Skip to main content

2023 | Buch

Proceedings of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering Annual Conference 2021

CSCE21 Environmental Track

herausgegeben von: Scott Walbridge, Mazdak Nik-Bakht, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng, Manas Shome, M. Shahria Alam, Ashraf El Damatty, Gordon Lovegrove

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe: Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book comprises the proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering 2021. The contents of this volume focus on specialty conferences in construction, environmental, hydrotechnical, materials, structures, transportation engineering, etc. This volume will prove a valuable resource for those in academia and industry.


Detecting NAPL in Unsaturated Soil

Research was completed on ground penetrating radar (GPR) to determine the threshold level where non aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) could be detected in the unsaturated zone. Method development focussed on ideal antenna frequency and offset distance between the transmitter and the receiver. Synthetic GPR scans were analyzed to determine the two-way travel time (TWT) of the reflected waves, giving the dielectric constant of the soil mixture. The dielectric constant value allows determination of total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations (TPH) on a mass basis. Current GPR equipment gives a TPH threshold for TPH at 40,000 mg/kg for both silty loam and sandy loam soil. Due to attenuation of the GPR signal, TPH could not be detected in clay. These measurement thresholds are high when considering GPR for site investigations. Improvements in GPR equipment and data analysis are needed if GPR is to provide information on site contamination levels that approach typical regulatory cleanup levels.

R. G. Zytner, A. Dawrea, J. Donald
Odour Emission and Dispersion from a Cold Region Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3) are two important odourants that are regularly emitted from conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants. The main objective of this research was to determine H2S and NH3 emission rate estimates (EREs) from open-to-air treatment processes at the Saskatoon Wastewater Treatment Plant (SWTP), Saskatchewan, Canada. Laboratory-scale reactors were developed to assess H2S and NH3 EREs from possible emission sources including clarifiers, anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic basins. Experiments were conducted at 13 and 17 °C to simulate the operating temperatures at the SWTP which are impacted by highly variable seasonal temperatures in Saskatoon (from −40 to 30 °C). The EREs were used as the input for air dispersion modelling by AERMOD to evaluate the ambient air concentrations in downwind directions from the SWTP. Results indicate that the NH3 and H2S EREs in winter from the open-to-air emission sources were negligible. However, temperature rise led to higher activities for anaerobic processes in summer that increased H2S emission in primary clarifiers, anaerobic reactors, and anoxic reactors to average EREs of 1.17, 0.870, and 0.264 kgH2S/d, respectively. Atmospheric dispersion modelling by AERMOD showed that the maximum 24-h average ambient H2S concentration exceeded the limit of 5.0 µg/m3 set by Saskatchewan Ambient Air Quality Guideline in several episodes over the year.

M. Asadi, A. Motalebi Damuchali, K. N. McPhedran
Assessment of Agricultural Waste Products for Cost-Effective and Eco-Friendly Treatment of Arsenic Contaminated Waters

Arsenic (As) is an extremely toxic metalloid that is an abundant element in the environment and is introduced into water through both natural and anthropogenic activities. Sorption being considered as an economical and effective technique for removal of As from water. Saskatchewan is a province with a large agriculture industry that produces waste products that are readily available for use in other applications. Agricultural wastes are increasingly recognized as excellent sources for the creation of biosorbents (i.e., biological masses, ‘biomasses’ that can adsorb/absorb contaminants) that are able to treat waters and wastewaters contaminated. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of biosorbents derived from locally available agricultural wastes in Saskatchewan, including canola and wheat straw, in removing As from water. The results indicated that both canola straw (CS) and wheat straw (WS) biomasses are able to sorb As from water; however, sorption capacities were lower than those of the chemically modified biomasses reported in the literature. In general, CS showed higher sorption capacities at high pH values (7–10), while WS was more effective at lower pH values (4–5). Sorption kinetic studies indicated that the sorption rates were slow, thus the required time to reach sorption equilibrium is in the range of days, not hours. While using biosorbents derived from agricultural waste may be a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly method for the removal of As, and potentially other contaminants, adding a chemical treatment process of these materials is suggested to help increase their sorption rates and capacities.

Kh. Zoroufchi Benis, J. Soltan, K. N. McPhedran
Using the STP-EX Model for a Screening Level Assessment of Chemicals of Emerging Concern During the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Process

Chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) can potentially flow through Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants (MWTPs) into receiving water bodies leading to human exposures and negative ecological impacts. However, throughout the multiple sequential MWTP processes, these CECs may be subjected to various removal mechanisms, including volatilization, sorption, and degradation (mostly biodegradation, but also may include photodegradation). The determination and quantification of these removal mechanisms in situ for MWTPs is difficult/impossible; thus, MWTP environmental fate models have been recognized as useful tools for studying and predicting the fate and transport of CECs through MWTPs. These models use both MWTP plant parameters (e.g., flow rates, solids concentrations, tank volumes, etc.) and CEC physico-chemical parameters (e.g., solubility, molecular weight, etc.) to determine CEC mass balances and fates. The current study uses the STP-EX model for the determination of partitioning maps using ‘typical’ activated sludge-type, facultative lagoon, and aerated lagoon MWTP process parameters. The partitioning maps are presented based on the octanol–water (Log Kow) and air–water (Log Kaw) partition coefficients, which were varied incrementally from 1 to 9 and 2 to −9, respectively, creating a 9 × 12 grid ‘chemical space’ representing potential chemicals of interest. Using these partitioning based maps, biodegradation was then included in the model using ‘recalcitrant’ chemical biodegradation rates ranging from 100 to 25,000 h and ‘readily biodegradable’ chemical biodegradation rates ranging from 1 to 250 h. Generally, the impact of biodegradation was found to be highest for the activated sludge-type MWTPs (especially at low Log Kow values), while volatilization and sorption to solids dominated the facultative lagoon and aerated lagoon chemical fates with marginal impacts of biodegradation in low Log Kow value ranges. For further understanding of the partitioning maps, case studies were considered for five chemicals of interest (di-2-Ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), fluoranthene, toluene, cyclooctane, and dimethyl phthalate (DMP)) which are presented to discuss their fate and transport both with and without inclusion of either ‘recalcitrant’ or ‘readily biodegradable’ biodegradation rates.

S. Minaei, J. Soltan, R. Seth, K. N. McPhedran
Biofiltration Optimization Strategies—Operational and Water Quality Adjustments

Biological filtration in drinking water treatment removes natural organic matter with the help of microorganisms through biodegradation. This research highlights findings that examined various backwash strategies and changes to water pH on biofilter performance. Research was conducted at two locations for two different studies—City of Ottawa, Britannia Water Treatment Pilot Plant and at the Carleton University Environmental Engineering Pilot Scale Lab. The Carleton biofilters were operated at pH values of 6.0, 7.5, 9.0 and 10.0 to assess for changes in organic carbon removal, ammonia removal, as well as headloss development. At pH levels of 6.0–7.5 similar DOC removal efficiencies were observed at ~65%, while raising pH decreased organic carbon removals to a low of 30%. Ammonia removal was also monitored and increased as pH increased, with removals as follows 12%, 50%, ~90%, ~90% at pH 6.0, 7.5, 9.0, 10, respectively. Headloss did not appear to be correlated to changes in pH. The following backwash strategies were evaluated in order to elucidate impacts on biofilter performance: a water only wash, a water wash plus air-scour, and the addition of an extended terminal subfluidization wash (ETSW). Overall, backwash strategies that included ETSW demonstrated promising results with regards to filter ripening, as expected, with no adverse impact on DOC removal. Of note, headloss development was decreased through changes to backwash strategy. Overall, this research demonstrated that small changes to biofilter operation are possible to improve biofilter performance.

