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2022 | Buch

Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of Transportation Research Group of India

5th CTRG Volume 1

herausgegeben von: Ph.D. Dharamveer Singh, Prof. Lelitha Vanajakshi, Ashish Verma, Animesh Das

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe: Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This book (in three volumes) comprises the proceedings of the Fifth Conference of Transportation Research Group of India (CTRG2019) focusing on emerging opportunities and challenges in the field of transportation of people and freight. The contents of the book include characterization of conventional and innovative pavement materials, operational effects of road geometry, user impact of multimodal transport projects, spatial analysis of travel patterns, socio-economic impacts of transport projects, analysis of transportation policy and planning for safety and security, technology-enabled models of mobility services, etc. This book will be beneficial to researchers, educators, practitioners and policymakers alike.


Experimental Studies on Bio-bitumen Produced Using Charcoal from Coconut Shell Waste

Rutting and fatigue cracking are the two main distresses in flexible pavement which affect the serviceability and durability of the pavement. Although bitumen is only 5–6% by weight of mixture, it has 40% effect on the performance during service life. With the increase in percentage of overloaded commercial vehicles, premature rutting in the bituminous mixtures has been observed very often on pavements. In order to stiffen the bitumen, several methodologies have been adopted in the past, and still research is being carried out in various other aspects to produce bitumen with superior permanent deformation resistance. On the other hand, tropical countries such as Indonesia, India, Philippines, and Srilanka being one of the largest producers of coconut in the world also produce burnt coconut shell (CS) waste, which creates environmental concern regarding disposal due to large percentage of carbon. In this study, charcoal powder from the CS waste was used to modify VG30 bitumen at 1, 2, 3, and 4% (by wt. of bitumen), and investigate its permanent deformation characteristics. The basic properties of bitumen such as penetration value, softening point, and penetration index were determined to understand the consistency of the bitumen. Further, dynamic shear rheometer was used to determine complex modulus and phase angle. The permanent deformation resistance of bitumen was studied using multiple stress creep-recovery (MSCR) test to quantify creep compliance, %recovery, and stress sensitivity. The results indicated that at 2% addition, desired bitumen properties were maximized and control binder was rendered less stress sensitive after modification.

Nishant Garg, Tanuj Chopra, Anush K. Chandrappa
Planning for Demand Responsive Bus Service for Limited Area Using Simulation

This research aimed at evaluating the potential benefits of Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) for bus service over conventionally fixed-route bus service operated over a small area. This study develops a hypothetical model for building a future scenario, by travel demand estimation and assigning demand to dynamic bus routes at diverse time window settings between pickup and drop off locations, by extrapolating the collected samples. The working model of Demand Responsive Transport is developed on geo-simulation techniques using agent-based modeling software MATSim (Multi-agent transport simulation). The DRT efficiency measurement indicators used are vehicle utilization, passengers per bus, average passenger travel time, waiting time, in-vehicle time, rejection rate, operating cost and passenger cost. Thus, this analytical study, generates a simulation model for transport operators to select between existing fixed-route services and flexible route services for feeder buses. The results interpret, a significant reduction in passenger travel time and operating cost for mini buses.

Sharmeela Kale, Premjeet Das Gupta
A Heuristic Method of Prioritizing Flexible Pavement Sections

The present paper discusses a methodology for arriving at a suitable strategy using the data on pavement distress, traffic volume, and structural performance for prioritizing the maintenance requirement of flexible pavements. A 165 km long road network was selected and was divided into homogeneous sections, and control sections were demarcated for detailed pavement surveys, deflection studies, and analysis. An index coined as Pavement Priority Index (PPI) was determined for each of the sections and was coupled with the rating as per IRC 82-2015. Prioritization for pavement maintenance is decided based on Pavement Priority Index (PPI) and Weighted Rating Value (WRV). Road sections with high PPI value and low WRV have been given higher priority for maintenance work, and appropriate maintenance strategy was selected as per code provisions. The PPI methodology can be used for prioritizing flexible pavements, as it considers both the structural and functional performance characteristics of the pavement.

V. S. Sanjay Kumar, Abin Joseph
Effect of Compaction Levels on Moisture Susceptibility in Asphalt Mix

The sensitivity to moisture in asphalt pavements is a significant problem. The moisture-related problems are due to two main reasons—adhesive failure, which refers to stripping of asphalt film from aggregate surface, and cohesion failure, which refers to the loss of mixture stiffness. Other factors are responsible for moisture damage in asphalt such as construction technique, mix design, drainage, and weather conditions. This study investigates moisture damage of hot mix asphalt mixture as a function of compaction levels. In the laboratory, the moisture sensitivity of the mixture was studied, such as volumetric characteristics, stability, and indirect tensile strength (control and conditioned). Samples were fabricated in the laboratory with the asphalt grade VG30 with varying compaction levels such as 75, 60, 50, and 40 blows per face. The performance of mix concerning volumetric properties, tensile strength, and its ratio was obtained and analyzed. The investigation showed that the compaction levels significantly influenced stability and tensile strength of asphalt mix. The performance of the mix also reduced at various compaction levels.

