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Über dieses Buch

Proceedings of the First Symposium on Aviation Maintenance and Management collects selected papers from the conference of ISAMM 2013 in China held in Xi’an on November 25-28, 2013. The book presents state-of-the-art studies on the aviation maintenance, test, fault diagnosis, and prognosis for the aircraft electronic and electrical systems. The selected works can help promote the development of the maintenance and test technology for the aircraft complex systems. Researchers and engineers in the fields of electrical engineering and aerospace engineering can benefit from the book.

Jinsong Wang is a professor at School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering of Northwestern Polytechnical University, China.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. CoCluster: Efficient Mining Maximal Trend Biclusters Without Candidate Maintenance in Discrete Resource Effectiveness Matrix

Studying the level of efficiency of resources is a footstone for building the prognostics and health management system. This paper proposed an efficient bicluster mining algorithm—

CoCluster

, which mines trend bicluster in discrete resource effectiveness matrices. To improve the mining efficiency, it mines maximal trend bicluster using sample-growth method and multiple pruning strategies without candidate maintenance. Meanwhile,

CoCluster

algorithm can not only mine resource patterns with effectiveness in the downtrend, but also mine those with effectiveness in the uptrend, thus providing further decision support for later decision support system. To improve the generality,

CoCluster

algorithm can also mine resource patterns without change in effectiveness. The experimental results show our algorithm is more efficient than traditional algorithm.

Lihua Zhang, Miao Wang, Qingfan Gu, Zhengjun Zhai, Guoqing Wang

Chapter 2. Trend Prognosis of Aero-Engine Abrupt Failure Based on Affinity Propagation Clustering

This paper presented a new method for trend prognosis of aero-engine abrupt failure which was based on clustering analysis. We used affinity propagation method to cluster vibration data from aero-engine rotating machinery to find the failure trend by means of features extracted from it. This system could remind rapidly which failure will happen next. It is possible to be applied to trend prognosis of aero-engine abrupt failure in airlines.

Limin Li, Zhongsheng Wang, Zhenbao Liu, Shuhui Bu

Chapter 3. DOA Estimation of Coherent Resources Based on Matrix Reconstruction

This study presents a direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation method for coherent signals. DOA estimation is an important part in the target precision locating. But, when the signals are correlated, conventional algorithm will fail in DOA estimation such as MUSIC. A new de-correlation DOA estimation algorithm is proposed for this. It is based on the cross-correlation vector matrix reconstruction. For wide coherent signals, its performance is superior to ISM and CSM. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of this method.

Lu Tong

Chapter 4. Efficient Mining Frequent Closed Resource Patterns in Resource Effectiveness Data: The MFPattern Approach

As the occurrence of failure of electronic resources is sudden, real-time record analysis on the effectiveness of all resources in the system can discover abnormal resources earlier and start using backup resources or restructure resources in time, thus managing abnormal situations and finally realizing health management of the system. This paper proposed an algorithm for mining frequent closed resource patterns from data effectiveness matrix with the method of column extension:

MFPattern

, which uses effective pruning strategies to guarantee the mining of all frequent closed patterns without producing candidate item-sets. Different from the traditional frequent closed pattern,

MFPattern

algorithm can mine resource combination patterns with all resources very effective during work, those with simultaneous failure of resources and combination patterns in which some resources are very effective while some other resources have failure. The experimental result shows that this algorithm has a higher mining efficiency than existing mining methods of frequent closed pattern.

Lihua Zhang, Miao Wang, Qingfan Gu, Zhengjun Zhai, Guoqing Wang

Chapter 5. Efficient Mining Maximal Trend Biclusters in Real-Valued Resource Effectiveness Matrix: The CeCluster Algorithm

The efficiency of resources is the footstone for building prognostics and health management system or safety system. In this study, we proposed an efficient bicluster mining algorithm:

CeCluster

algorithm, which mines trend bicluster in real-valued resource effectiveness matrices. To improve the mining efficiency,

CeCluster

algorithm mines maximal trend bicluster using the method of column extension and multiple pruning strategies without candidate maintenance.

CeCluster

algorithm can not only mine resource patterns with effectiveness in the downtrend, but also mine those with effectiveness in the uptrend.

CeCluster

algorithm can also mine resource patterns without change of effectiveness. The experimental result shows our algorithm is efficient than traditional algorithm.

Lihua Zhang, Miao Wang, Qingfan Gu, Zhengjun Zhai, Guoqing Wang

Chapter 6. Research About Algorithm and Application of Tunable Activation Function Neural Network

The paper improved the traditional transferring pattern and function about the BP neural network, it replaced the fixed transfer function with the mutative activation function to construct the tunable activation function neural network; it also gave the improved network algorithm and the conclusion. The actual diagnosis was imitated on the engine lubricating oil fault; the simulation indicated the method had the characters that the convergence speed was quick; the precision was high, and the generalization capability was best.

Zhengwu Wang, Hang Cui

Chapter 7. LowCluster: Efficient Mining Maximal Constant-Row Bicluster with Low Usage Rate in Function–Resource Matrix

This paper proposed an efficient bicluster mining algorithm:

LowCluster

, to effectively mine all the maximal constant-row biclusters with low usage rate in real-valued function–resource matrix. First, a sample weighted graph is constructed; it includes all resource collections between both samples that meet the definition of low usage rate; then, all the maximal constant-row biclusters with low usage rate are mined using sample-growth and depth-first method in the sample weighted graph. In order to improve the mining efficiency,

LowCluster

algorithm uses pruning strategy to ensure the mining of maximal bicluster without candidate maintenance. The experimental results show that

LowCluster

algorithm is more efficient than traditional constant-row biclusters mining algorithm.

Miao Wang, Lihua Zhang, Qingfan Gu, Guoqing Wang

Chapter 8. Optimal Quasi-Periodic Preventive Maintenance Policies for a Two-unit Series System with Dynamic Maintenance Plan

Most research on preventive maintenance (PM) assumed that a PM interval is a fixed value. However, practical PM actions usually are affected by some internal and external random factors, which make the PM interval become a limited random value rather then a fixed value. Few of the existing research consider this situation for two-unit system in their models. In this paper, a quasi-periodic PM policy for one type of two-unit series system with a dynamic maintenance plan is proposed, in which PM for

U

1

is perfect whereas for

U

2

is imperfect, and the dynamic PM plan is executed in each implemented period, and PM activities are performed through competing results of the dynamic PM plan and a catastrophic failure of

U

2

. The optimal implemented period of PM and PM number is obtained which minimizes the excepted cost per unit time of the system in long run. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed model.

Wenke Gao, Zhisheng Zhang, Zhiqiang Zhang, Yifan Zhou

Chapter 9. Bayesian Network Technology to Analyze Fault Trees

Analyzing a fault tree using Bayesian network (BN) technology has gotten lots of attention, in which a fault tree is mapped into an equivalent BN. Combining three kinds of problems in BNs, a systematic BN method used to analyze fault tree is raised and the corresponding algorithm flowchart is designed. With the new method, a fault tree for the main landing gear of a certain aircraft is analyzed and the result shows that more useful and accurate information can be achieved through this new method.