A. Piche, H. P. Hamidi, S. Cleary, O. D. Basu
Evaluation of Arsenic and Iron Transport from Sediments of a Potable Water Treatment Wastewater Pond System

High concentrations of metal(loid)s, such as arsenic (As) and iron (Fe), in wastewater streams are of environmental concern for drinking water treatment plants (DWTP), especially those which use groundwater as their source water. Metal(loid)s can be present in residual wastewaters, sludges, and sediments that make it necessary for them to be treated before release into receiving environments. The present study evaluated As and Fe sediment concentrations for wastewater treatment ponds of a municipal DWTP in Saskatchewan which used both surface and groundwater raw water sources until 2019. The residual wastewater stabilization pond (WSP) system consists of five ponds used for contaminant treatment and/or settling. The evaluation of metal(loid)s in these pond sediments is of importance due to the possibility of their leaching from sediments into groundwater and/or to be released back into the residual wastewater over time. In 2019, As and Fe, among other parameters, were monitored in sediments collected from each of the ponds on three occasions (July, August, and October). Results showed As and Fe in sediments ranged from 46.5 to 580 and 10,000 to 51,800 mg/kg, respectively. Both As and Fe concentrations varied among the ponds and over time. Further assessment of these ponds was completed in 2020 when a new DWTP was commissioned using the same pond system while including only groundwaters as a raw water source.

Ali Ekhlasi Nia, Harrison Bull, Ali Motalebi Damuchali, Kerry McPhedran
Conceptualizing a Stress-Tolerant Bioremediation Strategy for Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils in Cold Climates: A Preliminary Review

The stress-tolerance of sub-zero microbial activity in seasonally freezing and thawing petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC)-contaminated cold-climate soils, as well as associated soil physical and chemical factors for creating unfrozen microsites in cryosoils, have not yet been extensively understood. As soils freeze at in situ seasonal rates, soil microenvironments are subjected to multiple stresses—sub-zero temperatures, osmotic stress, and water scarcity. Microbial survivors in frozen soils are likely adapted to those multiple stresses. The dual tolerance to high salinity and low temperatures of hydrocarbon degraders has been reported in non-saline PHC-impacted soils from polar sites. Understanding how indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria abundant in freezing PHC-contaminated soils is vital for developing bioremediation strategies for cold-climate sites. We revealed that sub-zero biodegradation activity deviates from the current understanding of biological activity that is based on the bioavailability of hydrocarbons and soil bioremediation conditions, suggesting a new stress-tolerant bioremediation concept for seasonally freezing and thawing PHC-contaminated soils. This study reviews the recent advances in bioremediation knowledge and practices for PHC-contaminated soils in cold climates with a focus on seasonal freeze/thaw stresses. This study extracts information about fundamental underlying soil drivers in the purpose of conceptualizing a new stress-tolerant bioremediation strategy for PHC-contaminated soils in cold climates.

J. Kim, W. Chang
Soil Treatment Towards Stress-Tolerant Bioremediation Strategy for Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils in Cold Climates Using Zeolite as a Remediation Agent: A Preliminary Study

Petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in soil environments in cold climates has been a significant concern in Canada. However, the ground in cold regions remains frozen or partially frozen for many months of the year, and seasonal temperature cycles significantly affect field monitoring, management and remediation practices. Current remedial strategies and on-site activities, regardless of the type of remediation technology, have been considered effective only during short summers (e.g., 2–4 months per year) due to the colder climate, slower contaminant degradation rates, and limited accessibility to remote areas during the freezing months. Nonetheless, we have consistently observed the meaningful extension of hydrocarbon biodegradation activity in freezing and frozen contaminated soils. This study suggests that our soil treatment specialized for stress-tolerant biostimulation in seasonally freezing and thawing PHC-contaminated soils is effective at sub-zero temperatures. We used analcime zeolite, a natural clay mineral, to retain unfrozen liquid water, immobilize nutrients and hydrocarbons (substrate), and provide unfrozen water-insulated pores, surface areas and microsites in partially frozen and frozen PHC-contaminated soils. Amending PHC-contaminated soils with zeolite retains unfrozen liquid water and changes the soil freezing characteristic curve (SFCC) of the soils. We also showed the excellent compatibility of the Canadian analcime zeolite with amendments of conventional inorganic nutrients and carbon-based soil amendments for enhancing indigenous microbial populations in field-aged, PHC-contaminated soils at low temperatures (10 °C).

Tasnim Nayeema, Aslan Hwanhwi Lee, Darshdeep Singh, LuVerne Hogg, Wonjae Chang
Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Treatment Pond System for Removal of Concentrated Iron and Arsenic Produced from Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Wastewater

Drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) processes generate wastes in the form of residual wastewaters and sludges. The quality of the wastes generated is dependent on the characteristics of the source of raw water. Generally, groundwater contains higher metal(loid) concentrations than surface water due to its contact with rocks and minerals, whereas surface waters contain more organics. The use of raw groundwater may cause a magnification of metal(loid)s such as arsenic (As) and iron (Fe) in residual wastewater from WTPs, making disposal problematic. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of residual wastewaters prior to their release to the receptor water. This research evaluated the effectiveness of a Waste Stabilization Pond (WSP) system in treatment of As and Fe in residual wastewaters of a DWTP in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. The WSP system consists of a series of five ponds designed to settle out and oxidize contaminants. Iron and As concentrations across the individual ponds were measured on daily and monthly bases and the effectiveness of the pond system for reducing suspended and dissolved metal(loid)s was evaluated. The concentration of Fe reliably decreased for the first three ponds, before increasing in the final two Ponds. The As concentration generally increased from Ponds 1 through 3, decreased in Pond 4, and increased in Pond 5. Environmental guidelines for As concentrations are typically exceeded in the WSP effluents and individual ponds, while Fe concentrations currently meet guidelines for all ponds in the WSP system.

H. Bull, A. Ekhlasi Nia, K. McPhedran
Variable Rate Ion Exchange in Contaminant Transport

Ion exchange in solute transport has traditionally been estimated, using constant values. The exchange coefficient relating the exchange between an ion in solution and one on the soil or solid phase is treated like an equilibrium constant. Concentrations of ions in solution are corrected for ionic strength of the solution by applying activity coefficients and using the activity of the ion but there is no way to correct for the “surface phase activity”. Several have provided correction factors such a Vaneslow (1932), Krishnamoorthy and Overstreet (Soil Sci 69:41, 1950) and Gaines and Thomas (1953) to explain the distribution of ions in systems. This paper identifies a further addition to the Gaines-Thomas equation. It is additionally proposed that it is possible to determine exchange coefficients as functions of solution characteristics and variable retardation factors that are a function of the ion solution concentration. These strategies are an attempt to account for surface phase activity and the impact of multiple ions in solution.

Fonstad Terrance, Rinas Crystal
Integrated Framework for Identifying Energy-Use Behavior of Hotel Guests

There are about 47,000 hotels in the United States that spend an average of $2200 per room on energy annually, averaging $6 per hotel room per night. The average total energy cost per room represents approximately 6% of a hotel’s operating costs. Studies found that guests’ energy-related behavior is one of the main factors that affects energy consumption in hotel buildings. However, there has been little or no research study that provides practical and efficient energy-use reduction strategies based on guests’ energy-related behavior in hotel buildings. Existing research studies are either limited to offices and residential buildings or lack analysis showing occupant impact on hotel buildings’ energy consumption. To address this research gap, this study aims to develop an integrated energy-use framework in two steps: (1) identifying and synthesizing four energy-related behaviors models (i.e., Motivation-Opportunity-Ability, Norm Activation Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Pro-environmental Behavior) adopted from the field of social psychology; and (2) developing a set of hypotheses and their relevant measures to examine the relationship among the energy-related behavior models and hotel guests’ energy-use behavior. The findings of this study will provide decision-makers in hotels with a better understanding on how to measure their guests’ energy-related behavior; and accordingly develop effective strategies to reduce energy consumption in hotel buildings.

