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2024 | Buch

Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Civil Engineering

ICOCE 2023, 24–26 March, Singapore


Über dieses Buch

This book contains research papers presented at the 7th International Conference on Civil Engineering, which was held in Singapore from 24-26 March 2023. Significant results contained in the book show the importance of technology in solving engineering issues throughout the world. Highlighted topics include climate change, disaster relief, resilience, pollution control and management techniques for construction, mitigation and adaptation. Many techniques are utilized in a variety of contexts to solve engineering and urban management problems in both developed and developing countries.

This volume consists of refereed submissions authored by a wide variety of international researchers and practitioners from many perspectives discussing emerging issues in civil and environmental engineering. Practical solutions to worldwide issues in hazard mitigation, pollution control, transportation infrastructure and energy production are emphasized. The chapters provide an in-depth look at current issues in these areas of engineering that should benefit interested individuals at all levels of expertise.



Preparation and Properties of Advanced Building Materials

Assessment of Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) as Sand in Sustainable Geopolymer Concrete: Non-destructive Tests Investigation

The utilization of waste plastic and clay brick in geopolymer concrete will protect the environment, reduced carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and preservation of raw materials. This paper aims to evaluate the substitution of natural fine aggregate with shredded polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste on some properties of geopolymer concrete based on blended (50:50)wt% metakaolin (Mk) and waste brick powder (WBP). Toward that end, four geopolymer concrete mixtures were prepared; three mixtures containing PET aggregate as sand replacement by volumetric levels (10%, 15% and 20%), and one mixture without PET aggregate as control mixture for comparison. Some non-destructive tests have been made to examine the influence of PET particles on the voids content; ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and dynamic modulus of elasticity (Ed) to all geopolymer concrete mixtures at 7 and 28 days. Results indicated that inclusion of PET particles as fine aggregate could yield smaller voids content, higher pulse velocity and improved dynamic modulus of blended Mk-WBP geopolymer concrete. However, the mixture of 20% PET aggregate accorded the lowest voids content (8.90%) and higher UPV (4.444 km/s), while the 10% PET aggregate provided the optimum dynamic modulus of elasticity (28.41 GPa). This research could support the waste management and upgrade of sustainable geopolymer concrete for wide civil engineering applications.

Mahmood Fawzi Ahmed
Achievement of Roller Compacted Concrete Incorporating GGBS by Using Soil Compaction Approach

Roller compacted concrete (RCC) gained momentum as a paving material because of economy, strength and fast placement. The basic constituents of RCC are similar to the conventional concrete. However, it requires a larger proportion of sand, lesser water and cement content in comparison with the conventional concrete. The mix design of the RCC is based on either consolidation (concrete) technique or compaction (soil, geotechnical) technique. In this paper, the mix design steps of RCC for pavement (RCCP) by using the soil approach are presented. Further, the effect of using ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and type of aggregates on the resultant properties of RCC were investigated. Different RCC mixtures were prepared with two types of aggregates and by replacing cement with GGBS. The optimum water content of each mix was finalized after conducting a compaction test for each replacement level. Experimental results show that the soil compaction approach leads to minimum voids in the finalized mix with maximum density. Limestone aggregate and cement replacement with GGBS increased the water requirement of the RCC mix. The experimental results show that GGBS inclusion had a marginal effect on 28 days compressive strength in the case of limestone aggregate, while for crushed gravel aggregate large decrease in strength was observed at 60% replacement level. In terms of 28 days of flexural strength behaviour, the better performance was shown by the 40% GGBS inclusion with limestone aggregate.

Sorabh Saluja, Kulwinder Kaur, Shweta Goyal
Effect of Paraformaldehyde Fibers on Mechanical and Shrinkage Properties of High-Strength Concrete

The influence of polyformaldehyde fibers on the mechanical and shrinkage performance of concrete was studied. The research was conducted to investigate the early performance of paraformaldehyde fiber concrete using the concrete mechanical properties test method and early shrinkage test apparatus under different test conditions of fiber length, fiber admixture, and curing conditions. The results demonstrated that the improvement of compressive strength of high-strength concrete by paraformaldehyde fibers was not significant, and the compressive strength was still slightly reduced compared to that of the baseline concrete. The compressive strength of concrete was affected by different curing conditions. The improvement of shrinkage properties of high-strength concrete by paraformaldehyde fiber is more significant. Curing conditions have a greater effect on the shrinkage properties of paraformaldehyde fiber concrete, and the better the curing conditions, the more adequate the hydration reaction of concrete. Meanwhile, this study proposes shrinkage and anti-cracking control measures for high-strength concrete such as preferential selection of raw materials, optimization of matching ratio, reasonable configuration of reinforcement, and strengthening of maintenance.