Yao Wang, Qin Sun

Chapter 10. Research on Data Mining Technology in IMA Safety Analysis

This study aims at the following problems brought by avionics system integration: failure spread caused by resource integration, failure implication and chaos resulted from function information fusion, and the difficulty in diagnosing the failure and expansion of failure damages triggered by mission synthesis. In this paper, we analyze the key problems of IMA system safety and take resource integration safety, function information fusion, and mission synthesis as the major objects of study to construct resource integration safety model, function information fusion safety model, and mission synthesis safety model and adopt data mining technology to set up knowledge transmission relationship among layers so as to reach safety management for top-layer mission execution in accordance with resource-layer safety data support.

Miao Wang, Lihua Zhang, Qingfan Gu, Guoqing Wang

Chapter 11. Research on Maintenance Safety Evaluation of the Aging Aircraft

In this paper, the maintenance safety evaluation of the aging aircraft was studied. Firstly, the safety evaluation index system was built based on human factors, structure factors, and management factors. And nine indexes were included in these factors. Secondly, the weight of each index was calculated with rough set and information entropy. And then the safety evaluation model was built. Finally, taking an aircraft as example, the evaluation result could reflect the actual condition of the aircraft. The method was of great help to the maintenance of aging aircrafts and the development of new aircrafts.

Tao An, Yuting He, Chao Gao

Chapter 12. Research on System-Level Maintenance Operation Sample Allocation Method Validation

Combined with military aircraft maintenance identification of the actual test in the flight test stage, the method of GJB2072 sample allocation is improved in this paper based on in-depth analysis of the characteristics of maintainability data. A maintenance operation sample allocation methods based on the LRU is proposed, thus improving the operability of maintenance operation sample allocation. Finally, the validity of the method is confirmed by assigning testing samples of 30 within the improved method.

Anwei Shen, Jilian Guo, Jianwei Li

Chapter 13. Research on HAZOP-Based Safety Methods of Equipment Usage

This paper presents HAZOP-based (hazard and operability) safety methods of equipment usage. It provides scientific, reasonable, and feasible safety measures by analyzing and assessing the inherent and potential risks while using equipment. It lays the technical foundation for the safety usage of equipment.

Kui Huang, Jing Sun

Chapter 14. Design and Realization of Aero-Engine Status Monitor System Platform Based on Various Information

After collection and classification of aero-engine information, the paper used such technologies as trend analysis and reliability assessment to assess the working status of aero-engines. On this basis, the aero-engine status monitor system platform was designed and applied into reality.

Hongwei Li, Kai Zhang, Shufeng Li, Yan Feng

Chapter 15. The Optimal Design for Offset Slider-Crank Mechanism in Aviation Machinery

For an offset slider-crank mechanism, the larger its imbalance angle is, the faster its return stroke is, and the higher its work efficiency is in a single-track. Moreover, the larger its transmission angle is, the better its motion performance is. This paper aims to deduce the maximum imbalance angle

φ

0max

available in the mechanism and the function expressions of the optimal crank, coupler link, and offset distance according to the permissible transmission angle, and then, the simple and practical corresponding diagram is drawn so as to obtain the best design results quickly and accurately.

Rengang Tang, Zhaoming Meng

Chapter 16. The Analysis of Aircraft A320S Inert Gas Generation System Fault Message “ASM Performance Degraded”

According to the troubleshooting manual (TSM) program and troubleshooting experience, this thesis analyzes the inert gas generation system and the fault message “ASM Performance Degraded” and summarizes troubleshooting solutions. Based on actual atmospheric pollution condition and aircraft maintenance cost controlling consideration, the thesis also lists maintenance suggestions.

Yusheng Weng

Chapter 17. The Research on the Reliability of Helicopter Life Based on Analysis of the Data of Flight Data Recorder

If aviation maintenance wants to change from the current reactive, fault-based maintenance to state-based maintenance program transformation, we need to reduce or even abolish schedule maintenance tasks based on the fatigue life assumptions or standardized timing overhaul. First of all, in this paper, the loading spectrums of center of helicopter gravity were obtained by analysis of the data of flight data recorder. Then, the nominal stress method based on the data of flight data recorder was developed and the opposite fatigue damage of every helicopter in some air fleet was computed. The results accorded well with fact. Lastly, the reliability of the life by computing opposite fatigue damage was analyzed. Analysis results showed that the management of helicopter structure life was a dynamic process and the main idea of conversion from time maintenance to state maintenance was rational and feasible.

Xu Dong Li, Xiao Hua Yang

Chapter 18. Turbofan Engine Overhaul Quality Evaluation Based on Cloud Theory

The paper was aimed to construct the engine overhaul quality cloud model on the basis of the randomness and fuzziness of overhaul test data. The engine overhaul quality evaluation system was established by nine parameters of engine performances at the condition of the engine taking-off test under engine stable thrust and engine pressure ratio (EPR). In the meantime, the test quantitative data recording five times of engine overhaul parameters were transformed to the qualitative data in the cloud model. The weight values of the calculated parameters were given by method of the information entropy theory. The cloud gravity center weighted deviation degree was accordingly given as an evaluation criterion of the engine overhaul quality. The overhaul test data concerning turbofan engine TRENT 700 were chosen in order to validate the model. The results of the paper show that the calculated performance deviation degree was separately 0.5188, 0.4851, and 0.5288. The first and third values were nearly equivalent, while the second one was lower in comparisons with the other two values. As for the two former, the two engines were equipped on the same airplane. Therefore, the cloud model proposed in the paper can be applied to accurately make assessments of the engine performances. The accuracy of the aero-engine quality evaluation is further improved. The results can provide the references for the engine fleet management.

Yanxiao Huang, Wenli Lv

Chapter 19. Research on Condition-Based Maintenance for Airborne Equipments

This paper analyzes the present situation and advantages of the foreign airborne equipments, demonstrates the feasibility of maintenance for airborne equipments in the army, expounds the monitoring parameters as the technical features of the maintenance, and formulates the surge protector as the implementation of maintenance scheme.

Bin Luo, Ting Tang, Zhi Qiu, Wenling Zhong

Chapter 20. Research on Mathematical Model of Mission Effectiveness for Tanker Aircraft

Using probability method, mathematical model of mission effectiveness for tanker aircraft is established based on operation service condition. It is a feasible model to demonstrate indicators for tanker aircraft reliability, maintainability and supportability (RM&S). Quantitative evaluation for RM&S factors effect on tanker aircraft in combat can be calculated and analyzed. A concrete example is given to show the model is valuable. Tanker aircraft RM&S demonstration process is greatly simplified, and the demonstration effectiveness is vastly advanced.

