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2023 | Buch

Proceedings of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering Annual Conference 2021

CSCE21 Construction Track Volume 2

herausgegeben von: Scott Walbridge, Mazdak Nik-Bakht, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng, Manas Shome, M. Shahria Alam, Ashraf el Damatty, Gordon Lovegrove

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book comprises the proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering 2021. The contents of this volume focus on specialty conferences in construction, environmental, hydrotechnical, materials, structures, transportation engineering, etc. This volume will prove a valuable resource for those in academia and industry.


Discovery of Energy Performance Patterns for Residential Buildings Through Machine Learning

The building sector in New York City (NYC) accounts for about 75% of the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), and 40% of total energy consumption with an increasing rate of 5%. In a megacity like New York, tackling the lack of efficiency and sustainability in residential buildings requires identification, prediction, and analysis of energy performance patterns throughout the wide variation of building characteristics, location, and energy-related historical data. This study aims to discover and analyze energy performance patterns for residential buildings, and the method applied is a combination of supervised and unsupervised learning. The proposed method for the discovery of building energy performance patterns comprises three main variables: weather normalized (WN) site energy use intensity (EUI); GHGE Intensity; and energy efficiency grade. Four years of historical open data, from 2016 to 2019, was retrieved from various sources and combined into a dataset of 30.3 k data-points, covering 23 attributes. The developed models are verified against previous studies in terms of accuracy, achieving for site EUI and GHGE a reliable performance with an accuracy of 92%, and R2 coefficients of about 0.85. The energy efficiency grade prediction model presented lower performance with nearly 80% accuracy. City planners, building designers, owners, and facility managers can benefit from the findings to track, manage, and improve building energy efficiencies through the implementation of renewable energies or other solutions, to achieve NYC’s Council goal of reducing GHGE by 80% by 2050, yet meeting the energy demands of the building infrastructure without relying exclusively on non-renewable resources.

Araham Jesus Martinez Lagunas, Mohammad Askarihosni, Negin Alimohammadi, Azadeh Dezyanian, Mazdak Nik-Bakht
A Faceted Classification System for Innovation in the Construction Industry

Several theories and conceptual frameworks have been developed over the years to understand the processes, mechanisms and impacts related to innovation in the construction industry. Many challenges remain however, in its conceptualization, particularly in terms of identifying and understanding its components and how they are articulated. While innovation in the construction industry has led to new perspectives on how the industry designs, delivers and maintains the built environment, its implementation remains a considerable challenge for industry stakeholders. To reap its oft-promised benefits, companies need to identify and evaluate innovations that can be effectively deployed on their projects while understanding the scale and scope of their impact. As such, providing ways to fully understand the types of innovations and, potentially, their impact can help in guiding their implementation. The objective of the research presented in this paper was to develop a classification system for innovation in construction and to identify the characteristics of its different facets. Departing from the more traditional hierarchical view of innovation classification, a flatter, multi-facetted approach to classification is proposed. This approach is believed to be more representative of the multiple perspectives adopted in the literature to report these characteristics. The choice of class was dictated by its ease of application to industry and the complementary nature of the different facets. The classification of innovations focuses on 5 dimensions adapted from the literature review and chosen based on their applicability, which was tested through a survey. The classified objects can correspond to several facets and elements thanks to the faceted structure, making the classification more modular and expandable.

Claire Delarue, Érik A. Poirier, Daniel Forgues
Construction Innovation in the Province of Quebec: Barriers, Drivers, Enablers and Impact

According to several studies, innovation in construction remains the most promising way to improve the productivity of this sector. However, construction is recognized as a field that is not very innovative, notably because of the lack of capacity of companies and their under-investment in research and development. More specifically, studies have shown that the construction sector is one of the least digitized, even though many innovations involve a significant digital part. There are several reasons for this gap, lack of understanding of their benefits and potential outcomes ranking chiefly among them. The study presented in this article aimed to address this gap and answer the following questions: What are the dynamics of innovation in the Quebec construction industry? What impacts do they have, particularly on construction site productivity? A survey was conducted to identify the factors and challenges hindering innovation and the types of innovations implemented in the construction industry in Quebec. The target audience was mainly composed of contractors. The results show a strong enthusiasm for innovation on the part of the respondents. However, the support they receive for technological development is considered insufficient. In addition, their lack of experience in the field, time constraints and the lack of benefits of innovation are the main obstacles to the implementation of innovations. In the operationalization of innovation implementation, the employees training, consulting services and the integration of innovation into the companies’ business strategy are the most frequent. Lastly, for the contractors having implemented innovations, a strong majority have reaped cleat benefits, namely an improvement on productivity, and have calculated a positive return-on-investment.

Claire Delarue, Érik A. Poirier, Daniel Forgues
Evaluating Occupant Feedback on Indoor Environmental Quality in Educational Environments

Buildings play a significant role toward meeting ambitious energy and emissions reduction targets by improving energy efficiency and enhancing indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Studies have indicated that good IEQ can enhance occupants' health, wellbeing, and productivity. Occupant feedback surveys are beneficial for gathering end-user perceptions and determining occupant requirements for efficient building operations and management. Identifying gaps in building performance provides opportunities to ensure that occupant IEQ needs are better addressed during the operations phase. This paper presents the results of occupant feedback surveys administered at an educational institution in the US. The 435 survey responses were analyzed to draw out the key findings in relation to the IEQ, occupant behavior, and occupant satisfaction. From the survey responses relating to temperature preferences, 65.5% of the participants indicated that they preferred temperatures between 20 °C (68 °F) and 21.67 °C (71 °F) in the winter. Overall, 48.1% were moderately dissatisfied, dissatisfied, or very dissatisfied with the thermal conditions in their office. The source of discomfort for most occupants was the inability to control the temperature since the thermostat was inaccessible or controlled by others. Occupant mean satisfaction with other IEQ parameters (i.e., lighting, air quality, and noise) are discussed. This paper also elucidates the critical factors from the occupant feedback surveys pertaining to IEQ in their work environments. It provides recommendations to improve IEQ and occupant satisfaction during the operations phase. Effective communication between the end-user and the building operations and maintenance department can potentially improve occupant satisfaction and lower energy consumption.

Y. Abraham, M. Spaan
Teaching Construction Project Planning and Control Using a Management Game Approach

Proficiency in construction project management is indispensable for undergraduate civil engineers. To teach these concepts, instructors often adopt a theoretical approach because replicating the dynamic conditions of construction projects within the classroom is challenging. This paper describes a management game approach to teach undergraduate civil engineering students how to plan and control construction project performance. The management game objective is to construct a major project comprising three bridges, 4 km dual-carriageway highway, drainage system, and culverts over a 60-week contract period and to achieve maximum profit. The project details are available through drawings, a longitudinal profile, productivity data, rates and resource costs. Once students have completed their preliminary program, they are required to submit their plans for the first 12-weeks. Each submission contains the tasks the group chooses to complete and the resources necessary. Once the order request is submitted, the game controller informs on resource utilization (over/under-ordered), costs incurred, payments received, and whether the groups could complete the tasks. A risk affecting the project performance, such as adverse weather or equipment non-availability, is randomly selected from a predefined list. Each student group is required to formulate resolution strategies to address the selected risk. This process of randomly selecting a risk and formulating a resolution is repeated five times, and students are assessed based on their ability to make profits and complete all tasks. Based on student feedback, the management game engages students, develops their decision-making skills, and facilitates their understanding of key concepts on project planning and control.