Ying Hu, Sheng Zhang, Junlong Jin, Bo Chen, Shenlin Hu, Yang Li, Yixin Hong
Comparing Between Crushed and Fine Aggregate Recycled in Concrete

This paper is based on investigating the effect of using fine and coarse crushed bricks in the compression strength of concrete. Detailed research has been done from the current literature that is based on previous laboratory-based tests of the use of bricks in concrete. In order to investigate this particular area 10 mixes of concrete were prepared. Mixes included 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% use of fine and coarse crushed aggregates. Bricks were crushed to achieve fine and coarse crushed bricks. 3 specimens of each mix were casted and cured in the water tank. Compression strength test was conducted after 28 days of curing for each specimen. Results were analysed and compared between the mixes with coarse crushed aggregates and fine crushed aggregates. Finally, it was concluded that the mean target strength of concrete is achievable by replacing up to 50% of gravel and sand with coarse and crushed bricks. However, physical properties of bricks like absorption reduce the amount of water in concrete by leaving less water to react with cement that results in higher compression strength due to a reduction in water–cement ratio.

Ebraheem Alrashidi, Abdulaziz Almutairi
An Overview on Utilization of Steel Slag as Road Construction Materials

The transportation and highway industries are starting to use sustainable, recycled materials in order to reduce their reliance on natural sources. One of these materials is steel-furnace slag, which is a by-product of steel manufacturing that is usually disposed of in the environment, causing pollution. Due to its high disposal cost and the positive features of steel slag, many countries have recognized it as a useful construction material rather than an industrial waste. Reusing steel slag can save natural resources and reduce the need for landfills for its disposal. It has been found to be a good material for road construction, as it outperforms natural aggregates in terms of skid resistance, rutting, moisture damage resistance, and fatigue. This paper examines the advantages of using steel slag in road construction, along with any potential detrimental effects. It also provides a comparison between different types of slag in terms of their suitability for road construction.

Ashkar Rahman Aquib, Zarrin Tasnim Probha, Md. Arifin Haque
Study on the Performance of Ultra-Fine Cement Slurry Reinforced Coral Aggregates and Coral Concrete

Natural coral has irregular shape, dense internal holes and low cylinder compressive strength, which restrict the mechanical properties of coral concrete. The coral coarse aggregate was innovatively reinforced by grouting with ultra-fine cement slurry based on low concentration acetic acid pretreatment in this study. In order to study the influence of ultra-fine cement slurry treatment methods on coral coarse aggregates, 6 different types of coral aggregates and a total of 90 corresponding coral aggregate concrete test blocks were designed, including the physical and mechanical performance test of aggregate, working performance test and mechanical performance test of concrete. The test results showed that the ultra-fine cement slurry could significantly enhance the cylinder compressive strength of the coral coarse aggregate, which increases by 140% after treatment than before treatment. Concrete prepared with reinforced coral coarse aggregates has increased slump and expansion, resulting in improved workability. The cubic compressive strength, axial compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of reinforced coral aggregate concrete increase as the water to slurry ratio of ultra-fine cement slurry decreases and the age of aggregate curing increases. The elastic modulus tends to increase under the influence of water-slurry ratio, but has no significant effect on Poisson's ratio.

Shuang Li, Zhuolin Xie, Jianmin Hua, Lepeng Huang, Jian Kang, Xuran Liu
Development of Pavement Condition Index for Philippine Asphalt National Roads

The Pavement Condition Index (PCI) is one of the key performance indices used to evaluate pavements. In the Philippines, the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) is currently using a similar evaluation called the Visual Condition Index (VCI) to assess the condition of national roads. It was adapted from the Road Condition Manual of the Road and Traffic Authority of New South Wales, Australia. However, published literature on how the VCI was localized to Philippine conditions cannot be traced. This study attempts to address this concern by deriving a new condition rating based on the experience and knowledge of the field experts in the country. Asphalt pavement sections are selected from the historical data on the condition of the road networks in the country, and simulated using photographs collected in the field. With the aid of an electronic survey, field experts from different parts of the country subjectively evaluated the overall condition of selected pavement sections. Correlation and multiple regression analysis are employed to develop the PCI for Philippine asphalt national roads using the available data acquired from field experts of several DPWH District Engineering Offices (DEOs). The developed PCI model for asphalt pavements obtained a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.58, implying that the resulting PCI model captures 58% of the variability in the expert-based dataset. Comparisons with the VCI are also conducted to possibly aid future improvements on pavement condition assessments in the country.

