optimizing the structure of a polydisperse fine grain concrete mix for 3D printing of structures with the production of a dense cement conglomerate providing high plastic and cement strength, as well as stable geometry of the layers and the structure in general. Optimization was performed at the micro level by introducing limestone meal as a filler with a grain size of up to 60 microns, and at the macro level by selecting the ratios between the three basic fractions of quartz sand (0.16–0.315: 0.315–0.63: 0.63–1.25) according to the maximum bulk density of the fraction mix. Arranging the fine grain mix components according to their proportionality at each scale level of the structure allowed us to obtain a conglomerate with 40% higher bending strength and 23.8% higher compressive strength than the control composition. The grain packing density and obtained fractal structure also allowed us to halve water absorption during capillary suction. The resulting composition of the polydisperse fine grain concrete mix serves as a basis for further modification with chemical additives to obtain a viscous-plastic mix with specified rheotechnological characteristics meeting the requirements of additive 3D printing by layer-by-layer extrusion.

V. A. Solonina, I. A. Surovtsev, M. D. Butakova
Evaluation of Deformation Properties of Portland Cement Mortars Modified with Microfiber

The flooding of old mine workings after the closure of coal mining enterprises in Shakhty provoked the development of deformation processes of the rock mass This, in turn, is accompanied by uneven deformations of the soil mass in the foundations and the formation of cracks in the stone structures of buildings. Based on the analysis of studies in the field of concrete and mortar modification, as well as experimental studies, the positive effect of poly-propylene microfiber additives on the deformation characteristics of Portland cement mortars has been revealed. A significant in-crease in the water demand of the mixture with microfiber additives and, accordingly, a decrease in the rate of strength gain was revealed. A specially developed method for measuring deformations made it possible to evaluate the deformation of samples when testing solutions for uniaxial compression. The growth of the limit value of deformation of modified solutions in comparison with the control one by three times has been established. This will reduce the stress concentration in the masonry and the likelihood of cracks in the structures.

V. A. Dmitrienko, S. A. Maslenikov, O. V. Pashkova, N. A. Dmitrienko
Energy-Saving Technologies for the Construction and Operation of Buildings in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation

This article provides a brief description of the climate, resources, and problems of energy supply, construction and operation of the Arctic zone. Harsh climatic conditions significantly complicate the development of infrastructure and the development of resources. In recent decades, there has been a decrease in the population of the Arctic zone due to negative migration and a decrease in the rate of natural increase. Active exploration and development of the Arctic zone is hampered by numerous socio-economic problems of the territory, the lack of a centralized energy supply, and a high level of unemployment. To solve these problems, it is necessary to create comfortable conditions for people to live and attract the able-bodied population. The problem of energy supply to decentralized areas can be partially solved by using the generated thermal energy in the process of mining. The authors proposed the concept of utilization of thermal energy of production for the energy supply of buildings. As examples of enclosing structures for prefabricated buildings in hard-to-reach areas, a multilayer panel with an air gap and a hemisphere house made of three-layer panels mounted on a metal frame are given. The given structures of buildings reduce the resource intensity of construction and fully comply with the heat and power requirements for buildings. The paper presents the results of thermotechnical calculation of a fragment of a wall made of a multilayer panel with an air gap.

E. P. Sharovarova, V. N. Alekhin
Influence of Surface Tension Forces of Modifiers on Some Properties of Composite Materials

The influence of surface tension forces of various types of vegetable oils on the light transmission of wood has been studied. The results of testing for light transmission, physical-chemical and physical-mechanical properties of more than 25 compositions that provide light transmission after wood bleaching are presented. Graphs of the light transmission of wood from some properties of vegetable oils have been constructed and a regularity of the properties of oils on the light transmission of wood has been established, which consists in a decrease in light transmission with an increase in the surface tension force. Based on the studies carried out, it was concluded that when impregnated with vegetable oil modified with turpentine, a high light transmission result can be obtained. A binary composition of vegetable oil with 10–20% turpentine is recommended, which provides significantly better light transmission with a fairly low deformability and high thermal stability. Used in this composition, corn or sunflower oil are quite affordable and widespread products, and turpentine is also a non-deficient chemical product that is well combined with both oil and wood. Options for reducing these indicators due to the introduction of thinning components are proposed.

A. Pichugin, A. Pchelnikov, O. Smirnova, S. Tkachenko
Methodology of Determination of the Platform Joint of Reinforced Concrete Large-Panel Buildings Stiffnesses

This paper aims to develop a method for platform joint stiffness determination. The joint flexibility factor is the value numerically equal to the deformation of the joint caused by a single concentrated or distributed force. The difficulty in assessing the actual work of joints is a complex stress-state is that different types of bonds (distributed and discrete) can be applied in one joint with the variety of their design solutions. For joints having several characteristic stages of operation (e.g. before and after cracking in the joint), the joint compliance (stiffness) coefficients must be taken for each stage in a differentiated manner. In this case, the deformation of the connection is determined as the sum of the deformations of the force increments in the individual stages. The practical implementation of the method is also presented using LIRA-SAPR Software with the new types of finite elements specifically for modelling the horizontal joint of the panels. These are: FE-59 to account for the linear behaviour of the joint and FE-259 to account for physically non-linear work.