Palani Hevar, Karatas Aslihan
A 3D Bioventing Model to Estimate Closure Time

A 3-D mathematical bioventing model is being developed to better predict remediation efforts when applying bioventing. The model is being simulated using OpenFOAM®, an open source platform, based on C++. The bioventing process is described with multiphase multicomponent flow, that incorporates previously determined biodegradation reaction equations. The geometry of the system has been established and the corresponding mesh developed. The next step of the study will be incorporating additional phases and mass transfer equations to the system equations describing the bioventing process. Finally, the results of simulation will be validated using three sets of experimental data.

M. Khodabakhshi Soureshjani, R. G. Zytner, H. J. Eberl
Optimizing Waste Management Regions Spanning Inter-Provincial Boundaries

Canadians disposed of approximately 25 million tonnes of garbage in 2018. Regionalized waste management systems already exist in Canadian jurisdictions such as Alberta and Nova Scotia. Currently, the Government of Saskatchewan also intends to move towards a regionalized waste management system. A recursion algorithm is used to optimize waste management regions in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia applying methods proposed in earlier work; which is independent of current jurisdictional and administrative boundaries. Previous work on the subject showed that regions could be optimized when the standard deviation of number of landfills, populated places, and roads across all regions was minimized. The previous study questions the use of administrative boundaries in defining waste management regions, but fails to consider any interprovincial analysis. As a result, the objectives of this study are to: (i) apply the recursive Thiessen Polygon algorithm in an interprovincial comparison of Saskatchewan and Manitoba using Federal subdivisions as the input tessellation, and (ii) compare the results to see if optimization occurs across interprovincial boundaries. Results suggest that it is better to respect current provincial boundaries, rather than to encourage inter-provincial cooperation. Optimized standard deviations were lower in both respective provinces compared to considering both provinces for optimization at the same time. The results of this study may help to shed some light on the intricacies of interprovincial cooperation with respect to landfills and waste management in Canada.

A. Richter, K. T. W. Ng, N. Karimi
Stacking Different Spatial Statistics in a Novel Recursion Algorithm to Improve the Design of Waste Management Regions in Saskatchewan

Canadians disposed 25 million tonnes of waste in 2018. Some Canadian provinces have implemented regionalized waste management systems such as Alberta and Nova Scotia. In Saskatchewan, the idea of regionalization has been discussed since the 1990s, however, transition to regional systems has been difficult due to the autonomous nature of prairie communities. Currently, the Government of Saskatchewan intends to investigate and encourage regional collaboration among municipalities. Previous work on regionalized waste management systems introduced an algorithm capable of improving and optimizing regions for waste management in various jurisdictions. It was theorized that regions could be optimized when the number of landfills, populated places, and roads across regions was spread evenly; mathematically, regions were optimized when the standard deviation of these parameters was reduced across all regions. Successful application of the tool yielded reductions in the standard deviation these parameters by 4.9–46.1% in Saskatchewan. In more recent work, different spatial statistics such as central feature, mean center, and median center have been substituted into the proposed Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation (CVT) algorithm with varying success. The objectives of this study are to: (i) stack different spatial statistics (mean and median center) on top of the initial CVT algorithm and (ii) compare the results to those using only the CVT algorithm to determine if the stacking method proposed in this study can further improve the results of the CVT algorithm. The results from this study may help to further develop data driven regions for waste management in Saskatchewan and Canada.

A. Richter, K. T. W. Ng, N. Karimi
Temporal and Spatial Assessment of Landfill Gas Emission Near the City of Regina Landfill

Urbanization and rapid population growth have led to significant waste generation, which is estimated to be around 3.4 billion tonnes globally in the upcoming 3 decades. In North America, landfilling is still the major waste treatment method; despite numerous stringent environmental regulations and public education programs on waste recycling. Unsustainable disposal practices and poorly managed landfills may have adverse effects on our environment, particularly from the fugitive emissions of landfill gases and toxic pollutants. As such, identification of problematic waste disposal sites and their fugitive emissions are of practical interest. The objective of the current study is to use land surface temperature as a proxy method to detect potential fugitive emission spots and their displacements at the City of Regina landfill using satellite imagery. Literature suggests higher land surface temperatures in disposal sites originate from the decomposition of organics, producing fugitive emissions of methane gas. Land surface temperature at the study area is computed using a set of empirical equations. Using a relative scale, hot spots at the Regina site are identified. Since applied remote sensing imagery is publicly available, it is believed that proposed method is equally applicable to other geo-spatial analysis of waste sites. Preliminary results for study area suggest that fugitive emissions occur near northern and southern central regions of the landfill. The southern region is larger compared to the northern one. This might be because of higher deposited waste with a higher proportion of organic material and maturity of waste, since methane gas release mostly comes from anaerobic process which occurs after aerobic decomposition.

Nima Karimi, Amy Richter, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng
Environmental and Economic Assessment of Municipal Landfill Locations in Saskatchewan and Manitoba

Landfill disposal is commonly adopted in North America for solid waste treatment. On a per capita basis, Canadians produce a considerable amount of non-hazardous waste daily, with more waste generated in the Prairie Provinces. Adverse environmental impacts such as pollution of air, water and land associated with poorly managed landfills are well documented. As such, proper siting of municipal landfills facilities is important and helps reduce health and safety risks. Recently, discussion on landfill regionalization in Saskatchewan have been considered and discussed. Saskatchewan and Manitoba are neighboring Prairie Provinces and are generally comparable in terms environmental and economic conditions. The objectives of this study are to (i) examine the overall suitability of current disposal facilities locations in Saskatchewan and Manitoba using remote sensing imagery; and (ii) rank landfill locations using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Two sources of remote sensing imagery including Landsat-8 an NTL from the Defense Meteorological Program Operational Line-Scan System were used. Four parameters namely forest lands as protected areas, urban areas, water resources and land surface temperature used for this study. Final suitability map shows that central parts of provinces are less suitable than southern parts and that could be because of forest lands and water resources in province of Saskatchewan and Manitoba respectively. In addition, overall suitability for Manitoba is higher than Saskatchewan and that could be because of hidden intensified populated regions in Saskatchewan which in turn drop the overall suitability. This is the first study of a series of investigations aiming on the feasibility of inter-provincial landfill regionalization in Canada.

Karimi Nima, Richter Amy, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng
Utilization of Organic Wastes as a Bio-Resource: A Case Study of Corn Cobs in Nigeria

In Nigeria, about 42 million tonnes of solid waste is generated annually. Among them, organic waste accounts for 52% of the total. These organic wastes, when properly utilized, would significantly reduce the total waste generation in Nigeria. It would also reduce the potential environmental impacts such as air pollution and groundwater pollution. However, most of these organic wastes generated are disposed of improperly in poorly managed dumps. Open burning of organics has been widely practiced in most communities in Nigeria. However, the uncontrolled burning process generates air pollutants and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. The lack of technical know-how combined with the lack of compliance by the public contributes to the poor utilization of organic wastes as bio-resources in Nigeria. Proper monitoring and management mechanisms of organic wastes by the regulatory agencies are also required. Corns are popular crops in Nigeria and in 2019 Nigerians produced about 11 million tonnes of corn. Ultimate analysis of corn cobs suggests that the cobs contain 46.6% carbon, 45.5% oxygen, 5.9% hydrogen 0.5% nitrogen, and 1.4% ash on a dry mass basis. Compared to other agricultural wastes, corn cobs have a significantly lower ash content (<1.5%) which makes them suitable for residential heating applications. It also has an energy density of 365 kcal/100 g making it viable as feedstock for energy generation. The main objectives of this paper are to (i) identify the various means of proper utilization of corn cobs as a bio-resource in Nigeria, and (ii) discuss its benefits as well as the challenges with respect to the Nigerian bio-resource industry.