E. Pereira, N. Thom
Integrating Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Sustainability Indicators and Criteria to Select Associated Construction Method at the Conceptual Design Stage of Buildings

The construction industry has an extensive direct impact on the environment, society, and economy since it consumes more than one-half of the world’s physical resources and accounts for 30% to 40% of the world’s energy usage. By 2050, it is expected that city living will reach 6.5 billion people of all humanity. Therefore, the adoption of sustainable construction to accommodate the increase in populations without depleting critical resources will be unsuccessful if the construction industry does not significantly transform its ways of building and managing urban spaces. A thorough examination of that process is necessary to identify the prerequisites needed to develop a model that integrates sustainable design with BIM concept. Thus, this study presents an integrated BIM and sustainable design model for buildings that automates the evaluation and selection of associated construction methods (i.e., conventional, modular, and 3D printing) at the conceptual design stage. The proposed model will provide designers with the ability to assess different design alternatives at the early design stage of the project’s life, which will lead to a suitable construction method. Lifecycle Assessment (LCA), Lifecycle Cost Analysis (LCCA), energy analysis and sustainability certification (LEED rating system) are the modules that will be incorporated and used by the proposed model to execute all necessary calculations, analysis, and simulation. However, this paper is part of an ongoing research; thus, it will be limited to developing and testing the database design engine. To commence a design, COMOTH (the database design engine) is initiated in Revit architecture, with a form requesting users to select an option related to the number of floors and the building construction method. The successful implementation of the proposed model will contribute to advancing the process of integrating BIM and sustainability by providing users with more options during the sustainable design process and afterwards identify the associated construction methods for buildings. That will evolve the adoption of sustainable design and construction processes by the AEC industry.

Nkechi McNeil-Ayuk, Ahmad Jrade
Integrating 3D Modeling and GIS-Based Land Use and Multimodal Transport Accessibility Evaluation Model to Design and Retrofit Sustainable Bridges

Traditionally, the performance of transportation systems is evaluated in terms of travel speed and distance, while land use planning focuses on spatial accessibility. A disconnect in the planning approach exists even though transportation and spatial development are interrelated. Adaptation of integrated 3D Modeling and Geographic Information System (GIS) during the transportation infrastructure design stage has been slow due to numerous technical challenges. In an effort to partially fill this gap, a GIS-based land use and multimodal transportation accessibility evaluation tool will be integrated with an existing versatile model developed by the authors that has 3D Modeling capabilities to assist in designing and retrofitting sustainable bridges over the course of their service life. The existing model encompasses a rule-based expert system and four modules, namely: Bridge Sustainability Rating System (BrSRS), Bridge Environmental Performance Strategy Mapping (BrEPSM), 3D CAD (3-dimensional) modeling and conceptual cost estimating. The proposed GIS model will provide users the ability to evaluate the level of accessibility provided by a proposed or rehabilitated sustainable bridge via a GIS-based Land Use and Multimodal Transportation Accessibility Evaluation (LUMTAE) module that will be derived and inherited into the existing model. Overall, the proposed interoperable model aims to provide recommendations for the bridge type, allow customization and/or alteration of a sustainable bridge, present forecasted footprint levels, depict conceptual design in 3D CAD, aid in the selection of an optimal location for the proposed bridge, provide alternative retrofit design options for the existing ones to improve multimodal accessibility, and generate conceptual construction cost estimates.

A. Elgayar, A. Jrade
Initial Investigation of a More Sustainable Method for Constructing Electric Conductive Pavement

Snowfall is a significant concern of the northern part of the US due to its adverse impacts on the three dimensions of sustainability, environment, economy, and society. Snow on highways can lead to pavement failure and cause accidents. Previous research studies reveal that about 15% of vehicle crash occurs on the road due to the accumulation of ice or snow on the pavement. Since over 70% of the US roads are in snowy regions, keeping the pavement surface free of snow during winter conditions is a significant challenge. Ongoing research explores different methods to melt the snow accumulating on the pavement's surface efficiently. However, based on findings documented in this research project, the proposed methods are not financially feasible. Therefore, it is required to conduct more advanced research to explore viable alternatives, which can melt the snow at a lower cost. This paper presents an initial investigation of a new sustainable construction approach for melting the snow by heating the pavement using a modified electric conductive composite applied to the top of the pavement surface. The initial finding shows that the applied approach effectively warmed pavement top surface and that capable of melting snow of pavements and saving a tremendous amount of money as well.

Mohammad Anis, Mohamed Abdel-Raheem
Investigating the Financial Feasibility of Energy-Efficient Appliances Used in Homes

In the U.S., the residential sector accounts for 21% of all energy use. The adoption of energy efficient appliances can, in part, help reduce site energy consumption in the residential sector. In turn, such reduction will lead to lower monthly utility bills, as well as lessening the carbon footprint formed by the residential energy use. The literature, as well as green building guidelines, such as LEED V4 for homes, recommend the use of energy-efficient appliances. However, the initial cost of these appliances can be significant. As such, there is a need to assess the economy of replacing traditional appliances with energy-efficient ones to ensure the financial feasibility of such approach. This paper presents a preliminary framework that defines and describes the interrelationship between the main parameters needed to conduct a comprehensive life-cycle cost analysis to determine the feasibility of investing in energy efficient appliances in the home.

M. Abdel-Raheem, M. Garcia, M. Pruneda
Economic Analysis of Water Efficient Appliances and Fixtures in the Residential Sector

Water scarcity has been an alarming problem around the globe. One way to secure our needs of clean water is to reduce its consumption. Water efficient fixtures and appliances can definitely help in this regard. However, for many, the initial cost of an efficient fixture can be daunting even with the promise of future savings in the cost of utilities. Hence, there is a need to assess the financial feasibility of the use of water-efficient fixtures and appliances in homes. This study presents a method of economic analysis for the use of efficient appliances and fixtures intended for use in the domestic sector.

M. Garcia, M. Abdel-Raheem, B. Hernandez
Towards a More Sustainable Approach to Evaluate Brownfields

With the foreseeable increase in urban sprawl and tightening needs of growing cities for infrastructure, community improvement and expansion, Brownfields remediation can be a viable option and a sustainable solution for satisfying such needs. Previous research has talked about the different methods used for remediating Brownfields, the differences between successful and unsuccessful brownfield sites, Brownfield’s regeneration, and the successful factors linked to the regeneration. However, with the underlying problems of hazardous contaminants and waste accumulated in Brownfield sites throughout their operational life cycles, it is essential to prioritize the remediation process of Brownfield sites based on the time, cost, and efforts needed while maximizing the environmental, economic, and social aspects of sustainability. This study presents a framework for a systematic approach to assess and prioritize the Brownfields considered for remediation with respect to the three dimensions of sustainability. The framework utilizes the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to compare the decision criteria and their attributes and evaluate the Brownfield candidate sites. The framework provides the decision-makers with the flexibility of changing weights, as well as adding or omitting different decision parameters. Brownfield sites assessed with the proposed tool will be represented by a single score reflecting the remediation effort required for that specific site.

Julio C. Constantino, Mohamed Abdel-Raheem
From Collaborative BIM to Value-Driven Asset Management: A Case Study

As indicated by various researches, the most important benefits of BIM will be for the management of the building assets. Inefficiencies in current data collection and management processes have a significant economic impact, as O&M activities represent a particularly large portion of lifecycle costs. The current practice of manual data collection and acquisition is time-consuming, costly, and error-prone. Lack of awareness of the potential benefits of BIM for O&M and the inadequacy of industry tools are among the main reasons for its slow adoption. PAS 1992 initiative in UK has led to the ISO 19650 standard to frame the successful transfer from project to asset management. However, this standard, while proposing a framework to create a common data environment, does not address many issues related to highly fragmented process of planning, designing, delivering and managing the building assets. Another standard mainly adopted by other industries for the management of their assets. ISO 55000 could provide a refreshing perspective to rethink the industry business model. This collaborative action research explores a small enterprise journey to implement a value-driven asset management. Specialized in spas, a very competitive market, this enterprise has adopted a quite innovative approach to get the best value for money for their projects’ portfolio. The research contributes to a better understanding of moving toward a common data environment through the building asset lifecycle, taking a business model perspective.