Jamie Alea B. Ramos, Lea B. Bronuela-Ambrocio, Hilario Sean O. Palmiano, John Paul T. Dacanay, Lestelle V. Torio-Kaimo, Jonas Christian R. Quero

Hydraulic Engineering, Flood Control, and Bridge Engineering

Overview of Critical Vortex on Horizontal Jet Fluidization for Sediment Flushing Systems

The phenomenon of horizontal jets in the fluidization system can provide initial information on the fluidization phase of sediment in many fluidization experiments for the maintenance of the channel. The objective of this study was to investigate the hydraulic performance of horizontal jet fluidization in generating Critical Vortex until fluidization occurs. The research method is based on two-dimensional physical experience. The test results show that The discharge and Pressure requirement for achieving fluidization is achieved through the stages of reaching the critical vortex. Critical discharge and pressure cause fluidization of the horizontal jet when the critical vortex reaches 0.65 dB of the sediment layer. The addition of each layer of sediment increases the fluidization discharge to reach the critical vortex. The change in the dimensions of the vertical vortex on the horizontal jet is caused by friction between the fluid particles and the sediment layer, especially at the angle of the change in the direction of the jet holes from horizontal to vertical.

Rudi Azis, Farouk Maricar, Muhammad Arsyad Thaha, Bambang Bakri
Large-Scale in Situ Direct Shear Test in the Construction of Keureuto Dam, Indonesia

A large-scale in situ direct shear test was developed to evaluate the shear strength behavior of random fill material for dam construction in Indonesia. A 70 × 70 × 30 cm large square soil inside a shear box was fabricated in situ. The testing mechanism followed a stress-controlled procedure. The term of random fill material is commonly used for dam construction to the major composition of earth-fill dams in Indonesia. The shear strength characteristic of random fill material may vary depending on the actual particle size distribution. In this paper, in situ shear strength testing on random fill was conducted in Keureuto Dam, Indonesia. The random fill material was majorly composed of coarse material: gravel and sand. A total of 4 samples were tested in situ with a variety of vertical stresses. The testing results showed that plastic deformation started to occur between shear strain of 1–2%. Dilative behavior with an increase in shear displacement was observed in all samples indicating dense condition of the material. Shear strength was evaluated using linear Mohr–Coulomb equation and exponential formula. The results show that both equations are preferable in this case. However, the linear curve is suggested to be intercepted at zero in order to represent non-cohesive behavior of the material. The shear strength of random fill material in this study may provide a new database as a contribution to the practice in dam construction in Indonesia.

Abi Maulana Hakim, Samira Albati Kamaruddin, Andhika Sahadewa, Ramli Nazir, Haris Eko Setyawan
The Prediction of Lahar Flood Event Impact on the Inundation Areas in Gendol River, Indonesia

One of the natural phenomena that inflict harm and fatalities is lahar flow. The Gendol River frequently experiences lahar flows from Mount Merapi, necessitating study. Predictions can be used to anticipate lahar flows and minimize casualties and material losses. The Nakayasu synthetic unit hydrograph is used in this study utilizing a simulation method based on the theory of Ashida, Takahashi, and Mizuyama, which modifies the hydrograph pattern and rainfall intensity values using the SIMLAR V2.1 application. Based on the simulation results, it was discovered that each simulated design had a different flow area, velocity, lahar volume, and flood height. Based on the result, it can be said that this study's hyetograph pattern significantly impacts how debris flows affect people. The more the hyetograph patterns, the higher the peak hydrograph value. Additionally, the increase in the hydrograph value is directly related to the increase in flow velocity. The rain intensity and pattern value also influence the number of areas affected by the lahar flow.