Zhe Li, Yuanda Wang, Qian Zhang

Chapter 21. Prediction of Air Materiel in Small Samples’ Fault

In small samples’ fault data information of air materiel, Kolmogorov–Smirnov (K–S) test method, using fault distribution on materiel fitting, finally selected two kinds of distribution, fitting high for prediction. Through the use of matlab inverse cumulative number of commands, for fault prediction, the results accord with the actual situation.

Zuogang Zhang, Guowei Cui

Chapter 22. An Approach for Determining Activity Implementation Time in Multitask Flow Network Plan

Determining the specific construction time forms the important content of construction in multitask flow network plan. A general calculating approach of time parameters is proposed in the process of dealing with such problems by flow network planning, and their features are collected preparedly. Main critical impact parameters are picked up, and procedure waiting float and global critical activity are defined as well. Determination approaches of activity construction time with various project duration desires are proposed when work intensity is considered, and application of flow network planning is extended. Finally, an example is given to analyze and demonstrate that the approach is available.

Xiaowei Guo, Baogang Li, Xiaoyan Qu, Dengwu Ma

Chapter 23. One Research on Fault Diagnosis Method of Aircraft Inertial Navigation System

This paper analyses the fault diagnosis of hardware and software of some aircraft inertial navigation system, designs relevant diagnosis project of hardware and software fault, especially studies and deduces diagnosis formula and method when one of four level gates of inertial navigation main and standby platform system appears slow excursion. The experiment proves the following: This method can achieve fast fault orientation, its process of analysis and deduction is in accordance with reality of some aircraft inertial navigation manufactures, and it has very important reference value to inertial navigation fault diagnosis.

Ji-en Yang, Ming-qiu Zhou, Fei Meng

Chapter 24. The Discussion of Crucial Technology on Remote Detection of Composite Material Damage in Aerial Honeycomb Cellular Structure

The paper describes the remote detection system of composite material damage in aerial honeycomb cellular structure combining fault diagnosis technology with modern communication and computer network technology and studies the crucial technologies of data and image transmission, image processing, injury characteristics extraction, etc. The remote detection system puts forward the design plan of sense organ, which offers technical support for construction of remote detection system.

Hongyan Sun, Haibing Zhang, Xiaoli Li

Chapter 25. A New Method to Determine Equipment Testing Period Based on Mission Reliability

To avoid the problem caused by classical strategy of fixed testing period, in which equipment failure may happen before testing, a new method to determine testing period was put forward. In this method, mission reliability of interval between arbitrarily neighboring twice testing was regarded as constant or transformed into specified area; according to this principle, an optimal model to calculate equipment testing period was established; in this model, optimal variables included parameters of testing times, mission reliability time offset, and testing interval. A more reasonable and scientific equipment testing period can be received by solving the model. Finally, an example was given to demonstrate how to apply the method, and the results show that mission reliability of interval gradually descends by using fixed testing period, and rational testing period should be variational.

Kuan Hu, Lin Zhang, Zhaoxia Wang, Pengya Fang

Chapter 26. The Hybrid Probabilistic and Non-Probabilistic Model of Structural Reliability Analysis

The original hybrid probabilistic and non-probabilistic reliability model is only suitable for simple reliability analysis problem. To extend its usability, the model was improved, in which the reliability is measured with the bound of the random reliability and some interval variables are transformed into random variables based on the maximum entropy principle to improve the computational efficiency. Moreover, considering the influence of the fuzzy uncertainty in the reliability analysis, the hybrid probabilistic, fuzzy, and non-probabilistic model was presented, in which the fuzzy variables are transformed into equivalent random variables and the fuzzy limit state is dealt with the modified Monte Carlo method. The model is an effective way to analyze the reliability in the situation that random variables, fuzzy variables, and interval variables coexist in a problem.

Pengya Fang, Xinlong Chang, Kuan Hu, Zhaoxia Wang, Bing Long

Chapter 27. Research on Proactive Maintenance Strategy Based on CBM for the Aviation Ground Support Facility

With the increasing of the amount of the aircraft flight mission and the raising of electronic and digital level of the aviation ground support facility, CBM becomes the inevitable trend of the maintenance management. This paper introduces the defining, range of application, composing and implementing steps of the CBM. Combination with the specialty of the ground support facility, the proactive maintenance strategy based on CBM is dealt with. The proactive maintenance strategy will greatly promote the maintenance management reform and the popularization of CBM for the aviation ground support facility.

Hongjun Fan, Youlong Chen, Xunzhang Li

Chapter 28. A Simulation Method of Reconfigurable Airborne Display and Control System

Display and control system is used as the display and operation of modern aircraft comprehensive avionics system and has extremely high information and the integration, Display and control system simulation in the development process of the simulator is one of the major problems. Combined with the development needs of the simulator, proposed the simulation method based on instructions to realize drawing and real-time control on the graphics elements for the display and control system. Used GL Studio to create the system's foreground basic graphics elements, display characters and interactive interface, used the object-oriented technology realize the code design on reusable class. Used the object-oriented technology to achieve the background logic, graphics display, data disposal on the code design of the reusable class. Airborne display and control simulation system could reconfigurable by modifying the foreground graphics elements and the background logic, realized resource shared, to supported the development of a variety of simulator on the display and control system.

Zhile Wang, Hui Yu, Xiuzhi Zhou

Chapter 29. Application of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation to the Novel Aircraft Aluminum Alloy for Enhancing Corrosion Resistance

Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has been considered as a novel technique to form ceramic coatings on aluminum alloys for corrosion protection. The effect of PEO on the intergranular corrosion (IGC) behavior of the novel high-strength aluminum alloy 7A85 was investigated. Electrochemical polarization technology was used to study the influence of PEO on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of AA 7A85. The IGC mechanisms of PEO and PEO combined with sealing-treated AA 7A85 were studied by metallographic analysis, XRD analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that AA 7A85-T7452 is very sensitive to IGC. PEO would reduce the largest corrosion depth by 41.6 %. PEO without sealing did not eliminate the IGC for the micropores and microcracks in the oxide coating. However, PEO combined the SiO

2

sol gel sealing treatment could effectively protect the AA 7A85-T7452 from IGC for the good corrosion resistance and barrier function of the sealed coating.

Zuoyan Ye, Daoxin Liu, Chongyang Li, Xiaoming Zhang, Zhi Yang, Mingxia Lei

Chapter 30. Defects Analysis and Strategy Seeking of Automatic Test and Diagnosis System (ATDS) for Airborne Equipment

First of all the paper describes the typical hardware structure and software platform of automatic test and diagnosis system (ATDS) for airborne equipment, analyzes main defects of ATDS which includes concentrated 19-inch rack plus single operation site not convenience to maintenance, momentary test not help to monitor the whole operating status, the confidence of test data, the problem of microwave parameters test, the choice of test path either through the unit connector or the test point on PCB, the progress of chip and data bus confuse the ATDS, and then describes the strategy and progress tendency of the future ATDS such as multi-data buses fusion ATDS, distributional ATDS and network ATDS, major synthetic ATDS, and portable ATDS.