Osezele Stephen Anuge, Abhijeet Ghosh, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng
Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Site Waste Facilities in Saskatchewan—Phase 1

On average, Saskatchewan has the highest number of waste disposal grounds, with approximately 454.4 landfills per million people. Saskatchewan residents generate more non-hazardous solid waste than most other Canadian provinces and territories. One of the key strategic goals of the 2019 Saskatchewan Solid Waste Management Strategy (SWMS) is to regionalize the province and proceed towards having fewer larger landfills than numerous smaller landfills. To make this happen, transfer stations or facilities play a key role. GIS approaches have been successfully applied to site waste disposal sites and landfills, and the present work aims to utilize GIS to study the spatial distribution of landfills and transfer stations in Saskatchewan. Distribution of existing transfer facilities and the new stations being planned, in relation to the existing operational landfills will be the key focus. LTR (Landfill-to-Transfer Facility Ratio), which is operational landfill to active transfer facilities ratio is introduced, to examine the present spatial distribution ratio, which enables future planning in siting new transfer stations. The objectives of this study are to (i) investigate the distribution of operational and closed landfills and transfer stations in Saskatchewan, (ii) compute landfill-to-transfer facility ratio (LTR) to examine present spatial distribution relationship they share and, (iii) identify subdivisions where future transfer stations can be set up. This study is highly practical, and the results are valuable to local waste managers and policymakers.

Abhijeet Ghosh, Amy Richter, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng
Biomass and MSW to Energy Technology Options for Distributed Electricity Generation in Canada

Distributed electricity generation (DG) has received increased attention from researchers and experts in recent times. The economic and environmental benefits and advancement of small-scale power generation technologies are the main arguments for DG. Agricultural wastes (BM) and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) are viewed as major options for DG. Both BM and MSW are carbon neutral or negative sources, hence they provide an ideal contributing solution towards achieving Canada’s carbon zero goals. This study focuses on 2 different energy sources, BM and MSW. In the analysis, three primary conversion technologies are considered, Stoker Incineration (SI), Integrated Gasification (IG), and Anaerobic Digestion (AD). Four technologies to produce electricity are considered: Steam Turbine (ST), Combined Cycle (CC), Gas Turbine (GT), and Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). Based on the fuel source, primary conversion, and secondary conversion, eight combinations are analyzed. The energy potential is calculated for all 1009 population centers, separately. A techno-economic analysis is conducted to determine the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) for all technology options for different generation capacities. The results reveal, depending on the population center, the power generation potential varies significantly. The LCOE of DG with BM is in the range of about 15–30 ¢/kWh in all locations. The LCOE reduces with higher capacity indicating the economy of scale. IG + ICE options have the lowest LCOE compared to other thermal options. In the cases of DG with MSW, AD + ICE options have the lower LCOE. The LCOE of DG with MSW is generally higher than current retail prices.

E. M. Bartholameuz, G. Doluweera, I. D. Gates
Mass Recovery for BTEX Stripping from Organic and Sandy Soil Using Soil Vapor Extraction Process

The soil vapor extraction (SVE) process is a well-recognized method for removing BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) compounds from gasoline-contaminated sites. Though primarily used for large scale contaminated sites, recent concern has shifted towards smaller sites where its effectiveness is still in question. The understanding of mass recovery of BTEX compounds in a lab scale experiments can justify the use of the process in small, contaminated sites. In order to understand the BTEX extraction ability in sandy and organic soil, SVE process columns were replicated in the laboratory. Three air flow rates, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 L/h, were used for each of nine sets of experiments. These nine sets represented each BTEX compounds for sandy and organic soil and another with mixture of all for sandy soil only. The mass fraction removed for each experiment was determined from cumulative mass removed and estimated total mass added in the column. In sandy soil, at higher airflow rates, contaminant was removed at a faster rate and resulted in lower residual concentration. The organic soil columns showed higher removal fraction compared to sandy soil. Mass fraction recovery rate for benzene, toluene, xylene and ethylbenzene was 98%, 90%, 90% and 84%, respectively. More than 95% of BTEX contaminated mass fraction was removed within 24 h for sandy soil and within 20 h for organic soil. However, higher porosity and moisture content in organic soil caused a higher recovery rate compared to sandy soil.

R. Ray, G. C. Hilbers, N. Biswas
Diversion of Electron in Mixed Microbial Culture to Treat the High Sulfate and LCFA Contaminated Wastewater Treatment

Sulfate-rich wastewater effluents from the mining and mineral industries and long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) from the dairy industries are a major concern for contamination due to their toxic effects on microbial populations. Diversion of electron fluxes from glucose degradation and inhabitation of LCFAs in mixed anaerobic microbial communities is the remedy for these toxicity effects. Two cases were studied to get a better understanding of the pattern of electron flux in mixed microbial cultures. In the first case, electron flux was investigated in the presence of an inorganic terminal electron acceptor, sulfate, and in the second case, proton was a terminal electron acceptor in the absence of sulfate. In both cases, methanogenesis, a terminal metabolic stage in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter, was inhibited by LCFAs containing 18 carbons and the electron fluxes were subsequently redirected to the desired terminal product formation. In these studies, the LCFAs under consideration were LA, OA and SA. Diverting electron fluxes from glucose to SRBs (for sulfate reduction) were observed in LA and OA-fed cultures, although SA had no significant effect on sulfate elimination. This was due to the inhibitory effect of LA and OA on the methanogenic populations. In comparison to glucose plus sulfate controls, OA and LA selectively inhibited methanogens at all concentrations and caused a metabolic shift in the syntrophic electron consumption pathway. The highest degree of sulfate reduction in glucose receiving cultures with LA, OA and SA was found to be 92%, 72%, and 31% respectively.

Rajan Ray, Mamata Sharma, Nihar Biswas
Mitigating Fugitive Methane Emissions from Closed Landfills: A Pilot-Scale Field Study

Successful land reclamation during after-care depends on passive, low-maintenance solutions to manage fugitive methane (CH4) emissions. That is, those emissions not captured by gas collection systems at closed landfills. Passive methane oxidation biosystems (PMOBs) have been considered a technically sound and cost-effective treatment system for these fugitive CH4 emissions. Microbial oxidation of methane gas is achieved by methanotrophs, a group of mostly mesophilic obligate aerobes. Achieving year-round methane oxidation requires certain conditions for survival of these organisms. The objective of this study is to develop a design procedure for a PMOB capable of abating fugitive methane to acceptable levels year-round a pilot-scale PMOB developed at closed landfill in the Region of Waterloo, now a public park. The effectiveness of the design will be evaluated by monitoring methane emissions at different points in the PMOB. Successful completion of the project may provide a low-maintenance, high impact technology to abate landfill emissions that could be applied by landfill designers and operators across Canada. This paper presents some of the steps taken to design, install and monitor the PMOB.

