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Über dieses Buch

This volume comprises select papers from the International Conference on Microelectronics, Computing & Communication Systems(MCCS 2015). Electrical, Electronics, Computer, Communication and Information Technology and their applications in business, academic, industry and other allied areas. The main aim of this volume is to bring together content from international scientists, researchers, engineers from both academia and the industry. The contents of this volume will prove useful to researchers, professionals, and students alike.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Single Mode Negative Dispersion Hexagonal Photonic Crystal Fiber

A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with circular air holes having low dispersion and low confinement loss is analyzed. By deliberate selection of dimensions of air holes and spacing between air holes, it is possible to obtain the two required properties of solid core PCF at wide wavelength range that is negative dispersion and low confinement loss which is of the order of 10−7 dB/m. At 1.55 µm wavelength with common pitch (Λ), the simulated results have been observed at different diameters. The intended design finds applications in communication fields.

Shahiruddin, Akash Kumar, Dharmendra K. Singh

A Secure Three-Factor Remote User Authentication Scheme Using Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem

Recently, three factors such as biometric, smart card, and password based authentication schemes have drawn considerable attention in the field of information security. In this paper, the authors have presented an elliptic curve cryptosystem based authentication scheme using biometric, smart card, and password and also analyzed the formal and informal security of the authentication scheme. In this scheme, the parameters of elliptic curve are derived from the biometric features like iris, fingerprints, etc., which is suitable to withstand the forgery. The formal and informal security analysis are done based on the BAN logic and suggested propositions, respectively. The security analysis ensures that the presented scheme can withstand various kinds of malicious attacks. In addition, the scheme is also comparable with other related schemes in the context of communication cost, computation cost, and smart card storage. The scheme is suitable to ensure high degree of security with reduced comparatively overhead.

Rifaqat Ali, Arup Kumar Pal

Implementation of Fingerprint-Based Biometric System and Its Integration with HRMS Application at RDCIS, SAIL

RDCIS is a R&D unit of Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL). RDCIS has implemented Human Resource Management System for management of online leave applications, tour applications, dependant declaration, medical validation of employees, etc., for quickly building the workflows and processes of HR functions. At RDCIS, there are around 481 employees and 223 Contract Workers working under different Contractors. RDCIS main office is located at Ranchi, RDCIS plant centres are located at Bhilai, Bokaro, Rourkela, Burnpur, Durgapur and Bhadravati. SAIL has its own network connecting all the steel plants and city offices. RDCIS has own VLAN network and connected to RDCIS plant centres through SAIL-Net. Before the implementation of biometric system, the employee attendance was captured in the attendance register. Attendance from plant centres and city offices was sent through e-mail system every month to RDCIS, Ranchi. The practice for capturing attendance was manual, and every morning and evening, employee signs his in-time and out-time in the attendance register kept in the Head of Group (HoG) room. The employee also has to update the register for other information like leave details and tour details. At the end of the month, the secretariat of the group compiles all the employees’ attendance data and crossverifies with the leave book. There is a particular format given by the personal department for filling up the employee attendance details. The group fills the attendance of the employees as per the format and sends the attendance sheet to the finance department. The finance department enters the attendance details in the payroll system for the preparation of salary. The disadvantage of manual attendance system is many. Some are the attendance register gets lost, mismatch between the leave book and the attendance register, wrong entry of details in the attendance register, etc. Also sometimes, the attendance is manipulated and sent to payroll system. To address all these problems, a project was taken to implement biometric attendance system along with Human Resource Management System. This will help in continual monitoring of employee attendance and to meet current and future requirements of personnel department. In this regard, RDCIS has implemented biometric attendance system in all locations of RDCIS to monitor the employee’s attendance centrally from Ranchi. The system has been integrated with payroll system for preparation of employee’s salary. This paper discusses in detail the challenges in implementing biometric system at RDCIS. The Web-based biometric attendance system will help RDCIS for better time management of human resources. The software has been developed with three-tier approach. The software tools used are Oracle Database, HTML and JSP. The software has been deployed with Tomcat Apache Server on Windows Operating System.