Xiaojun Chu, Shengli Luan, Qian Wen

Chapter 31. Strategies of Testing and Repairing Carrier-Based Aircraft Accessories

Carrier-based aircrafts operate on the sea all the year round, and lots of aircrafts take off from and land on the carrier. Overloaded aircrafts result in great load fluctuation of various mechanical system accessories. In addition, the phenomenon of severe corrosion exists in the atmospheric environment. The probability of accessory failures on carrier-based aircrafts is much higher than that on land-based airplanes. Since the space on the carrier is limited, it is impossible and unnecessary to move the accessory repair shop onto the carrier. With carrier-based aircrafts in service, developing a rapid accessory test and repair shelter for the carrier special use according to the characteristics of carrier-based aircrafts and providing the shelter with such functions as scientific management, software consultation, and maintenance and arbitrary combination of hardware module boxes can satisfy not only the requirement of daily carrier-based aircraft accessory test and repair but urgent need in wartime.

Li Ling, Wei Huakai, Zhao Xiaofang, Li Xudong, Wang Chaoyong

Chapter 32. Moisture Absorption and Desorption Behavior of Composites in Cyclic Hygrothermal Environment

The moisture absorption and desorption behavior of CCF300/BA9916 composites in cyclic hygrothermal environment was investigated. The experiment was performed for 70 °C/100 % RH, to find out moisture absorption as a function of time. The results show that the moisture absorption and desorption behavior of CCF300/BA9916 composites basically conforms the Fickian’s second law. After 36 days of moisture absorption, the composites reach the effective moisture equilibrium level, and the effective moisture equilibrium content is about 0.849 %. Hygrothermal environment destroys the interface of fiber and matrix; moisture absorption has reversible and irreversible destructive effect on CCF300/BA9916 composites. Reversible damage on fiber/matrix interface can be eliminated after desorption processing, while the irreversible damage still exists.

De Wang, Ping Jin, Xiaoming Tan

Chapter 33. Study on Aviation Objective Examination System Development and Construction

Aviation objective examination system is based on objective data recorded, which provide technical support for people to discover and correct the practice of aviation science biases and guide weapons and equipment scientific use and maintenance. Development of this system improves the air force’s capability to combat and support, but there are still problems of independent data recording methods, low accidental survival rate, and bad data integration applicating effect, and therefore, various flight data collection, transmission, and application need to be considered to build a comprehensive aviation objective examination system and promote the scientific development of aviation flight training.

Shouquan Wang, Shuhua Li, Dong Xia, Jian Ren

Chapter 34. Research on Standardization of Ground Process Software for Flight Data

As important flight information including airplane kinematic parameters, equipment status, operations, etc., was recorded in flight data, the abilities of supporting aircraft, fly training, and fighting way study could be enhanced through process to flight data by ground process software. However, domestic ground process software is various in kinds but not compatible with each other, and flight data are managed separately which could not be utilized synthetically. The way by standardized design to solve problem of ground process software’s no compatibility and separated data management was put forward. Requirements were raised from aspects of software functions standardized, data format standardized, interface standardized, performance standardized, documents standardized, etc., in the developing process of software, which ensured standard design of ground process software. Standard design in flight data ground process software could increase the use efficiency of flight data, and make full use of latent value of flight data.

Dong Xia, Zhigang Peng, Yan Tang, Lei Yang

Chapter 35. The New Estimated Method for Refrigerating Capacity Produced by an Inward Turbine in the Aero-oxygen Plant

The loss of reheating shortage and Joule–Thomson effect are considered in the conventional estimated method for refrigerating capacity produced by an inward turbine in the aero-oxygen plant process. The deficiency of the method is analyzed in this article. The new estimated method is shown, that is using process calculation software. A calculation example is given also.

Lijun Xie, Dexin Wang, Feng Lu, Feng Yan

Chapter 36. The Design of CFM56-5B Engine Inlet Cowl Repair Platform

In the reference of the repair platform of RSE1116 recommended by CMM, and according to the actual work requirements, the necessity of designing a more efficient engine inlet cowl repair platform exists, with which the disassembly, install, transport, storage, and repair of CFM56-5B engine would be much more convenient. This article gives the methods that abolish the original method of displaying CMM and that design a saddle bracket car and a maintenance shelf. These two methods cover all the need of engine inlet cowl disassemble, install, transport, storage, and overhaul.

Feng Lu, Xiang Li, Wenting Zhang, Tao Jiang

Chapter 37. Study of the Ant-Colony-Algorithm-Based Optimal Scheduling of Shipboard Helicopter Maintenance Resource

For the particularity of the maintenance of shipboard helicopter with finite resource, the optimized scheduling model of shipboard helicopter maintenance resource is put forward. By using the ant colony algorithm, the simulating calculation proves that the method uses the pheromone update to enhance search capability of ants to the optimal path, which solves the resource shortage problem well and reduces the maintenance cycle.

Ke-nan Teng, Jun-liang Li, Lei Wang, Quan Liu

Chapter 38. Retracted: The Uncommanded Autofeather System Research of Turboprop Aircraft

As a part of turboprop, the autofeather system is to detect the power loss of any engine, trim the power of the opposite engine, and signal aircraft to feather the failed engine propeller. This work analyzes the composition of autofeather system, principle of system control, and the main influential factors of the autofeather unit (AFU) and provides measures to deal with the uncommanded autofeather events and low torque light flashing events, reducing the probability of the uncommanded autofeather and low torque light flashing events.

Bai-ping Yang

Chapter 39. Avionics System Fault Diagnosis Methods Based on the Probabilistic Causal Network

This paper applies the parsimonious covering theory and the causal network model to the multiple-fault diagnosis of an avionic system. Firstly, the paper introduces the meaning of the avionics system fault diagnosis and the basic content of the fault diagnosis; Next, it briefly introduces the basic theory of the parsimonious covering theory and the causal network model, summarizes the methods of the multiple-fault diagnosis research, and puts forward the causal strength calculation method depending on the fuzzy algorithm of multiple attribution judgment. Finally, based on the causal network structure method of the fault tree, it gives the corresponding structure rules and specific examples, and the difficulty of multiple-fault diagnosis modeling in avionic system is successfully solved. The validities of the methods presented in the thesis are verified by the application of the algorithms in the multiple-fault and correlative fault diagnosis of an avionic system.

Yuxin Wang, Tianwei Zhang, Wei Zhou, Bin Ru

Chapter 40. Multiple Performance Parameters Fault Prediction Method Based on Gamma Process and Resemblance Coefficient

A 20kHz signal board of radar is the research object and the circuit board reliability analysis is made by using performance degradation reliability theory. The rule of radar circuit board performance degradation in the electric impact environment was concluded with the testing data. Aiming at the insufficient of the multiple performance degradation parameters fault prediction method existing, a new method based on resemblance coefficient is present. The new method combine the signal processing technology with the performance degradation theory. The resemblance coefficient fused the multiple performance parameters degradation characteristics, so the multi-feature extraction difficulties of multiple performance parameters has been solved. Then, the Gamma process is used to describe resemblance coefficient degradation for modeling, extrapolated life information of the product, and finally, validity of this method was proved by the testing data.