Jazaul Ikhsan, Elang Afif Hafizh Zhafran, Ani Hairani, Mohd. Remy Zainol
Captive Use Mini Hydropower Project for Pumping Station

The hydropower potential of India is one hundred and forty five Gigawatts, and the tapped potential is only twenty six percent. This potential is exploited in the form of large and small hydropower (SHP) projects. SHPs are classified as micro hydro for capacity less than 100 kW, mini hydro for 101 kW to 2 MW and small hydro for 2 to 25 MW. The electricity is vastly used for pumping water from dug wells at banks of Jhajhhar Nallah to Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Katra, Jammu & Kashmir, India. The monthly consumption of the pumping station is around 1lac units. The development of a mini hydropower project is proposed for the captive water pumping operation on the small stream, Jhajhhar Nallah, next to the pumping station. It was found that a Mini Hydropower Project of 200 kW shall be adequate to cater to the university's present and future pumping needs. The estimated cost of the project is $306 Thousand. The annual power expense of the pumping station is $88 Thousand. The cost recovery is estimated at 4.5 years, whereas the project life is 50 years. The pumping station is required to run for 14 to 16 h a day. For the rest of the day, electricity produced shall be used to fulfill the royalty paid to the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The pumping station must run on all days of the year, so the required discharge is 100% dependable, corresponding to the lean season discharge. In the absence of discharge data for the Jhajhhar Nallah, the discharge measurement was done using the float method for the day when there had been no rain for 10 days in the nearby catchment. The discharge measurements were done in the month of June 2022. The velocity was found to be 0.6 m/s. The area was measured at the upstream and downstream ends of the selected study site. The average area of the stream was noted as 1.2 m2. Hence the average discharge was noted to be 0.72 m3/s. As per the calculations, the required head is 32 m.

Gautam Narula, Vijayinder Kumar Dogra, Rahul Sharma, Vaibhav Sapkal, Komal Bharadwaj, Aradhyesh Sharma
An OSINT-Driven Security Analysis of Intelligent Construction of Water Conservancy Projects in China

China’s major plan to build a modernised economic and ecological system puts water resources at the top of major infrastructure networks, but traditional water resources construction has certain safety hazards. As science and technology continue to advance, intelligent building of water conservancy projects has emerged as a market trend that can significantly lower human error and ensure construction safety. Using the Yangqu hydroelectric power station as a case study, this paper suggests that the intelligent construction of water conservancy projects should prioritise ecology, technicals, and network security through the comparison of positive and negative network volume analysis, POI warning index, and word cloud graph. This study concludes future implications for the trajectory of intelligent development of water conservancy projects regarding carbon–neutral development, intelligent system initiatives, and safety management upgrade.

Yuanbo Qi, Ronghui Yang, Chenghe Su

Urban Planning, Construction, and Sustainable Development

Research on the Application of Comprehensive Geophysical Methods in Tunnel Investigation

In the construction of highway tunnel engineering, it is of great significance to do a good job in the preliminary investigation. With the geological conditions of highway tunnel becoming more and more complex, it is difficult to meet the requirements of design and construction only by drilling and one geophysical method. The shallow buried section of the highway tunnel portal adopts a high-density electrical method and the deep buried section adopts the EH4 geophysical method. The survey work is based on geophysical exploration, combined with geological mapping and drilling, which can provide accurate geological data, effectively reduce geological diseases, reduce project cost and ensure the safety of traffic after operation. This method is worth using for reference.

Yong Hai He, Hong Qiang Zhang
Experimental Assessment of Leakage in Water Distribution Network

Water is one of the most important and scarce resources needed to sustain life. Wasting this invaluable resource will have negative impacts on humans and the environment. Producing potable water requires significant energy and hence a huge budget, therefore water leakage from distribution networks could lead to financial instability. To prevent this, water leakage must be detected, minimized, and controlled. This paper presents a dimensionless mathematical model that relates pressure drop to leakage in a water distribution system. The relationship was achieved through an experimental setup at the American University of Sharjah. The dimensionless relationship between pressure drops percentile and the flow ratio were obtained exponentially. The proposed dimensionless model correlated well with all experimental data and calculated the pressure drop with the amount of leakage within 10% accuracy in all pipe diameters. This model provides a basis for an easy and efficient method to detect leakage in pipe systems without the need for expensive equipment.