B. R. Nelson, R. G. Zytner, Z. L. Kanmacher, A. Yochim, R. Vaillancourt, B. Boss, Y. Dulac, A. R. Cabral
Improved NASM Framework for Food Processing Wash-Water and Solid Residuals

Work is on-going gathering information on non-agriculture source materials (NASM) to identify any knowledge gaps and limitations of the current data base within Ontario. Currently, Category 2 NASM (waste and wash-water from processed fruits and vegetables) and Category 3 NASM (including dairies and abattoirs) have stringent requirements that need to be followed under Ontario Regulation 267/03. Processors are suggesting that the regulations are overly burdensome for smaller facilities considering land application due to the sampling and reporting requirements. Current NASM documentation and sampling requirements have agri-food processors retain NASM plan developers with annual fees up to $25,000 per year. For small to medium sized food processors, these costs can be restrictive and can limit the growth of the respective industries. Overall, this project looks to address the food industry and government concerns on cost effective disposal of NASM materials, while making suitable soil amendments more available. NASM information is being collected and reviewed from jurisdictions world-wide to compare against Ontario’s database for a comprehensive analysis on the management of wash-waters and solid residuals. Comparisons using GIS will be shown for visualization purposes, identifying potential improvements of Ontario’s regulatory framework, allowing the agri-food sector to grow economically while still protecting public interest. Additionally, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is being finalized on a representative agri-food processor to help highlight additional improvements that can be made to Ontario’s framework.

C. Dunlop, B. Abbassi, A. Costas, L. Dunnett, R. G. Zytner
Multifunctional PVDF Membrane Modified with Nanocomposites for Membrane Fouling Mitigation

Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane has been commonly used for wastewater treatment processes. However, they usually suffer from membrane fouling due to their hydrophobic property. In this study, a multifunctional PVDF microfiltration membrane was developed through ZnO–Ag nanocomposites to increase wastewater treatment efficiency. The developed membrane exhibited high surface hydrophilicity and organic/bio fouling resistance. Filtration experiments with secondary wastewater effluent as feed solution were carried out to evaluate the improvement of membrane performance in terms of permeate flux, pollutant rejection rate, and fouling resistance.

Xiujuan Chen, Gordon Huang, Chunjiang An, Yinghui Wu
Monitoring Microbial Quality of Source Waters Using Bayesian Belief Networks

Assessment of microbial quality of drinking water sources and recreational waters is highly dependent on measuring levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB). However, there are limitations to FIB as accurate indicators of the presence of pathogens of concern, such as Cryptosporidium, as well as in the time-delay in FIB measurement. The objective of this work was to improve microbial water quality assessments by using data-driven approaches to predict day-to-day FIB, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Cryptosporidium spp. concentrations based on simple water quality measures and weather data that can be monitored in real-time. To achieve this, we investigated the applicability of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs), an Artificial Intelligence-type algorithm that can provide probabilistic predictions using distinct data sources. Compared to other standard prediction methods, BBNs were observed to improve performance significantly and achieved greater than 75% accuracy for predicting FIB and E. coli concentrations. Following success in predicting FIB, predictability of Cryptosporidium, one of the major contributors to worldwide waterborne disease, was then investigated. One of the major challenges of modelling this parasite is dealing with a high number of non-detects and sparse data. Applicability of novel data augmentation and oversampling algorithms, such as the Adaptive Synthetic Sampling Algorithm (ADASYN), was investigated to improve the prediction model's performance. Leveraging the capability of the ADASYN significantly improved prediction performance of Cryptosporidium level presence, with 65% accuracy. The approach presented in this study can address the challenges of limited and time-delayed microbial water quality information and can be used to improve risk-based management and monitoring of water sources.

Atefeh Aliashrafi, Nicolas M. Peleato
Environmental Remediation of a Shallow Mesotrophic Lake Water Using On-Site Non-woven Geotextile Filtration Treatment

For remediation of eutrophic waters, which are often shallow and inland, such as lakes, several processes are applied. Present techniques include one or a combination of the following: contaminated sediment removal by dredging, chemical substances or inert element addition in the water column, and water aeration. These processes are often inadequate, invasive, and intricate, changing the natural biota. To respond to this concern and present an environmental, easily applicable, deployable, and operational method on-site non-woven geotextile filtration treatment has been proposed. The experiment was deployed throughout the summer until mid-fall of 2020, using the water from Lake Johanne, a shallow mesotrophic lake located in the Sainte-Anne-des-Lacs municipality in Quebec. Based on a tank located near the lakeshore with a floating geotextile filtration system in batch and continuous mode (i.e., of 2-, 1-, and 0.5-day retention time), lake water was filtered using non-woven geotextiles. The water parameters monitored during the experiment were total phosphorus (TP), nitrate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), particle size, and turbidity. The non-woven geotextile filters were effective for removing nutrients, organic matter, and suspended particles in the contained water and resulted in about 86% TSS removal and an average of 75% and 11% for TP and COD removal, respectively. All treated water was returned into the lake. The feasibility of treatment has been proven for the possible remediation of this shallow mesotrophic lake.

Antonio C. Pereira, Dileep Palakkeel Veetil, Catherine N. Mulligan, Sam Bhat
Artificial Intelligence-Based Prediction of Permeable Pavement Surface Infiltration Rates

Permeable pavements are a type of Low Impact Development technology that aim to reduce stormwater runoff at the source through infiltration and storage. Overtime, sediments carried by stormwater runoff degrade the performance of these pavements and can eventually completely diminish the infiltration capacity of the pavement system. Maintenance procedures have been developed for permeable pavements and it is becoming increasingly understood that these procedures are needed for sufficient long-term hydraulic performance. However, these procedures are expensive and are thus performed infrequently or not performed at all, leading to many permeable pavement systems that no longer perform at their designed infiltration capacity. The objective of this research is to develop data-driven models for modelling infiltration capacity and predicting clogging. Three types of data-driven numerical models, namely a linear regression, an artificial neural network, and a convolutional neural network were created to investigate the relationship between the images of the pavement surface and its associated surface infiltration rate. Preliminary results indicate that some image properties serve as good predictors of clogging, and thus, surface infiltration rates. Further testing and calibration of the models are required to validate the numerical models. These models can be used to estimate the surface infiltration rates of permeable concrete pavements, leading to more widespread maintenance and thus, ensure the designed performance level is maintained.

A. Malik, K. Abogadil, U. T. Khan, L. J. Butler
The Covid-19 Pandemic: An Exploration of Environmental Implications

The corona virus disease (COVID-19) was declared to be a public health emergency of international concern in January 2020 and the outbreak was declared a pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health organization. COVID-19 affects people differently, with some people remaining asymptomatic, some exhibiting mild symptoms and others developing severe complications. As of November 2020, more than 61,000,000 people have been identified to have contracted the infection and more than 1,440,000 associated deaths have been confirmed globally. Given the varied response of infected people and the ease with which the disease is spreading, many measures have been adopted world wide to minimize the spread of the disease. These steps include lockdowns, controlled operations in cities, travel bans and restrictions, work from home, ban on gatherings, the use of masks, social distancing practices, isolation and quarantine practices and frequent washing of hands. The measures adopted have triggered a plethora of environmental effects some positive and some negative. The purpose of this paper is to highlight various environmental impacts of the COVID -19 globally and to recognize critical environmental issues magnified by the outbreak.

Lynal Albert, Izaria Ferguson
Insights into Effects of Tillage and Residue Management on the Growth of Canola in Canadian Prairie-A Case Study in Saskatchewan

Canola plays an important role in the agricultural production in Canadian Prairie. An effective approach is required to improve the growth and yield of canola. Insights into effects of tillage and residue management on the growth of canola have been analyzed in this study through evaluating physicochemical features of canola plants under the interferences of tillage and residue treatment. Factorial analysis approach has been used to analyze these effects. Examination results indicate that the interaction of tillage and residue treatments exhibit different influences on the canola plants at different growing stages. Comparing with check treatment, both harrow and tilled post-harvest treatments resulted in higher canola yield.