D. Forgues, A. Motamedi, M. Boize
Information Management in Off-Site Construction: Case Study of Mid-Rise Building Construction in Québec

Construction projects are known to have frequent cost overruns. These are caused by various issues, some of which stem from traditional construction methods. According to the literature, off-site construction (OSC) using factory-produced components and efficient manufacturing processes could help to overcome this issue by improving productivity and project quality. The prefabricated wood sector is expected to reduce the over-growing demand for multi-storey housing in Québec, thanks to the opportunities provided by OSC for Québec’s residential constructions. While several building projects have benefited from this process, it is commonly used mainly for the construction of single-unit houses. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the barriers that limit the use of off-site construction for larger buildings. To achieve this objective, an in-depth case study was carried out on a construction project of 144 units using prefabricated modular components. Through interviews with stakeholders, it was found that to benefit from the potential of OSC, effective information management is necessary early on, at the design stage. The issues discussed in this paper are related to the design stage of the project.

Virginie Messa, Ivanka Iordanova, Carlo Carbone
Management Strategies, Project Teams, and Value Added Using Lean Project Delivery for Sustainable, Reliable, and Effective Construction

Lean construction enhances the value proposition for project owners and stakeholders by eliminating waste and non-valued-added activities. Lean is a philosophy and culture adopted from companies like Toyota Production Systems and the manufacturing industry. The construction industry has distinctive differences which require interdisciplinary, collaborative, and labor-intensive work practices, the Lean project delivery process has been found to improve the overall construction management process and constructability of a project as a way for the owner to get a project delivered on time, within budget, while meeting quality and safety standards established for the project. Various studies have researched principles, elements, processes, flows, activities, and tools used in project delivery for construction projects, yet little research has been conducted synthesizing the effective strategies that make Lean an attractive option for project owners and stakeholders utilizing these approaches to manage their projects. The authors used a qualitative approach to conduct the research through meta-analysis to summarize existing statistics and literature to conclude and identify effective construction management practices, project team associations, and value-added strategies used within the Lean project delivery method for the built environment. Considering the research and case studies, some of the most effective practices used by owners, engineers, and contractors in construction using the Lean project delivery included waste removal, last planner, and pull planning for contract development and management. Project management strategies that effectively used Lean approaches included integration, value stream mapping, early contractor involvement, and continuous improvement. It seems that the Lean project delivery system lends itself to review management practices, project team processes, and the value added with the delivery system.

P. W. Plugge, H. Dang, D. Martin
Evaluating Risk Indices for Execution Plans of Construction Activities: Energy Sources Approach

The growing concern for occupational health and safety in construction is reflected in many preventive measures taken against the risks associated with hazardous activities. However, methods for systematic assessment of hazards and risks are not straightforward to apply or lacking consistency. This paper proposes a method for risk index evaluation based on the energy sources associated with particular project situations and construction processes being planned. The method developed in this paper is associated with the ten significant types of energy release categorized by the American Society of Safety Professionals (namely: Mechanical, Biological, Temperature, Chemical, Pressure, Electrical, Radiation, Sound, Gravity and Motion). This study is intended to identify relevant energy release sources responsible for susceptibility to potential hazards on the project. The calculation of the risk index includes the assessment of the probability and severity of each associated factor based on an analysis of the applicable OHS code and planning of the construction process. A demonstration case is described to show the applicability of the model.

Ayesha Siddika, Ming Lu
Effective Safety Protocols and Project Productivity Impacts for Construction Companies in Washington State During the COVID-19 Pandemic

The initial outbreak and ongoing surges of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have required the construction industry to adopt rigorous and innovative safety protocols and adapt to project productivity impacts and potential shutdowns. Initially, many projects were placed on hold, and only essential projects could continue after the institution of proper safety measures and often with a reduced workforce. This paper reviews the safety protocols and practices of construction projects during the early days of the pandemic and discusses the impact on the workforce and productivity. The authors gathered documentation and interviews from construction safety supervisors in the State of Washington. Analyzed data showed some effective safety protocols and creative coping plans for the pandemic. The findings and conclusions set out recommendations for a healthy and efficient work environment for construction projects during a pandemic that could be of interest to government officials and construction managers.

J. Serne, H. Dang
Lean Adoption Barriers for Trade Contractors

Lean Construction has proven to be highly beneficial to the construction industry; however, adoption at the trade contractor level is lagging. This study seeks to identify the barriers that hamper the successful implementation of lean principles and methods to understand the reasons for the lagging adoption by stakeholders that should benefit the most. A comprehensive review of previous literature identified several categorizations for barriers; however, none emphasized trade contractors. 29 barriers were identified and defined through a detailed literature review. These barriers were then clustered into seven main factors affecting the implementation of lean initiatives under the proposed framework. This framework facilitates the investigation of construction companies’ potential barriers when deciding to start implementing lean. The analysis revealed that the three most frequent barriers were lack of teamwork, multi-layer subcontracting, and lack of long-term philosophy. Additionally, seven barriers are recognized as the potential barriers specifically relevant to the trade contractors: lack of teamwork and technical capabilities, poor communication between parties, minimum involvement of workers, lack of integration of the production chain, quality of materials, high turnover of the workforce, and employee tolerance of untidy workspaces. The findings provide insight into the possible obstacles that exist to hinder the implementation of lean practices among trade contractors. Firms that do not recognize these barriers will suffer from organizational inefficiency regarding needed improvement efforts and where these endeavors should be focused. Understanding the root causes of the low rate of lean adaptation can assist in developing solutions to address barriers and facilitate lean implementation.

E. Asadian, R. Leicht, J. Messner
System Architecture for Supporting BIM to Robotic Construction Integration

The adoption of robotics into the construction industry has been progressing slower than in the manufacturing and industrial sectors. Current shortfalls in skilled labor, productivity trends, and ongoing safety challenges point to the need for a drastic shift toward adopting robotics. Addressing these shortfalls would be a necessary component of the shift toward industrializing the construction industry. Despite this lag in technology adoption, the interest and development of robotic technology targeting the construction industry has grown in recent years and is ranging from the use of drones for tracking to advances in offsite fabrication. However, the integration into fundamental site construction necessitates reconsidering the information technology infrastructure needed to support detailed task execution information needs in the change from craft labor to robotic operations. This research presents the identification and mapping of the Information Technology (IT) system architecture required to support building information modeling (BIM) to robotic construction. Combining elements of BIM architecture and information exchanges with the needed construction task decomposition is required. These elements are mapped to the robotic system elements vital for mobile robotic operations. In addition to defining the functions and integration required to support the BIM to robotic Construction Workflow, shortcomings in existing infrastructure, notably regarding the ability to decompose construction fabrication and assembly means and methods, are defined.

A. McClymonds, R. Leicht, S. Asadi
Integration and I4.0 Tracking Systems for Steel Manufacturing Industry

Industry 4.0 technologies have revolutionized manufacturing industries in many domains. Although the construction industry still lags behind other industries in terms of digitization and automation, disruptive I4.0 technologies, are gradually transforming the traditional nature of this industry. Internet of Things or IoT, associated with tracking technologies, can improve automation through real time capturing, accessing, tracking, and sharing information; which ultimately leads to more decentralized decision-makings. While these technologies can help improve project performance metrics, their impacts on project integration is still unknown. In this paper, we aimed to understand the impact of the propose IoT tracking system, on integration in terms of (a) horizontal, (b) end-to-end digital, and (c) vertical integrations. To achieve this goal, we conducted a case study on digital transformation of a steel fabrication plant in Quebec, Canada. We developed a smart steel manufacturing IoT-based architecture and proposed an automated identification tracking method for tracking steel products. Finally, we implemented the proposed system in a case study, and discussed its impact on three levels of integration in construction projects.