S. Selvi, Manas Rath, N. N. J. Hemrom, A. Bhattacharya, A. K. Biswal

Fabrication and Investigation of Low-Voltage Programmable Flash Memory Gate Stack

In this paper, fabrication, characterization, and analysis of a FGMOS gate stack employing ultra-thin tunnel oxide of 3 nm thickness are discussed. Apart from basic C-V and G-V profiles, high-frequency hysteresis curve has been investigated and device-level parameters are extracted. Use of ultra-thin tunnel oxide has facilitated direct tunneling mechanism at program/erase voltages of 10 V for 200 ms and −8 V for 40 ms, respectively. Excellent memory window of 1.2 V has been obtained. Frequency-dependent capacitance and reliability-related profiles are also studied. The device is useful for power-efficient non-real-time applications like data logging, biometric security, backup servers.

Rasika Dhavse, Kumar Prashant, Chetan Dabhi, Anand Darji, R. M. Patrikar

An Effective Method for Maintenance Scheduling of Vehicles Using Neural Network

The maintenance scheduling of vehicles of a transportation system has its own significance as far as effective operation of a transportation system is concerned. Presently, inspection planning is used to plan for maintenance activity of vehicles in a transportation system. It helps the operator to organize maintenance activity and increase the ability to identify a proactive failure situation. In order to avoid the dilemma like premature aging and failure of vehicles in transportation system responsible for spontaneous and costly maintenance charges, at regular intervals, it is imperative to carry out preventive maintenance (PM). This paper presents the application of neural network technique for automatic maintenance scheduling of vehicles. This paper presents an economic method for solving maintenance scheduling of medium type vehicles by exploiting the neural network technique.

Sushma Kamlu, Vijaya Laxmi

Improved Clustering for Categorical Data with Genetic Algorithm

Clustering is the most significant unsupervised learning where the aim is to partition the data set into uniform groups called clusters. Many real-world data sets often contain categorical values, but many clustering algorithms work only on numeric values which limits its use in data mining. The k-modes algorithm is one of the very effective for proper partitions of categorical data sets, though the algorithm stops at locally optimum solution as depended on initial cluster centres. Proposed algorithm utilizes the genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the k-modes clustering algorithm. The reason is, considering noise as cluster centres gives the high cost which will not fit for the next iteration and also not gets stuck to the suboptimal solutions. The superiority of proposed algorithm is demonstrated for several real-life data sets in terms of accuracy and proves it is efficient and can reveal encouraging results especially for the large datasets.

Abha Sharma, R. S. Thakur

Universally Verifiable Certificateless Signcryption Scheme for MANET

The mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that communicate with one another through a standard transmission medium such as Wi-Fi, cellular, or satellite communication. However, their basic characteristics make them vulnerable against numerous attacks accordingly raising the need of security. In this paper, we propose a certificateless signcryption scheme based on the difficulty of solving the Diffie–Hellman problem. The simulation result proves that the scheme is secure against active and passive attacks using AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool.

Susmita Mandal, Sujata Mohanty, Banshidhar Majhi

Impact of Sidewall Spacer Layers on the Analog/RF Performance of Nanoscale Double-Gate Junctionless Transistors

Using extensive numerical device simulation, we investigate the influence of sidewall spacers on the analog/RF performance of double-gate junctionless transistors at channel length of 30 nm. Our findings reveal that peak transconductance and peak intrinsic gain increase by 5.2 and 71.3% for spacer dielectric constant k = 30 as compared to the respective values for k = 3.9, while peak unity gain cut-off frequency increases by 37% for k = 3.9 compared with the value for k = 30. The transconductance generation factor is found to be less sensitive to the variation in k. With increasing k the output conductance becomes less for low gate overdrive voltage VGT while it shows a reverse trend for higher VGT. It is evident from our studies that peak transconductance, peak transconductance generation factor, peak gain, and peak cut-off frequency increase by 13, 10, 27, and 20%, respectively, for spacer length of 5 nm compared with the corresponding values for spacer length of 15 nm. However, with a larger spacer length, the output conductance exhibits reduced value for lower VGT, while it becomes comparable with the values for smaller spacer lengths as VGT increases.