S. Atabay, T. A. Ali, Md. M. Mortula, S. Sharifi
A Multi-task Oriented Optimization Method for Urban Rail Overhaul Workflow Based on Critical Chain Method

With the expansion of the urban rail network scale, multi-tasking is becoming an inevitable trend. However, the Linear method of the workflow is still being adopted. The lack of time control leads to the low efficiency of project management, which further affects the daily operation of the metro. Regarding such a situation, this paper therefore aims to analyze the most unfavorable situation in the overhaul project arrangement of urban rail transit lines using the critical chain method. Taking the path with the longest processing time in the project as the critical path, the Critical Chain Project Management is established and calculated considering the resource constraint problem. Taking Shenzhen as an example to examine the effectiveness of the model, the results show that the critical chain method can significantly shorten the construction period and can make use of construction resources more effectively, which provides a guideline for multi-task scheduling of Urban Rail Overhaul projects.

Shan Huang, Qin Luo, Jingjing Chen, Tian Lei
The Role of Public–Private Partnership on Preservation-Led Projects in Urban China—A Comparative Perspective

Driven by public–private partnerships, urban historic settlements in Chinese cities are increasingly being targeted for redevelopment, especially if they are located in urban centers. Previous scholars have featured state policy-led or market-led to understand the driving force of the transformation process of the urban heritage area. However, this understanding glosses over the role of actors during transformation process, which refers to the public–private partnerships. With examples of Huishan ancient town in Wuxi and Xintiandi in Shanghai, this study proposes an analytical framework to compare how different networks of transformation process are caused the similar heritage space among heritage, tourism and commerce. Finally, by comparing the two cases, subtle differences of the two spaces also reveal the different interests and needs of different public–private partnerships. This study calls for further attention to study urban China from a comparative perspective.

Ting Zhang, Fangqian He, Zhouquan Li, Ran Xu
Gamification to Stimulate Green Behaviors in Cities

Gamification is a new trend that has gained increasing importance in climate protection. In recent years, researchers have begun to integrate game elements into non-gaming contexts to encourage green behaviors. The city of Sierre jumped on the bandwagon and initiated a project aiming to use gamification to encourage its population to engage in green behaviors. The research focuses on identifying the barriers and motivators for people to engage in green actions in order to diminish or enhance them using games. Followed by a series of focus groups, 10 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted. The main result shows a significant gap between attitude and behavior despite a high level of awareness and positive sustainable intentions. Based on research propositions that have been confronted with the scientific literature, Sierre has therefore collaborated with the HES-SO Valais-Wallis to realize a gaming app on the theme of sustainable development for the population called ECOTREE.

Joyce Ngo, Emmanuel Fragnière, Blaise Larpin, Jean-Michel Sahut
Challenges of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Jalandhar, Punjab (India): A Case Study

Jalandhar is the largest city in the Doaba province of Punjab, India. Being the third most populous city in the state, the daily disposal of Municipal solid waste is not an easy task for the authorities involved. The study targets the type of waste produced, method of transportation, and final disposal technique used by the Municipal corporation of Jalandhar city. For this paper, official data has been collected, and the site has been visited in person to comment on the ground situation of the disposal grounds. The environmental, social, economic, and physio-chemical factors have been considered to evaluate the standards. The case study suggests an urgent need to change the method of disposal and scientifically design a waste management plan to achieve the norms laid by the national plans.

Davinder Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

Architectural Design and Structural Mechanics

Evaluating Energy-Saving Potential of Passive Design Technologies Based on Residential Architectural Prototypes

This research project explores the energy-saving potential of passive design technology under specific building prototypes. Five passive technologies were determined to be evaluated by the energy-saving effectiveness, which are building orientation, airtightness, external wall U-value, roof U-value and window U-value. Firstly, nine prototype models are built in IESVE to perform energy consumption. Based on the orthogonal table, a total of 144 groups of energy consumption data were obtained and conducted into SSPS to do a linear regression analysis to obtain the sensitivity ranking of the five passive technologies in each prototype. Generally, for the single passive technology, Roof U value and orientation were the most effective passive technical means to reduce energy consumption, followed by Windows U value. Air tightness and wall U value are less significant factors. When using the combination of passive technology to achieve the desired energy-saving goal of 65%, among the pairwise solutions, only the combination of roof and window optimization solutions was successful, and both techniques were verified as the most effective strategies during the individual test stage. The overall results of this research can provide architects with some reference when designing new residential buildings or renovating existing residential buildings. In future studies, the researcher can carry out more building prototypes for other regions and related sensitivity analysis of other design technologies, to provide an integrated framework for building retrofit and green building design.