S. Rankohi, M. Bourgault, I. Iordanova, C. Danjou, P. Garcia, J. Grondin
UAV Applications in the AEC/FM Industry: A Review

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) offers the potential of facilitating various tasks in the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Facility Management (AEC/FM) industry. Plenty of research has been conducted in this field, resulting in a large number of publications. This paper thus presents a bibliometric analysis of UAV applications in the field of AEC/FM, intending to identify its research trends and future directions. The literature database, Scopus, was used to collect relevant publications regarding UAV applications in the AEC/FM industry. Several keywords, such as UAV, drone, unmanned aerial system (UAS), AEC, infrastructure, and the forth, were used in the data collection, resulting in 552 research publications. A bibliometric analysis was then conducted using VOSviewer to quantitatively identify the research trends through keyword co-occurrence map and citation networks of collected documents. In addition, a discussion of cluster analysis is provided in this paper to discover challenges in the application of UAVs in the AEC/FM industry. The results indicated that more consideration is demanded in the areas such as indoor path planning, UAV battery limitations, the integration between building information modeling (BIM) and UAV, privacy issues, and the integration between UAV and the internet of things (IoT). This paper contributes to the body of knowledge by quantitatively identifying the research trends and needs for UAV-based AEC/FM applications.

Mohammed Sulaiman, Hexu Liu, Mohamed Bin Alhaj, Osama Abudayyeh
Scheduling Annual Inspections of Sanitary Trunk Sewers Using a Prioritization Framework

Sewers form a huge maze in the underground infrastructure where resource allocation could be an obstacle for decision-makers. The main aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for the Region of Peel to support its ongoing sewer inspection program by prioritizing sanitary trunk sewer (STS) segments within floodplains and adjacent to watercourses. While the overall project consisted of three main tasks submitted in three technical reports, this paper focused on one parameter (Importance Grade) of the prioritization methodology. The project started by analyzing closed-circuit television (CCTV) grades and the vulnerability factors that would expedite the deterioration of the assets. A Structural Performance Grade (SPG) was assigned to each trunk sewer by combining the impacts of the CCTV and vulnerability grades. A detailed sewer accessibility analysis was also performed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool to classify sewers by their level of accessibility. The accessibility and the consequence of failure (CoF) results were combined to calculate the Importance Grade for each STS. A structured decision-based matrix, combining the SPG and the Importance Grade, was used to determine the required inspection frequency. Based on the prioritization and from the identified STS that would be scheduled for inspection in the next five years, 84% (136 km out of 162 km) of the observed STS were within a floodplain, and 87% (83 km out of 95 km) of the STS were within a 10 m distance of the closest watercourse.

Khalid Kaddoura, Nicholas Gan, Leo Chen
Use of Virtual Reality to Minimize the Spread of Covid-19 on Construction Sites

The University of New Brunswick (UNB) first developed a virtual reality documentation (VR Doc) system in 2006 and has continued to make improvements. VR Doc has evolved into a web-based interface for organizing and viewing virtual reality panoramas. The main purpose of the VR Doc system is to support virtual site visits, pre-emptively resolve claims, and record photographic as-builts. This project is a collaboration between UNB, Bradley Engineering Ltd, and Bird Construction Inc., and focuses on VR Doc’s virtual site visit capabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Physical site visits are more challenging as a result of COIVD-19 and limiting personnel on site has the potential to reduce the spread of the virus. The VR Doc system was implemented on the Fredericton International Airport upgrade site over a five-month period during the COVID-19 pandemic. Representatives of the project owner, the general contractor, and the electrical subcontractor were provided with access to the VR Doc website. These representatives provided valuable feedback that provided insight on how this technology could reduce the number of personnel visiting site. Opportunities to reduce the spread of COVID-19 include: minimizing the site visits by those monitoring project progress, minimizing the site visits by those inspecting completed work, and providing visuals of specific project details to Airport board members and consulting engineers. Impediments to this technology include: introduction of yet another software interface and the need for on-site personnel to capture the images at specific times. Opportunities for improvement are also identified.

Allison Boyd, D. Cody Bradley, Lloyd M. Waugh
Systematic Literature Review on the Combination of Digital Fabrication, BIM and Off-Site Manufacturing in Construction—A Research Road Map

According to the scientific literature, 98% of megaprojects in the construction sector suffer from cost overruns of more than 30%. This is due to several reasons, the most important of which is issues with productivity (Changali et al. The Construction Productivity Imperative, p 10, 2015, [1]). Off-site manufacturing in construction is one solution to increase productivity, but there is a current lack of studies linking it to the concept of design for manufacturing and assembly (Jin et al. J Cleaner Prod 202:1202–1219, 2018, [3]). Building information modeling (BIM) also offers new opportunities to underpin the computerized design and fabrication of industrialized buildings, providing greater productivity and cost-effectiveness (He et al. J. Cleaner Prod 278:123505, 2021, [18]). The combination of BIM and off-site construction (OSC) could maximize their benefits to the construction industry and their applications are highly recommended to improve construction efficiency (Yin et al. Autom Constr 101:72–91, 2019, [7]). However, even if the relationship between BIM and off-site construction has been identified and discussed among pioneer researchers, gaps were found in the literature concerning the integration of BIM and digital fabrication with off-site manufacturing (OSM) in construction. There has been insufficient research in integrating these practices. The aim of this literature review is to assess the current state of the combined use of digital fabrication, BIM, and OSM in the context of Construction 4.0. A bibliometric analysis was conducted to study the relationship between these practices. The contribution to the body of knowledge will be the outcome of this literature review including an in-depth discussion on main trends in off-site construction, research gaps, and recommendations for near-future perspectives in off-site construction.

Amirhossein Mehdipoor, Ivanka Iordanova
Towards Occupant-Centric Facility Maintenance Management: Automated Classification of Occupant Feedback Using NLP

Location-specific occupant feedback is crucial information for facility management since it reflects occupant satisfaction on the facility and informs corrective maintenance. However, the current facility maintenance management (FMM) system cannot effectively collect location-specific occupant feedback, resulting in the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of FMM. This research explores a mobile social network approach for location-specific feedback collection in FMM. Specifically, this research develops a natural language processing (NLP)-based machine learning algorithm to classify the occupant feedback collected from the social network application automatically. In turn, the proposed approach could facilitate occupants’ participation and occupant feedback solicitation and assist facility management (FM) personnel in locating and navigating the reporting issues. The Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka) is utilized for training and testing machine learning algorithms based on historical records. The trained model can retrieve the essential information to facilitate FM decision-making based on occupants’ input data (e.g., location and textual information). The technical feasibility of mobile social network applications to report FMM feedback and concerns was demonstrated using a case study. This research contributes to the body of knowledge by an NLP-based model that automatically processes the location-specific occupant feedback for FMM. Future work will focus on developing a prototype application for FMM based on our findings.

Mohamed Bin Alhaj, Hexu Liu, Mohammed Sulaiman
Auto-positioning of UWB RTLS for Construction Site Applications

Real Time Location System (RTLS) has been confirmed with high suitability for various construction site applications in the past decade: resources tracking and productivity monitoring, labor and equipment safety, as well as robotics navigation on construction sites. Studies have confirmed that TOF-based Ultra-wide Band (UWB) RTLS has higher practicality for construction site applications compared with the most commonly investigated TDOA/AOA. To setup a TDOA/AOA UWB RTLS, precise surveying (e.g. using Total Station) are required to determine the locations of the anchors and setup the coordinates of the system. Due to the dynamic nature of construction sites, it is inevitable to frequently move the anchors during the different stages of the construction which necessitates repeating the surveying and installation efforts. Nevertheless, it is not practical to keep repeating the survey processes throughout the entire construction. Auto-positioning, as a unique feature of TOF-based UWB RTLS, can automatically determine the relative locations of all anchors, which shows significant promise in simplifying the applications of UWB RTLS in the dynamic environment of the construction sites. Nonetheless, as a recently emerged new feature, the mechanism of auto-positioning is unknown and the impact of applying auto-positioning is still unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the mechanism of auto-positioning of the TOF-based UWB RTLS and evaluate the influence of applying auto-positioning on location estimation accuracy. By thoroughly analyzing the mechanism and algorithms of auto-positioning, the influence on the location estimation accuracy will be associated with the mechanism of auto-positioning (245/250).