Debapriya Roy, Abhijit Biswas

A Novel Data Encryption Approach in the Grid-Structured Binary Image

Data hiding from external malicious access is an important and timely issue. Cryptography is the backbone of information or processed data security. The existing cryptography techniques provide good security; however, its computational complexity is also very high. Hence, there is a need of an efficient as well simple cryptography approach. In this context, the paper proposes a novel technique for cryptography in the form of binary textures. The binary textures provide a form of security corresponding to the original message. The binary textures are generated, reshuffled, and arranged in an image form to make it robust from malicious access. The reliability of the proposed approach has been illustrated with some empirical case studies. The overall cryptography process in a digital image makes it a simple, low-cost, and effective methodology for the secure communication.

Ram Ch. Barik, Sitanshu S. Sahu, Subhendu P. Bhoi, Suvamoy Changder

Balanced Wrapper Design to Test the Embedded Core Partitioned into Multiple Layer for 3D SOC Targeting Power and Number of TSVs

Manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) IC chips is become executable nowadays with the furtherance in fabrication engineering. However, the process of designing and testing of tools in this regards are even if non-autumnal. One of the main challenges is to reduce the total time for testing of such chips. In order to make a reduction in the test application time, the wrapper design must be balanced such that all scan chain lengths are almost of equal length. Minimization of the scan test time is possible with the help of above-proposed work with the available numeral of through silicon vias (TSVs). The Verilog coding intended for the proposed implementation has been done using Cadence tool to analyze power and delay.

Niranjan Raj, Indranil Sen Gupta

Analysis of Electromagnetic Wave Using Explicit FDTD in TM Mode with Extrapolation

In this paper, Explicit finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used for electromagnetic wave analysis. Explicit method has computational simplicity in linear medium with superior stability by the CFL condition. The method is unstable with nonlinear mediums when materials have $$\varepsilon_{r} > 1$$εr>1. Here, a conventional Explicit FDTD method is used along with Interpolation and Extrapolation techniques for the EM wave analysis in TMz mode. Deriving the higher-order approximations from a lower-order approximation is called as Extrapolation. This technique is used to eliminate the second-order error $${\rm O}(h^{2} )$$O(h2) terms from first-order central difference approximation. The propagating wave Ez in TM mode is the summation of two triangular waves of Hx, Hy fields, which in turn form a 5-point wave stencil. The wave propagates through the grid using a cell-centred technique. The propagation speed of the wave depends on necessary parameters such as numerical dispersion of grid, time-step ($$\Delta t$$Δt), x and y spatial step ($$\Delta x$$Δx) and ($$\Delta y$$Δy).

Bhattu HariPrasad Naik, Chandra Sekhar Paidimarry

A DEA-Based Evolutionary Computation Model for Stock Market Forecasting

Stock market forecasting is used to draw attention of researcher since long and it will be. In this paper, a Data Envelop Analysis-based Gene Expression Programming model has been proposed and experimented with real data from BSE Sensex. The DEA has been used for filtering independent variables to be used as input variable of the GEP model. Different experiments have been made by first allowing all input variables to the GEP model directly without filtration by DEA and then allowing only those variables which are tested and marked as better variable to explain target variable. The result obtained from both the experiment has been put side by side and explained. From the analysis, it was noticed that the DEA-based GEP has better capabilities to forecast than the other one, even with less number of input variables.