A. Jegan Bharath Kumar, Anoop. T. Vijayan
Rutting Characterisation of EVA Modified Bitumen for High Modulus Asphalt Mixes (HiMA)

The present study focuses on the rutting performance evaluation of the hard grade bitumen and other high performing polymer modified binders for use in high modulus asphalt mixes. The polymer modified binders were produced through modification of VG-40 bitumen using different combinations of EVA-18 and EVA-28 polymers. Temperature and frequency oscillation and MSCR tests were conducted on the binders to study the rheological and rutting characteristics and mix rut depth measured in wheel tracker. Since the increase in the proportion of EVA-18 from 1 to 2%, decreased the ductility significantly, a combination of EVA-18 and EVA-28 was considered to improve the elastic nature of the modified binder. The Jnr and percent recovery of V4E12 and V4E13 binders and the mix rut depths suggest better rut resistance of these binders. The present study indicates that V4E12 and V4E13 are suitable for producing high modulus mixes with higher rutting resistance.

B. Anil Kumar, Gautam Gaurav, Kranthi Kuna, M. Amaranatha Reddy, K. Sudhakar Reddy
A Review on the Use of Alternative Materials as a Sustainable Approach in the Manufacture of Concrete Paver Blocks

Rapid urbanization and industrialization worldwide have been the ticking concern of the hour since it has led to a scarcity of conventional construction materials. The paving industry is posed with a challenge to strive for innovations in road construction being engrossed with the escalating awareness of sustainability and shortfall of natural resources. The humongous demand for energy efficient construction materials can only be met through the implementation of cost-effective environmentally appropriate technologies incorporating locally available alternative materials. Wastes from the industrial sector together with the construction and demolition wastes are another serious issue of concern in developing countries in lieu of its environmental impact and disposal problems posing stringent environmental laws. Recycling these wastes by incorporating in a versatile and indispensable construction material like concrete can serve as an attractive option for the road sector striking a chord of the economy both in terms of material acquisition and disposal costs. The backdrop of the present study lies in the use of different industrial waste and by-products as an alternative to the components of concrete in the production of paver blocks. Replacing the components of concrete like cement and aggregates with these alternative materials will help in saving energy and reducing the carbon footprints across the globe. Comparative analysis of the different alternative materials used by researchers in the paver block manufacturing has been presented in the current study.

Sumit Nandi, G. D. R. N. Ransinchung
Activity-Based Model: Requisite for a New Travel Demand Forecasting Approach for India

Urban travel demand prediction accuracy and testing of sensitivity of policies ranging from infrastructure provision to travel behavior modification are essential for emerging economies like India which is characterized by its heterogeneity of population, multiple modes and their varying supply and demand, mixed land use environment, and varying traffic flow conditions. Traditional four-stage travel demand models are unable to account for this heterogeneity due to its theoretical and applied limitations. Activity-based models (ABMs) are recommended to overcome these limitations. However, their applications to developing countries are limited due to difficulties in data collection and computational challenges. We attempt to establish the need and way around for the formulation of an integrated land use-transportation modeling framework based on the ABM approach through an intense conjectural study on existing models used in India and different ABMs developed across the globe. Finally, a comprehensive land use-transportation modeling framework including different sub-models is suggested for the Indian context.

Suchismita Nayak, Debapratim Pandit
Analysis of Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) Data of a Flexible Pavement Using Two Different Programs

There is a requirement for structural evaluation of roads, i.e., identifying the existing structural condition of each and every layer of pavement as well as analyzing the overall pavement strength. Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is gaining popularity because of its ease of use and representation of dynamic loading of vehicles. As the use of the FWD is increasing, the number of techniques adopted for the back-calculation of the pavement layer’s properties is also increasing. The use of these back-calculation programs without careful analysis may result in unlikely outcomes. The objective of this study is to summarize the literature available on the evaluation of different software for analyzing FWD data throughout the world. This study discusses the process followed by various researchers for selecting various software, developing back-calculation procedure, and outcomes of the software evaluations. Two programs were used in this study for the evaluation of back-calculated moduli.

Shubham Mishra, Rakesh Kumar Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar, Tanuj Chopra
Understanding the Preferences and Attitudes of App-Based Taxi Users Toward Existing Modes

To generate knowledge in the area of app-based taxi travel, the present study examines the user profile, travel patterns, and alternative mode preferences of app-based taxi riders in the city of New Delhi, India. Information related to sociodemographic characteristics, trip and mode share characteristics, attitudes, and perceptions of app-based taxi riders were gathered using primary data collected through an intercept survey. A mixed multinomial logit model (MMNL) is used to model the preference of alternative modes for a past trip if an app-based taxi was unavailable. It was found in the study that older people are less likely to use the metro or personal car in the absence of an app-based taxi. Further, males tend to choose auto-rickshaws and public buses as compared to females. Individuals, who value reliability, safety, and punctuality of a mode, are most likely to choose a personal car followed by a public bus and auto-rickshaw.