Z. Abaev, A. Valiev, M. Kodzaev

Special and Unique Structures Construction

Damping of Structures of Earthquake-Resistant Suspended Buildings

During the construction of multi-storey and high-rise buildings, the principle of suspension of floors has been frequently applied to create the main system of load-bearing structures. Such a solution makes it possible to reduce the loads in load-bearing structures caused by dynamic influences. The effectiveness of the use of suspended structures in earthquake-resistant construction was confirmed by studies of the behavior of such objects in earthquake conditions. The most widespread structural solution of suspended type buildings is a single-core system with a cantilever head. There are many approaches to the realization of floor suspension in buildings with rigid core, each of which has certain advantages and disadvantages. This article discusses some possible options for joining elements of suspended and load-bearing structures of buildings, as well as analyzes the effectiveness of their use. The analysis of the effectiveness of the proposed solutions was carried out by evaluating the displacements of elements and stresses in the load-bearing elements of the calculated models under seismic impacts with different frequency spectra. The parameters of the calculated models were determined in the LIRA 10.12 software package by the finite element method in the temporary realm. The results of computational research of these structural solutions are presented in the article.

T. Belash, I. Svitlik
The Design of Architectural Forms Based on Irregular Curves

Non-rectilinear shapes and smooth nature-like curves have been widely used in modern architecture. Such curve-based architectural forms are designed using the latest computational technologies and parametric digital modeling methods borrowed from the automotive and aviation industries. Graphically defined irregular curves are an essential component of architectural design. For the practical use of a graphically defined curve there are certain requirements: it should be approximated by a regular curve; the approximation error should not exceed 2%; the curve should pass through nodes and touch predefined direction vectors at these points; and the angle of the slope and curvature of the composite curve should change continuously. This article shows that these requirements can be fulfilled using a composite cubic Bézier curve. We have developed a graphic-analytical algorithm for the formation of the desired curve. A distinctive feature of the algorithm is that it takes into account the direction of the tangent vectors and the radii of the curvature at the nodes. Direction vectors are considered as a control for the constructed curve. We ensured second-order geometric smoothness at the nodes from the continuity of the slope and curvature. An experiment on the approximation of a nature-like curve (physical spline) of a composite cubic Bézier curve showed the approximation error was less than 1.5%.

V. A. Korotkiy, E. A. Usmanova, L. I. Khmarova
“Healthy” Architecture: Synthesis of Humanistic Approaches

Ecological conditions, especially in large cities, active urbanization and the COVID-19 pandemic reinforced the importance of architecture, which exterior and interior both care about the human health, taking into consideration the influence of architectural forms on physical, mental and socio-cultural states of a person being around those structures, living in them or using them on a daily basis. The article clarifies the methodological foundations and conceptual apparatus of design, which can be referred to as the “healthy” architecture meaning it is aimed at maintaining the health of its users. The author refers to concepts of “healthy”, “sustainable” and “living” architecture, biomorphic approach and biophilia. It is implemented not only in the material environment (i.e. objectively) but also as an architect’s design setting, the design algorithms that are being used today require a change towards greater individualization of the form. It is dictated, on the one hand, by the characteristics of users and, on the other hand, by the natural and social context.

T. Yu. Bystrova, A. M. Postnikova, A. V. Garas
Features of Designing Unique Architectural Objects in Extreme Natural Environments: The Precedents of Application

This article discusses the features of designing unique architectural objects and their construction in extreme natural environments. It is noted that for these conditions, it is important to identify alternative approaches to solving this problem based on the search for new, including non-traditional solutions to unique architectural objects that use technological innovations of the future to ensure the security of existence. The features of creating a safe environment in extreme natural conditions, which are practically not used in modern architecture and construction practice, are revealed. The precedents of the construction of unique architectural objects in extreme conditions of the aquatic environment, the use of techniques for the formation of a virtual light environment in underground construction and the construction of unique objects to create an artificial habitable environment in space are presented. A selection of design proposals for unique architectural objects in extreme natural habitats is presented, which allows us to outline the directions for searching and conducting further promising research in this area.

N. A. Saprykina
Optimization of Microclimate Parameters in Tent-Frame Buildings

The purpose of this work was to create favorable climatic conditions at workplaces in frame-tent buildings with limited energy capacities. A survey of a frame-tent building, located in harsh climatic conditions, showed that classical design solutions cannot create the necessary working conditions for maintenance personnel. For research, an instrument complex was developed using devices from the OVEN company, based on the methodology for assessing the microclimate parameters of the island. Fanger, heat engineering calculations were carried out. To optimize the microclimate parameters, a new type of air-thermal curtains was used, which redistributed air-heat flows throughout the room, sending warm air to serviced areas, and cold air to unserved ones. Field tests have shown that the use of new innovative solutions can optimize the microclimate parameters in frame rooms and create favorable climatic conditions in the workplace.