Wei Li, Yuying Liang, Jinyan Cai, Guolong Zhang

Chapter 41. Stress Analysis of Cracked Metallic Aircraft Structure Adhesively Repaired with Composite Patch

A stress analysis model is developed to characterize adhesive stress distribution of adhesively bonded composite repair structures involving material nonlinearity. The finite element analysis (FEA) is conducted to validate the present closed-form solutions. The numerical results indicate that the analytical solutions and their simplifications correlate very well with the nonlinear finite element computations. The present mathematical techniques and analysis approaches are critical to the successful design, analysis, and implementation of bonded repairs.

Weiguo Su, Lan Zou, Zhitao Mu, Xudong Li

Chapter 42. Dissimilar Redundancy Structure Design for Carrier Landing Guidance Computer and Reliability Analysis

The guidance system is very important to the security of automatic carrier landing for carrier-based aircraft, while its guidance computer is the control center of this system. For enhancing the security and reliability of the system, avoiding general hitch, and serious consequence taken from it, dissimilar redundancy technology could be applied on the system design. From the practical requirements for security of carrier landing, the structure of the guidance computer has been studied, with dissimilar redundancy technique, and a kind of simplified reliability model has been applied on reliability analysis. This study shows that the designed structure can satisfy the security and reliability design requirements of the carrier landing system.

Wenling Zhong, Wenhai Wu, Gaofeng An, Jian Ren, Shoumiao Yu

Chapter 43. Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Bearing Based on Fisher Discrimination Sparse Coding

In response to mechanical fault in feature extraction problem, this paper presents a Fisher discrimination sparse coding method. This method is achieved by optimizing an objective function that includes two steps. First, this objective function works well in denoising where signals need to be reconstructed. Second, another objective function is added to the sparse coding framework, the discrimination power of the Fisher discriminative methods with the reconstruction property, and the sparsity of the sparse representation that can deal with the fault signal which is corrupted. Finally, the feature is extracted. In rolling bearing fault classification experiments, the new method improves the accuracy of classification.

Chengliang Li, Zhongsheng Wang, Chan Ding

Chapter 44. The Influence of Interceptive Position on Adhesive Area in Cellular Sandwich Board Patch Repair Method

This text summarizes cellular sandwich board’s development and application and sums up its damage mode and repair method in terms of air applications. We put forward a method of researching the relationship between interceptive position and adhesive area when the cellular sandwich board gets damage and is mended by patch repair method.

Hai Tao Wang, Mo Wu

Chapter 45. Review of Teardown Process of Foreign Aircraft

Due to various reasons, aircrafts are currently being operated to their design life and often beyond. In order to assess the true condition of structures of aging aircraft operated beyond their design life, structural teardowns have become more common in the aviation industry over the past decade. The present work presented the purpose and significance of aircraft structural teardown, reviewed the foreign aircraft structural teardowns over this decade, and illuminated a typical structural teardown process step-by-step. Finally, it gave a prospect to further development of the structural teardown of the aircraft.

Haijiao Yu, Zhi Wang, Haiping Song, Jun Xue

Chapter 46. Flight Operations Quality Assurance Based on Clustering Analysis

Flight operations quality assurance (FOQA) can be applied to monitoring and analyzing the data recorded in a flight to improve line operations and safety. In view of the requirements of FOQA and the shortage of general data processing algorithms, clustering analysis and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) algorithm are studied depending on data mining, and FOQA based on clustering analysis is presented. The process of flight data analysis is discussed with this algorithm. The practicability and universality of DBSCAN algorithm is validated by the clustering analysis instance of an abnormal data during takeoff.

Zhuo Sun, Cunbao Ma, Wen Li, Chunnan Shen

Chapter 47. Experimental Investigation on Aluminum Plate Damage Monitoring Based on Acoustic–Ultrasonic Technique

It is important to monitor the condition and detect the damage of structures in order to insure aviation equipment safety and reduce maintenance cost. For damage monitoring of aircraft structures, elastic wave propagation approach is briefly discussed, in which the acoustic–ultrasonic technique can be used to identify the additional reflections generated from seeded cracks. In this article, based on acoustic–ultrasonic technique, theoretical and experimental studies are performed to explore the characteristics of the Lamb wave produced in the aluminum plate for aeronautic use. Various comparing experiments and theoretical studies are performed on the aluminum plates with and without artificial crack damage. Mainly, short-time-root-mean-square (STRMS) method and wavelet reassigned scalogram analysis are applied to investigate the propagation and time-frequency characteristics of the Lamb wave. By analyzing the features of corresponding Lamb wave signals, the qualitative damage identification method is developed. And this work provides technical support for the innovation of maintenance pattern from time-based maintenance to condition-based model.

Lei Zhang, Mingliang Zhu

Chapter 48. Rolling Bearing Fault Diagnosis Based on 1.5-Dimensional Spectrum

Signal de-noising and extraction of useful signal feature are significant problems in the work of scientific research. Higher-order cumulants (HOC) have a strong ability of noise reduction. However, the increase in the order number of HOC will lead to the increase in computation. This will bring great difficulties to practical application. This paper introduces the knowledge of 1.5-dimensional spectrum, which results from the HOC. 1.5-dimensional spectrum is actually a simplified calculation method of HOC. It also remains the HOC’s excellent characteristic which can suppress the additive Gaussian noise. Consequently, 1.5-dimensional spectrum can be well applied in engineering practice. Meanwhile, the Hilbert transform is also introduced simply in this paper. The simulation signals and rolling failure data are processed with the 1.5-dimensional spectrum and Hilbert transform, respectively. The comparison results confirm the practical value of 1.5-dimensional spectrum.

Xueli Zhang, Hongkai Jiang

Chapter 49. Research on Semi-active Suspension Vibration Control Using Magneto-Rheological Damper

A novel semi-active vibration control technique using magneto-rheological (MR) damper is presented in this paper for researching the key points that help realize the control of semi-active seat suspension. Bingham model is applied to establish for MR damper in this method, and the dynamics simulation on vehicle seat semi-active suspension system is carried out. In the case of random input of the Grade B road, the vibration characteristics of vehicle seat are analyzed and the effect of spring stiffness, damping, and vehicle speed on the vibration damping characteristic is discussed as well. Simulation results show that the semi-active suspension has a higher damping performance than passive suspension. PID control strategy is introduced to the semi-active suspension; the maximum acceleration decreases obviously to around 40 % compared with passive suspension that confirms that the effect of control strategy has played well.