Punyabeet Sarangi, M. Manoj, Geetam Tiwari
Estimation of Trip Generation Rates for Different Landuses for an Indian City

The study aims to establish standard trip rates for different landuse types in the Indian context. Bengaluru city is used as the case study. The trip rates are estimated for commercial, residential, and retail landuse types using daily trips for cases similar to the landuse categories. Trip rates are estimated for trips attracted to and produced to landuse types during morning and evening peak hour. Special Economic Zone (SEZ) has a higher trip attraction rate as compared to non-SEZ. Retail has a higher trip rate during the evening as compared to the morning hour on a weekday. Residential zone has co-joined trips during morning peak hour. Hence, it has a lower morning trip generation rate as compared to evening trip attraction rate. Trip generation rates can be used for traffic assessment studies in the Indian context where the focus is on the impact of traffic generated/produced by the study area.

Ashish Verma, Shubhayan Ukil
Economic and Environmental Analysis of Adaptation Strategies to Mitigate Impact of Climate Change on Pavements

The earth’s climate is continuously changing due to anthropogenic activities. The predicted change in climate parameters adversely affects the service life of roadways. The paper focuses on evaluating economic benefits to highway agencies and users if adaptive measures are taken to mitigate the impact of climate change. For this study, a location within Texas was selected to cover the variability of climate within the state. Pavement sections were selected based on the variability of location, traffic, and level of service, and these sections are analyzed under variable future climatic conditions. The analysis of pavement sections was performed using AASHTO Pavement ME Design software. Adaptation strategies were implemented to sustain the serviceability of roadways. The effects of these strategies on the performance of pavements were analyzed along with changes in total life cycle cost (LCC) and environmental (emissions) benefits of roads. Additional costs and emissions incurred were derived by comparing the LCC under present climate and projected future climate scenarios. The combined analysis indicates that considering future weather changes early into design reduces emissions as well as costs incurred by the users.

Megha Sharma, Sundeep Inti, Vivek Tandon
Performance Analysis of Black Cotton Soil Treated with Dimensional Limestone (Kota Stone) Slurry Waste

In the present study, slurry waste generated during polishing activity of dimensional limestone was used to improve geotechnical properties of black cotton soil. The slurry was added as percentage weight replacement of soil starting from 2.5% and adding till further slurry addition did not contribute to enhance the soil properties. The test result showed that using slurry as additive improved the workability, load bearing capacity, mechanical and durability properties of soil. Swelling behavior of soil measured using free swell index was found to reduce compared to neat soil sample. Based on this laboratory study, it was established that using dimensional limestone slurry waste as additives improves the properties of black cotton soil, making it fit to be used as subgrade in flexible pavement, and provides a sustainable solution for disposal of slurry waste generated during poising activities.

Pradeep Kumar Gautam, Pravesh Saini, Pawan Kalla, Ajay Singh Jethoo, Harshwardhan Singh Chouhan
Experimental Investigation on the Feasibility of Using Construction Demolition Waste Materials for Subbase Layer in Flexible Pavement

The scarcity of natural resources such as aggregates due to their continuous use in construction activities has led to the use of alternative materials in their place. The reuse of construction wastes is one such option especially as an alternative to coarse aggregates in granular subbase layer. At present, these wastes are simply dumped on open land without any further use. As a step toward sustainable construction techniques, the present experimental investigation explores the feasibility of reusing building construction and demolition (CD) wastes consisting of concrete aggregate waste (CAW), concrete hollow block waste (CHBW), and clay brick waste (CBW) in the subbase layer of pavements. Separate mixes were prepared using CAW, CHBW, and CBW in the proportion 100:0:0 (S1), 80:10:10 (S2), and 60:20:20 (S3) and compared with control mix having only virgin aggregates to evaluate their usability as GSB layer in the pavement. The compaction results showed that S1 mix had higher MDD and OMC compared to control mix while the soaked CBR value of all the three mixes with CD waste was higher than that of control mix. Further, the MDD and the CBR value decreased with increase in CBW in the mix. The permeability values of CD waste mixes also showed comparable results with the control mix especially for S1. This study infers that S1 mix having 100% CAW is more suitable GSB material compared to S2 and S3 mixes which have CBW. Hence, care must be taken to avoid CBW in GSB layer prepared with CD waste.

R. Chandra Prathap, U. Salini
Condition Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Bridge Deck Using Infrared Thermography

Estimation of extent of deterioration in concrete bridge decks is a challenge. Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are significant since they provide fast, easy, and economical way to detect delaminations, cracks, voids, and corrosion in bridge decks. In the present work, an attempt has been made to assess the effectiveness of infrared thermography (IRT) method in detecting various subsurface flaws of bridge decks. Thus, a test facility containing concrete bridge deck induced with various artificial defects is constructed. This study concludes that IRT can quickly scan large areas and identify potential locations of defects, particularly at shallow depths, up to 50 mm depth from surface in this study. Therefore, it can be highly useful for field inspections of bridges. The ideal time for field testing is estimated to be 4–5 h after sunrise. However, it can be suitably used along with other NDT techniques and their combination would yield better results.