I. Yu. Shelekhov, M. I. Shelekhov
Method of Hydraulic Calculation of Gas Distribution Networks

The paper presents the results of a study of gas distribution systems. The purpose of the study is development a methodology and a program for calculating variable hydraulic modes of gas distribution networks. When choosing the optimal variant of the gas supply scheme, it is necessary to take into account the structure of the fuel and energy balance, the number of gas-supplied population and the distance from the gas supply source. A clarifying method of hydraulic calculation of gas pipelines is proposed, which allows reducing material and monetary resources for the construction and operation of gas distribution systems. When developing the mathematical model, the maximum number of influencing factors was taken into account. The results of the calculations showed that the proposed technique fully justifies itself and can be used in the design of gas distribution systems. As the analysis of the results shows, the use of the developed clarifying methodology for hydraulic calculation allows to reduce one-time costs for the construction and operation of gas distribution networks by 10% or more.

O. N. Medvedeva, S. D. Perevalov

Urban Engineering and Planning

Industrial Renovation in Context Sustainable Urban Development

The problem of renovation, the search for optimal solutions for the reconstruction of industrial complexes, the architecture of the infrastructure responsible for a comfortable urban environment still does not lose its relevance. In the modern world, the standards and construction and engineering norms associated with taking into account the needs of people have qualitatively changed. In different geographical regions have accumulated rich experience in the sphere of modernization of public urban spaces. In order to optimize the study, we have selected objects of industrial heritage that initially had the same structural and functional significance. Various models and methods of revitalizing depressed industrial zones have been analyzed, key vectors of urban planning renovation of industrial territories have been identified. The main directions of redevelopment in the regions of Russia are traced and the ways of further transformations of the open spatial environment are determined. In modern urban planning, a careful attitude to the historical architectural and construction heritage is noted. This attitude is manifested in the clear objectives of the urban planning concept. In the conclusion, a number of provisions are identified, such as the need to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the urban planning, ecological-economic and socio-cultural situation; provide for the multifunctionality of industrial complexes based on the flexibility and mobility of its volumetric-spatial structure, taking into account the intensive development of technological processes and systems. Sustainable design ensures renovations based on the principles of sustainable urban development.

N. M. Shabalina
The Compositional Regulation of the Historic Environment and Urban Planning

The paper provides a historical overview of issues concerning the refurbishment of old cities. It also presents summary information regarding current trends in urban reconstruction in Russian and oversea practice during the period from the end of WWII in the twentieth century to the beginning of the twenty-first century. The main section considers the practical aspects of regulating the historical environment. Factors here include: the social and aesthetic functions of historic sites; the essence and dimensions of such historic sites; the psychological dimensions of environmental impact; the cultural potential of historic heritage; and the theoretical and practical importance of state protection for historic and cultural monuments. All these factors underpin the importance of a comprehensive approach to studies of monumental legacy and the current issues in this field. This paper will also consider the role of public interest in the design of historical and cultural monuments and heritage, as well as the potential for conservation, and current issues of urban planning and renovation. We will describe the issues and potential of modern practices in refurbishing the historic environment, while establishing the main principles of its renewal. The conclusions herein underpin the need to introduce a system of justifying urban planning when it comes to the renovation of buildings and the environment. This must be a mandatory stage in project design and permit issuing, aimed at competently resolving issues of urban renewal.

E. Prutskova, O. Finaeva
Integrating Standard Residential Buildings with Architecture and Space of Historically Sensitive Environment

Residentialareas with standard buildings of the 1960–1980s industrial construction period exist in many cities of Russia; they are located in remote areas and close to historical quarters in the city center. Sustainable and systematic development of such districts requires measures to improve the urban environment based on the principle of integrating standard development with the surrounding urban context. The problem of integrating mass produced residential buildings in the urban environment is considered from the point of view of the system-structural approach. For the “Historical Dominant Element-Standard Housing” (HDE-SH) system, the elements that make up this system are identified and interconnected, forming a structural unity. The concept of a ‘locum’ as a residential formation limited by a specific space is introduced. The historical dominant element in the architectural environment interacts with the environment, forming various types of dependencies—contact zones. To organize the integration processes, the characteristics of the system components are considered and the possible range of their transformations, the relationship between integration factors and characteristics of typical development are determined. The model of integration of typical building with the urban environment involves its transformation in two aspects: spatial and temporal. Architectural and spatial development must be carried out by compensating for the missing and increasing the existing value indicators of development. The temporal aspect of integration involves the organization of stages in the process of system transformation. As a result, a “multi-layered integrated system”, capable of quickly responding to the changing demands of society, is created.