Haidong Shao, Hongkai Jiang

Chapter 50. Aeroelastic Response Analysis of a Typical Airfoil Section with Control Surface Structural Nonlinearities

In this paper, a typical airfoil section with control surface freeplay is studied. A type of friction nonlinearity in flap degree is designed to suppress the effect of freeplay nonlinearities. The Roger rational function fitting method is adopted to deduce the approximative expressions of the time-domain aerodynamic force, based on the coefficient matrices of unstationary aerodynamics in simple harmonic motion. The equations of motion are solved using the fourth-order Runge–Kutta numerical integration technique to provide time-history solutions of the aeroelastic response. The result shows that the adopted friction nonlinearities can effectively impair the airfoil nonlinear motion and prevent the aeroelastic response from various nonlinear behaviors when the airspeed is under the linear flutter speed.

Baihui Liu, Lihui Guo, Kang Li

Chapter 51. Support Drilling Device for B747-400 STA2521 Modification

Based on CATIA, this paper designs a set of support fitting drilling device for B747-400 STA2521 modification. During aircraft modification, using this drilling device can improve work efficiency of STA2521 support fitting holes drilling under the premise of accurate holes position and quality, reduce manpower consumption effectively, at the same time, shorten the processing time, and improve work efficiency, finally contribute aircraft overhaul TAT.

Qinglu Hao, Degong Wei

Chapter 52. Development of Nondestructive Testing for Aeronautical Composite Structures

Structural defects or damage in composite materials are difficult to be found during manufacturing and in service. Nondestructive testing (NDT) has become an important engineering approach in the sphere. During these years, many composite material NDT approaches were researched and applied, such as acoustic microscope, NMR, μCT, ultrasonic, eddy current testing, penetrant, X-ray radiation, and so on. By comparing and analyzing, these approaches’ advantages and disadvantages were pointed out, and their applicability in aviation sphere and the developing foreground were presented ultimately.

Hui Jiang, Huayuan Zhu, Jie Yu, Kai Zhang

Chapter 53. Design and Experimental Research of Microquantity Lubrication Device Used in the in situ Cutting of Aircraft Titanium Alloy Structural Damage

Contrapose the question existing in that compound droplets generator used in the laboratory is not suitable for field, this paper design and manufacture a new device based on gas driving, and using the device for a titanium alloy drilling test. Experiment shows that wet minimal quantity lubrication (Wet MQL) can be used in in situ cutting due to its good lubricating effect, and without damage to electrical equipment of aircraft. The designed generator of compound droplets is suitable for field use for a simple structure, wide range of parameter adjustment, and easy to carry.

Kun Gao, Lehua Qi, Dazhao Yu, Jun Luo

Chapter 54. Study on the Evaluation of Engine Performance Based on Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

To solve the lack of ability to evaluate engine performance based on single parameter, the method of evaluating engine performance based on multiple parameters is studied. This paper uses hybrid optimization algorithm and classical particle swarm optimization algorithm to obtain the weights of multiple parameters by analyzing the test data of a type of engine. The comparative study shows the hybrid optimization algorithm is superior to the classical particle swarm optimization (PSO) in the calculation result. Finally, the engine performance index of each overhaul is calculated.

Zhao Kai, Li Benwei

Chapter 55. The Design of the Aircraft Supportability Evaluation System

With the increasing complexity of aircraft system, it is more difficult to analyze and design the supportability of equipment. Aiming at this problem, this paper designed an aircraft supportability evaluation system, which is based on DEA and other assessment algorithm. Firstly, this paper gives the system’s functional components and establishes the assessment software process of aircraft supportability scheme. Then, the DEA model algorithm of the evaluation system is introduced in detail. Finally, the paper applies evaluation system to analyze different supportability schemes. Moreover, the optimal supportability scheme is obtained.

Jiang Zhi, Song Dong, Ren Han

Chapter 56. Composite Patch Bonded Repair Simulation and Optimization of the Lap Joints

In this paper, the finite element method is applied to optimize the stress distribution of the adhesively bonded composite patch for repairing of a cracked metal plate. A three-dimensional finite element model was created and simulated, a finite element procedure is programmed to find the optimized parameters of the composite patch, and the optimized parameters are listed for convenient application. The simulated result shows that the directions of the plies and the distance between the lap joints could affect the adhesive stresses distribution greatly, and compared with the single lap joint case, the maximum shear stress of the recommended multi-joints case could reduce more than 80 %.

Xinjun Wang, Yongchao Dai, Feibo Huang

Chapter 57. Multidimensional Flexibility Measurement of Ship-Based Aircraft Maintenance Support Organization Based on Structure Entropy

Uncertain changes are the principal factors influencing the operation and support of ship-based aircraft. On the basis of analyzing the definition of flexibility and the flexible characteristics in the maintenance support organization, a three-dimensional measurement frame is established. The three dimensionalities, which are responding speed, robust flexibility and adaptable flexibility, are respectively measured by the efficient entropy, quality entropy and changing entropy. And then the comprehensive flexibility measurement method and steps are presented. Lastly, the example studied verifies the feasibility and practicability, and the measurement results of two organizations are evaluated and contrasted. Consequently, the flexibility measurement and optimization of the maintenance support organization can be realized effectively.

Qiaoli Mi, Tingxue Xu, Hui Wang, Jikun Yang

Chapter 58. Lifetime Prediction Based on Degradation Data Analysis with a Change Point

To predict the lifetime based on degradation data analysis has been widely studied. The accuracy of lifetime prediction largely depends on whether the degradation model is appropriate or not. For some products, there is a change point in the degradation process, and the entire degradation process can be divided into two phases by the change point. Motivated by an example of resistors, we studied the difference of several modeling approaches with nonlinear gamma and wiener process. The result indicated that modeling the process after the change point obtained more reasonable estimations in the example.

Haowei Wang, Tingxue Xu, Jikun Yang

Chapter 59. Maintenance and Support Management for Type Certification Flight Test of Large Civil Aircraft

Based on the flight test support characteristics of large civil aircraft, this paper summarizes and analyzes the research results and practical experiences of maintenance and support management of ARJ21-700 aircraft during its type certification flight test stage. These management experiences ensure the quality, safety, and efficiency of flight test; aiming at the problems occured during flight test support, this article presents some suggestions and advices for flight test integrated support to further integrate flight test support resources, improve flight test support efficiency, reduce the risk caused by human errors, promote type certification flight test of ARJ21-700 aircraft, and provide references for flight test maintenance and support of C919 large passenger aircraft and other civil aircraft.

Kang Feng, Xiping Zhang

Chapter 60. Impact Analysis and Evaluation Method of Military Aerotransport Transport Capability

In this paper, through the research of military aerotransport usage, it especially analyzes the key influencing factors of transport capability. They are range ability and load, sortie generation rate, operational availability, and mission reliability. The paper, respectively, presents the calculation model of transport capacity for single voyage and multiple voyages. Besides, through two examples of relief material delivery by IL-76 and C-17, the transport capacity calculation model is verified. And, it analyzes the main causes of transport capacity gap between IL-76 and C-17. This research provides the theoretical foundation to transport capacity evaluation in flight test phase and the further study of operational effectiveness evaluation.