T. Jin, F. Sadeghpour, G. Jergeas
Automated Ergonomics-Based Productivity Analysis for Intelligent Manufacturing in Industrialized Construction

Construction workers perform repetitive and physically demanding tasks that expose them to the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Accurate estimation of the cycle times of manual operations is essential for reliable planning and scheduling as well as for ergonomic risk assessment. However, the reliability of the standardized cycle time analysis is hindered by its dependence on various factors that change with the increasing complexity of the working environment, as well as by the inherent challenges involved in acquiring accurate measurements. This study thus investigates the integration of predetermined motion time systems (PMTSs) with ergonomic risk assessments in 3D visualization for the purposes of cycle time estimation and ergonomic risk evaluation. An integrated approach is implemented to provide an automated and user-friendly method of analyzing manual operations at the motion level in the design phase. The actual and simulated cycle times and ergonomic risks are compared and analyzed using a case study. Preliminary cases are provided to demonstrate the feasibility and the potential applications of the proposed method. The proposed method is shown to be capable of quantifying the required cycle time and the ergonomic risks associated with body parts during the execution of manual operations. Using the proposed method, rapid ergonomic-centric workplace design can be achieved that, in turn, helps to improve productivity while mitigating ergonomic risk. The proposed method can be implemented to improve occupational health and safety, increase the reliability of planning and scheduling, and boost the overall productivity of industrialized construction.

Jingwen Wang, Yomna Mohamed, SangHyeok Han, Xinming Li, Mohamed Al-Hussein
A Web-Based Platform for Real-Time Visualization of Tof UWB Tracking in Construction Sites

In construction sites, having the real-time location of assets is of key importance. Therefore, different Real-time Locating Systems (RTLS) such as Global Positioning System (GPS), Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Wi-Fi-based, UWB, etc. have been developed. The location data achieved by these frameworks can be used to enhance safety measures, improve the construction site layout management, as well as extensive efficiency analysis. Considering the nature of a construction site, UWB RTLS is gaining more and more attention as the go-to system. Between the different methods for UWB tracking, TOF has the advantage of not needing wired connections through tags. Therefore, TOF-based UWB tracking has been used in this research. However, the data resulting from this framework is hard to interpret and is not accessible remotely. To this end, in this research, a web-based platform has been proposed and developed which enables remote access to the location data. The proposed system is capable of storing location data through time to be able to be used for further analysis. Also, this framework will enable managers to monitor the site activities remotely.

Mahdi Naimi Jamal, Tian Jin, Farnaz Sadeghpour
An Overview of Modeling Spatial Relationships in Site Layout Planning Literature

Site layout planning studies the efficient allocation of temporary facilities in construction sites. In this field, over 100 journal and conference papers have been published between 1994 and 2020, focusing on optimization models to improve the layout and the study of different dimensions of the problem. One of those dimensions is spatial relationships modelling, where planning goals are transformed into measurable objectives for mathematical equations, which involves proximity or farness relationships between temporary facilities. This paper studies how the spatial relationships have been modelled in the literature, based on 66 formerly published optimization models that included closeness as a spatial relationship. Of these, 40 papers used more than one spatial relationship, suggesting increasing interest in their application. The findings of this process discuss definitions and mathematical formulation of spatial relationships in the literature, different examples of application, and recommendations for future work in this area. This review paper should enable future researchers to utilize spatial relationships more extensively in site layout planning models to satisfy planning goals and objectives. The achievement of planning goals such as productivity, safety, security and functionality will contribute to more realistic site layouts for the industry, where planning goals, objectives and spatial relationships help address the complex and dynamic requirements of construction site layout planning.

A. Marcano Pina, F. Sadeghpour
Virtual Reality-Motion Capture-Based Ergonomic Risk Assessment of Workstation Designs of Construction Manufacturing Facilities

Despite the utilization of automated equipment, workers in construction manufacturing facilities are often exposed to high physical demands. These demands are associated with the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). To control the degree to which workers are exposed to the risk of developing WMSDs, ergonomic risks associated with tasks performed at workstations should be identified and prevented in the early stages of workstation design. The application of virtual reality (VR) techniques facilitates the simulation of real operational settings in a safe and controlled environment, thereby allowing the identification of ergonomic risks associated with workstation design. In this context, this study proposes an approach that integrates a virtual reality environment with a motion capture system to evaluate workstation design options. By identifying ergonomic risk ratings proactively in the initial phases of workstation design, the number of iterations required using physical prototypes is thus minimized, thereby reducing the cost and time required to develop and implement an improved workstation design. To demonstrate the proposed approach, a research experiment of window hardware installation is conducted to compare the ergonomic risks associated with two workstation design options. Information on body motion is collected using a motion capture system and assessed using two existing risk assessment methods, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment and Rapid Entire Body Assessment; as a result, tasks with high ergonomic risks are identified and a design option is selected. This research will aid in providing an alternative approach to selecting a workstation design option in the early design phase.

R. Dias Barkokebas, M. Al-Hussein, X. Li
Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Saudi Arabia

Construction projects are large investments that require attention and protection. One of the critical risks is the loss of investment and project failure due to poor safety performance. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to identify and assess factors affecting construction safety performance among the parties involved in construction projects, namely: owners, consultants, and contractors. The methodology adopted in this study consisted of five main phases. In the first phase, a literature review was performed to identify factors affecting construction safety performance. In the second phase, several expert interviews were conducted to review the factors identified from the literature in terms of their applicability to construction safety performance, in addition to the possibility of adding further factors. The previous two phases concluded with 30 factors affecting construction safety performance that were grouped under seven categories, namely: Project Nature, Personnel, Management, Safety Enforcement Measures, Economy, Environment, and Other Factors. In the third phase, development and distribution of a questionnaire survey was conducted with a sample of 76 professional respondents in Saudi Arabia, to evaluate 30 identified factors, employing frequency index (FI) and relative importance index (RII). In the fourth and fifth phases, data was collected and analyzed, utilizing a frequency adjusted importance index (FAII). The study showed that “care for safety”, “safety behavior”, “maintaining safe work environment”, “size of project” and “availability and implementation of codes, standards and guidelines” are the top five factors affecting construction safety performance, respectively.

M. S. Aldossary, A. A. Bubshait
Exploring Potential Building Materials for Planet Mars

Interplanetary expansion is a matter of acute interest in the scientific realm nowadays. This work aims at exploring potential building materials for Martian use along with possible methods for construction. Martian concrete was created by simulating Martian regolith using basalt which was tested for elemental and chemical composition using Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). Samples of basalt had very close resemblance to Martian soil validating its use. Martian concrete was mixed, in different ratios of Sulphur to concrete, using a maximum nominal aggregate size of 1 mm and molten Sulphur acting as the binding agent in the mix. Applying the ASTM C39 compressive strength test and the ASTM C78 flexural strength test to the mixes, it was found out that the mix with a 1:1 Sulphur to aggregate mix was the strongest having yielded results of 22 and 4 MPa, respectively. Alternative materials of construction are also discussed and evaluated. Prospective methods of execution are then discussed and a proposal of a Martian habitat is provided.

Ziad Abdeen, Kareem ElDaba, Reem Gamal, Zenah Helmy, Gehad Ibrahim, Omar Sawan, Mohamed Nagib AbouZeid
Sensing and Data Collection Methods for Occupant-Centric Building Control: A Critical Review of State of the Art

Given the recent improvements in building automation and sensing infrastructure, Occupant-Centric Control (OCC) strategies have been introduced. OCC is a novel approach for indoor climate control in which occupant preferences are directly measured or indirectly inferred from various sensors or control interfaces to optimize building operations. However, obtaining occupants’ data and preferences is typically challenging because of their dynamic and inconsistent behaviours. As a result, inaccurate assumptions are usually used in building operations, which often leads to wasteful energy use or may trigger occupant discomfort. In contrast, data generated by building systems can be used to tailor their operations to unique occupant behavioural patterns. To this end, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of the approaches used in sensing and acquisition of occupancy and occupants’ preferences to develop OCC for buildings. Previous studies were first analyzed to identify their locations, durations, and building types. Data collection methods used in these studies were then further categorized based on the type of information they provide, namely (1) occupants’ interactions with building systems (e.g., thermostat setpoint changes, light switches, and opening/closing of windows/blinds), (2) occupants’ preferences (e.g., occupants’ comfort level), and finally (3) indoor and/or outdoor environmental parameters which trigger occupant-building interactions. Alternative data collection approaches, such as those relying on augmented reality and facial recognition to evaluate comfort were also reviewed to outline their main advantages and limitations. Consequently, this paper provides an overview of OCC developments and relevant data collection methods for both researchers and building operators.