S. S. Panigrahi, J. K. Mantri, P. Gahan

Investigations on the Logic Circuit Behaviour of Hybrid CMOSFETs Comprising InGaAs nMOS and Ge pMOS Devices with Barrier Layers

We investigate the logic circuit behaviour of hybrid CMOS devices made of InGaAs n-channel and Ge p-channel MOSFETs with Si and InP barrier layers, respectively, at channel length L g = 20 and 30 nm. Rise and fall time, noise margin of hybrid CMOS inverters and frequency of oscillations, energy-delay product of 3-stage ring oscillators comprising hybrid CMOS inverters have been investigated to evaluate the performance of the proposed CMOS device. Our findings show a significant amount of reduction of 92.2 and 82.5% for rise and fall time, respectively, in case of proposed hybrid inverter, compared with the corresponding values for equivalent Si CMOS at L g = 30 nm. Oscillation frequency of a 3-stage ring oscillator is found to be 264% higher when compared with its Si counterpart. Also there is an improvement of 17.8 and 77.4% in power-delay and energy-delay product, respectively, for hybrid CMOS inverters in comparison with their equivalent Si counterparts for a channel length of 30 nm. Similar trend is observed in case of channel length of 20 nm.

Suchismita Tewari, Abhijit Biswas, Abhijit Mallik

Electrical Equivalent Model for Gene Regulatory System

An electrical network model is designed to represent the central dogma of molecular biology and simulate the response to study the behaviors of bacteria gene E. coli. The transcription and translation processes of a biological system are represented by differential equations. These equations are mapped into electrical domain, and an equivalent electrical circuit is realized. The electrical response of circuit is simulated in SPICE domain, and result shows the structural and repressor protein behaves like a toggle switch which truly matches with biological system.

Monalisa Dutta, Soma Barman

Antenna Path Loss Propagation in the Dehradun Region at 1800 MHz in L-Band

A proper and good coverage is an important parameter in the planning of cellular network. Path loss models are crucial in the planning of wireless network as they assist in interference estimations, frequency assignments, and evaluation of cell parameters. This paper reports the results of the propagation path loss to a fixed height of antenna at 1800 MHz in the outskirts of Dehradun city in the state of Uttarakhand, India. The results shown in the paper are for propagation path loss considering Okumura–Hata model and Walfisch–Ikegami model in the implementation of a digital cellular system in the region on the outskirt of Dehradun. An analysis of co-channel interference is also presented. 1800 MHz falls in the L-band of SHF, and after 900 MHz band, this is the most favorable frequency band for mobile communication.

Ranjan Mishra, Piyush Kuchhal, Adesh Kumar

Study of Strained-Si/SiGe Channel p-MOSFETs Using TCAD

A simulation study of strained-Si/SiGe channel heterostructure p-MOSFETs has been carried in order to enhance the performance of the experimentally reported such devices. Strained-Si channel device shows 40% mobility enhancement at 300 K and almost doubled at 200 K, when the results are compared with conventional Si-MOSFETs. The effects of low temperature operation on the performance of MOSFETs have been studied and discussed in terms of threshold voltage and output characteristics.

Sanghamitra Das, Tara Prasanna Dash, Rajib Kumar Nanda, C. K. Maiti

Color Image Segmentation Techniques: A Survey

In today’s world, where digital image processing is becoming an essential part of technology, segmentation of images poses a challenging problem. Before any complex task that has to be done on images, segmentation is a prerequisite. Segmentation ensures the simplification of a problem by changing the representation of an image from a complex one to a more analytical and easier form. Pixels of segmented regions share common characteristics. Perfect segmentation is difficult to obtain. There exist many techniques which have been applied such as edge-based segmentation, region-based segmentation, morphological operations, thresholding and clustering methods. Segmentation has a crucial role in image analysis. The accuracy of segmentation determines the success or failure of computer algorithms. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient and less time-consuming algorithms for segmentation. This paper summarizes a number of segmentation methods.

Sneha Jain, Vijaya Laxmi

Wireless Image Sensor Networks: A Review

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) were extensively used in monitoring and observing a particular region. WSN are combination of nodes and can be sensitive to pressure, temperature, motion, sound etc. This paper represents the survey of design and implementation of Wireless Image Sensor Network, which is an integral part of monitoring and surveying the subjective region visually. Image sensor nodes are equipped with miniature visual camera and RF module for communication. The camera node provides visual information and then transmitted to another node wirelessly using ZigBee. Several challenges in sensor networks are discussed that can enhance performance and efficiency of modern day sensor networks, As it turns out FPGA can reduce computational cost through onboard image processing. We have discussed in the subsequent part about the combination of microcontrollers and FPGA which can play a major role in areas where processing capabilities such as compression, cryptography, and transmission of data are important.