Zhifeng Xie, Weigang Niu, Xuan Liu

Chapter 61. Applied Design Optimization of Nose Landing Gear Cabin Structure of Airplane

Based on structure dynamics finite element method (FEM) numerical analysis, and optimal design methods, this paper analyzed the finite element modeling of cabin structure of nose landing gear and discussed optimal design of structural parameter. The main research work conducted included the following: Finite element discretization of structure of nose landing gear, construction of finite element model, optimal variable design, optimal design for component dimension parameter of structural low-order frequency property in numerical value technique frame, lightest structural weight under low-order frequency restriction conditions, and best geometrical stiffness structure distributing. The thesis introduced in details the structure dynamic characteristic finite element mesh adopted in performance calculation as well as the structure numerical optimal theory and discussed every detail of optical design for numerical value of intrinsic dynamic characteristics and the optimal analysis results. At the end of the paper, the author proposes the conclusion of the research.

Wei Tian, Qin Sun

Chapter 62. Study on Comprehensive Evaluation for Civil Aircraft Cockpit Display Ergonomics During Flight Test

The ergonomics comprehensive evaluation of aircraft cockpit plays a key role in the efficiency of pilot–cockpit system and flight safety, especially for display equipments. Several standards and norms related to the ergonomics design and evaluation techniques of aircraft cockpit were established; however, there was not an operational and systemic evaluation method. Aiming at this issue, the process integrating modified Delphi, modified analytical hierarchy, membership function, and fuzzy evaluation method were proposed to solve display ergonomics certification. The inevitable fuzziness and subjectivity of ergonomics evaluation were taken into account to acquire and analyze expert opinion, finally realizing the quantitative evaluation of qualitative indexes. This method was applied in ARJ21-700, and the results proved the validity of this study and also be used as the evaluation guidance for other civil aircraft.

Hai-jing Song, Fei-min Li, Lv Bao

Chapter 63. Repair of Shot Peening on Fatigue Properties of High-Strength TC18 Titanium Alloy for Aviation

In this paper, the machining texture and shot peening (SP) on the fatigue properties of a high-strength TC18 titanium alloy for aviation were studied. The surface texture, surface morphology, hardness distribution, and residual stress characteristics of fatigue specimens were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness tester, and X-ray diffraction residual stress analyzer. The results showed that the fatigue life of the axial texture processing was 27 % lower than that of the axial polishing specimens (BM) . But circumferential texture processing was 72 % lower than that of BM. It was attributed that the fatigue cracks was initiation easily by circumferential texture processing. Then, SP technology was induced to repair the fatigue life of the circumferential texture processing specimens. Compared with the BM specimens, the fatigue life of SP specimens increased approximately 12 times. That was attributed to the depth of compressive residual stress field induced by SP.

Dongxing Du, Daoxin Liu, Dinggen Xiang, Baoli Meng, Xiaohua Zhang

Chapter 64. The Confirmation of FDR Parameter Set for UAV

Flight data recorder (FDR) is equipped on all manned aircrafts almost. The parameter set used in vehicle maintenance, flight training assessment, and flight accident investigation is standardized. Given the difference of design, employment, and maintenance between UAV and manned aircraft, the FDR parameter set for manned aircraft is not appropriate for UAV. In this article, a new parameter set for UAV is presented, including four supplementary parameters specialized for UAV. This new set can be the reference for design and can improve the safety of UAV.

Liu Changwei, Zhang Ruifeng

Chapter 65. Investigation of Characteristics of New Helicopter Maintenance and Impact on Current Domestic Maintenance Work

As the maintainability and reliability of new helicopter have been greatly improved, the domestic users directly realize some new characteristics of maintenance work. The investigation of characteristics and impact of new helicopter maintenance on the current domestic maintenance work are performed in this paper. Firstly, the analytical results show that the troubleshooting work becomes simpler; condition-based maintenance (CBM) and “changing parts maintenance” have become the inevitable trend for new helicopter maintenance. Secondly, for the impact on maintenance work, the current system of maintenance work and profession division is facing challenge; some maintenance profession has been marginalized; on the contrary, there are some new vacancy profession for maintenance should be filled. Finally, some suggestions of maintenance theory, technology method and maintenance system are brought forward.

Min Zhou, Zhi-hui Ge, Ke-xue Yan, Rong Huang, Wei-gang Wang

Chapter 66. The Requirement Analysis of Aviation Equipment Maintenance and Supportability Under the Two-level Maintenance System

Based on the data of specific airborne equipment, PRICE model is adopted to analyze the impacts of different maintenance concepts for maintenance and supportability costs and operational availabilities. The costs of different maintenance concepts differ a lot with the result of calculations, which will also place a great impact on the equipment operational availability. To further cost estimate and analyze the three-level (level-III) and two-level (level-II) maintenance concepts, the program under a two-level Maintenance System has an advantage on using economics.

Jilong Zhong, Jilian Guo, Zhuojian Wang

Chapter 67. Modeling in Aircraft Battle-Damaged Repair System

It is an important guarantee of regaining aviation force effectiveness by implementing repair effectively on the battle-damaged plane. The study of the battle-damaged plane to repair has always been one of the most core issues focused on by the equipment support personnel. Aircraft battle repair system is a complex artificial system. Taking aircraft battle-damaged repair system as an object, this paper analyzed the concept and composition of the aircraft battle-damaged repair system. Then, adopting state space analysis method, the paper studied and established state-space model of the aircraft repair system. This model can be used as a framework for building repair demand analysis model, the repair system structure model, the repair process model, and effectiveness evaluation model.

Shufeng Huang, Zhixian Hu, Yuanyuan Wu

Chapter 68. Support Capacity Evaluation of Aviation Equipment Support Unit Based on Factor Analysis

The capability of support units to support aviation equipment is an important part of combat effectiveness of Air Force, whose support capability has a direct effect on whether the task of aviation equipment support can be accomplished well or not. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate it scientifically. Based on the construction of capacity evaluation index system of support units, this paper comprehensively evaluates the support capacity of nine units with the system analysis software SPSS through factor analysis. According to each unit’s support capacity, we can rank their overall scores and give a comparative analysis. Then, we can find each unit’s support capacity presents an imbalanced trend. The scores of each unit demonstrate the direction and key points of future training. So equipment office can carry out a targeted training aiming at each unit’s weakness in order to effectively promote a balanced development of their support capacity.

Fu Yin, Shenjian Yao, Jinfeng Lv

Chapter 69. Research on Security Monitoring and Health Management System of UAV

The purpose of security monitoring and health management system is to synthesize equipment detection, fault diagnosis, and maintenance management into a whole to establish an integrative maintenance management and support platform based on information of unmanned air vehicle (UAV) system and ultimately to realize the autonomous logistics (AL) support. Some functions to realize are: performing security monitoring and failure early-warning for the whole process of UAV involving takeoff, flight, and recovery; continuously recording the telemetry data during flight as well as the equipment operation and maintenance information and integrating these data for performance degrade trend analysis, life-time cumulating, and remaining life forecasting, to diagnose potential failures and provide maintenance suggestion; and providing information integrated management for the whole UAV system.