Vidhi Vyas, Ajit Pratap Singh, Anshuman Srivastava
A Purpose Based Trip Distribution Gravity Model for an Indian City

The present paper focuses on development of trip distribution model for Thiruvananthapuram Municipal Corporation, which is a part of the capital of Kerala state, India. Based on household interview, travel details of the resident population were obtained and base year Origin–Destination matrix was determined; mode-wise and purpose-wise. Toward developing a trip distribution model, a doubly constrained gravity model was attempted, with travel time between zones as the impedance. Exponential and inverse functions were attempted to calibrate the model, in a purpose-wise manner. Trip length distribution and cumulative trip length distribution were plotted for the calibrated models to arrive at the best fit. A comparison was also made between the observed average trip length and estimated average trip length. It was seen that inverse function works better for total trips, work trips and education trips whereas exponential function holds good for non-mandatory trips viz shopping trips, social and medical trips.

V. S. Sanjay Kumar, M. V. L. R. Anjaneyulu
Effect of Jarosite as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Pavement Quality Concrete Mixes

Due to lack of acceptable disposal locations for jarosite and incorrect disposal procedures, huge amounts of waste generated by the industrial sector harm the environment. However, in order to ensure the long-term viability of both concrete and industrial growth, the use of industrial byproducts as a raw material in concrete is becoming increasingly vital. Jarosite, a waste material formed during the extraction of zinc ore concentrate and widely available as a low-cost resource in Rajasthan, was employed as a partial replacement for fine aggregate in pavement quality concrete mixes in this study. The effect of replacing fine aggregate by jarosite material was investigated for pavement quality concrete mixes. The replacement level of jarosite with fine aggregate was varied from 0, 10, 20, 30% respectively in the pavement quality concrete having w/c ratio of 0.39. The fresh, hardened and durability properties of the pavement quality concrete were studied in the laboratory. The fresh properties in terms of compacting factor, hardened properties i.e. compressive strength, flexural strength and durability in terms of drying shrinkage and abrasion resistance were studied. The results indicate that the concrete, which contains 20% jarosite as a replacement of fine aggregate showed the highest compressive strength and flexural strength compared to the controlled concrete mixes, further replacement decrease the strength. The drying shrinkage of the all the jarosite blended concrete decreased with increasing content of jarosite. The abrasion resistance of the concrete decreased with increasing content of jarosite in the pavement quality concrete mixes. The study shows that jarosite has a potential to be used as fine aggregate in pavement quality concrete.

Dinesh Ganvir, Binod Kumar
Comparison of Various Approaches for Evaluation and Overlay Design of a Concrete Pavement

Portland cement concrete slab is used as the wearing course in rigid pavements. Overlays are used as remedial measures for catering to functional and structural deficiencies of existing pavements. Structural assessment of road was performed with a falling weight deflectometer (FWD) and area parameter, radius of relative stiffness, modulus of subgrade reaction and modulus of elasticity of concrete were calculated by different approaches such as using IRC-117 guidelines, graphs given by Ioannides and Barenberg and FHWA procedure. A comparison was made and percentage variability was computed. It was found that elastic modulus of concrete, calculated using Ioannides and Barenberg graphs approach, and has high percentage variability with the IRC-117 guidelines in comparison with the FHWA procedure. Further, the overlay thicknesses were designed for selected sections. Among the three methods for overlay design, effective thickness approach used by the AASTHO method has been presented in this paper. Bonded overlay design was selected for rehabilitation.

Shubham Mishra, Rakesh Kumar Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar, Tanuj Chopra
Investigating the Intention to Use Metro Services: A Behavioral Approach

Cities in developing countries are implementing metro rail as a solution to the steep increase in travel demand, leading to traffic congestion. Kochi metro rail was started in the city to attract commuters to public transport. We investigate the intention to use the proposed second phase of Kochi metro between Jawahar Lal Nehru (JLN) Stadium and Infopark for commute. We also analyze the role of attitudes of the individual, subjective norms and a conducive environment in the intention to use the proposed service. Data were collected using a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Considering the ordinal nature of the dependent variable, the ordered probit model is used. The three constructs of TPB were found to influence the intention to use metro. Estimation results highlight the need to include attitudes in predicting travel choice behavior. Educational qualification, travel cost and travel time were other influencing variables.

Anshamol N. Rahim, Jomy Thomas, Vishnu Baburajan
Determining Optimum Antistripping Additive Content in Asphalt Mixtures Using Boil Test

One of the main reasons for moisture damage in asphalt mixtures is loss of adhesion between asphalt and aggregate or stripping. Most commonly used test method to evaluate stripping is the boil test (ASTM D3625) which is a visually subjective test method. However, color-measuring device can be used to quantify stripping in asphalt mixtures. The objective of this study is to use percentage stripping from boil test to determine the most efficient antistrip and its optimum content. In this study, percentage stripping in asphalt mixtures from the boil test was used to determine the amount of optimum antistrip required for the asphalt mixture to perform well against stripping. The percentage stripping determined for each asphalt mixtures was plotted against antistrip content, and optimum antistrip content was determined. The test results show that this method can help in selecting a more cost-effective and efficient antistrip additive for all asphalt mixtures.