N. V. Kuznetsova, P. V. Monastyrev
Relationship Between the Formation of Post-Covid Residential Complexes and the Architecture of Soviet Commune Houses

The article explores the connection between the principles shaping the architecture of contemporary Russian residential complexes and Soviet commune houses of the 1920s and 1930s. Today, the social picture has changed, society lives under the conditions of “new normality”. As a result of social upheaval, people develop new ideas about the world and their way of life is transformed. Modern residential complexes begin to be formed according to the principle of ‘self-sufficiency’, as a network of interconnected spaces which ensure the satisfaction of all the needs of the residents within the space of the residential complex. Soviet commune houses were formed on a similar principle, providing for the satisfaction of domestic needs within a residential unit. Considering the modern period and the period of Soviet history in the 1920s and 1930s, the author relates the ongoing global changes. Two factors, social and epidemiological, which had the strongest influence on the development of housing typologies of the two periods, are analyzed. By comparing the contents of the two typologies of housing in the considered periods, a direct analogy of functional spaces can be traced. The patterns which were laid down in the planning of residential space in commune houses are updated under the conditions of modernity and repeated in the solutions of new residential complexes. Modern architecture is revealed by the authors through a reinterpretation of the experience of past generations.

I. N. Maltseva, E. S. Zhilyakova
Improving the Efficiency of Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants Based on Information Modeling

The process of forming an information model of an object taking into account the green building standard is considered. The basis of such a model is a system of biological phyto-purification of air, composed of typical photo-bioreactors. The presence of standard modules makes it possible to integrate air purification complexes with sewage treatment plants, agricultural complexes, large closed condominiums, industrial enterprises. Purification and absorption of carbon dioxide occurs due to the growth of unicellular chlorella algae, which are a separate product and can serve as raw materials for the production of medicines and agricultural products. Based on the created model, the issues of efficient use of water, reduction of the carbon footprint, favorable transformation of the landscape due to restoration of the natural environment and purification of reservoirs are solved. The modular structure of biological phyto-purification of air allows you to create three options for using the system—basic, local and hybrid.

A. Antonets, N. Buzalo, M. Trubchaninov, S. Scherbakov
Comprehensive Analysis of Pedestrian and Walking Spaces of Cities (Including Coastal Areas)

As recreational spaces for the megacities’ population spear time, walking and pedestrian spaces are considered by scientists from various sides, both from the architectural side and from the side of psychological aspects affecting people’s lives. Heavy transport, which number is growing in all major cities and makes people to find psychological safeness and relaxation in quiet spaces, in green areas of the city (such as parks, river embankments and reservoirs, and so on). The authors of the article analyze large cities development in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Russia, Ukraine and also identifies factors affecting the pedestrian and transport network of large cities. The systematization of the data obtained was carried out and therefore, the possible development of the city’s pedestrian network was proposed.

N. Burilo, A. Kruglikova, A. Tsyba, I. Makarikhina, A. Volikova
The Influence of the Building Configuration on the Occurrence of Increased Wind Speeds

Urban planning is closely related to the design of residential development that could provide comfortable living conditions for the people. Aeration mode is one of the most important factors. It must be taken into account when designing buildings. If its characteristics are set, it is possible to create wind protection of the territory, its ventilation and ensure the safety of the people. The article presents the main types of residential development according to F. L. Serebrovsky. The article considers the transformation of the air flow at the entrance to the building, which has gaps on both sides (street). There is a description of the methodology and an example of setting up a design case for numerical simulation of wind effects on a residential development model in the article. The hydrodynamic problem was solved using the ANSYS CFX software package based on finite element analysis. The existing information on the influence of the roughness of the underlying surface in the building has been supplemented. The transformation of the wind flow is investigated when the distance between two buildings changes. There are two types of building configuration: in the presence of a high-rise building on the symmetry axis of the building and in its absence. The analysis of the effect that a high-rise building has in residential development is carried out.

V. D. Olenkov, A. V. Alemanov, A. O. Kolmogorova, A. E. Sarayeva, E. S. Sozikina

Engineering Structure Safety, Environmental Engineering and Environmental Protection

Irregular Process Type Effect on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate

Building and engineering structures experience variable loads. Exploitation by damage tolerance method is a common practice nowadays. To build the plan for inspection of the current state of construction it is important to have a tool for longevity scatter. For the analysis, the experimental and imitation modelling scheme was used. To judge the longevity the coefficient of spectra fullness of irregular loading is proved to be helpful. The experimental results showed that this coefficient might be helpful in the task of fatigue crack propagation. The developed imitation method allows estimating the possible scatter of steel specimens’ longevities at the crack propagation stage. Due to the specific experimental data presented in the reference paper, it was a need to recalculate the data concerning the loading parameters. For this purpose, the numerical investigation of the stress–strain stale of the construction was performed. Application of finite element design provides an opportunity to utilize our previously written program in the scatter analysis task.