H. Karimian, M. Ouf, N. Cotrufo, J. Venne
Impact Analysis of Covid-19 Pandemic on Construction Employment in the United States

Construction industry is one of the major contributing sectors of the U.S. economy. Due to COVID-19 pandemic construction industry has witnessed halt and cancellation of ongoing and planned projects. As projects got halted and cancelled many construction companies furloughed or terminated employment contracts of their workers. This sudden termination has been reflected in the monthly employment numbers. This paper presents the employment change in three constituting subsectors of construction industry: building, heavy and civil, and specialty trade due to COVID-19 pandemic. The paper has utilized historical data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics to forecast the expected employment numbers in absence of the pandemic. It has been found that due to pandemic the construction employment went down by 5.5 million between March 2020 and December 2020. Additionally, it has been found that the variation of the extent of impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of employment on the three subsectors is insignificant. This means that the three subsectors suffered the consequences equally. The outcomes of the paper can be utilized by the policy makers in exploring the broader implications of the construction employment change. It can also be used in subsector specific policy planning purpose.

Arkaprabha Bhattacharyya, Makarand Hastak
The Applicability of the Two-Fluid Model to Simulate Soil Internal Fluidization Due to Pipe Leakage

Internal fluidization in soils due to pipe leakage can compromise the integrity and strength of surrounding soils causing softening and deformation that could pose threats to nearby structures. Analyzing the coupled dynamics of soil–water interactions at the microscale level is needed to adequately understand the mechanism and extent of fluidization. Despite the existence of models that can accurately perform this coupling, it remains computationally expensive and often impractical to perform on a large scale that represents actual situations. In this study, we explore the potential of using the Two-Fluid Model (TFM) to simulate internal fluidization as a computationally feasible and scalable model. Numerical simulations of a pressurized water jet into a submerged sand bed are carried out and the results are compared with experimental data and other numerical results. The analysis presented in this study shows a good agreement between the proposed TFM approach and both experimental and numerical simulation in terms of excess pore water pressure values and the extent of the fluidized zone. The model limitations arising from the continuum representation are then highlighted. The model’s performance indicates that it is a viable tool for the preliminary assessment of soil–water coupling problems involving leaking watermains and similar problems in ground engineering.

A. Ibrahim, M. Meguid
Preliminary Analysis of Emerging Visualization and Image Modeling Technologies for Highway Construction Inspection

Visualization and image modeling technologies have been proven as an efficient tool for improving inspection of transportation projects in the last two decades due to their capabilities in collecting field data and documenting inspection results. Different visualization and image modeling techniques have been developed and implemented in the current construction inspection literature. A gap exists regarding a synthesis to summarize and assess the current practices of these techniques in construction inspection activities. The objectives of this study are to (1) develop a list of emerging visualization and image modeling technologies along with the inspected elements of construction projects and (2) highlight the mainstream of the current practices along with predictions of future research directions. A systematic literature review and content analysis of 29 selected articles from 11 renowned journals in construction management published during 2000–2021 was conducted. The results of profiling 14 technologies showed that merging two or more of the visualization and image modeling technologies has a promising potential to overcome limitations of some of these technologies. A considerable number of technologies such as dual-light inspection and Electro-optical imagery are still under evaluation and have had limited deployment in construction inspection. In addition, the finding showed that managing and transferring data among different e-inspection technologies are main challenging in implementation of construction inspection technologies. This study is of value to researchers and industry practitioners seeking a useful reference on adopting new technologies in construction inspection.

Mamdouh Mohamed, Phuong Nguyen, Daniel Tran
A Market Accessibility Study of the Inland Waterway System in Mississippi

The accessibility of an inland waterway port provides significant impetus that can be leveraged by the port authority to enhance a region’s overall competitive advantage in the state or national space economy. This study aims to investigate the level of ease for marine and river ports in Mississippi to access port-dependent industries. To achieve this objective, the study established a quantification method for market accessibility of each waterborne port in Mississippi. The waterborne traffic data during 2011 and 2017 of the 16 ports has been analyzed to identify change patterns, trends, and port-dependent commodities. Then, an intermodal freight network has been established. This network consists of physical facilities such as ports, highways, railways, terminals, and transfer/access links that connect all the physical facilities. This network is the first of its kind in the state and able to optimize shipping routes with regard to any type of cost. Based on this intermodal network, a customized accessibility quantification method was developed to transfer best practices of this concept into a river ports evaluation, with an adjustment to accommodate port related industry needs by employing Location Quotient to quantify economic activity level of an area. Using this method, accessibility of each port to its potential markets was calculated using a single-mode network (highway only) and intermodal network (highway and railway). Based on the accessibility indices, a map of the accessibility indices is also provided to visually illustrate the distribution of the capability of ports to access their markets.

Y. Zhang, F. Zhang, C. Prine, A. Tripathi, S. Puryear
Construction of Rigid Pavement in Emerging Economies: Challenges and Opportunities

Although flexible pavement is commonly used in the world, there are calls for considering rigid pavement due to the long-term environmental, economic, and social benefits it may provide. Evaluating the use of rigid pavement in addition to flexible pavement is especially important for the emerging economies which are seeking for the reconciliation between sustainability development and economic growth. Although more studies have started to discuss the adoption of rigid pavement, there is a lack of research that examines the challenges and opportunities with regard to the design and construction of rigid pavement in these countries. The paper aims at filling this knowledge gap in the context of Vietnam. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses of 42 engineering professionals who have worked for various transportation projects in the country. Result was disaggregated by three project roles the participants held including contractor, consultant, and owner. The overall result indicated that the availability of Portland cement from various production plants distributed across the country was the most important opportunity from adopting rigid pavement. On the other hand, the lack of pilot projects in rigid pavement, ignorance of sustainability considerations in project planning, lack of capable contractors, needs of modern equipment, and having the proper concrete curing methods are major challenges in management, planning, construction, and maintenance that participants are concerned. This paper contributes to the sustainability development debate in roadway construction by illuminating the pathway for adopting and expanding the use of rigid pavement in emerging economies.

Anh D. Chau, Hiep T. Hoang, Long D. Nguyen, Long Le-Hoai
Developing a Gis-Based Fleet Optimization Model for Winter Maintenance Operations

In the annual winter route maintenance, the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the United States spends substantial resources and multiple fleets of snow-plow trucks on snow and ice control activities and operations. The deployment of a large fleet size over a vast maintenance area creates an operational problem in determining the optimal maintenance routes and fleet size. This study aimed at supporting winter maintenance operations of KDOT by developing a snow-plow fleet optimization model to enhance the efficiency of snow and ice route removal by justifying the feet size and determining where to allocate limited resources during snow events. The fleet optimization model was developed using geographic information system (GIS) base-maps created by a commercial software package, ArcGIS, and its extensions. As a result, the developed optimization model minimized the fleet size and maintain the current level of service for all snow and ice routes. The model was tested with a District in KDOT. The results show that four snow-plow trucks could be removed from the current fleet while the level of service is maintained at 79.72%. In addition, the optimization model also decreased the total travel time needed to treat all snow and ice routes in the selected District by approximately 24.3 h for one treating iteration. The result of this study is expected to apply to other Districts in Kansas after successfully conducting a pilot study in the selected District.