Parivesh Pandey, Vijaya Laxmi

Design of a Low-Cost Heart Rate Monitoring System

With the development of health consciousness and growing of aging population, home-based health monitoring has become a key research area for information and communication technology. The objective of the paper is to monitor heart rate of a person in low cost and in reliable way. The system is implemented in LabVIEW environment.

Suprojit Nandy, Soma Barman

Design of DA-Based FIR Filter Architectures Using LUT Reduction Techniques

The multiplier-less techniques such as distributed arithmetic (DA) have gained large popularity for its high-speed processing. Architectures based on DA results in cost-efficient and area-efficient structures. This paper presents design and realization of various DA-based FIR filter architectures based on LUT reduction techniques of length N = 4 and also implemented using both shift accumulators and carry save shift accumulators. The larger LUT is subdivided into a number of LUTs to reduce the size of the LUT for higher order filter. FIR filter architectures designed include filter with LUT size of 2N − 1 words, filter with LUT size of 2N − 1 words, filter with LUT breakup contains two 2N/2 − 1 word LUTs, and also LUT-less filter but only has combinational blocks. These filter architectures have been synthesized for the target FPGA device and results are compared based on RTL area, device utilization, maximum operating frequency, and power consumption.

A. Uma, P. Kalpana, T. Naveen Kumar

VLSI Implementation of Smith–Waterman Algorithm for Biological Sequence Scanning

This paper presents the design and implementation of Smith–Waterman algorithm. The aim of this work is to improve the speed of the algorithm by applying optimization concepts of VLSI signal processing such as retiming and parallelism. This facilitates the reduction of critical path and computational time of the algorithm. The algorithm is implemented in Simulink-MATLAB 2013, and the corresponding Verilog codes are written and synthesized in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.7.

K. Rajalakshmi, R. Nivedita

A Clusterhead Selection Technique for a Heterogeneous WSN and Its Lifetime Enhancement Using HeteroLeach Protocol

WSN consists of hundreds or even thousands of nodes, which increases the reliability of the data but at the same time it also increases the redundancy of the collected data. So, the role of cluster head is important to reduce the redundancy generated in a sensor network, since early die out of cluster head may result in network breakdown or lifetime reduction of a WSN. This paper proposes modified LEACH algorithm in heterogeneous network named as HETEROLEACH. It increases the lifetime of a WSN by properly choosing a cluster head in a cluster, based on energy and predefined range. This reduces the energy consumption of nodes especially cluster heads in such a manner that redundancy is reduced and no overload takes place at CH.

Yogesh Kumar Sharma, Sanjeet Kumar

Investigation of Microgripper Using Thermal Actuator

In the recent years, MEMS technology, because of its micro-size, has matured as a field of research. Micro-gripper is one of the applications of MEMS technology. This paper describes the design, simulation and analysis of micro-gripper based on electrothermal actuator. An electrothermally actuated micro-gripper has been designed, optimized and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics simulation tool. The simulation of the gripper design is done by using copper as a structural material. Different parametric studies have been carried out such as displacement, stress and deformation by varying the driving voltage and temperature.

N. Chattoraj, Abhijeet Pasumarthy, Rajeev Agarwal, Asifa Imam

An Ultra-Low-Power Internet-Controlled Home Automation System

In this paper, an ultra-light low-power and unique smart automation system has been implemented which interfaces the internet communication protocols like Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) through an embedded Linux platform to obtain home automation. It has improved upon the preexisting work by removing MOM type middleware, providing efficient M2M communication by implementing a direct virtual link between the transport layer of the two communicating devices. This smart automation system is ultra-low powered and improves the efficiency and throughput involved in communication. An embedded Linux platform, connected to the Internet through its Ethernet port, is used for the demonstration of this smart automation system. A Web portal interface is used to give commands and receive updates about the result of automation.