I. Gadolina, N. Dinyaeva, M. Bubnov
Ensuring the Safety of a Quarry Distribution Network with a Voltage of 6–35 kV

A rational solution to issues related to the prevention of electrical injuries, as well as to the safety of operation and reliability of electricity supply to consumers at mining enterprises, is impossible without knowledge of the insulation parameters of electrical installations, primarily the magnitude of the total insulation resistance relative to the ground. The control of these parameters during the operation of electrical equipment makes it possible to increase the efficiency and reliability of electrical equipment. The current problem of choosing methods for monitoring the isolation parameters of the network phases relative to the ground of distribution electric networks with an isolated neutral is highlighted. If, during the operation of electrical equipment, to identify areas in which there is a persistent decrease in the level of insulation and to take them out for repair in advance, it is possible to significantly increase the reliability of power supply and operational safety. To solve this problem, the article proposes an isolation control system developed by us. The operability of the proposed insulation control system has been tested on a computer model. The results obtained showed that at rated load in the network or close to it, the error in determining the insulation resistance does not exceed 20%. Thus, the introduction into practice of the developed insulation monitoring system will improve the reliability and safety of power supply systems, and also provides a minimum possibility of false triggering of the monitoring device and a minimum time of interruption in power supply.

Kh. D. Boboev, R. T. Abdullozoda, O. S. Sayfiddinzoda, I. T. Abdullozoda, K. V. Ivshina
Analysis of Recreational Zones Negative Impact on Water Area of Lake Baikal

The relevance of scientific research in the field of assessing of anthropogenic impact on water resources, in particular, on the water area of Lake Baikal, is confirmed by many studies in this direction. One of the priority sources of water area pollution is surface effluent, which is generated from highways located on the coast. The results of numerical studies (on the example of the urban-type settlement Listvyanka) are showed that during the operation of the road 12 tons of suspended solids, 1.6 tons of mineral salts and 0.16 tons of oil products enter the water area of Lake Baikal annually. To minimize the flow of pollution with surface effluent, it is advisable to carry out timely assessment of the harmful effects of poor-quality road surfaces for the organization of regular cleaning and their timely repair. These measures will significantly reduce the negative impact on the water area of the investigated object.

O. Grebneva, O. Lavygina, O. Vanteeva
Basic Procedure to Estimate the Accumulated Environmental Damage Caused by Mining Facilities as Exemplified by the Kachkanar Tailing Dump in the Middle Urals

Quantifying the accumulated environmental damage caused by economic activity facilities, including those of the mining complex, entailing further selection or development of the environmental measures to restore disturbed natural systems is an urgent problem. There are known techniques to estimate environmental and economic damage, but they are not perfect enough and require significant improvement. The problem is the lack of unified methodological approaches to such estimations, e.g., the already accumulated damage from facilities with exhausted ecological capacity or decommissioned ones. Estimating harm or damage should start with a field survey of the facility causing it, followed by a study of the affected environment with further analysis of field and laboratory data. The study comprises a full-scale survey of a complex hydraulic structure—a tailing dump located in the area of the Kachkanar industrial hub in the Middle Urals and posing a potential technospheric hazard. Some components of this tailing dump have exhausted their ecological capacity, i.e., ceased waste storage activity, and therefore, they cause accumulated environmental damage. The paper proposes an approach and gives some recommendations to develop a procedure for estimating the accumulated environmental damage from mining facilities.

V. A. Pochechun, V. E. Konovalov, A. I. Semyachkov
Technosphere Safety in Russia by Ensuring Carbon Neutrality in the Face of Climate Change

The ongoing global warming has also affected Russian Federation territory. In 2021, in Russia, the anomaly of the mean annual air temperature was +1.35 °C, with the growth rate of the average annual temperature equal to +0.49 °C/10 years. The reason for this warming is an increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Therefore, in a changing climate, it is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce their concentration in the atmosphere. To solve this problem in Europe, it is planned to introduce a carbon tax. For this purpose, methods for assessing the carbon footprint are being developed. This problem is relevant for Russia, which supplies Europe with a significant number of energy-intensive products. They consider all stages of the life cycle of products when assessing the carbon footprint, but the absorption capacity of Russian forests, which occupy about 20% of the forest area in the world, is not adequately assessed. In this regard, it becomes necessary to correctly estimate the absorption of carbon dioxide by Russian forests in order to bring industrial production closer to carbon neutral and reduce the carbon tax.

N. Umnyakova, I. Shubin
Drilling Waste as a Promising Man-Made Material for the Synthesis of Aluminosilicate Proppant

The problem of the need to increase the development of wells with shallow oil depths is described. The essence of the hydraulic fracturing method is described and the chemical composition of the drilling fluid is given. The definition of drilling waste and its characteristics are given. The average chemical composition of the proppant and the requirements that are imposed in accordance with regulatory documents are revealed. Studies of the chemical and phase composition of the selected drilling waste from the Vostochno-Chumakovskoye field were carried out, during which it was established that it is promising for use in the synthesis of high-quality aluminosilicate proppants. On the basis of theoretical data, studies of the radiological safety of drilling waste were carried out, which showed that it can be used in the developed resource-saving technology of proppants. Based on analytical and physico-chemical studies, modifying additives were selected and raw mixtures were compiled for the synthesis of model samples in order to determine their characteristics (density and strength). The optimal composition of the raw mixture and the temperature regime of firing samples were determined. It was found that in order to obtain a strong proppant (strength above 68.9 MPa), it is necessary to introduce the following modifying additives into the composition of the raw mixture with specified amounts, wt. %: aluminum oxide powder (over 100)—5, sodium fluoride powder (over 100)—4, BT-1 cullet—20.