Shivpal Yadav, Abhilash Kusam, Zahra M. Tayebali, Akhtarhusein A. Tayebali
Characterization of Nano-Alumina Modified Asphalt Binders and Mixtures

Asphalt binder modification is a popular technique to enhance the performance of asphalt pavements. Nano-materials are also gaining popularity as modifiers in asphalt binders. In this study, nano-alumina was used as a modifier at contents of 2, 4, 6, and 8% by weight. The modified binders were characterized using conventional tests including specific gravity, softening point, and rotational viscosity. Rheological tests included temperature sweep, frequency sweep, and multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR). The outcomes showed that phase angle (δ) decreased and complex modulus (G*) increased with an increase in nano-alumina content. Storage and loss moduli of nano-alumina modified binders also improved for the different frequencies tested. MSCR test showed that modified binders had lower non-recoverable creep compliance and higher recovery than the control binder. The study also included evaluation of stiffness characteristics of asphalt mixtures fabricated with nano-alumina modified binders. The stiffness modulus results agreed with the rheological results.

Pubali Nazir, Rajan Choudhary, Abhinay Kumar, Ankush Kumar
Soil Stabilization Using Waste Plastic

Enormous amount of plastic is generated every year due to rapid industrialization and excessive urbanization. The disposal of these wastes in landfills is not a sustainable solution due to the various environmental concerns and availability of limited land space. Keeping this in view, the strength aspect of plastic wastes as reinforcement material in soils is explored in this work. The waste plastic used in the present study is polythene wrapper which was collected from the waste dump sites in VNIT campus, Nagpur. A series of CBR and direct shear tests were carried out on different types of soil samples with varying percentages of plastic strips (viz 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%). The different combinations of soil and plastic mix show different trends of strength gain. The optimum percentages of plastic strips for different types of soils were found out in this study. No significant gain in CBR value was observed for any of the soil type. However, the shear strength was found to increase due to increases in the angle of shearing resistance.

Aiswarya Govind, Anjan Patel
Utilization of E-waste Plastic as Aggregate Replacement in Bituminous Concrete Mixes

In the modern era of electronic advancements, electronic waste management has emerged as a major problem for environmentalists all over the world. These advancements have discharged huge amounts of waste electronic and electrical equipment and subsequent hazardous electronic waste plastic into the environment. The present study was carried out to successfully incorporate shredded E-waste plastic as an aggregate replacement in conventional bituminous concrete (BC) mixes and to deal with various problematic issues such as depletion of natural aggregate reserves, growth of heavy axle loads on pavements, sustainability in road infrastructure as well as to handle E-waste plastic disposal. Marshall test specimens were prepared with varying bitumen percentages of 4, 5, 6 and 7% by weight of the total mix. Modified bituminous concrete mixes were prepared by using shredded E-waste plastic granules of two distinct sizes viz; 2.36 and 13.2 mm (retained IS sieve) as replacement material for fine and coarse aggregates, respectively. In case of 2.36 mm modified BC mix, maximum Marshall stability value (MSV) was achieved with 9% E-waste plastic at an optimum bitumen content (OBC) of 5.36%. Similarly, for 13.2 mm modified BC mix, maximum MSV was achieved with 3.50% E-waste plastic at an OBC of 5.26%. This study further intended to compare control and modified mixes in terms of rut depth achieved after ten thousand axle load passes using the wheel rut tester machine. In comparison to conventional BC mix, rutting susceptibility reduced by 30.62% and 21.30% for 2.36 mm and 13.2 mm modified BC mix, respectively.

Abhitesh Sachdeva, Umesh Sharma
Investigation of Physical and Chemical Properties in RAP Materials

The usages of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) are increased at many countries. Behavior of RAP has to be changed into influence of rap on virgin binder which is investigated under mechanical and chemical properties. In this study, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify the concentration level of chemical bond. Hot mix asphalt design was conducted for various percentages of reclaimed asphalt pavements such as 20%, 30%, and 40%. The optimum binder content was chosen from Marshall test for each set of sample series. Extracted and recovered binder in the optimum asphalt mixture for each sample set was analyzed using FTIR spectrophotometry technique. Concentration levels of carbonyl and sulfoxide bond were converted to an index value which was increased with increments of RAP percentage. However, 20% of reclaimed asphalt pavement would be recommended as per experimental results for road construction as a sustainable green solution of construction practices.