Jiuwei Liu, Yuanli Ma, Wu Deng
3D Modeling of Folded Footings with Ring Beam on Sand Using Various Folding Angles

Folded isolated footings represent an alternative to traditional isolated footings to support structures on weak soils. The reinforced concrete used in folded footings can be optimized by minimizing the tensile stresses developing in the concrete section, reducing the resulting settlement and the redistribution of stresses on the supporting soil. This study presents a comprehensive numerical investigation of the performance of folded footings placed on cohesion-less soil. Six quarter-scaled footings supported on medium dense sand were modeled using finite element tools to analyze stress changes induced in concrete and soil. One flat footing was used as a control model and five folded footings with folding angles of 15°, 30°, 45°, 51.5°, and 60° with the horizontal were investigated. Results showed that the use of folded footings decreased the internal stresses by up to about 90%. In addition to increasing the depth of stress influence in the soil and enhancing the bearing capacity. Moreover, the total settlement occurring in the supporting soil decreased by about 25%. Finally, design charts were provided to enhance the structural and geotechnical performance of folded footings.

Ahmed E. Gomaa, Ahmed M. M. Hasan, Yasser M. Mater, Sherif S. AbdelSalam
Approximate Estimation for Global Buckling Load of Cylindrical Single-Layer Grid Shells: Fitting of Envelope Equations Based on Regression Analysis

This study defines an imaginary stiffness G to represent the overall stiffness for the grid shells. Through the linear buckling analysis, four kinds of grid patterns with different geometric parameters, in total 9100 cases, are analyzed to get their buckling load factors $${\lambda}$$ λ . Based on the regression analysis, four envelope equations are fitted with G, $${\lambda}$$ λ and geometric parameters. The applicability of the equations is illustrated by the distribution of the difference $${r}_{\Delta{\lambda}}$$ r Δ λ .

Baoxin Liu, Pei-Shan Chen, Jialiang Jin, Xiangdong Yan

Reinforced Concrete Structural Engineering and Durability of Concrete Structures

Predicting the Performance of Shear Wall Structures Using the Confidence Nets Model

The recent increase in earthquake engineering employs machine learning technologies to develop prediction models for structural behavior. A reinforced concrete shear wall is one of the most important structural parts of a structure for resisting lateral loads. However, predicting the behaviors of shear wall members and their influence on the structure has always been difficult. Recent studies suggest the use of artificial intelligence (AI) models in this field and considerable amount of attention in the earthquake engineering community, as they can map the complicated relationship between the anticipated damage and the input variables and have shown promising results. In this paper, we aim to push the accomplishments of AI models further by providing more reliable predictions supported by an estimate of a confidence score. Moreover, the proposed model is 185 times faster than the standard finite element analysis method. The model’s predictive performance is also compared with the FEM method.

Nouraldaim F. A. Yagoub, Wang Xuxin
Impacts of Web Stiffener Locations on Capacities of Cold-Formed Steel SupaCee Sections

This paper investigates the sectional capacities of cold-formed steel SupaCee sections due to the effects of web stiffener locations. SupaCee sections in the form of channel sections are made by creating stiffeners in the sectional webs. This allows such sections to increase their stability and improve their strengths in comparison with the original channel sections. These innovations of the SupaCee sections have been discussed in previous studies on the basis of the commercial sections with the web stiffener locations are regulated in the catalogues from manufacturers. Locations of these stiffeners, therefore, are varied in this paper to find out their influence on the sectional capacities of the investigated SupaCee sections. Full bracings are applied to prevent global buckling failure modes. The sectional capacities are determined using a new design method called the Direct Strength Method as regulated in Australia/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4600: 2018. In this method, elastic buckling analysis is compulsory for the design procedure and can be carried out by using commercial software programs. Two cases of applied loads including compression and bending are considered in this investigation. It is found that an increasing trend is obtained for local buckling strengths if the stiffeners reach toward the centroid of the web and there is an opposite trend for distortional buckling strengths.