Pooshkar Rajiv, Rohit Raj, Ramakant Singh, Rishabh Nagarkar, Anurag Kumar Chaurasia, Sushant Agarwal, Vijay Nath

Depth-Averaged Velocity Distribution for Symmetric and Asymmetric Compound Channels

Movement of water during flood creates a compound channel appearance which consists of a main channel and its adjoining floodplains are very important for environmental, ecological and design issues. The structures of the flow in such channels are rigorous. The principal reason of this flow structure is due to the momentum transfer mechanism between the main channel and the floodplain. Flow mechanism in an asymmetric compound channel is different than that of a symmetric compound channel. There is a stronger interaction exists between the main channel and floodplain in asymmetric compound channel as compared to symmetric compound channel where the interaction is distributed to the both sides of the floodplain. Analysis of depth-averaged velocity distribution in both compound channels is strongly influenced by width ratio, aspect ratio and relative flow depth. The variation of depth-averaged velocity distribution in such channels for different geometry and flow conditions has been analysed. Proper prediction of depth-averaged velocity distribution in a compound channel is depending upon the magnitude of shear layer for which the advanced software CES is not providing accurate prediction especially for asymmetric compound channel. Suggestions and improvements to predict depth-averaged velocity distribution in both symmetric and asymmetric compound channels have been made.

Kamalini Devi, Jnana Ranjan Khuntia, Kishanjit K. Khatua

Application of Lateral Distribution Method and Modified Lateral Distribution Method to the Compound Channel Having Converging Floodplains

This paper examines the use of lateral distribution method (LDM) and modified LDM in the computation of depth-averaged velocity distributions and boundary shear stress distributions of compound channel having converging floodplain. In two-stage channel flow, the main channel is influenced by the adjoining floodplains and the conveyance capacity is normally decreased. The many-sided quality of the issue rises progressively when dealing with a compound channel with non-prismatic floodplains. Due to change in floodplain geometry, water streaming on the floodplain now traverses in the main channel, resulting in increased interaction and momentum exchange. This additional exchange in momentum should also be considered in the flow modelling. In this research work, the modified LDM equation considers friction slope and LDM equation is discretized by finite difference scheme, and for solving those equations, MATLAB tool is used. Depth-averaged velocity distributions and boundary shear stress distributions obtained from LDM and MLDM are compared with the experimental data sets.

Bhabani Shankar Das, Kishanjit K. Khatua, Kamalini Devi

A 0.533 dB Noise Figure and 7 mW Narrowband Low Noise Amplifier for GPS Application

In this research article, low noise amplifier (LNA) circuit is proposed. This circuit is most important block of receiver system. In wireless communication system, LNA is used in receiver front-end circuitry. It should be necessarily having high gain and minimum noise figure for optimum performance. This work is an attempt to develop the same without disturbing stability and linearity in the circuit. The proposed low noise figure LNA contains single-ended cascode topology including the input matching network and output matching network at input and output sides, respectively, so that minimum components are required when the circuit follows for LNA IC fabrication. The CMOS low noise amplifier is designed through Cadence spectre RF simulation in standard UMC 90 nm CMOS process. It is designed for 1.575 GHz frequency which seeks its application in GPS receiver. The parameters like gain, input matching, output matching, reverse isolation and stability are examined by S-parameters. The noise figure, 1-dB compression point IIP3 and power consumption are also examined for 1.5 V input LNA. The proposed LNA is compared with existing LNA for performance analysis using the above parameters.