Kajugaran Santhirasegaram, Wasantha Kumara Mampearachchi, Dharamveer Singh
Application of New-fangled Tools and Techniques in Data Collection for Asset Management System for Urban Road Network in India

City roads are a highly complex network and comprise several road assets compared to highways. These assets are responsible for providing satisfactory services to road users. Accordingly, it is necessary to list and manage various ancillary road assets along with the pavements. Tools like Road Asset Management System (RAMS) can adhere to these goals. It is challenging to carry out the data collection for many assets simultaneously using conventional methods. The primary objective of this research is to manifest the newfangled tools in the data collection process. This paper is based on the study conducted over around 174 km length of the roads of Aundh-Baner ward of Pune. It covers the automated data collection vehicle (NSV) application, handling about 30 types of road assets, pavement distress, and geometry data, and an in-house developed mobile application with GPS-enabled tablet devices that covered inaccessible assets. The data was also validated using manual methods. Implementation of these tools proved fruitful for the RAMS in providing quality data in the least time.

Bhavesh Jain, Manoranjan Parida, Devesh Tiwari, Ramesh Anbanandam
Structural Design of the Pervious Concrete Pavements: A Computational Mechanics Approach

The main objective of this research was to develop a rational procedure that could be used for the design of the pervious concrete pavement (PCP) surface course. To accomplish the objective, mix proportions based on existing research were considered and fatigue equation based on 60% reliability was utilized to get a final slab thickness of 235 mm. Further, an attempt was made to compare the structural behavior of PCP with that of traditional concrete pavement slab using STAAD Pro® software under a standard vehicle load of 200 kN resting over a subgrade with modulus of elasticity equal to 0.06 kN/m2 per m. The deflection response and absolute maximum stress magnitudes of PCP were comparable to that of rigid pavements irrespective of wheel load position. Overall, this study proposed the development of a simple framework for the structural analysis and design of PCP systems.

Avishreshth Singh, M. Nithyadharan, Prasanna Venkatesh Sampath, Krishna Prapoorna Biligiri
PG Grading of Bitumen Using Capillary and Brookfield Viscometers

The rutting criterion in PG grading is based on measuring the temperature at which |G*|/sinδ ≥ 1000/2200 Pa (unaged/RTFO aged). A comprehensive examination of the rutting criterion was carried out on four unmodified bitumen in a dynamic shear rheometer. The results showed that at continuous PG upper limiting temperature (Tu), the seemingly complicated rutting criteria can be simplified to viscosity ɳ ≈ 100/220 Pa.s (unaged/RTFO aged). Simplification of |G*|/sinδ to viscosity is the limitation of PG grading. We explore the possibility of PG grading using basic viscometers, such as capillary and Brookfield viscometers. The results showed that at Tu, similar to the values obtained from DSR, the viscosity of bitumen was ≈100/220 Pa.s. This implies that similar to DSR, PG grading of bitumen samples can be carried out using capillary and Brookfield viscometers. Results show that PG grade of bitumen determined through DSR, capillary, and Brookfield viscometers were similar.

Akanksha Pandey, Sham S. Ravindranath, Sridhar Raju
Studies on Temperature Differential for Different Types of Overlay Over Cement Concrete Pavement

Temperature is an important factor influencing the design and functioning of concrete pavements. The study involves determination of temperature differential in cement concrete slab casted with alternative materials when bituminous overlay is provided. In this study, cement concrete slabs of dimensions of 500 × 500 × 100 mm and 500 × 500 × 200 mm were casted for M40 grade, and an overlay of 40 mm thickness was casted with bituminous concrete (BC), stone matrix asphalt (SMA), open-graded friction course (OGFC) and two-lift concrete having recycled concrete aggregates (RCAs) in lower lift and fly ash with upper lift consisting of virgin aggregates. Temperature was measured at different depths, i.e. surface, mid-depth, bottom for above-mentioned categories. Temperature differential was found to be maximum for BC overlay having maximum positive temperature differential of 11.2° and minimum negative temperature differential of 6.1° in corner region for 100-mm concrete overlay. Similarly, the minimum temperature differential was observed for RCA slab having maximum positive temperature differential of 2.1 at corner and minimum negative temperature differential of 4.4 in edge region in 100-mm concrete overlay. However, it was observed that there was no appreciable temperature differential for SMA, OGFC mixes when compared to BC mix at corner, edge and middle regions.

M. Varuna, Deepak Raikar, S. Sunil
Utilization of Waste Materials for Productions of Sustainable Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavements—A Review

Rapid road infrastructure developments in recent years have led to a depletion of conventional road construction materials owing to its excessive exploitation. As a result, government agencies across the globe are compelled to opt for alternative road construction aggregates. In lieu of above, incorporations of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) aggregates have found its way alternative aggregates for productions of bituminous and concrete roads without much modifying the aforesaid materials. Several studies pertaining to the utilization of RAP in flexible and conventional concrete pavements have been studied in detail; however, the same for Indian conditions is scanty; furthermore, its application in roller-compacted concrete pavements (RCCP) is also meager due to hesitation among the engineers since there exist no codal guidelines on the use of RAP for concrete roads. Utilization of RAP for constructions of RCCP has acquired global attention owing to several economic and environmental aspects. Studies recommended that 50% of conventional natural aggregates could be replaced by RAP for productions of RCCP mixes, without much hampering its strength and durability properties. The overall objective of this paper is to bring out the issues related to the effective utilization of RAP in RCCP. In the same line, the efficacy of various pozzolanic-rich waste materials alongside RAP has also been addressed. It is concluded that RAP with or without admixtures can be used in roller-compacted concrete pavements after thoroughly investigating its respective properties making RCCP a sustainable road.