Gongcai Xin, Weilun Chen, Jie Li

Chapter 70. Evaluation of Aircraft Electric Network Battle Damage Repair and Device Design

Electric network mainly includes the aircraft power supply network, connection lines between airborne equipment, data bus and connectors. Based on the research of the aircraft electric network battle damage repair, this paper analysis the basic principles and of the damage repaired. Then, through the main frame design and model library building, the decision support system model of the aircraft electric network battle damage assessment and repair is established. Finally, this paper designs the software and hardware of the aircraft electric network damage repair test equipment and takes experimental verification with good effect.

Houjun Yin, Dongchao Yan, Chuang Guo

Chapter 71. Brush Plating for Renovating the Piston of Wing Flap Motion Tube

In order to solve the repairing problem of worn piston of wing flap motion tube, the technology of brush plating Ni–diamond composite coating on the surface of high strength steel 18Cr2Ni4WA has researched. A new repairing technology was proposed based on the failure analysis of worn piston of wing flap motion tube. Using this coating system of brushing, Ni–diamond composite coating, through reducing the electrode potential of cathode, the degree of cathode polarization would be increased and make the speed of forming nuclei faster than the speed of growth of crystal nucleus, so the adhesion between the coating and basis material was increased. When the thickness of repairing coating is up to 30 μm, the hardness of the coating achieves 780 (HV); the adhesive power was better, and the adhesion tests are as follows: coating not fall off; the bend test: coating not peel off; the cupping test: height of test is 5.1 mm; the wear resistance of the repairing coating and the basis material’s approach. Tests have shown that qualified brush electroplating layer for repairing worn piston can be got through this kind of process.

Chengbao Xia, Baosheng Yang, Yunkui Gao, Minghua Chen

Chapter 72. Maintenance Performance Evaluation Based on Matter Element Analysis of Aviation Maintenance

Maintenance effectiveness evaluation of aviation equipment is the era of information technology and new areas with the fresh concept of the maintenance revolution. Based on Extenics theory and other theory including entropy method based on gray relational analysis, the article constructed a frame of system to evaluate the performance of aviation maintenance ability which is not only suitable for helicopter repair. The paper analyzed evaluation model and framework by the numerical example drawn maintenance performance levels, modified similar assessment issues and promoted innovative maintenance theories and methods, which provides a new method and may has a good prospects of application.

Lihai Peng, Liwan Zhang, Baomin Ji, Wengui Li

Chapter 73. Evolution of Aircraft Maintenance and Logistics Based on Prognostic and Health Management Technology

This study discusses the new evolution of aircraft maintenance and logistics. After the introduction of motivation for evolution of aircraft maintenance and logistics, the conception and key technologies of prognostic and health management (PHM) are explained in detail. Key capabilities of future aircraft maintenance and logistics are proposed. Finally, the challenges to aircraft maintenance and autonomic logistics are illuminated.

Jing Dai, Haifeng Wang

Chapter 74. Honeycomb Structure Detection Using Pulsed Thermography

Pulsed thermography is a nondestructive evaluation method, which has been qualitatively and quantitatively applied for different classes of materials to detect variety of defects. In this study, one-dimensional theoretical model of transient heat conduction under an instantaneous plane source is described for its application in the detection of honeycomb structures. Three kinds of honeycomb structures, including glass fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRP) honeycomb, carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP), and aluminum (Al) honeycombs, were used to demonstrate the detection ability, and the defects include most typical defects in honeycomb structures, such as disbonds, fluid ingress, and excessive adhesive. The image sequences were used for defect detection, and temperature decay analysis was helpful for the characterization of defect types.

Zhi Zeng, Xiaoli Li, Chunguang Li, Zhigang Ye, Cunlin Zhang, Jingling Shen

Chapter 75. Impact Damage Detection on the Laminated Composite

Impact damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper investigates the applicability of active Lamb wave to composite damage monitoring. First, a time-reversal method has been adapted to guided-wave propagation to improve the detectability of local defects in composite plate structures. Second, a damage index (DI) method using a pair of sensors is introduced to generate index, which can be used to characterize the damage extent around the diagnostic path. Both of the methods proposed are validated through experimental studies in which different impact damages are generated by the falling a steel projectile on a laminated composite plate. The result showed that the methods may provide good correlation with the impact damage in the laminated composite plate.

Ming Li, Yingchun Xiao, Guoqiang Liu

Chapter 76. Study of the Application of Super-Capacitors in Diesel Cold Start

This paper introduces a diesel cold system composed of super-capacitors in parallel with lead-acid batteries. When used to start the diesel engine, the system can effectively improve the cold start performance of diesel engines, reduce the impact on lead-acid batteries during the start-up process, and extend the working life of lead-acid batteries.

Jianfei Liu, Tao Ning, Shihong Cao, Fucai Zhang

Chapter 77. Characterization of Fretting Fatigue Behavior of TiN/Ti Coating on Ti-811 Alloy at Increased Temperature

A TiN/Ti composite coating has been prepared on a Ti-811 titanium alloy substrate by an ion-assisted arc deposition (IAAD) technique. The composition distribution, microhardness, ductility, tribological properties, and fretting fatigue resistance (FFR) at increased temperature of the coating have been investigated. The results indicate that the IAAD technique can be used to prepare a TiN/Ti composite coating with high hardness, good ductility, excellent bonding strength, and high load-bearing capability. The TiN/Ti composite coating can improve the resistance to wear and fretting fatigue (FF) of the Ti alloy at 350 °C because of the good toughness and high bonding strength of the IAAD TiN/Ti composite coating with excellent lubrication of Ti particles in the coating.

Xiaohua Zhang, Feng Pan, Dinggen Xiang

Chapter 78. An Organizational Mode with Reputation for O2O E-Commerce

Group-buying as an O2O (online to off-line) e-commerce mode application has become into a hot spot of e-commerce applications. Compared with the traditional e-commerce mode, its ultra-low price with limited time has attracted many people’s attention. However, the way of its profitability is very single and easier to be copied, which results in much weaker sustainable development capability. Meanwhile, the demonstrated organizational mode and the issues of trust will be also key factors that restrict the development of group-buying. Combining with traditional e-commerce mode, this paper mainly explores the popular O2O organizational mode and analyzes its limitations as well as future trends. An improved O2O e-commerce mode with reputation is proposed considering the status of current user’s passive participating in O2O e-commerce. A third-party pay platform and credit evaluation platform are introduced to guarantee the success of trade.

Zhijian Yang

Open Access

Retraction Note to: The Uncommanded Autofeather System Research of Turboprop Aircraft

Bai-ping Yang
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