Namrata Yadav, Mohd. Javed Khan, Jyoti Singh, Abhishek Pandey, Manish Kumar, Vijay Nath, L. K. Singh

Design of Ultra-Low-Power CMOS Class E Power Amplifier

This paper is proposed to design an ultra-low-power CMOS class E power amplifier circuit to analyze its power gain and output power in periodic steady state (PSS) response. A technique is presented to facilitate the control power of the class E power amplifier (radio frequency power amplifier). The basic circuit of RF PA is designed which has different switching actions as different values of capacitors are taken into account. A driver F stage has been added in the basic circuit which increases the switching action considerably. When the voltage becomes high, the current decreases and when the voltage decreases, the current becomes high. Therefore, by using above technique, the power consumption is minimized upto great extend. The efficiency of power amplifier obtained is 78% and power gain is 60 dB.

Jyoti Singh, Megha Agarwal, Vinita Mardi, Madhu Ray, Deepak Prasad, Vijay Nath, Manish Mishra

Effect of Temperature on Dark Current in QWIP for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

This paper deals with results of optimizing the structure and temperature effects leading to dark or noise current mitigation in quantum well IR photodetector (QWIP) using mathematical modeling. The quantum wells are formed by heteroepitaxial process where a narrow EGAP material between wide bandgap materials. Results show that the fine tuning of aluminum (Al) mole fraction and well-width helps in achieving high responsivity for the both near and far IR wavelength. Low noise operation, as well as comparative study, is done between the experimental and theoretical value for temperature analysis. The modeled QWIP detector consists of GaAs quantum wells and Al x Ga(1−x)As barriers. The temperature-based operation and analyses show the cause of band splitting, and reduction of noise is observed in MQW IR sensor structure. This type of QW finds application in broadband sensors used in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).

Vishal Kumar, R. K. Lal

Design of Circular Disc Monopole Antenna for UWB Application

A new proposed circular disc monopole (CDM) antenna is designed for ultra-wideband (UWB) application. The dielectric substrate is used to print the antenna which is fed by 50 Ω CPW on the same substrate side. A stub is introduced across the feed line for improving the performances. In addition, the bandwidth (BW) is enhanced using modified ground plane. The simulated outcome shows that the antenna can give an impedance bandwidth of 2.58–12 GHz having reflection coefficient less than −10 dB. Also, the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is less than 2 and the peak gain antenna is up to 4.5 dBi. A fine conformity is obtained between the simulation and the experiment.

Md Maqubool Hosain, Sumana Kumari, Anjini Kumar Tiwary

Cryptosystem for AVK-Based Symmetric Algorithms and Analysis Using Cryptic Pattern Mining

This work introduces the basic concepts of Cryptic Mining, that is a specialized area of data mining discipline for cryptic text processing. This chapter explores the various tasks, models, and techniques that are used in Cryptic Mining in order to understand useful patterns and information from large and unorganized captured cipher logs.

Shaligram Prajapat

Silicon–Germanium Channel Heterostructure p-MOSFETs

In this paper, we study the heterostructure p-MOSFETs with Silicon–Germanium channel. This chapter deals with the hole confinement in the SiGe well and the design trade-off for Si1−x Ge x p-channel MOSFET devices. Also the selection of gate electrode, optimization of SiGe channel width and profile, Si cap and gate oxide thicknesses and the method of threshold voltage adjustment have been addressed.

Tara Prasanna Dash, Sanghamitra Das, Rajib K. Nanda

An Ultra Low Power CMOS RF Front-End-Based LNA and Mixer for GPS Application

In this research article, a 1.5-GHz low-noise amplifier and down-conversion double-balanced mixer have been designed for CMOS RF front receiver. It plays a vital role in Global Positioning System (GPS) for increasing the safety and efficiency of flight. Gilbert down-conversion topology has been adopted for the design of mixer, while single-differential topology with matching network has been implemented for low-noise amplifier. The conversion gain of the mixer is 16 dB, noise figure is 12 dB, IIP3 is −5.66 dBm, and 1-dB compression point is 1.369 dBm. The designed circuit is tested at 1.5 V, and the simulation has been carried out with the help of cadence analog design environment with UMC 90 nm technology.

Namrata Yadav, Deepak Prasad, Vijay Nath, Manish Kumar

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