Solomon Debbarma, G. D. Ransinchung R.N., Surender Singh, Surya Kant Sahdeo
Design of Experimental Approach for Optimization of Foam Bitumen Characteristics

The objective of this article is to use a design of experiment (DoE) technique to determine the optimal foam water content by maximizing the expansion ratio (ER) and half-life (HL) in terms of bitumen grade, foam temperature, and foaming water content. At different foaming temperatures (140 °C to 180 °C) and foaming water concentration, the foaming characteristics of two distinct bitumen grades (VG-10 and VG-30) were determined (2 percent to 10 percent based on bitumen weight). The desirability approach was used to determine the optimum parameter for expansion ratio and half-life optimization utilizing three factorial designs of experiments using the central composite design (CCD) method. Temperature and water content of the bitumen foam were regarded independent variables, while (ER) and (HL) were deemed-dependent variables (responses). The optimum response was achieved for ER and HL at the following conditions: foaming temperature 140 °C and 150 °C for VG-10 and VG-30, respectively, and foam water content 5.2 percent and 4.9 percent for VG-10 and VG-30, respectively, according to the DoE desire function with good desirability.

Fadamoro Oluwafemi Festus, Siksha Swaroopa Kar, Devesh Tiwari
Analysis of Short-Term Ageing Mechanism of Pyro-oil Modified Bitumen Compared to VG30 Based on FTIR Spectroscopy

Globally, the production of plastic is increasing over the years due to its various applications in different sectors. As the demand for plastic is increasing day by day, consequently, results in accumulation of plastic waste. Till the time, various elastomer, plastomer, and rubber are used to modify binder. Here, an attempt was made to modify bitumen with plastic-oil also known as pyro-oil and to check ageing properties of the same. The rheological and chemical behaviour of asphalt and modified asphalt are complex due to its unpredictable nature. In this investigation, asphalt was modified with pyro-oil from high-density polyethylene. Pyro-oil was obtained by pyrolysis of HDPE at about 750 °C. Pyro-oil modified bitumen (POMB) was prepared by addition of 5%, 10%, and 15% of HDPE pyro-oil by total weight of asphalt binder mixed at 3000 rpm for about 120 min. The effect of short ageing for POMB was studied and compared with base binder VG30 using FTIR spectroscopy. All three bitumen binders (VG30, POMB) subjected to ageing and changes in chemical composition were analyzed using FTIR spectroscopy. FTIR results were used to validate chemical bonds like C=O and S=O which lead to changes in viscosity and stiffness of binder. It was observed that ageing influences the bitumen chemistry.

Hemantkumar P. Hadole, Mahadeo S. Ranadive
Impact on Resilient Modulus Values of the Bituminous Mixture Using Different Standard Methods

The resilient modulus of bituminous mixes is determined by the indirect tension test conducted in accordance with ASTM and EN standards. These two standards differ with respect to each other in terms of loading procedure, loading time, and the rest period. ASTM standard D7369 is based on the controlled stress loading procedure, whereas the EN standard 12697-26, Annex C is based upon the controlled strain loading procedure. Therefore, there is a need for comparing, analyzing, and selecting one standard which would best suit as per Indian conditions. In our study, experiments were carried out on virgin bituminous mixture and the bituminous mix containing 15% RAP at 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃. It was found out from the study that the values of the resilient moduli measured by the EN standard were always less than the resilient moduli values measured by the ASTM standard. At lower temperature, the difference was found to be lower between the resilient moduli values, but with increase in the temperature, the difference increased. At higher temperature, the difference was found to be higher, and the resilient modulus was found to be insignificant when measured through EN standard. The mix containing the RAP material was found to have higher stiffness modulus as compared to the virgin mix. The resilient modulus values by the ASTM standard demonstrated a better correlation with the resilient modulus mentioned in IRC 37. Therefore, this paper recommends the use of the ASTM standard for measuring the resilient modulus of the bituminous mixture for Indian conditions.

Aditya Singh, Devesh Tiwari, A. P. Singh, Tanuj Chopra, Anush K. Chandrappa
Selection of Bitumen in Indian Condition

Selection bitumen is an important aspect for the performance of bitumen mixes for long term. Bitumen has sufficient strength to sustain at highest air temperature and lowest temperature during summer and winter periods against bleeding and low temperature crack. Temperature of pavement varies with depth and decreases with depth. Therefore, bitumen of different grades can be used. This paper presents all these studies based on past studies and presents a methodology for selection of bitumen with a case study and recommends using Performance Grade Bitumen so mix can sustain with maximum and minimum temperatures.