A. A. Tretyak, A. A. Chumakov, V. A. Smoliy, D. A. Golovko, N. S. Goltsman
Application of Kaniadakis κ-Statistics to Load and Impact Distributions

The article considers application of the Kaniadakis’ κ-statistics (non-extensive statistical mechanics introduced by C. Tsallis in 1988, is presented in relation with the q-triplet estimation concerning experimental time series from climate, seismogenesis, and space plasmas systems), which appeared in 2001 in the framework of Einstein's special theory of relativity, to description of loads and impacts on buildings and structures. The κ-deformed Kaniadakis exponential function is used, with the help of which new classes of κ-deformed statistical versions of already known distributions are introduced. These distributions coincide with the original ones with the exception that their κ-deformed tail follows the Pareto power law. This allows converting the original distributions into heavy-tailed distributions that more closely match the experimental data of mixed systems and systems operating under conditions of increased uncertainty. This allows, within the framework of the already known distributions of loads and impacts, to model above-standard stressors and analyze the near impossible to predict “Black Swan” ultra rare type of events with humongous consequences.

A. Bushinskaya, S. Timashev
Specifics of Applying the Fragility Theory to Technical Systems and Structures

The paper presents the features of applying the Nassim Taleb’s fragility theory to technical systems and structures. This theory allows analyzing stability and survivability of an object subjected to exceptionally large shock whose likelihood is close to impossible. For example, when an existing integral system (or a set of such systems), designed according to current standards, starts experiencing the impact of loads that have qualitatively changed their nature (for example, due to global climate change). The nature of catastrophes is associated with a strong interdependence of ongoing events. The concept of fragility can be used in risk analysis of technical systems for which loss distribution curves are considered, where losses are described by positive numbers and the right tail of the distribution is considered. Fragility, in the context of the problem under consideration, lies in the incorrect calculation of the risk from large-scale negative events. This is the so-called “simulation fragility”. That is, the systems are “fragile” to inaccuracies in estimating the distribution of stressors, and, consequently, to modeling errors, since this inaccuracy increases the likelihood of loads and impacts exceeding the design limits, leading to a greater likelihood of system failure. Fragility can be used to measure the non-linear response to a change in a model parameter by correlating fragility with model error.

S. Timashev, A. Bushinskaya
Suspended Ceiling Safety for Firefighters in Case of Fire in the Attic

An analysis of the literature indicates a significant number of solutions to ensure the fire safety of residential buildings, the operational characteristics of attic rooms and the operation of nagel joints of wooden structures. At the same time, there are practically no studies of various aspects of the safety of a suspended ceiling for firefighters when extinguishing a fire while they are in the attic. The main purpose of the study is to determine the dynamics of changes in the resistance to pulling out of a non-smooth nail depending on its characteristics under normal conditions. These experiments are necessary to develop the concept of a method of non-destructive testing of the overhead joints of suspended ceiling elements to assess the load-bearing capacity and determine the possibility of firefighters being in the attic when extinguishing a fire. A stand has been created for conducting research. The specified stand allows you to determine the resistance to pulling out a non-smooth nagel from a bar (bars). With the help of this stand, the regularities of the change in the resistance to pulling out the notched and screw nagel, depending on their characteristics, have been established. The results obtained will allow improving approaches to drawing up fire extinguishing plans in buildings with suspended ceilings, determining the locations of firefighters in the attic, developing recommendations for the use of nails with notches and screw nails for the installation of suspended ceilings.

S. V. Fedosov, A. A. Lazarev, V. G. Kotlov, V. G. Malichenko, D. E. Tsvetkov
Biocidal Corrosion-Resistant Composite Coatings from Industrial Waste

The opportunity of using the electroplating industry metal-containing waste for creating a biocidal building material has been researched. The research of chemical composition of the waste has evidenced the presence of salts of heavy metals, such as zinc, copper, nickel, chrome, lead and others. By means of biotesting methods the toxicity of not only pure salts of these metals, but wastes, containing these metal compounds in various amounts, to microfungi, bacteria and algae, was confirmed. In order to concentrate the active component in the designed product the waste was modified by chemical activation methods based on transforming this or that component into soluble or insoluble fraction. It was noted that the acetic acid treatment of waste results in various alterations in its composition, which allows doubling, at an average, the biocidal activity of materials, which can be evaluated by the size of fungicidity area when using microfungi as test objects, and by the quantity of the killed organisms when testing the materials on bacteria and algae.