Ngoc Hieu Pham
Study on the Early Shrinkage Behavior of Coral Aggregate Concrete Reinforced with Ultra-Fine Cement

The shrinkage behavior of coral aggregate concrete reinforced by ultra-fine cement was studied. In this paper, the ultra-fine cement slurry with different water-slurry ratios was used to prepare the reinforced coral aggregate. Three kinds of concrete water -binder ratio (0.21, 0.27 and 0.33) and five kinds of aggregate treatment methods were considered as variables to study the free shrinkage of concrete under the condition of dry curing. In addition, for the reinforced coral aggregate concrete. Three kinds of reinforcement ratios (1.14, 2.05 and 3.24%) were considered as variables to study the shrinkage performance under the constraint of reinforcement. The experimental results show that at the same age, the shrinkage value of coral aggregate concrete strengthened by ultra-fine cement slurry is less than that of coral aggregate concrete after pickling and less than that of natural coral aggregate concrete. The shrinkage of coral aggregate concrete decreases with the decrease of the water-slurry ratio of ultra-fine cement slurry. The higher the ratio of restraint reinforcement, the larger the pore structure and the smaller the shrinkage of coral aggregate concrete.

Guosong Hu, Zhuolin Xie, Jianmin Hua, Lepeng Huang, Songxiao Huang, Qiming Luo
Evaluation of Soil-Structure Interaction on RC Framed Irregular Building Under Varying Ground Conditions

During an earthquake the behaviour of any structure is influenced not only by the response of the superstructure, but also by the response of the soil beneath the structure. Structural failures in past have shown the significance of considering the impact of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) during analysis and modelling of structure in high seismic zones. The present study focuses on the influence of SSI in the analysis and design of an irregular 12-storey reinforced concrete frame building with and without shear wall. For integrating the effect of SSI, Models simulating three different soil-foundation conditions based on shear wave velocity with supported underneath raft, pile and raft-pile foundation using spring-dashpot mechanism and a fixed base condition for comparison purposes is carried out. Earthquake motion in response spectrum corresponding to zone V of IS 1893:2016 design spectrum is used to excite the finite element model of soil-foundation structure system. Responses in terms of variation in time period, base shear and storey displacement obtained from the analysis of the SSI models are compared with that obtained from conventional method assuming rigidity at the base of the structure. The results show that SSI effects in the dynamic behaviour of the structure are significant in altering the seismic response with a major increase in the vibration period as well as increase in the system damping and other structural parameters in comparison with the fixed base model, which does not consider the supporting soil-foundation.

Arnab Chatterjee, Heleena Sengupta
Electrochemical Technique to Evaluate Carbonation Behavior of Reinforced Concrete

The present work postulates the use of electrochemical techniques to evaluate the condition of rebar and concrete subjected to accelerated carbonation front. Potentiodynamic polarization was carried out to find the anodic corrosion current density (icorr), and EIS was used as a non-destructive technique (NDT) to determine the carbonation front progression in concrete. The experimental results reveal that the high-frequency arc of impedance spectra increases with increase in exposure duration. The effect of cement type on the progress of carbonation front is also evaluated. The results show that densification caused due to CaCO3 formation inside the concrete decreased the ingress of carbonation front in OPC concrete. The carbonation depth was further predicted by fitting equivalent circuit on the obtained impedance spectra. Variation in the measured and predicted carbonation depth was found to be below 10% for most of the exposure durations, indicating effectiveness of EIS data to evaluate the carbonation depth of concrete.

Kulwinder Kaur, Sorabh Saluja, Shweta Goyal
Performance Improvement of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened with GFRP Sheet

Concrete has a strong compression strength but low tensile strength. As a result, a steel bar is used in concrete construction to increase tensile strength and prevent cracking from occurring due to loading on top of the structure. However, one significant disadvantage of using steel bars in concrete is that it is prone to corrosion. Among the efforts to restore the function of the RC concrete structure when undergoing spalling is by making repairs with grouting and using GFRP sheets. This study aims to increase the bending capacity of reinforcement concrete (RC) beams that have undergone spalling by repairs using sika grout and strengthening the structure with the GFRP Sheet. The results showed that by using grouting improvements in the spalling beam, supported by the GFRP sheet layer, the bending capacity of the reinforced beam increased by 8.9% compared to the control beam (CB). Tensile strain measured in bonded sheets at peak loads for BGRST1, BGRST2, and BGRST3 is 13210.5 µɛ, 13,797.1 µɛ, and 15466 µɛ, respectively. The results of the RC control beam test showed that everything failed to bend while for variation beams, it experienced debonding failure and the concrete decking was peeled off.