Swapan Kumar Bagui, Atasi Das, Yash Pandey
Compaction Characteristics of Marshall Mould at Refusal Density

Due to heavy traffic loading on the roads of India, secondary compaction has led to premature deformation in the bituminous mixes of the flexible pavement, and paving mixes designed by the Marshall method have been showing distresses on our roads. Few reasons cited for the premature failure involve inadequate initial compaction due to mismanage of execution staff. Density achieved under 75 blows does not simulate the field condition after the mix has undergone secondary compaction due to traffic. The voids in the mix (VIM) are an important parameter as far as heavy-wheeled traffic is concerned. The failure of flexible pavement is due to plastic deformation owing to reduction of VIM to less than 3%, and it has become a common problem. The refusal density of the mixes need to be determined accurately to predict the life of the pavement subjected to heavy traffic whilst maintaining 3% VIM. This paper presents the variation in the various properties of Marshall Mould with variation in the compaction energy and establishes various empirical relationships between them. The paper reports that Marshall Density increases with increase of compaction energy. Maximum density varies non-linearly with compaction energy with positive slope, and air void varies non-linearly with compaction energy with negative slope.

Swapan Kumar Bagui, Atasi Das, Yash Pandey
Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Microwave Heating Technique on the Healing Characteristics of Bituminous Concrete Mixtures

Fatigue cracking is one of the major failures of bituminous pavements. Interestingly, bitumen has an intrinsic property of self-healing the fatigue damage which majorly depends on temperature of the mixture and resting time given to the mixture under no application of load. Researchers explored the application of heat to bituminous mixture for improving its healing ability. Present study investigates the healing characteristics of dense graded bituminous mixes heated under microwaves. Mixtures prepared using the combination of bituminous concrete gradation and VG40 bitumen were heated at different power levels and healing studies with different rest periods were performed. Heating studies indicated the microwave absorbing ability of aggregates and the existence of a thermal gradient of 0.5 °C/mm across the thickness of the specimen. Indirect tensile strength (ITS)-based healing tests implied an increase in the healing ability of mixtures with an increase in the rest period.

Satya Lakshmi Aparna Noojilla, Kusam Sudhakar Reddy
Utilization of Waste Ethylene-Propylene-Diene-Monomer (EPDM) Rubber Modified Binder in Asphalt Concrete Mixtures

The ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM) rubber waste from discarded non-tire automotive rubber parts is explored as an asphalt binder modifier in this study. Rutting characterization of the binders was performed through Superpave and Shenoy rutting parameters and zero shear viscosity (ZSV). For fatigue evaluation, a dynamic shear rheometer-based elastic recovery test was performed while the cracking resistance of the binders was evaluated through the Glover-Rowe parameter. Further, Marshall stability, tensile strength ratio, and resilient modulus tests were used to characterize the performance of asphalt mixes. Results of binder testing showed that the rutting, fatigue, and cracking performance of EPDM modified binders were better than the control binder. Mix performance results indicated that the EPDM modified binders enhanced the stability, moisture damage resistance, and stiffness characteristics of the mixes. Overall, findings from the study suggest that waste EPDM has a good prospect to be utilized in asphalt binder modification.

Ankush Kumar, Rajan Choudhary, Abhinay Kumar
Assessing the Suitability of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) in Bituminous Concrete Mixes

This research deals with the use of waste plastic (PET) as a partial bitumen replacement in bituminous concrete mixes at different binder contents. In this study, two methods of plastic addition, i.e. dry process and wet process are used at PET contents varying from 0 to 10% by bitumen weight. A comparative analysis is also conducted between the wet process and the dry process of adding plastic. The consistent increase in Marshall stability up to 8% PET content and then a decrement at 10% PET signifies the upper polymer dosage at 8%. The higher values of TSR at all PET contents concerning the neat binder indicate the improved moisture sensitivity of the mixes as a result of PET addition. In addition to that the dry process of PET addition was found better than the wet process for all the scenarios.

Mohit Chaudhary, Nikhil Saboo, Ankit Gupta
Experimental Investigation of Resilient Modulus of Various Bituminous Mixes

The Indian Roads Congress (IRC) design guidelines (IRC: 37-2012 and IRC: 37-2018) for the design of flexible pavement suggest to use resilient modulus (MR) as the key parameter for the design of bituminous pavements. The IRC guideline specifies MR values at different temperatures for different bituminous mixes (dense graded bituminous macadam (DBM) and bituminous concrete (BC)) with modified and unmodified specimens of bitumen binder. As per the Indian codal provisions IRC 37, the MR has been assigned a particular value for bituminous mix prepared with a different bitumen. However, the MR varies differently for different mixes with different binder. Resilient modulus is an important parameter of any material regarding its utilization in building infrastructure. The present study focus on the variation of MR values for BC and DBM mixes with different types of aggregates and bitumen. This study will help the highway engineers to gain the idea about the parameters affecting the resilient modulus.

Swapan Kumar Bagui, Atasi Das, Yash Pandey, Kishan Vachhani
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of Transportation Research Group of India
herausgegeben von
Ph.D. Dharamveer Singh
Prof. Lelitha Vanajakshi
Ashish Verma
Animesh Das
Springer Nature Singapore
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