Yu. E. Tokach, A. A. Balakhonov, V. Yu. Zhilenko, V. A. Doroganov, M. M. Flores Arias
Influence of Modifying Additives on the Structure and Properties of Porous Geopolymer Building Materials Based on Solid Fuel Combustion Waste of Arctic Thermal Power Plants

During the analytical review, the negative impact of ash and slag waste from coal-fired power plants on the environment was considered. Data on the world experience of processing ash and slag into a number of useful materials are given. The method of a fundamentally new method of processing ash and slag into geopolymer materials is considered. The definition of a geopolymer is given and their possible use as building materials is described. The chemical composition of ash and slag waste of Severodvinsk CHPP-1 and Apatity CHPP is considered. The content of natural radionuclides Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 was studied and the class of materials according to GOST 30,108-94 “Building materials and products. Determination of the specific effective activity of natural radionuclides”. Formulations for the synthesis of porous geopolymers have been developed. The effect of powder-forming additives of them—aluminum powders and a 30% solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), modifying additives—sodium stearate (NaC18H35O2), gypsum of the construction grade G-5 B (CaSO4 0,5 H2O) on the structure and properties of synthesized porous geopolymers.

E. A. Yatsenko, B. M. Goltsman, S. V. Trofimov, Yu.V. Novikov, T. A. Bondareva
Structural Ceramics Low-Temperature Phases Colouring Theoretical Basics and Its Colour Management

The features of obtaining a light to white color of a ceramic shard using iron-containing clay raw materials due to the formation of the phase composition of the material, ensuring the incorporation of iron oxide into the structure of crystalline phases and reducing the amount of free iron oxide due to this, have been established. The synthesis of the main crystalline phases of ceramics of low-temperature sintering and amorphous clay substance—metakaolinite was carried out, the features of their coloring at different contents of iron oxide were revealed. The basic physical and chemical principles of clarification of ceramic material based on iron-containing clays using the method of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy (NGRS), which is selective to iron compounds, have been established. Theoretical and technological conditions for the formation of silicate (wollastonite) and aluminosilicate phases (anortite), in which Fe2O3 has a high solubility of up to 60…70%, are determined, which ensures a decrease in the color of the ceramic shard. The role of the mineralizing additive in the form of carbonates and chlorides of alkali metals has been revealed, and the dependence of the reflection coefficient on its amount and the content of calcium carbonate has been established.

N. D. Yatsenko, A. I. Yatsenko, N. A. Vilbitskaya, O. I. Sazonova, R. V. Savanchuk
Bayesian Network Modeling for Analysis and Prediction of Accidents in Railway Transportation of Dangerous Goods

The article is devoted to forecasting and preventing the development of accidents and expert assessment of accidents that have occurred on the example of railway transportation of dangerous goods. Bayesian belief networks are used, which make it possible to assess the uncertainty of the initial data, the causal relationships of events. Causal relationships are modeled using conditional probabilities that evaluate the degree of confidence in the truth of new incoming (causing) information based on previously received information. The Bayesian net method allows carrying out procedures that are not available for traditional quantitative risk assessment. Networks can be corrected by supplementing the constructed model with data on the failure rates of a real object. Computer modeling of the accident using a probabilistic graphical model was performed in the “GeNIe” software package with an analysis of its main factors. Accident modeling is accompanied by color thematic visualization of dependencies between random factors with the construction of a directed path in an acyclic graph, the vertices of which are the factors, and the edges determine the dependencies between them. On the example of a real catastrophe at a railway station, the effectiveness of the constructed model is confirmed. The analysis of the results obtained in the modes of sensitivity assessment and diagnostics was carried out, which made it possible to determine the main factors of the accident.

M. V. Chikir, L. V. Poluyan
Waste from Extraction, Enrichment and Combustion of Solid Fuels is a Promising Raw Material for the Synthesis of Geopolymer Materials

Methods of obtaining and qualitative characteristics of dense and porous carbon-neutral functional geopolymer materials based on aluminosilicate raw materials of natural and man-made origin for “green” and energy-efficient construction have been studied. It is established that there are two types of geopolymers depending on their structure parameters and possible applications—dense and porous. 3 methods of obtaining dense geopolymers were studied: casting method, compression molding method, hot pressing method. The main methods of foaming are also investigated: the method of direct foaming, “Sacrificial” filler, additive manufacturing (3D printing). The analysis of the studied methods for obtaining dense and porous geopolymers based on aluminosilicate raw materials of natural and man-made origin showed that as a method of synthesis of geopolymers, the pouring method is optimal, as the most stable and allowing to obtain products of various shapes. As a foaming method, the method of direct chemical foaming. The possible mechanism of synthesis of geopolymers based on technogenic aluminosilicate raw materials and the main physico-chemical stages of formation of the geopolymer structure have been studied. The chemical composition of large-capacity fuel energy waste, including waste from extraction, enrichment and combustion of solid fuels of the Southern Federal District, has been determined. A comparative analysis of the chemical compositions of fuel waste was carried out in order to assess the possibility of their use as raw materials for the production of geopolymers.