J. Huang, G. Huang, X. Xin, C. An
Enriching the Decision-Aiding Process for Asset Management Programs for Climate Change Preparedness in Small Municipalities on the Prairies

The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) calls for local governments to be the drivers toward resilient communities with respect to climate change. Resilient municipalities must make decisions that incorporate climate change when it comes to the reinvestment into an aging infrastructure network. The challenge is that small municipalities may not have access to information or capacity to make informed decisions. Often expenses related to sophisticated engineering to determine the path forward drain the municipality in the funds required to act on their infrastructure. In generalizing infrastructure into groups and understanding the effects of climate conditions, an accessible application is available for municipalities to rank the sensitivity of their infrastructure to determine the starting point of building a resilient municipality. A general framework is presented to summarize this concept.

D. Lemieux, D. McMartin
Rapid and Cross-Source Detection of Naphthenic Acids and Phenol Using 3d Fluorescence Spectroscopy

There is increasing concern about the growing oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) produced from bitumen extraction. Naphthenic acids (NAs) are considered the primary toxic compound in OSPW, and other pollutants, like phenol, also contribute to the overall toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy to identify and quantify commercial naphthenic acids and phenol in natural surface waters. Fluorescence signals were quantified using the peak-picking approach, a simple supervised approach to interpreting the high-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs). An unsupervised dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis (PCA) was also investigated to account for overlapping and convoluted fluorescence signals of NAs and phenol from background natural organic matter. The PCA method could detect the contaminants with mean absolute error (MAE) <1.82 mg L−1 and 12.97 µg L−1 for NAs and phenol at concentrations between 0 and 50 mg L−1 and 0–100 µg L−1, respectively. Furthermore, a novel application of model transfer was investigated to transfer a site-specific fluorescence detection model to another water source. Only a few additional unlabeled fluorescence EEMs of the new water source were used to transfer the features of new surface water. Compared to the standard site-specific method used in detecting contaminants, the transferred detection models showed comparable predictability while significantly reducing the burden on sampling, calibration, and quantifying the contaminants in the samples. The results of this study show capability of fluorescence spectroscopy as a promising tool to monitor the contaminants of interest in different water sources. This work could help contaminant detection in surface waters more effective, easier, and less labour-intensive.

Ziyu Li, Nicolas M. Pelesato
Dynamic Multi-year Performance of Bioretention Mesocosms—Patterns of Change

Bioretention systems are stormwater practices that are gaining popularity in urban settings as they offer hydrological, water quality, ecological, and aesthetic benefits. This research project investigated the performance of twenty-four bioretention mesocosms with different media, vegetation, and hydrologic loading over the period of four growing seasons since establishment. A total of 72 simulated storm events of varying magnitudes were applied to each mesocosm, allowing comparisons to be made across several design parameters and time. The importance of media and hydrologic regime were apparent early in the investigation. However, events with significant media effects decreased fivefold over the timespan. Vegetation effects were also subject to change, as in the case of reactive phosphorus, where their significance increased from 0 to 100% over the years. Overall, changes over time were observed in volumetric retention of runoff, infiltration, and pollutant concentrations in the effluent. This underscores that the performance of bioretention systems is not static and changes over time. To incorporate natural processes into engineering practice, a better understanding and appreciation of change is needed.

A. Skorobogatov, X. Li, R. Nasrollahpour, J. He, A. Chu, C. Valeo, B. van Duin
How to Identify Cities on the Path Towards Real Sustainability?

Despite rising awareness concerning climate change, global anthropic impacts on the environment are forecasted to increase in the overcoming years, exceeding our planet’s ecological limits. The accelerating pace of climate degradation calls for a quick and efficient response from our societies, should we have a chance to limit the impacts of global warming. Being main nodes of over-consumption and pollution, thus having a high potential for footprint reduction, cities are crucial actors for climate mitigation. Hence, to successfully achieve a transition towards real sustainability, knowledge transfer needs to happen from the cities that are aiming towards life-respecting planetary boundaries to other urban regions worldwide. Although gaining momentum in the literature, a life respecting Earth’s Carrying Capacity (ECC) is not yet explicitly nor widely set as the ultimate goal for cities wanting to realistically face climate change. This article’s purpose is to reflect on the identification of cities actively aiming for ECC and point out the various obstacles to this goal. A misrepresentation of cities’ impact, both induced by misused sustainability terms and incomplete assessment methodology, is found to be hindering cities from reducing their footprint with the efforts needed to adequately face climate change. To that extent, it is crucial that ECC becomes a wider used target for cities, and that compliant assessment methods along with more holistic indicators are used to evaluate and monitor their progress. Finally, other technical issues regarding the incompleteness of standards, accessibility, and representativeness of qualitative data must be addressed.

M. Vigier, J. Moore, C. Ouellet-Plamondon
An Emission Model for Regional Biogenic Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds from Crops

Biogenic oxygenated volatile organic compounds (BOVOCs), including methanol (CH3OH), are mainly released from vegetation and soil microbes in terrestrial ecosystems. Cropland is an important emission source of methanol to the environment. Wheat, as one of the large-methanol-emitters among fast-growing crops in Canada, was selected for this study. There are still few studies on modelling regional BOVOC emissions from crops using empirical models. An emission model was updated to estimate the net methanol emission from wheat in Saskatchewan in this study. Overall, the mean methanol emission rates were 52 μg m−2 h−1. They have no obvious spatial variations but significantly changed among different months. These spatial and temporal differences are closely correlated with air temperature, solar radiation, and leaf development. This study seeks to evaluate methanol emissions during different wheat developmental stages. The results can be used to develop an appropriate strategy for regional emission management, such as crop selection considering the ratio of leaf biomass to VOC emission.

Mengfan Cai, Chunjiang An, Christophe Guy, Chen Lu, Qi Feng
Porous Media Classification Using Multivariate Statistical Methods

The Earth’s subsurface consists of porous media (i.e., rocks, soils) with vastly varied internal structures and properties. Characterizing the physical properties of porous media is an important activity for geologists, geotechnical, structural, environmental, and petroleum engineers. For instance, porous media's fluid flow properties are essential information for many natural and industrial processes such as groundwater movement, oil extraction, and geologic CO2 sequestration. While porous media characterization is a complex process that involves laborious lab experiments or computationally expensive computer simulations, classifying the type of the porous media (e.g., sandstone, carbonate) often provides a preliminary estimate of the physical properties of interest. Here, we apply principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS), and orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS) methods in conjunction with discriminant analysis to categorize porous media samples based on pore features extracted from micro-CT scans. We find that OPLS is the most efficient method by providing a more reduced form of data while having higher predictability to the porous media sample type when used with discriminant analysis. Specifically, OPLS reaches a classification accuracy of 97.17% on the testing datasets. It also provided a surrogate tool to study the key characteristics defining the porous media sample and to analyze the samples' homogeneity, which is one of the key characteristics that drive a porous media sample physical properties, including, but not limited to, its permeability of a fluid flow.

M. Elmorsy, W. El-Dakhakhni, B. Zhao
Prediction of Waste Disposal During Covid-19 Using System Dynamics Modeling

Sound and effective solid waste management practices are important to mitigate health risks and protect the surrounding environment. Proper Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management practices are especially important during the COVID pandemic. Since the beginning of the COVID pandemic different waste disposal and recycling behaviors are observed in Regina, the capital city of Saskatchewan. It is believed the changes of waste disposal rate at Regina landfill is related to the new hygienic guidelines, more opportunities for work from home, distinct consumer behaviors, and COVID related regulations and recommendations. Waste generation and recycling behaviors are complex and multi-dimensional. The objective of this study is to model waste disposal rate at the City of Regina landfill using a System Dynamics (SD) model. The proposed SD model will help us better manage the City of Regina’s human resources during the pandemic and estimate the demand of additional personal protective equipment required for the waste management workers. In the present work, a total of 7.5 years of waste disposal data is collected, consolidated, and verified. Socio-economical parameters such as GDPs and population at Regina were also collected during the study period from 2013 to 2020. The model is built using stock-flow diagram to illustrate the effects of various inter-related variables on the waste generation behaviors. Construction and demolition (C&D), Grit, Asphalt Shingles Only, Asphalt Shingles Mixed and Treated Biomedical wastes data are used in the SD model. Results show that waste generation has affected by the pandemic and there is a general increase in amount of waste generation. The modeling results are important because it helps us predict the amount of MSW during and after the pandemic.