Achmad Zultan Mansur, Rudy Djamaluddin, Herman Parung, Rita Irmawaty
Assessment of the Pressure-Impulse Curves of Reinforced Concrete Panels Considering Full Blast Loading History

The pressure-impulse curve is used as a design technique that allows the assessment of a component's dynamic behavior when subjected to blast loading. The pressure-impulse curve has two asymptotes, which draw the lower limits of a structural component’s level of protection. Pressure-impulse curves are typically constructed considering a simplified version of the blast loading history where the positive phase is only considered. This simplification often causes tilting (toward the right) to the pressure-impulse curve in the impulsive region, thus altering the impulse asymptote representation. Therefore, the study aims to assess the angle of tilting for the pressure-impulse curves that are constructed with full blast loading history for a considered range of reinforced concrete panels. The results indicate that all examined cases exhibit angle of tilting, i.e. ranges between 3.5 and 17.1°, which results in an increase of the margin of safety for the impulsive region compared with the pressure-impulse curve of positive phase blast load only.

Nasser A. Alarfaj, Omar M. Alawad
Effect of Steel Fiber Volume Ratio on Bending Moment Transfer Coefficient of SFRC Shield Tunnel Under Staggered Assembling

The transfer coefficient of bending moment is one of the key parameters of shield tunnel design. It is an important index to measure the force transfer property of shield tunnel under staggered assembling. In this paper, the mechanical parameters of segments with different steel fiber volume ratios are determined by a series of standard tests. The stiffness of joint of the SFRC shield tunnel is analyzed by numerical calculation. Based on the results, the model of the three-ring SFRC shield tunnel is established. Finally, the effect of steel fiber volume ratio on bending moment transfer coefficient of SFRC shield tunnel under staggered assembling is investigated. The result shows that the steel fiber volume ratio of segment is inversely proportional to the bending moment transfer coefficient. When the steel fiber ratios increase, the bending moment transfer coefficient at the position of 101.25° and 168.75° reduces greatly. The location of the maximum moment coefficient is not affected by steel fiber ratio increase, while the location of the minimum bending moment coefficient will shift from the roof to bottom of tunnel.

Shuo Yu, Huajun Sun, Miaofeng Cao, Changbao Liu

Building Information Technology, Road Condition Monitoring and Construction Management

An Assessment of Road Condition Monitoring Practice and Technologies in the Philippines

Road construction has been one of the main focuses of the Philippine government in the last 6 years under the Build, Build, Build Program. In addition to the existing road network, the program constructed more than 29,000 km of roads. This continued construction of new roads warrants a road monitoring system capable of keeping up with the growing inventory of road networks. Recently, advancements in the road monitoring system have been prevalent in developing countries, and many developments are geared toward automating road condition monitoring. The tools used in road condition monitoring include sensors, vehicles’ onboard devices, and audio and video streams. This paper presents the existing practices and technologies used in road surveying and monitoring in the Philippines. A comprehensive review of existing road monitoring systems used in other countries was consolidated and compared to assess their applicability and capacity to monitor Philippine Road conditions. The current local road condition monitoring system is also discussed, which is necessary for the future development and enhancements of maintaining a sound system that regularly monitors these pavements.

John Paul T. Dacanay, Lestelle V. Torio-Kaimo, Lea B. Bronuela-Ambrocio
BIM Cost Calculator: Contract Costing of Building Information Modeling Services Using Parametric Estimates for BIM-Based Projects in the Philippines

This study aims to develop a web-based tool for cost estimation that will simplify the process of estimating contract price for design projects utilizing BIM technologies. It becomes a highly complex matter when financial issues influencing contracts are at stake. This research will concentrate on the BIM aspects of the services, scope, and procurement that are involved in a project and how they affect contract price. This initiative also aims to provide a framework that can be used as a basis in the Philippines for contract pricing of BIM-related services and will focus on BIM design and pre-construction or tender stage costs. A quantitative survey was used to gather data from BIM professionals of local and international companies based in the Philippines which involved in projects that utilized BIM into construction. The findings of this study have concluded the key parameters that are significant contributors to the overall cost estimation and determined the average project duration and manpower for each project type for different Level of Development of BIM services. Considering high level of accuracy and appropriateness, the researchers discovered that parametric cost estimating is commonly used. These parameters were then utilized in the development of web-based costing tool. Similarly, the BIM Cost Calculator produces consistent findings, and the underlying indicators reveal that it is effective. It was suggested that the construction industry in the Philippines may consider the use of the developed framework and the BIM Cost Calculator tool to support for their costing need.

Nel Ann Beloso, Dante Silva
Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Civil Engineering
herausgegeben von
Eric Strauss
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
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