P. Nguyen, D. Tran
Agent-Based Modelling as a Decision-Support System for Project Delivery Methods

Cost overruns, schedule delays, claims, and disputes are regularly faced issues in most construction projects. While the reasons are numerous, one common cause is inappropriate selection of the project delivery method. Founding a project on an inappropriate delivery method not only disrupts schedule and cost plans, but also wrecks professional relationships and puts stakeholders’ futures at stake. Several attempts have been made to assist owners in selecting a suitable project delivery method. However, there is not much research that uses computer simulation to aid in the delivery method selection process. The aim of this study is to develop a decision-support system for project delivery methods. Agent-based modelling and simulation (ABMS) are employed to simulate different scenarios of different project conditions, allowing owners to select the best delivery method for each case. This decision-support system calculates scores for each delivery method and displays expected results that facilitate the selection process. A sample application is implemented to demonstrate the system. Finally, the conclusion and future recommendations are presented.

D. Salhab, L. Shehab, K. Noueihed, A. Hammad
Green and Sustainable Certifications for Existing Buildings, the Example of the Upgrading to Standards and Heritage Restoration of Montreal City Hall

The energy efficiency of new construction is increasingly valued and put at the forefront of building design. However, the built environment of cities is generally highly developed and the reconstruction of buildings is obviously not a solution. From a sustainable development and energy efficiency perspective, it is essential to consider the conversion of existing buildings of all types into efficient buildings. The objective of this project is therefore to determine the green and sustainable certification options available to date for existing buildings and to consider the application of WELL certification for health and well-being to a real project, namely the upgrading to standards and heritage restoration project for Montreal city hall.

Flavie Plourde-Mainville, Claudiane Ouellet-Plamondon
A New Look at Designing Electrical Construction Processes

Labor shortages in the United States and the increased demand for data centers necessitate more efficient processes in construction. This paper maps the existing cable pulling and termination process on data center construction sites and investigates opportunities of enhancing the process through automation. This study investigates the key tasks involved in the cable pulling and termination process and utilizes process mapping to present the current state-of-the-art. By conducting an extensive review of the existing body of knowledge, this paper identifies relevant activities that have been automated in other industries to propose a future cable pulling and termination process that utilizes automation for the construction industry. The findings of this study prove that the existing cable pulling and termination process has significant room for improvement and automation. This study effectively maps the existing cable pulling and termination practices on data center construction sites and investigates the potential of automating certain activities in the process. The results of this study are applicable to the electrical scope of work but are also relevant to other construction scopes of work.

MennatAllah Hammam, Parrish Kristen, Feghaly Jeffrey
Framework for Automation of Construction Progress Tracking on Indoor Environment, Using Autonomous Rover and Beacon-Based System

Construction progress tracking and monitoring is a complex process, crucial for the smooth execution of projects and delivery of a high-quality product to the client. However, these tasks remain primarily manual, time-consuming and error prone, and can lead to cost and time overruns. The objective of the present research is to develop a system based on Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) point clouds and Internet of Things (IoT) integrated with Building Information Modelling (BIM) to track the construction progress and to allow project managers to make informed decisions based upon reliable feedback. This paper has three parts: (1) the development of a new, more precise classification of the technologies and data used in the progress monitoring process, categorising them as support, data collection or data processing technologies; (2) the proposition of a framework for automated data collection and information treatment, offering a holistic solution for progress tracking and monitoring; (3) the presentation of a pilot-project partially implementing the proposed framework using BIM, SLAM, beacon technology and an automated rover in a real context. Several data acquisitions on construction sites were used to assess the capacity of the system for real-time reconstruction and progress tracking. This automized method is compared to the traditional manual capture of progress tracking. The results are discussed, and future work is identified.

Leo Marcy, Etienne Clement, Ivanka Iordanova, Daniel Forgues, David St-Onge
Parallelization Strategies for Hierarchical Density-Based Clustering Algorithm Using OpenMP for Scan-To-BIM Applications

Clustering is an unsupervised learning method that provides insights by investigating unknown structures in a dataset without exploiting any ground truth target information. For constructing an as-built Building Information Models (BIM) from captured laser-scanned datasets, the segmentation process precedes modeling, which provides a baseline to be traced for obtaining 3D models from point clouds. For the segmentation process, a clustering algorithm can be effectively applied so that it can group the points having similar features without predefined criteria which, in turn, segments can be easily separated from the entire scene. Amongst various types of clustering algorithms, Hierarchical Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (HDBSCAN) was developed as a density-based and hierarchical clustering algorithm which provides a simplified tree of significant clusters. This algorithm has several distinct advantages over other clustering algorithms: (1) avoids “flat” (i.e. non-hierarchical) labeling of data objects, (2) automatically simplifies the hierarchy into the most significant clusters, and (3) requires a single input parameter (i.e. minimum number of points) for density threshold. However, this algorithm has an overall computation time complexity represented as a quadratic form (i.e., $${\text{O}}\left( {dn^2 } \right)$$ O d n 2 ) which suffers from the computational efficiency issue especially for massive amounts of data such as those found in 3D point clouds. To ease the applicability of HDBSCAN to Scan-to-BIM applications, this research aims to parallelize major time-consuming components of HDBSCAN algorithm. OpenMP interface was adopted for thread parallelization and parallel efficiency was measured by calculating speedup and efficiency from strong and weak scaling results.

J. Ma, F. Leite
Comparative Analysis of Energy Harvesting Methods in Transportation

Energy harvesting from transportation infrastructures has garnered more attention over the past few years. Owning to the severe climate change and depletion of non-renewable resources, it has become pertinent to devise and implement sustainable energy harvesting methods. One of the most energy abundant yet least utilized areas to harvest energy are roads within the transportation infrastructure. There are three common energy forms that energy harvesting methods would rely upon. They are solar energy, thermal energy, and mechanical energy. The objective of this paper is to conduct a comparative analysis of energy harvesting methods of these three common energy forms within the transportation infrastructure. Each harvesting methodology is compared in terms of applicability, energy source, energy production, challenges, and future use. This study was performed through a review of literature and case studies relating to the respective energy harvesting methods. The research showed current applicability of solar energy harvesting within the transportation infrastructure provides the most benefits in terms of energy production, viability, and maintainability. Currently, research for solar energy harvesting, in general, has significantly outpaced that of thermal energy and mechanical energy harvesting. However, with more research and technological improvements, mechanical energy harvesting has the capability to become the largest energy harvesting method within the transportation infrastructure. This is because the transportation infrastructure is heavily influenced by mechanical loads from vehicles. Overall, more research and testing are needed to solidify these energy harvesting methods and to use them regularly as a renewable energy source within the transportation infrastructure.

Mohammed Arrafi, Ibukun Awolusi, Samer Dessouky, Tulio Sulbaran
Lessons Learned from UNLV’s Solar Decathlon 2017 Competition Experience—Design and Construction of a Modular House

Many modular projects experience accidents and problems in practice, as there are many unique issues and challenges compared to conventional “stick-built” structures. In 2017, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) team designed, constructed, and transported a sustainable housing prototype for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Solar Decathlon competition. The competition requires students to build an efficient and innovative building powered by renewable energy. The project experienced several problems associated with its unique modular design. This paper presents the results of a qualitative case study to identify difficulties and generate recommendations for future modular projects. The authors collected data from key project participants using a survey comprised of specific questions. Results showed that the most critical problem throughout the project’s execution was communication among project participants and the managing organization. The main technical issues identified during construction were associated with the adequate performance of the integrated trailer chassis hitches. During the competition phase, the critical problem was the time crunch experienced due to delays caused by the chassis difficulties. Key suggested recommendations for future projects are: (1) integrating a general contractor for project organization to keep everything running smoothly; and (2) consistent and frequent communication throughout the design phase among all design and construction teams. These findings provide valuable information for future student modular project teams for designing, constructing, and transporting modular housing.