A. V. Ryabova, V. D. Tkachenko, I. V. Rusakevich, I. D. Morozov, A. N. Ivanov
The Possibility of Using Lithium-Containing Waste in the Russian Federation

This article describes the different technologies of battery recycling, looks at the individual process steps and works out the differences. The disposal of chemical current sources—galvanic cells, batteries and cell batteries—is carried out in order to reduce the amount of toxic substances in solid household waste. Batteries contain heavy metals, acids, alkalis, which, when they get into water or soil, cause significant damage to the environment. The rapid growth of industrial production in the Russian Federation, including the transport sector, and the multiple increase in the number of vehicles inevitably leads to the accumulation of used batteries not only in the warehouses of specialized assemblers, but also in landfills. The article focuses on the Umicore and Accrues processes as examples. It also uses the life cycle analysis technique. The description of the costs of recycling are examined in more detail and their composition is discussed. As in the past, the costs must be determined on the basis of the capital market and the situation. In conclusion, it can be stated that due to the expected increase in batteries, an increasingly profitable business field for battery recycling is emerging.

K. A. Vorobyev, I. V. Shadrunova, T. V. Chekushina
Artificial Intelligence for Water Supply Systems

The article offers an overview of publications from 2011 to 2022 on the use of artificial intelligence for water supply systems. Active implementation of artificial intelligence technologies in water supply systems began in 2019, 7 years after the concept of Industry 4.0 had been announced in Germany. A topical collection was conducted, and 67 papers were chosen—46 publications from the Scopus database (69%) and 21 from the RSCI database (31%). The samples were classified by their object of study and the function of the technology being discussed and divided into 3 groups: water supply sources (27%); water treatment (19%); water supply systems (54%). The largest group of papers cover water supply systems, effective distribution of drinking water, control of water leaks, and water supply repairs (54% of the total selection). Our study confirmed the knowledge-intensive nature of the water supply field and the relevance of issues related to resource conservation and environmental monitoring. The most popular artificial intelligence technologies among the studied papers were classification and clustering algorithms, neural networks, and ensemble and genetic algorithms. These technologies are used to process big data for prediction and optimization.

M. Novosjolov, D. Ulrikh, M. Bryukhov
Using Wheat Straw for Treatment of Urban Surface Water Run-Offs

Wheat straw is one of the most widespread renewable resources in the world, a valuable material used both in traditional (forage raw materials; mulching material; suitable for plants fertilizing and sheltering) and innovative industries (production of building and sorption materials; bioethanol and energy; paper and other useful components). Every year, about 40 million tons of straw is produced in Russia, and a third to a half of it is ploughed back into the ground to restore fertility. The remaining straw is taken out of the fields and disposed of in various ways. One of the promising ways to utilize straw is to use as a sorbent it in wastewater treatment technologies. This work is aimed at studying the possibility of using heat-treated wheat straw as a sorption material for the treatment of surface water run-offs at urban territories. As a sorbent we have used straw from the fields in the Chelyabinsk Region, preliminarily shredded and heat-treated at 80 °C. For the experiment, we have used real wastewater taken from the storm-water sewer in Chelyabinsk. The research has been conducted under static and dynamic conditions at different temperatures and exposure times. It has been determined that the effectiveness of extracting ions of the metals under study ranges from 80 to 100% under static and 60–70% under dynamic conditions.

O. A. Samodolova, A. P. Samodolov, D. V. Ulrikh, S. S. Timofeeva
Sorption Properties of Composite Materials Based on Hemp Hulls and the Byproducts of Silicon Production Used to Remove Antibiotics from Wastewater

Removing residual amounts of antibiotics from wastewater is an important area of study. The uncontrolled use of antibiotics has led to their accumulation in the ecosystem and to antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. Each year 700 thousand people die because of antibiotic resistance. By 2050, this number may reach 10 million people. Antibiotics enter the waterways after being excreted by humans and animals and pass through wastewater treatment plants, posing an environmental risk to human and biota health. The goal of this paper is to study the use of hemp hull (a byproduct of hemp oil production) and a complex sorbent based on hemp hulls to remove tetracycline from the wastewater of hospitals and pig farms. To conduct our study, we created a wastewater system model and added antibiotics to the system. We used spectrophotometric determinination of antibiotics to examine the feasibility of removing antibiotics from a wastewater system in static and dynamic modes. A method of synthesizing complex sorbents based on hemp hull and dust from silicon and aluminum production is proposed.Our experiment has shown that composite sorbents based on byproducts of hemp hull processing and silicon production (dust and scraps) can be used to treat water contaminated with antibiotics. We have determined that composite sorbents show better sorption of tetracyclines and the largest capacity in both static and dynamic operation. These sorbents almost fully removed the antibiotics from the solution.

S. S. Timofeeva, M. S. Tepina, O. V. Tukalova
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Construction, Architecture and Technosphere Safety
herausgegeben von
Andrey A. Radionov
Dmitrii V. Ulrikh
Svetlana S. Timofeeva
Vladimir N. Alekhin
Vadim R. Gasiyarov
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