Sanaalsadat Eslami, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng, Golam Kabir
Hydrogen Production in Incubated Anaerobic Mesophilic Mixed Culture by Oleic Acid (OA) for Different Periods

Compared to carbon-based fossil energy sources such as coal and oil, hydrogen is considered an important and promising alternative energy carrier because it can reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and it can also produce energy. Wastewater from dairies, food and vegetable oil processing industries contain large amount of Long Chain fatty Acids (LCFAs). Oleic acid (OA), a group of LCFA can be used incubated in anaerobic mesophilic mixed culture for hydrogen production. With OA, wastewater was treated, and hydrogen was produced through the fermentation of glucose using incubated cultures at 37 °C and pH 5.0 for varying periods. Inhibitory effect of OA and its β-oxidation by-products on hydrogenotrophic methanogens in all the OA incubated cultures were also examined. Hydrogen production from glucose fermentation was studied using mixed anaerobic cultures incubated to 2000 mg/L Oleic acid (OA) for varying periods (0 to 25 days in 5 days consecutive increments) at 37 °C under low pH conditions (pH 5). Accumulation and production of Hydrogen was observed for all cultures incubated with OA. Inhibitation of methanogenic activity was found for OA and OA β-oxidation by-products, palmitic, myristic and lauric acids. OA and lauric acid suppressed methanogenic behaviour to the same degree on the basis of hydrogen yields. The average hydrogen yield detected over the duration of the study was 2.12 ± 0.44 mol H2 per mole glucose while maximum yield of 2.44 ± 0.12 mol H2 mole−1 glucose was observed in cultures where OA was predominant.

Rajan Ray, Laura Cordova-Villegas, Mamata Sharma, Nihar Biswas
Data Analytics Applications for City Resilience Under Climate-Induced Hazards

Increased severity and frequency of climate-induced disasters (CID) is affecting the resilience of cities worldwide. Canadian insurers are facing natural disaster-induced claims of approximately $1 billion annually, whereas it was closer to $400 million in the previous decade. Moreover, annual national liabilities of the Disaster Financial Assistance Arrangements have increased from $100 million annually in late 1990s to $500 million in 2009–2010 and reached approximately $2 billion in 2013–2014. To maintain their basic functions, Canadian cities have to maximize the resilience of their critical infrastructure systems under CID. In their previous work, the authors proposed a framework that focused on historical power outage data to quantify city resilience. The framework showed that CID are the main cause of power outages in North America. Subsequently, the aim of this work is to assess previous CID in an attempt to enhance the resilience of the power system as one of the most critical infrastructure systems in Ontario. The first part of this work involves employing descriptive data analysis to derive meaningful information from a CID database. Following that, an unsupervised machine learning technique will be employed to assess CID probability in Ontario on the spatial level. Finally, the resilience of hydroelectric power generators across Ontario will be deliberated based on the spatial analysis performed. This work is considered a step in CID assessment and prediction, based on historical hazard data, global climate models, and climate change measures, in an attempt to maximize city resilience and mitigate CID-induced risks on cities.

M. Haggag, A. Siam, W. El-Dakhakhni, L. Hassini
The PIEVC Protocol for Assessing Public Infrastructure Vulnerability to Climate Change Impacts: National and International Application

The Public Infrastructure Engineering Vulnerability Committee (PIEVC) Protocol was developed by Engineers Canada in partnership with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), between 2005 and 2012. The PIEVC Protocol is a structured, rigorous qualitative process to assess the risks and vulnerabilities of individual infrastructures or infrastructure systems to current and future extreme weather events and climatic changes. It has been used to assess various types and scales of infrastructure in Canada as well as Costa Rica, Honduras, Brazil, Vietnam and the Nile Basin. More than 100 assessments have been completed and others are underway. An important component of the PIEVC Program is the “Project Assessment Report” that presents the results of the application of the PIEVC Protocol, including conclusions and recommendations for climate adaptation actions to improve climate resilience. The types of recommendations include not only engineering-related to design, operations and maintenance, but also extend to health and safety, policy, procedural and management actions including more in depth study and analysis of particular risks or engineering vulnerabilities.

D. Sandink, D. Lapp
Prediction of C&D, Grit, Asphalt and Treated Biomedical Wastes During COVID-19 Using Grey Model

Waste management has been recognized as a real issue in the current situation due to the COVID-19 impact on people’s lifestyles. Therefore, serious actions need to be taken to control and manage this impact on the environment. One of these important environmental programs is the investigation and research of generated wastes during the pandemic. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the types and amounts of waste generation have changed, therefore a way forward to reduce this impact is to investigate the data that coming from landfill to devise an appropriate approach. The goal of this study is to predict the amount of construction and demolition (C&D), Grit, Asphalt waste, and Treated Biomedical waste (TBW) before, during, and after pandemic using grey systems theory. The grey model is a relatively new forecasting method that has been employed for prediction in a small amount of data and is also used for uncertain systems. In this study, the data coming from Regina landfill is used to predict the amount of wastes generated during the pandemic using the grey model. The results will be compared with the existing regression-based waste model. Different measures like mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE) will be used to compare and evaluate the performance of these models. Finally, the best forecasting model will be chosen to predict the amount of waste generation for the future generation.

Sanaalsadat Eslami, Golam Kabir, Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng
Characteristics of Excavated Waste from a 14-Year-Old Landfill Bioreactor: Calgary Biocell Case Study

In this paper, preliminary results from a characterization study of excavated waste samples from the Calgary BioCell is presented. The Calgary BioCell has operated as a landfill bioreactor for 14 years with leachate recirculation and recovery of landfill gas. Although it produced about 150 m3/h of landfill gas in early stages, currently minimal gas is being produced indicating the waste is fully stabilised and ready for mining. During a borehole drilling program undertaken in summer 2020, a total of 18 waste samples were obtained from three locations. The waste characterization results show that the level of waste degradation increased significantly as the depth increases. The waste samples from the near-surface layers appear to be almost fresh whereas the samples from the bottom layers are mostly made of unidentifiable fine material which are completely degraded. Moisture content, ranging from 40 to 68%, increased with depth of the waste cell highlighting the effectiveness of the leachate recirculation system and confirming that intermediate cover layers were not hindering moisture migration. The results were used to further investigate the level of degradation at different locations and depths and to determine the most feasible end use for the excavated material. The preliminary results show that the Calgary BioCell operating as a bioreactor landfill with leachate recirculation system in place degraded the waste at a much faster pace compared to conventional landfills and the excavated material exhibit properties compatible with fully degraded waste that could be used in a productive manner.

H. Jalilzadeh, J. P. A. Hettiaratchi, P. A. Jayasinghe, T. Abedi Yarandy, Z. Tan
Identification and Mitigation of By-Products Formed During an Advance Oxidation of Emerging Contaminants: Example of Pharmaceutical Sulfamethoxazole

A variety of adverse effects on environment and public health have been linked to the presence of emerging contaminants (ECs) in surface waters. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is one of the ECs that traces (in ppb to ppt) have been found in surface water due to its persistence in environment and its insufficient removal at the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), such as UV/H2O2 system, have been recognized as an effective technology to remove recalcitrant ECs. However, there have been very few studies, which followed the formation of AOP by-products and there is still much uncertainty over AOP by-products’ identification. In current study, the SMX removal by UV/H2O2 AOP was investigated including identification, controlling and mitigation of SMX by-products. The results showed 99.99% removal of SMX in deionized (DI) water within 30 min. Major SMX by-products, identified by LC-MS-MS analysis, revealed longer lifetime and higher stability than SMX parent ion removed from the water matrix. The influence of technological parameters (oxidant’s dose, exposure time, pH and aeration rate) on the SMX removal and mitigation of BPs were imminent, in which the maximum SMX removal was achieved, while BPs were controlled and minimized in optimal conditions.