Julian Prestia, Jin Ouk Choi, Seungtaek Lee, David James
Investigating the Impact of Trombe Wall on Building Energy Saving and Thermal Comfort—A Case Study

Trombe wall (TW) is a passive method utilized in designing buildings to achieve building sustainability through building energy consumption reduction. The present study investigates the effectiveness of TW as a method for improving thermal comfort and building energy savings in Shiraz, Iran, with a cold semi-arid climate, by using DesignBuilder thermal simulation software. Five cases were studied: Case 1 is a simple test room, Case 2 is a replica of case 1 but with a classical TW (CTW), Case 3 consist of Case 2 with an overhang shading, Case 4 is Case 2 with a shading roll, and Case 5 is the combination of Case 3 and 4. Thermal simulation results show that in Cases 2, 3, 4, and 5, heating energy demands are saved by 99.94%, 85.56%, 99.94%, 85.56%, respectively, compared to Case 1. These reductions in building heating loads emphasize the positive impact of TW design in cold seasons. Regarding the building cooling loads, in Cases 2–5, cooling energy demands changed +50.92%, +20.26%, +14.94%, −3.85%, comparing to Case 1. The changes in cooling load demands show the presence of overheating issues because of TW in the cooling season, besides it shows the effectiveness of the shadings in cooling load reduction in the cooling season. For thermal comfort calculations in cases with CTW, compared to Case 1, discomfort hours in Case 2–5 decreased by 0.02%, 0.15%, 0.25%, 0.32%. These reductions suggest that all the TW designs in this study improve the indoor thermal comfort of the test rooms.

M. Jalalpour, C. Nnaji
Using Wearables to Monitor and Mitigate Workers’ Fatigue

Construction workers are typically exposed to physically-demanding tasks for long periods, which considerably affects their well-being and productivity. To avoid productivity loss, work-rest interventions are critical to reduce strenuous physical exertion, interrupt the monotonous workloads, and reduce the risk of injuries and muscular disorders. As a result, there is a need to monitor cardiovascular stress and energy exertion that construction workers experience on a daily basis, and design a suitable work-rest schedule that is sufficient, yet does not delay the project. This paper, therefore, proposes a framework for an automated and near real-time data collection of workers’ physiological metrics such as heart rate and energy expenditure using wristband wearables. The paper then highlights the components of a framework that uses the collected data to design the work-rest schedule for on-site construction workers. The proposed framework facilitates efficient management of the work force, especially the unskilled laborers who are more exposed to excessive stress and site injuries.

Zinab Abuwarda, Tarek Hegazy, Arlene Oetomo, Plinio P. Morita
An Integrated AHP-TOPSIS Methodology for Selecting Suitable Project Delivery Method for Construction Projects

Selecting the appropriate Project Delivery Method (PDM) for a project can influence a project’s success significantly. No one PDM is the perfect option for all projects. The most suitable PDM should be chosen based on specific requirements, characteristics, and success factors of the project. Design-bid-build (DBB), Design-Build (DB), and construction management at risk (CMR) are typical PDM alternatives that owners can choose based on the specific needs of the project. PDM selection is a multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) problem that is affected by several factors. In this research, a three-phase model will be presented. First, a list of critical factors that affect PDM selection is developed. Second, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used to derive selection criteria weights based on the owner’s needs and preferences. Finally, having criteria weights, the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method is proposed for ranking PDM alternatives. The results provide decision makers with a systematic solution to overcome the challenges in selecting the most suitable PDM for their projects.

N. Soltanikarbaschi, A. Hammad
Innovation and Effectiveness Through Diversity

The case study includes diversity and inclusion in engineering, where lack of representation of visible minorities, indigenous peoples, and women in the construction and engineering industry limits organizational potential. Increasing those under-represented communities within an organization will benefit not only the individual, but all areas of operations within the organization. Civil Engineering’s purpose is to increase the sustainable quality of life for all members of society. Construction and engineering industry professionals must represent the full spectrum of society in order to benefit from the various perspectives and insights to design, develop and construct long term sustainable and ethical infrastructure. This case study will review the effectiveness of a multi gender, multiethnic and multilingual Construction and Engineering team as they overcome challenges faced in the Canadian Context. More specifically, the case study workforce includes visible minorities (29%), employees that have immigrated from outside of Canada (50%), and are bilingual—Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, French, Dinka, Filipino, Arabic, Italian (99.1%). The Manifold toolset used to achieve success include: Mentorship, Continuous improvement, Collaborative Software as a Service (SaaS) and Cloud computing. The case study illustrates increases in productivity through leveraging unique perspectives and innovative ideas, increased morale thanks to higher levels of employee engagement. The construction and engineering industry are evolving as practices are being replaced by fresh innovative ideas stimulated by increasing diversity, inclusiveness and belonging within an organization accelerates the drive for positive change within the industry by unlocking the complete suite of human potential.

Peter Calcetas, Brianna Murree
Life-Cycle Analysis for Upgrading Residential Buildings to Optimize Energy Consumption

Over 60% of the primary energy consumption in residential buildings is used for space heating where fossil fuels such as oil and gas are the main energy source to meet the demand. To maintain our natural resources and to minimize the building’s impact on the environment, energy efficiency of buildings should be maximized. The objective of the paper is to develop a life-cycle analysis for residential buildings to estimate the total costs for heating as a surrogate for total energy consumption. The building is modeled by its outer envelope that consists of various structural and non-structural elements such as walls, roof, doors, and windows. The total costs include manufacturing the elements, upgrading the building, and heating of the building over its service life. The heating costs are estimated based on a thermodynamic analysis on the material-specific properties of the building’s envelope causing energy loss. The dynamic analysis accounts for hourly temperature changes, and the long-term effect of climate change on the heating requirements is considered by using forecasts for future temperature profiles. By implementing the proposed life-cycle analysis into a spreadsheet tool, homeowners obtain recommendations specific to their home on whether upgrading to higher efficiency structural and non-structural elements is economically feasible. A numerical example is provided in the paper for a residential building in the Calgary area where local temperatures and costs are used. In summary, the proposed research helps our communities in Canada to move towards our goal of a sustainable future.

M. Sandhu, M. R. Dann
Essential Elements and Best Practices for Teaching a Culminating Capstone Course Online in Construction Management Programs

Most construction management programs required a capstone course to offer a culminating experience based on real-world projects and open-ended problems. The capstone course serves as a practicum for students before they enter professional careers in the construction industry. Although a significant variation existed in capstone courses from different programs, researchers concluded learning environments, fundamental features, important characteristics, required skillsets, and essential aspects of capstone courses in civil engineering, architectural engineering, and construction management programs. As capstone courses were typically taught in-person, little or no research focused on online environments. This paper aimed to identify essential elements and best practices for teaching a culminating capstone course online in construction management programs. The authors used a qualitative approach and conducted seven semi-structured interviews with instructors who taught a capstone course online at least once. Research participants were capstone course instructors from universities in Alabama, Kansas, Idaho, Michigan, New Jersey, and Texas. The authors identified top student learning outcomes based on qualitative results, two models for capstone courses, multiple essential elements, and best practices. The essential elements for course content were (1) using real-world, open-ended projects, (2) including plans, specifications, estimates, schedules, and site logistics, (3) incorporating safety, quality, risk, and financial performance, (4) performing collaborative teamwork, and (5) interacting with industrial mentors or faculty advisors. It was essential for students to be self-driven and proactive in their major team deliverables or small individual assignments. The essential elements for assessment and feedback were (1) assessing both technical and professional skills, (2) offering peer evaluations at the middle and end of the course, (3) evaluating oral presentations and written proposals, and (4) providing meaningful and timely feedback to students. Some best practices included but were not limited to (1) well-structured content with clear instruction, (2) maximum accessibility, approachability, and availability, and (3) consistent grading with rubrics and timely feedback. Additionally, the authors summarized unique strategies for online teaching.

H. Dang, W. Bender
Proceedings of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering Annual Conference 2021
herausgegeben von
Scott Walbridge
Mazdak Nik-Bakht
Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng
Manas Shome
M. Shahria Alam
Ashraf el Damatty
Gordon Lovegrove
Springer Nature Singapore
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