S. Fazeli, M. Elektorowicz
Development of Microfluidic Photocatalytic Oxidation System for Drinking Water Treatment

A novel microfluidic photocatalytic oxidation system was developed to remove natural organic matter (e.g., humic acids) and control the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water after chlorination. The effeciency of microfluidic photocatalytic oxidation of humic acids (HA) was evaluated at different flow rates and initial pH. The formation of disinfection byproducts of treated samples after a 24 chlorination was quantified by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. A conventional photocatalytic oxidation test was performed in a 250 ml bottle for comparison. The results showed that the microreactor has a higher efficiency on HA removal and a better control the DBP formation potential (DBPfp). The removal rate of HA in microreactor was reached to 45% in 2.3 min at pH of 5. The haloacetic acid formation potential in the bottle test was raised after treatment, whereas a reduction of 56.1% was achieved in the microfluidic device. Therefore, this quick treatment process has showed strong benefit for drinking water treatment.

B. Liu, B. Chen, G. H. Dong, F. Wu, B. Y. Zhang
Parameter Analysis in Simulating Transport of Metformin in a Sandy Medium

An anti-diabetic drug and personal care product emerging pollutant, metformin, is being reported for its ubiquitous presence in different environmental compartments. Meanwhile, there is a high possibility for metformin travelling into soil and groundwater compartments during groundwater recharging. In order to investigate the transport process of metformin in the sandy vadose zone, static batch tests and sand column experiments were conducted, and an inverse method embedded in HYDRUS-1D was applied to identify essential transport parameters of metformin while supporting future environmental management practice. According to the static experiment, the Freundlich isotherm can describe metformin's adsorption in the medium. The two-site nonequilibrium model is suitable to describe the adsorption of metformin in the investigated sandy columns. The type-1 sorption fraction values (f) in all three sandy columns are 0.505, 0.355 and 0.236, respectively, indicating type-2 nonequilibrium adsorption is the primary metformin adsorption process in the sandy medium. In this case, when transporting in such a medium with a relatively higher adsorption intensity, metformin's long-range transport potential is likely to be weakened, which might lead to local environmental impact.

Q. Kang, A. Datta, B. Chen
Biomethane Recovery from Brewer’s Yeast Using Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion

The brewing industry is an important global industry that generates significant amounts of primarily three by-products that include residual brewer’s yeast (RBY). Managing these by-products is usually cumbersome for the brewing industry. RBY is currently mostly either sold as low-cost high nutritional value food additives or wasted. With rising energy costs and improved process economics of anaerobic digestion processes, bioenergy recovery from such organic-rich wastes is emerging as an attractive option. Various pre-treatments of organic wastes before anaerobic digestion are also showing promise in further improving the cost economics of biomethane recovery. One such process is Greenfield Global’s High-Rate Hydrolysis/Acidification (HRHA) Process. In the current study, RBY from a Canadian brewing industry is subject to a pilot HRHA system for pre-hydrolysis/acidification. The effluent from the process is being evaluated for its biomethane potential and improvements due to pre-hydrolysis/acidification, using a batch system. RBY can be a good substrate for bioenergy recovery as biomethane. Biomethane recovery from RBY can be enhanced with pre-treatment using the High-Rate Hydrolysis/Acidification process.

A. Jariwala, A. ElGhanam, S. Singh, D. Lee, H. Yeo, R. Seth, H. Hafez, N. Biswas
A Study on the Control of Indoor Temperature in Typical Canadian Homes

In a typical Canadian home, the indoor thermal environment at each room cannot be regulated according to its unique occupancy schedule due to the lack of ability to control the heating/cooling capacity delivered into the room. This study aims to investigate how this issue may be corrected by modifying the HVAC system. An experimental case study was conducted in a typical Canadian home to evaluate the performance of an HVAC system controlled by a single setpoint thermostat in controlling the thermal environment of the house. We investigated the performance of three thermal zoning models: the single-zone system typically implemented in Canadian homes, floor-level zoning, and room-level zoning. Their performance was evaluated through simulation to determine the most effective system in maintaining thermal comfort. In both the experimental case study and the theoretical investigation, the current HVAC system used in typical Canadian homes was found ineffective at maintaining thermal comfort. In addition, the alternative system models were both found to be significantly more effective at maintaining thermal comfort—the floor-level zoning model maintained a temperature within a desired range of ±1 °C of the scheduled temperature at least 70.7% of the time for the setpoint rooms and 55.8% of the time for all the other rooms, while the room-level zoning model maintained a temperature within said desired range 81.3% of the time for all rooms, compared to just 43.2% of the time for the single-zone model.

E. Shen, C. Liao, D. Yang
Covid-19 Monitoring Using Wastewater-Based Epidemiology: The Promise and Peril of Seeking Useable Data in a Pandemic

We evaluated sampling design in wastewater-based epidemiology to monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA signal, with a focus on sampling site selection. Sampling in wastewater collection systems ranged from locations that were highly granular (i.e., individual buildings) to large wastewater treatment plants with city-scale catchments. Potential data uses and major considerations for each sampling method are discussed. Our study demonstrates sampling at varying degrees of granularity to be viable tools for pandemic response, with both sampling location and data applicability varying significantly based on location type sampled. Wastewater treatment plant data allows for population level trending that provides an early warning sign of increased disease burden community wide. Sampling at individual buildings can facilitate a direct public health response through follow-up patient testing and/or providing early warning to allow an employer to respond to an outbreak at a warehouse or work camp. Sampling within the wastewater collection system presents a novel epidemiologic tool that could allow for early warning of neighbourhood outbreaks to inform local pandemic response(s) and enable case-finding.

J. Hollman, N. Acosta, M. Bautista, J. McCalder, L. Man, A. Buchner Beaudet, B. Waddell, J. Chen, D. Kuzma, R. G. Clark, N. Ruecker, K. Frankowski, C. Hubert, M. Parkins, M. C. Ryan, G. Achari
Utilization of Recycled Plastic in the Construction Industry

Municipal Solid waste (MSW) has become a very important topic Worldwide. Landfills cannot accommodate the amount of wastes that are coming every day from human beings. On the other side, recycling is giving a push, in order to minimize the amount of waste getting to landfills and increase the recycled/utilized quantities. Solid wastes consist of organic and in organic wastes, such as wood, glass, metal, paper and plastic. Plastic wastes are a strong potential that should maximize its benefits and the amount of recycled plastics in different industries. As plastic wastes take over 10% from landfills worldwide without sorting all the plastic types that can be recycled and utilized in various recycling platforms. There are wide platforms for plastic types, which can sort the utilization area of each type. The construction industry, which will be the main focus in this research, consumes around 40 million tons per year. while, the packaging industry is the most consuming sector World Wide reached to 141 million tons’ consumption per year. The collaboration between these two industries can achieve a great success in sustainability. The use of plastic waste as a transition material in concrete mix design, in producing pavement tiles or blocks are knocking the doors in some countries with positive environmental impacts (Richie and Hannah 2015).

Sakr Nancy, Abouzeid Mohamed
Proceedings of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineering Annual Conference 2021
herausgegeben von
Scott Walbridge
Mazdak Nik-Bakht
Kelvin Tsun Wai Ng
Manas Shome
M. Shahria Alam
Ashraf El Damatty
Gordon Lovegrove
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN