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2024 | Buch

Proceedings of the Joint International Conference: 10th Textile Conference and 4th Conference on Engineering and Entrepreneurship

herausgegeben von: Genti Guxho, Tatjana Kosova Spahiu, Valma Prifti, Ardit Gjeta, Eralda Xhafka, Anis Sulejmani

Verlag: Springer Nature Switzerland

Buchreihe : Lecture Notes on Multidisciplinary Industrial Engineering


Über dieses Buch

This proceedings book encompass a wide range of significant topics within the realms of Technologies, Engineering, Management, and Production, Entrepreneurship, Materials, Textiles, Fashion, and more. The book delves into various areas of Energetics, exploring aspects such as power production, solar power, wind turbines, advanced energetics technologies, energy resource efficiency, global warming and emissions, clean and renewable energies, as well as economic development, global warming, and environmental protections. The Constructions and Transport section features discussions on numerical methods for data manipulation, construction science and technology, transport systems, modeling of transport systems, intelligent transport, traffic management and safety. The Materials segment addresses materials science and application, biopolymers and biotechnology, metallic and composite materials, metallurgical engineering, recycling, manufacturing, and processing of various materials such as paper, plastics, rubber, glass, ceramics, and more. Management and Production topics include technology management, logistic and supply chain management, total quality management, knowledge and innovation management, financial management, marketing research and strategy, industrial marketing, operational research, project management, as well as information technology in enterprises, e-activities, and e-commerce. The book also features an extensive section dedicated to Textiles, covering textile processing and testing, technological advances in the textile industry, ecology and environment in textile production, fiber physics and textile mechanics, finishing, dyeing, and treatment techniques, modeling and simulation, smart and interactive textiles, technical and protective textiles, textile design, fashion, and garment manufacturing, innovations in textile education, as well as leather and footwear technologies.



Business or E-Commerce

Albania’s Unsuccessful Attempts to Rapidly Develop the Industrial Sector (1920–1990)

During the period 1920–1990, Albania experienced two political regimes that differed greatly in ideological and socio-economic attitudes, as well as in the form of government and geopolitical situation. In the first period (1920–1939) Albania was under an autocratic regime that nevertheless allowed relative freedom of speech and a free market, the other was a communist dictatorship (1944–1991) that implemented a centralized and planned economy, and brutally suppressed basic human rights. Surprisingly, both regimes implemented the same plan to rapidly modernize and industrialize the most backward country in Europe. It may seem utopian, driven by miscalculations or ideology, for a tiny and backward country like Albania to embark on a rapid industrialization program. However, the existence of abundant mineral resources (chrome, copper, iron, oil, and natural gas) and a potentially large amount of hydroelectric power generation capacity were factors that could justify the choices made by both political regimes. In the first case, Albania’s vulnerability to foreign financing made its economy increasingly dependent on Fascist Italy and eventually led to the country’s occupation. While in the case of the communist regime, the dogmatic policy led the country’s economy to autarky and collapse. Today, Albania has another chance to gradually develop a normal and balanced economy with the perspective of EU integration.

Genti Guxho
Implementation of Industry 4.0 Challenges in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Albania

The Fourth Industrial Revolution, also known as “Industry 4.0”, presents a critical opportunity for fostering social and technological innovation. Embracing advanced cybernetic systems enables companies to enhance efficiency and productivity significantly. Digital trust plays a crucial role in promoting open innovation in this era of rapid transformation. This research paper focuses on the challenges faced by developing countries, using Albania as a case study, in adopting Industry 4.0 on a large scale. We analyze the factors hindering comprehensive implementation and propose strategies to overcome these challenges. As the world becomes more globalized and digitized, organizations must swiftly plan their digital transformations to remain competitive, emphasizing increased flexibility. The study employs survey data from various companies to assess current Industry 4.0 implementation levels and identify obstacles to further development. Key terms related to the industrial revolution are introduced, followed by an analysis of digitalization’s primary aspects, including cloud systems, IoT, and cybernetics. The study highlights the significance of digital transformation, focusing on providing closer and more secure services aligned with consumers’ needs. Emphasizing social and organizational dimensions, the research underscores the concept of digitalization and organizational changes supported by previous studies. The paper discusses opportunities and challenges digitalization poses to societies and organizations globally. Ultimately, this research aims to illuminate barriers to Industry 4.0 adoption in developing nations and propose practical strategies to facilitate successful integration into this transformative era.

Irma Shyle, Erisjena Rruplli
Using “Machine Learning” Techniques in Increasing the Efficiency of Sales Forecasting in Albania

This paper investigates the utilization of a Machine Learning (ML) approach with the objective of selecting an appropriate model for sales forecasting. Within this study, three ML algorithms are examined: Simple Linear Regression, Gradient Boosting Regression, and Random Forest Regression. A comparative analysis of these algorithms is conducted using two performance metrics: Accuracy Score and Max Error. The significance of sales forecasting cannot be overstated, as it plays a critical role across various industries. Therefore, the application of ML technology is essential to mitigate potential financial losses resulting from inaccurate demand assessments. A retail company based in Albania, which provided historical data as input for the model, is utilized as a case study. The Random Forest Model demonstrates exceptional performance, characterized by minimal deviations between predicted and actual values. The findings of this research endeavor present a pioneering initiative that holds significant potential for enhancing the forecasting of future sales and delivering substantial benefits to firms operating in the Albanian market.

Valma Prifti, Dea Sinoimeri, Armira Lazaj, Betina Dini, Kevin Luniku
Information Technology in Supply Chain Management. Case Study

Information technology advancements have made communicating information easier for supply chain participants. The performance of the supply chain may be improved by raising the quality of the information. This article aimed to identify information technology tools/instruments companies can use to manage effective supply chains. The data collected for this article was obtained from 100 companies located in Tiranë and Durrës, in Albania, during the mid-year of 2022. The relationship between CEOs/managers, information sharing, information quality, and information technology tools/instruments was examined in this article. The results showed that information technology tools/instruments significantly affect information quality and information sharing for managing the internal work of companies. The results gained from this article benefit managers, information technology specialists, and CEOs of companies. Relationships between supply chain partners and companies with the help of information technology in information sharing can help companies operate better and gain a competitive edge.

Dea Sinoimeri, Jonida Teta, Valma Prifti, Armira Lazaj
Applying the Ishikawa Diagram and Pareto Chart for Defect Reduction in the Manufacturing Industry. A Case Study from a Textile-Producing Company

The most difficult aspect of production is consistently generating high-quality products. Improving product quality is critical to satisfy consumers, minimize production costs, and conserve energy. Improving product quality requires intentional and ongoing attention and devotion from every individual inside the production organization. Producing a high-quality product is essential for survival in this globally competitive sector. In this paper, the application of two TQM techniques in a garment factory will show an important role in preserving garment quality. Stitching is a critical process in the garment and textile industries. As a result, any defects must be avoided when stitching. This research looks at many faults or defects that can occur when sewing and potential tactics for re-solving these concerns. According to the Pareto Chart, three problems accounted for more than 80% of all errors in the DBS garment factory’s sewing area for an item. Following identifying major defects, a brainstorming tool was utilized to generate possible explanations, and probable root causes were identified using online inspections and root cause analysis. The Taguchi approach is extremely effective in defect reduction. Using these strategies regularly will help the company reduce defect rates while enhancing productivity. While this study focuses just on sewing, an integrated evaluation of other production processes like knitting, dyeing, cutting, and finishing may be more beneficial in reducing errors. Many Albanian textile firms should be better aware of Six Sigma concepts, and this study will trigger a good surge throughout the garment sector, making them more competitive.

Eralda Xhafka, Elidon Avrami, Gabriele Canton, Artemisa Mazreku
Case Circular Economy of Serbia

The circular economy is an industrial system that replaces the linear concept, which deals with reparation, is based on renewable energies, eliminates the use of toxic chemicals, reduces carbon emissions and aims to eliminate waste through superior design of materials, products and systems. By moving away from the current linear towards a circular economy, where at the end of a product's life, the materials used to produce it are reused wherever possible, a more stable economy is created. Moving away from the current linear towards a circular economy, in which at the end of a product's life, the materials used to manufacture it are reused wherever possible, thus creating a more stable economy in the process. The application of the circular economy in practice brings a number of benefits at the national level in the field of more efficient exploitation of resources (this reduces the total costs and import dependence of the country), reduces the harmful effects of damage to the environment, creates new opportunities for creating added value and creates new jobs and sustainable forms of consumer behavior are introduced. The concept of the circular economy is becoming more and more important for individual corporations and their operations—a number of global corporations are implementing measures in accordance with the basic principles of the circular economy in order to improve their competitive position. The development policy in Serbia has recognized the circular economy and the application of the circular (green) economy concept as a possibility for the future development of the Serbian economy.

Snežana Urošević, Igor Urošević, Milovan Vuković
Evaluating the Criteria for Choosing a Clothing Brand Using Analytic Hierarchy Process

The selection of a clothing brand has become increasingly complex due to the wide variety of options available in the market and evolving fashion trends. This paper presents an application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in choosing a clothing brand. The AHP methodology is used to identify the criteria and sub-criteria considered by consumers when evaluating a clothing brand, and the relative importance of these criteria and sub-criteria. Four criteria, eight sub-criteria, two for each criteria, and six clothing brands are considered in this study. The AHP results reveal that respondents prioritize quality and durability criteria, especially material quality, indicating consumers value the materials used in a brand’s clothing. The other important criteria is convenience and shopping experience criteria, with physical shopping experience being the highest-valued sub-criteria. The findings of this study give insights to businesses about the market, for improving product development, enhancing customer experience, and increasing competitiveness. Moreover, customers benefit from these findings by making more informed decisions when choosing a clothing brand.

Elda Lamce, Alma Braimllari

Constructions and Transport

Streamlining Design Workflow: Converting AutoCAD to SolidWorks, Utilizing SolidCAM, and Cost Analysis Integration

The goal of this project is to simplify the design process by converting AutoCAD drawings into SolidWorks components and assemblies, as well as using SolidCAM for manufacturing simulations. The major goal is to improve the design workflow's interoperability and efficiency, allowing for seamless transitions across multiple software platforms. The project supports advanced 3D modeling, parametric design, and assembly capabilities by converting AutoCAD designs into SolidWorks, allowing for greater visualization and analysis of complicated mechanical systems. SolidCAM integration further extends the project's capabilities by providing robust manufacturing simulations, optimizing machining processes, and verifying design feasibility. In addition, Microsoft Excel is used for cost analysis, allowing for reliable estimation and tracking of manufacturing expenses. The project intends to boost productivity, reduce design iterations, and improve quality by combining various tools and technologies manufacturing precision, as well as total cost management throughout the product development lifecycle.

Granit Arifaj, Ramë Likaj, Besart Berisha
The Application of the Dijkstra Algorithm in the Finding of the Optimal Solution for the Connected Road Network to Center Prishtina

The purpose of this study is to discover the optimal choice by applying the Dijkstra algorithm to the road network connecting four distinct stations to the Prishtina city center. Prishtina is the capital of Kosovo. During the study or use of algorithms for finding an optimal solution, the city is initially described as a vertex and the roads as branches of a graph. The weight of the branches can be explained by the length of the highways. The roads Mitrovica, Ferizaj, Peja, Gjakova, Gjilan and Podujeva, have been analysed. This study looks at all of directions that lead to the main city center, specifically the main plaza. This paper describes in detail the work of the Kruskal algorithm to discover the least spanning tree in the Prishtina road network and the Dijkstra algorithm to determine the roads with the minimum and greatest lengths in the connected road network to the city center. In this case, the study and application of the identification of routes with the lowest and highest cost is also carried out. Furthermore, Matlab and simulative software are utilized to evaluate the Dijkstra algorithm’s conclusions for calculating the shortest route and lowest cost, and a comparison is made between the two solutions. Furthermore, goods were distributed from these four directions to four separate warehouses in the city center, first finding the cheapest and most expensive solutions, then the optimal solution with the method of minimum cost and the MODI approach, including the transportation plan.

Ramë Likaj, Xhevahir Bajrami, Gezim Hoxha, Erjon Shala
Comparison of Wind Action Calculation According to Albanian Norms and Eurocodes

In Albania, gradually, the national norms for the design of building structures (Technical Design Conditions—Kushte Teknike Projektimi (KTP)) are being replaced by Eurocodes. Currently, wind action on buildings is calculated based on Kusht Teknik Projektimi 7–78 (KTP 7–78), which is a national norm approved in 1978. This paper aims to present the calculation of wind action on buildings based on the national norms of Albania as well as on Eurocodes, highlighting the differences between the two norms. At first is given the concept of how each of the above standards calculate the wind action according to the factors that they take in consideration and after that an example of a real building is taken in consideration. For this building is calculated the wind load pressure according to KTP-7-78 and Eurocode 1–4, so the differences are explained also in numerical values.

Igli Kondi, Elvis Capo, Julian Kasharaj
A Modified Webster Model for a Useful Traffic Signal Timing Plan

Today, many methods are known in the world for calculating fixed-time signaling plans. The effective operation of fixed-time signalized intersection is achieved through plans calculated on the basis of peak-hour field data so that the plans respond to both free traffic conditions and congested ones. One of the most frequently used methods is the well-known Webster's formula, which is based on the optimal calculation of the cycle duration that promises the minimum drivers experienced delays. Since the original Webster formula also has its own flaws regarding the overestimation of the cycle time in cases where the degree of saturation rate corresponds to congestion conditions, in this paper a modified model is pro-posed. In order to obtain reasonable cycle length for every range of saturation rates the modified model is based on optimized timing plan driven by Synchro/Sim Traffic soft-ware which is mostly compatible with Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010).

Arlinda A. Rrecaj, Ramadan Mazrekaj, Gëzim Hoxha
Evaluation of Risk Indexes that Affect the Cost of the Under-Construction Infrastructure Project “Extension of the New Ring of Tirana—Phase 2”

The identification and the assessment of risks, especially during the initial stages of a project’s execution, based on the probability methods, analyzing the historical data and the questionaries addressed to the stakeholders, would enable their avoidance or reduction of the impact, for each project objective in terms of cost, time, quality, safety and environment. Using the data gathered from the field and the information provided from project files, we will conduct a risk analysis to determine the risk indexes and define which risk affects the most the costs of the under-construction infrastructure project “Extension of the New Ring of Tirana—Phase 2”, located in a populated area in Tirana. The calculation and evaluation of the risk indexes (Ri) of an infrastructure project take into consideration: the size of the project, the value of the contract, the type of construction processes, the geographical position of the project, and the stakeholder capacity. The purpose of the quantitative risk analysis procedure carried out in this paper is to assess the risk’s impact separately and their cumulative effect on project costs, to make necessary adjustments to the project parameters.

Idlir Dervishi, Eralda Xhafka
NDE of the Integrity of a Clincer 40,000 ton Concrete Structure

The aim of this article is to approve a procedure for the integrity evaluation of a concrete structure based on the low frequency ultrasonic tomography that is the new method in concrete evaluation technology. The procedure was built and performed in the NDE integrity of the CLINCER 40,000 ton concrete located in north Albania. The procedure of the NDE integrity is write as a combination of the visual inspection performed for more than 30%, of the outside surface, rebound hammer technic and the low frequency ultrasonic tomography techniques. The visual inspection locates sign of corrosion, deterioration, mechanical damage on the surface determining the typology and size. Rebound hammer technic of the compressive strength of the concrete give data to determine the quality of concrete according European standards. In the areas where the discontinuities are indicated and the evaluation of the concrete quality is performed, the volume of the wall was scanned with low frequency ultrasonic tomography system, that provides good penetration depth, good sensitivity and imaging resolution by implementing three dimensional image. The equipment used is low frequency ultrasonic tomography ACS A1020 MIRA Lite. After all the inspection results of the procedure proposed was satisfactory, regarding reinforcement bars localization, detection of voids, estimation of their position, and thickness measurements from one side. Those elements are the foundations of the NDE integrity of the concrete structure.

Enkelejda Konda, Migen Zeqo, Dhimitaq Sotja
Analysis of Vehicle Registration and Their Characteristics in Albania and Comparison with the European Market

Based on the major changes that have followed in Albania in every sector during this phase of the so-called social, political and economic “transition”, we have focused on the analysis of the numbers and characteristics of vehicles in our country. The data presented in this paper were taken from the official publication of the Institute of Statistics of Albania (INSTAT) and reflect the official data of the general directorate of road transport services (DPSHTRR). Although the figures show that the number of imported cars has increased over the years, they continue to be with internal combustion engines and with an average-age greater than the Eurozone average. The number of imported vehicles with electric or hybrid motors seems to be still insignificant compared to the total number.

Erjon Selmani, Koçi Doraci, Leonard Çomeni, Arben Dushi, Miranda Kullolli
Machine Learning Based Prognostics of On-Board Electromechanical Actuators

This paper presents a novel machine learning-based prognostic approach for on-board electromechanical actuators. The study is centered around overcoming the limitations of model-based prognostic frameworks that rely on expensive optimization processes. Machine learning techniques were employed to map system signal characteristics directly into parameters related to fault simulation. A first test, utilizing only five of eight implemented fault types, demonstrates a highly promising potential of artificial neural networks to predict and detect faults with minimal error. A second test expands the investigation to include all fault types and provides an analysis of the model’s robustness, error rates, and computational costs. The practical outcome of the work is a viable real-time solution for fault detection and characterization in electromechanical actuators, highlighting the efficiency and effectiveness of machine learning techniques for industrial applications.

Edmondo Minisci, Matteo D. L. Dalla Vedova, Parid Alimhillaj, Leonardo Baldo, Paolo Maggiore
The Advantages and Efficiency of Using the 5S Methodology in Vehicle Repairs and Maintenance Workshops

The activities of marketing new vehicles and the enterprises that service and repair them, have as their primary purpose the increase of sales and financial income. In the conditions of ever-increasing competition for these types of activities, the “quality” component of the services offered takes on a special importance. The rapid spread of these types of services in our country definitely requires that it be accompanied by new methodological approaches, in order to be successfully integrated into the modern economy of Europe. In this aspect, the vehicle service market in general considered as the relationship between the subjects “vehicle owners” and “service companies”, which is guided by the universal demand-offer relationship, has the sole purpose of maintaining the ability to work or the efficiency of vehicles during the entire life-time period of service. The purpose of this article is to promote the use of innovative management technologies of enterprises that serve the means of transport, such as the 5S System Methodology.

Dhimitraq Sotja, Enkelejda Konda, Migena Zeqo
Graphical and Analytical Analysis in the Field of Mohr’s Circles

The stress state of the elementary volume can be studied graphically, with the three main Mohr’s circles [1, 9]. In the space of the τ-σ axis system, the points in this system have many properties, where reality and imagination intertwine [9, 10]. Mohr’s circles are numerous in addition to the main circles, and they have multiple properties. It is also required to find the main stresses and then the main orientations, analytically and graphically. This article reveals the properties of Mohr's space points and ways to solve problems of volumetric stress state graphically and analytically, explaining the connection between reality and imagination, as well as giving a geometric meaning to finding the principal stresses.

Anis Sulejmani, Odhisea Koça, Mentor Cejku
Analyzation of General Displacements of Mechanical Structures Using Self-equilibrated Forces

The main tasks of a mechanical engineer are constructing graphs of internal forces and displacements of different sections of a mechanical structure. Structures can be determinate and indeterminate, and they can be very challenging and difficult to solve. Engineers have developed various methods that can define the displacements of a variable structure section. This article describes a new method that is faster and easier to use for defining the displacements of a variable structure section. It can be used by other engineers, such as civil engineers, architects, etc. This new method, derived and proved by restructuring and analyzing traditional methods, allows us to define each structure section’s linear displacements and rotation angles more simply. In this case, it is not necessary for Mohr’s graph to find the reactions and construct the graphs of the internal forces.

Anis Sulejmani, Odhisea Koça, Parid Milo


Coulomb Friction Model Analysis, Acting on an Aerospace Servocommand

Modern flight control system design necessitates using highly detailed models to analyze individual components or subsystems; on the other hand, more fundamental and synthetic models with adequate accuracy are required for preliminary design, monitoring or diagnostic issues. One of key problems for especially primary flight commands which are depicted as position servo command with high degree of accuracy is the necessity to acknowledge their behavior, under the influence of the dry friction or the friction forces (or their momentum) acting on a generic movable mechanical part of a servo command, or on an entire transmission. In general this forces depends from the relative velocity of the transmission, or from the exchange load between parts of the mechanism. For this reasons it become very important to take into account these forces or their momentums in relation of their behaviour during the construction of the detailed mathematical models. In this work we present some generic considerations of the dry friction and dynamic friction applied on an aerospace servo command, with the related mathematical model run in MATLAB/Simulink, and compared to previously tests done for this servo command.

Parid Alimhillaj, Majlinda Alcani, Matteo D. L. Dalla Vedova, Luis Lamani, Spartak Pocari
Performance Analysis and Optimization of the Energy Indicators of an Axial Fan Through Some Constructive Changes Using Computer Simulations and Experimental Confirmation

This article aims to analyze the performance of an axial fan through experimental measurements, and to build a mathematical model for further analysis. The article presents a constructive change related to the position and geometric characteristics of the working blades, hub to tip ration, gap distance and through the simulations and experimental measurements performed, the performance of the fan taken in the study will be evaluated. For this purpose, a test bench that enables the construction of the characteristics of the axial fan was built. A mathematical model has been conceived, and the simulation program connects the constructive parameters with the performance characteristics of the fan. The CFTurbo program was also used for the realization of the 3d model of the fan. Using the technology of 3D printers, an improved prototype with constructive changes has been produced, which we will analyze in the experimental test.

Spartak Pocari, Luis Lamani
The Effect of Nozzle Geometry on the Flow Characteristics. Mathematic Modeling and Computer Simulation Using Python Programming Language

Nozzle are important elements in mechanical plants. They are used to create fluid flow with different velocity and pressures. The cross section of the nozzle varies in length. The nozzle can be convergent, divergent or combined convergent-divergent. The article deals with the influence of the geometric shape of the nozzle on the parameters of the fluid flow. A mathematical model that describes the fluid parameters during the flow in the nozzle has been modeled. The mathematical model for computer simulations in the Python languageis programmed. Meanwhile, a physical model was built with 3D printer technology. The results of the physical parameters of the fluid were measured in the physical model and were compared with the results of the mathematical simulation. For measuring parameters in the physical model the Labwiev software is used. The results of this comparison will give us the opportunity to simulate with the help of a mathematical model the performance of the nozzle for different geometric shapes of the fluid passage section. Meanwhile, we switched from the conical profile of the diffuser to the bell profile and studied the effects on the flow parameters.

Luis Lamani, Spartak Pocari
Decarbonization of the Industrial Sector in Albania. Problems and Challenges

Albania is a small and developing country with a fragile economy that relies mainly on the service sector, and industry and agriculture, which is facing many challenges in addressing the risks posed by climate change. In 2019 the service sector (represented by the subsectors of trade, transport, commercial activities, and telecommunication services) accounted for about 50% of the country's GDP; Industry and construction accounted for about 20% of GDP and the agriculture sector contributed to about 19% of the GDP. The structure of the industry sector in Albania shows that there are three main industry sectors that consume the highest percentage of energy: (1) food industry, (2) metal production and processing, (3) construction material sector. The National Strategy for Climate Change and Action Plan (NSCCAC) 2020–2030 is the main strategic document that addresses climate changes in Albania with objectives for 2050, approved in 2019. The focus of that strategy is climate change mitigation and adaptation in Albania. While progress has been made in the decarbonization of other sectors of the economy, the industrial sector, even at the European level, is considered the next front and the most expensive sector to decarbonize. Among the most effective measures for the decarbonization of this sector, mention: replacement of fossil fuels with non-hazardous waste in the Albanian cement industry, “electrification” of industrial processes, use of biomass and waste as a fuel, improvement of energy efficiency, application of the emissions trading system, the use of hydrogen as fuel, carbon capture and storage.

Majlinda Alcani, Elena Bebi, Ardit Gjeta, Altin Dorri
Analysis of Energy Audit in the Architectural Design Office Located in Tirana

Nowadays one of the important tasks in Albania is focusing on performing energy audit in residential buildings in Tirana. This can help to identify energy-saving opportunities and improve overall energy efficiency in residential buildings. Based on it, we have selected an architectural design office which is located close to the lake of Tirana. It is a new building and is constructed in 2009 where the Albanian law doesn’t exist for energy efficiency during this time. In this paper it will be analyzed all the collected data and identify areas where energy-saving measures can be implemented. Afterward the recommendations are based on potential energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and the building owner's goals which includes improving insulation, upgrading windows, optimizing Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems, adopting energy-efficient lighting, and implementing smart home technologies.

Klodian Dhoska, Elena Bebi, Irida Markja, Giorgio Mustafaraj
Energy Performance in the Industry Sector. Case Study of a Cast Iron Facility

The industrial sector plays a crucial role in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we investigate the energy performance of the cast iron industry, focusing on a comprehensive case study. The objective is to identify energy efficiency opportunities and propose strategies for optimizing energy consumption in this specific sector. Through extensive data collection and analysis, including energy audits and process evaluations, we assess the current energy usage patterns and identify areas of inefficiency within the cast iron industry. Key parameters such as energy intensity, specific energy consumption, and energy utilization efficiency are evaluated to provide a comprehensive overview. Our findings reveal significant energy conservation potential in various stages of the cast iron production process. We identify specific areas for improvement, such as the optimization of heating systems, utilization of waste heat recovery technologies, and implementation of energy management systems. Furthermore, we explore the economic feasibility and potential environmental benefits associated with these energy efficiency measures. The outcomes of this study provide valuable insights for policymakers, industry professionals, and researchers aiming to enhance energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The findings contribute to the development of targeted energy management strategies and facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable and energy-conscious cast iron industry.

Edmond Zeneli, Albert Shira, Amanda Shameti, Flamur Bidaj, Artan Hoxha
A Simplified Hydraulic Capacity-Sensitive Fluid Dynamics Numerical Model for Monitoring Aerospace Electro-Hydraulic Actuators

Detailed models are necessary to analyze individual components or subsystems when designing modern flight control systems. However, simpler models with sufficient accuracy are needed for preliminary layout, monitoring, diagnostics, or prognostic issues. Various simplified numerical solutions are available in the literature to simulate the fluid dynamic behaviors of a given valve geometry. These models typically calculate the differential pressure the valve regulates based on its spool opening and flow rate. In some specific applications, these models are unsuitable, requiring new simplified fluid dynamic models that calculate the flow rate delivered by the valve based on the spool displacement and differential pressure. This paper introduces a new synthetic fluid-dynamic valve model that considers the effects of spool position, hydraulic capacity, variable supply pressure, and leakage between the output ports that connect the valve to the motor element. Its advantages and disadvantages are evaluated by comparing it with other simplified numerical algorithms available in the literature, analyzing the corresponding fluid-dynamic characteristics, and comparing the behaviors simulating a typical flight control servomechanism.

Matteo D. L. Dalla Vedova, Parid Alimhillaj, Edmondo Minisci, Paolo Maggiore
Flow Induced Vibration Assessment of a Gas Piping System

Internal fluid flow within a piping system is known to create structural vibrations when forced to pass through directional changes, T-junctions, and piping systems with a varying pipe diameter. This paper presents a numerical application example where the flow induced vibrations (FIV) of a gas transmission system containing a flow control valve (FCV) are analysed using ANSYS CFD and FEA tools, considering a one-way fluid-structure interaction (FSI). To establish the variation of the flow behaviour due to the FCV presence, three specific base cases are considered, corresponding to the maximum, average and minimum pressure drops across the FCV, determining the effects of the corresponding fluid velocities on the vibrations created. The assessment is conducted in line with the provisions included in the Energy Institute guidelines to determine the likelihood of failure of the pipework as a result of the FIV.

Deborah Ibrahimi, George E. Varelis, Deng Peng, Graeme Campsie, Jeroen Hoefakker
Flow Induced Forces on Pipe Elbows

Internal flow in piping systems can be the source of significant forces of dynamic nature caused by variations of the flow characteristics along the length of the piping system and over time. The resulting Flow Induced Vibrations (FIVs) are often associated with fatigue failures. This paper attempts to establish a simple but robust approach to address FIV problems in piping systems resulting from complex flow-related phenomena, focusing on pipe elbows and single-phase flow conditions. The analysis approach presented in this study is numerical and it is based on a combination of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models with detailed finite element (FE) models of the geometries considered. The results obtained are used to establish analytical closed-form expressions to correlate the piping system’s primary geometrical characteristics with the maximum resulting flow-induced forces.

Lydia Lymperopoulou, George E. Varelis
The Influence of Thermodynamic Parameters on Internal Combustion Engines and the Graphical Presentation of Cycles Diagrams Using Matlab

In this paper, a software package written in Matlab that allows setting up the engine thermodynamic parameters of internal combustion engine cycles has been developed. A Matlab-based graphical user interface is used to assist the lecturer in reducing the efforts in teaching applications for the variation of engine parameters; it is also a perfect tool for graphical presentation. Students can also benefit from the program code, where they can solve examples and compare the results they will get manually while solving their project. To derive the engine cycle data, the engineering model is used with simplifications such as: a constant specific heat is assumed for the air in the model; the piston-cylinder coupling is accepted as a closed system; every process is internally reversible, including the compression and expansion processes; and kinetic and potential energy effects are negligible. An application has been made by using the software to demonstrate the effect of thermodynamic parameters on internal combustion engines, such as engine work output, cycle thermal efficiency, Carnot efficiency, etc., and the graphical presentations of cycle diagrams.

Ardit Gjeta, Majlinda Alcani, Altin Dorri
A New Approach for Drought Evaluation by Using the SPI Methodology

Drought management and its evaluation are directly related to the appropriate methodology used for such purposes. In this context, this paper aims to present a model recently developed that provides reliable outputs of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). The products obtained by applying this platform are computed based on monthly precipitation data from various meteorological stations, using at least a 30-year series. Additionally, the SPI values obtained are compared with other known software used in this field and analyzing as well as the errors produced by some factors to the final SPI model outputs. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient [ρ] between paired SPI series computed for the selected stations brings up the strength of the association between two SPI series produced by different models. It was computed also referring to different lengths of SPI data series, coming from each software, but for the same time frame of data. Also, to see and compare the product of 4 analyzed software has been calculated the Agreement Index [d], which is sensitive to differences between two variables. Furthermore, the new model provides data on the frequency of the SPI drought index and monthly precipitation, categorized and presented in graphs and various formats that are compatible and useful for other purposes.

Petrit Zorba, Elsuida Hoxha
Comparison of Different Energy Efficiency Techniques Applied to Building Envelope and Air Conditioning Plants

The building analyzed is a structure where the facades are made mainly by wood, while the remaining is concrete reinforced. Building is mainly naturally ventilated on perimetral parts, while the middle areas such as toilets, kitchen and stores are air conditioned. Different energy efficiency techniques were applied to building envelopes and HVAC plants to reduce energy usage by the facility. The aim of this work is to identify the appropriate techniques to be applied for reducing building electricity consumption. Furthermore, analysis will include economical comparisons of these techniques to identify the best ones in terms costs and electricity savings. Three techniques were selected such as: Heat Pump time turning ON/OFF and replacement of motors and light with high efficiency ones. In conclusion, after applying the selected most suitable energy efficiency techniques, yearly electricity savings was about 30%, which correspond to 28260 kWh.

Giorgio Mustafaraj, Klodian Dhoska

Management and Production

Evaluation of Surface Flatness and Roughness for Marble Products Produced with CNC Machining

Industrial parts quality manufactured with CNC machining is related to the cutting parameters, the material of the part, and the part geometry. Different materials behave differently according to the machining process. The widespread use of marble products for different applications for granite surface tables for CMMs, calibration reference gauges, and in-home furniture has led to revising the quality of these products produced from CNC machining processes. Four marble cubes 600 × 600 mm are produced with CNC milling with different parameters and will serve as specimens. Geometric tolerances define the deviation of different geometric elements more sophisticatedly than dimensional tolerances. This paper presents two methods for the evaluation of surface flatness and roughness by a limited number of measured points in manual and automated measurement methods with GD&T by 3D scanning technique. The results obtained indicate that surface roughness affects surface flatness measurements, by identifying the problem, and can help to find a relationship between the manufacturing process parameters and the quality of the parts.

Ilo Bodi, Erald Piperi, Mariel Hoxha, Jorgaq Kaçani
Multi-depth Camera Setup for Body Scanning

Recently the use of depth sensors in different areas of application related to 3D scanning has become a game changer when dealing with budgets. In these paper real-time object recognition and 3D data acquisition are obtained by estimating a depth map and RGB color data by so called RGB-D sensor. Real time acquisition can anticipate corrupted data scan and permitting the operator to intervene for the best 3D acquisition during scan. These studied tend to show the creation of a low-cost system based on multi-depth sensors and a rotary table to perform a full body scan in a single posture. The approach solution can be used for different applications such as avatar creation, 3D printed figurines, etc., when accuracy and resolution delivered by professional 3D body scanning systems is not the main attribute.

Erald Piperi, Ilo Bodi, Elidon Avrami
Experimental Investigation of Build Time During ABS Filament Material Extrusion Process

Filament material extrusion (f-ME) is a widespread process for thermoplastic prototypes or final parts, which is characterized as an additive manufacturing process, i.e., adding materials in layers utilizing the material extrusion mechanism. Build time is significant in this process and defines the productivity rates, energy and material consumption. In this work, is presented the study about the influence of deposition angle, layer thickness, infill ratio and infill pattern on process build time experimentally. The Taguchi experimental design was selected, and nine ABS (Acrylonitrile—Butadiene—Styrene) thermoplastics were 3D printed following the L9 experimental orthogonal array. The measured build time was analyzed by using analysis of means (ANOM) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques, followed by a validation experiment in optimal parameter combination. This research serves as a valuable source and comprehensive guide to 3D printing parameters selection in the filament ME process.

Aristidis Tsiolikas, Tatjana Spahiu, John D. Kechagias
The Effects of the Drill Microgeometry on the Induced Thrust Force and Cutting Torque

Microgeometry plays a key role in the performance of a drilling tool. In the present study, the performance of two twist drills is being evaluated in terms of the generated cutting force and torque. Both tools are ø8 TiAlN coated, carbide two-flute drills, with a point angle of 140°, as well as with equal flute length. A plate of Al7075 served as the workpiece and a CNC machine was utilized to perform two sets of holes, one for each of the tools. Despite the fact that both tools are coated, with identical helix and point angles, they performed in a dissimilar manner due to their different cutting profile. In specific, the comparison revealed that the tool with the larger cutting lip performed better in both output data, yielding lower force and torque values up to 23.1% and 17.3% respectively.

Anastasios Tzotzis, Athanasios Manavis, Ioannis Sarris, Panagiotis Kyratsis
CAD-Based Automated USV Hull Design

The unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) market is continuously growing due to the ever-increasing demand. Moreover, USVs are sophisticated products with a challenging design process. In this work, a CAD-based application is being presented that is able to automate the design process of a USV hull. Particularly, it is possible to either design a single piece or a batch of hull forms. The purpose of the batch design is to provide the user with a variety of test-pieces for comparing the most important geometric characteristics (buoyant volume and center of mass). By utilizing the methods that are available in the application programming interface (API) of SolidWorks™, the developed application can accept inputs in the form of a spreadsheet file, in order to automatically build a number of forms. The procedure is carried out according to variables that are used in the industry, such as the deadrise angles and the planning surface widths.

Anastasios Tzotzis, Nikolaos Efkolidis, César García-Hernández, Panagiotis Kyratsis

Material Science

Quality Control of the Steel Bar Production for Engineering Applications

Albania has one of the largest industries for several steel production facilities located in the Elbasan city. “Kurum” international ltd is the metallurgical industry that is focusing in production of the stainless steel. The production capacity is going around 700,000 of liquid steel every year. Most of the products have been imported to Bulgaria, Montenegro, Turkey, Kosovo, Serbia and Italy while 40% cover the needs of the domestic market. Due to the market needs, the scale and large production capacity has made the company to focused on production of the steel bar. For assuring the quality of the steel bar is needed quality control. Quality control is a crucial aspect of steel bar production to ensure that the produced bars meet the required standards and specifications. Based on it, our research work will be focused on the quality of control of the steel bar production.

Klodian Dhoska, Irida Markja, Elena Bebi, Brisilda Kaçorri, Agus Pramono
Asphalt Pavement Recycling Technology with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) According to the Standards EN 13108-8 and EN 13108-1

Asphalt recycling technology is a method used to repair roads at a lower cost and with a lower environmental impact than conventional methods. The technology of recycling can reduce the use of new paving materials by recycling the recycled asphalt layer, called Reclaimed Asphalt Paving (“RAP”) which is generated when roads are repaired, to produce recycled asphalt mixtures and use these mixtures again for road paving. RAP material is the main component of new recycled asphalt mixes, the characteristics of this material must be in accordance with the National and European specifications (EN 13108-8). One of the characteristics of RAP material is its heterogeneity. Thus, the RAP material used in the laboratory is reduced by quaternization, according to EN 932-1 and EN 932-2 standards, in order to obtain samples that accurately represent the studied RAP. In this work, it is described the recycling of asphalt, where its improvement has the purpose of re-use in road paving projects. The set of laboratory analyses control performed gives us the necessary data which determine the characteristics of the reclaimed asphalt pavement. With the obtained mass of the recycled asphalt, we performed the tests for the evaluation of density, stability and Marshall Flow test. Form the results that we compared to the existing asphalt, we can conclude that the Reclaimed Asphalt Paving (“RAP”) processed asphalt is a very good and profitable alternative for road paving projects.

Irida Markja, Klodian Dhoska, Mentor Fraholli, Giorgio Mustafaraj, Blerta Ahmetaj, Dervish Elezi


Path Planning Algorithms of the Mobile Robots Control

The purpose of this paper is to provide a complete analysis and comparison of the most used algorithms to plan the trajectories of mobile robots. By examining the principles, functions, and applications of these algorithms, it is intended to see their particular advantages and limitations. Each algorithm is analyzed in detail, including basic principles, mathematical fundamentals, and applications in the real world. Further, a comparative analysis has been developed, assessing algorithms based on various criteria, such as performance, applicability, limitations, computational requirements, and suitability. By examining these factors, we aim to provide a thorough understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. There are a wide range of algorithms and models available for controlling mobile robots. Depending on the specific application needs, various algorithms such as A*, RERT, Pure Pursuit, MPC, etc., as well as mathematical and Artificial Intelligence-based models for robot control, object tracking, obstacle avoidance, and many more can be used.

Arbnor Pajaziti, Lavdrim Panxha, Xhevahir Bajrami, Shaban Buza, Mirlind Bruqi
Design and Fabrication of the Remote-Control Field Mobile Robot

The purpose of this paper is to build a mobile robot for spraying trees with pesticides and mowing grass remotely controlled, based on the analysis of international best practices argued. To carry out this work, the following three phases have been applied. The first phase deals with the selection of the literature was to determine the field of study. The selection of literature is spread over a considerable number of different authors. The second phase includes the data collection from references by different authors. The third phase includes data analysis. To achieve the objectives set in this work, we have relied on the method of analysis and synthesis, where the collected data is structured according to the work’s requirements and then processed and we have reached the objectives of the paper.

Arbnor Pajaziti, Faruk Selmani, Shaban Buza, Xhevahir Bajrami, Ramë Likaj, Afrim Gjelaj

Textiles (Garments, Footwear, and Leather)

Resource Efficiency and Clean Production Assessment for the Albanian Textile Manufacturing Sector

There are different methods and tools for the Resource efficiency and Cleaner Production measurements introduced. The resource efficiency is defined as the ratio of a benefit to its use of natural resources. The benefit can be a specific product or service or described by a function or functional unit. Natural resources include renewable and non-renewable primary raw materials, energy, air, water, surface area and soil, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The natural resources of primary raw materials, energy, water and surface area are predominantly relevant for businesses. The proportion of materials cost for the textile sector in Albania, is 44.8% compared to 41%, the proportion of the material cost in the manufacturing sector in general, according to the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. This illustrates that enterprises are significantly impacted by their material costs and economic success hinges on price increases in the raw material market. The resource efficiency assessment under this paper has been completed under the one and half year project of the Textile and Fashion Department with UNIDO and Swedish Embassy. The procedure for implementing resource efficiency measures is divided into five steps analysis, solution development, evaluation, implementation and control. Six manufacturing enterprises in the garment and footwear production have been identified and assessed with some important KPIs. 29 measures have been suggested for the six companies giving the savings amount and the investment payback period.

Ermira Shehi, Elmira Dumishllari, Tatiana Chernyavskaya
The Perception of Athleisure Trend for a Denim Brand: The Case of Mavi

The pandemic period and its aftermath have led to a shift in the interaction between work, home, and social activities, resulting in the adoption of a more flexible lifestyle. Consequently, this change has also influenced daily clothing preferences. Furthermore, an increased tendency towards engaging in physical activities in outdoor environments has been observed following prolonged periods spent indoors for work and home life. This has facilitated the emergence of comfort, functionality, and multitasking features as fundamental needs in clothing preferences. Additionally, the growing inclination towards sports and physical activities has necessitated the incorporation of protective qualities in garments against environmental conditions. Thus, the concept of Athleisure clothing has emerged as a combination of daily, sportswear, and active attire, meeting the requirements of comfort and style for both sports and casual wear. Athleisure clothing represents a mega trend, which offers versatile garments that can be worn in various life domains. The primary objective is to provide users with clothing items that allow multiple applications. Thus, functionality takes precedence in clothing products. In this context, the purpose of this study is to conduct an in-depth examination of the design, fabric, and accessory characteristics of the collections created for Mavi, a denim brand, drawing inspiration from the Athleisure mega trend. Within the scope of the research, the innovative aspects, design qualities, as well as research and development studies of outerwear, knitwear, woven, and activewear product groups have been examined in line with the determined objectives. The necessary data for the research were obtained through source (visuals, text, products) review, and an observation-based content analysis method was employed. The products produced by Mavi within the context of the Athleisure trend were visually examined, and the details of the product development process were conveyed. The study will provide valuable insights into how leading fashion brands incorporate current trends into their collections.

Özgür Ceylan, Nesligül Kiliç, Özgen Özturan, Cihad Sünbül, Özge Polat
The Use of Innovative 3D Simulation Tools in Fashion Boutiques

Technological advancements occurring worldwide have also influenced the fashion and textile industry. This rapidly evolving landscape, which is readily reflected in design and production processes, indicates the industry’s openness to innovative developments. Particularly in garment design, traditional hand drawings have been replaced by tablets and computers. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) and Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software are extensively utilized in the sector. CAD/CAM software can be categorized into two-dimensional systems (such as Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, CorelDraw) and three-dimensional systems (such as Optitex, Vidya (Assyst), V-Stitcher/Gerber, Modaris/Lectra). Additionally, there has been a recent emergence of three-dimensional garment simulation software products (such as CLO 3D, Marvelous Designer, Style 3D). The utilization of these software applications minimizes the time spent in the design process and reduces error margins by enabling pre-production checks of designs. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the utilization of 3D simulation software in the fashion and textile sector within the context of personalized production carried out by small-scale enterprises. Considering that the design and production processes of these boutique enterprises significantly differ from those of ready-to-wear businesses, this research will provide valuable insights into the integration of 3D simulation software into their relevant operations.

Nesligül Kiliç, Özgür Ceylan
Encouraging 3D Virtual Design in Fashion Education: Best Practices

This paper presents the outcomes obtained from a first interaction experience, in which third year fashion students were invited to explore and use 3D virtual prototyping technology tools to develop their ideas. Tools like 2D CAD pattern design and 3D clothing design software were introduced and specific fashion-design tasks were performed during their learning process throughout a spring semester of twelve weeks. Participants were then asked to resolve these tasks resorting to the tools presented and integrate them into the fashion design project by exploring and experimenting their potential uses. The result demonstrated that fashion students acknowledged the potentiality of these technology tools for their subject’s project, showed dedication, perseverance and teamwork, overcame the barriers and challenges of the lack of efficient use in 3D virtual prototyping and did not resort to traditional methods of developing and communicating their projects with pen/marker and paper in two dimensions. Lectures’ structure was tailored to students’ strengths and interests with an aim to ignite curiosity. They were encouraged to leverage the use of any available 3D digital design tool by questioning the presented-during lectures-advantages and by building their existing skills with new ones in digital environments. A selected best practice of a fashion collection development through 3D-design and visualisation is presented in this paper.

Evridiki Papachristou, Nefeli Zolota-Tatsi
Enhancing Realism in Cloth Simulation: A Review of Methods and Issues

In the pursuit of high-quality clothed model animations, the accurate assessment of simulated garment and fabric properties is important. This task is particularly challenging due to the complexity of cloth as an anisotropic material, resulting in a range of evaluation approaches. Moreover, the physical material parameters must align with simulation program requirements. Recent advancements in simulation systems have enabled the representation of dynamically moving garments, meeting industry expectations. However, these developments have posed new challenges for fabric characterization, necessitating enhancements in fabric measurement methods and parameter derivation. This review explores the evolving field of 3D simulation tools and their pivotal role in visualizing and manipulating virtual garment representations. These simulations strive to replicate real-world behavior by considering various physical parameters, such as tensile strength and flexural stiffness, bridging the gap between traditional material testing methods and advanced simulation software.

Lilia Sabantina
Comparison of a Computer-Aided Design and Manual Pattern-Making

Innovation and trends are constantly needed for businesses to grow. For the garment industry Computer-aided design (CAD) is incredibly helpful since it can significantly improve production, reduce costs, and boost profit margins. CAD systems are exploited during the pattern-making process for pattern drafting, pattern grading, and marker creation. The aim of this paper is the compare manual and computer construction of different designs of women’s dresses, as well as the difference in construction time and how CAD technology increases productivity and reduces construction time. It was obtained that CAD construction (with AccuMark computer software) is 5 times quicker than manual construction. Also, the conclusion is that as opposed to manual pattern making CAD software gives patterns with a higher level of pattern accuracy since the product lines and curves are considerably more accurate. Additionally, the process of grading sizes and including seam allowances in patterns is quick, precise, and simple to change.

Maja Jankoska, Ruzica Stevkovska Stojanovska
Contamination Threshold Values for Textile Recycling

Post-consumer textile recycling promises to reduce the amount of textile waste deposed at landfills and incinerated as thermal recycling. It can close loops within the apparel industry and reduce the amount of land and water usage for the production of virgin fibers for new textiles and garments. Despite the ad-vantages of textile recycling, currently only a small percentage of post-consumer textile waste is recycled worldwide. This figure is even less for fiber-to-fiber recycling for new apparel. Multiple recycling technologies are available today, some established, others still at pilot scale, with different requirements about input-materials and acceptable threshold values for contaminants. The following paper examinates typical contaminants found in garments and their threshold values for different recycling technologies.

Tanita Behrendt, Elisabeth Eppinger
The Effect of Aluminum Mordant on the Colour Fastness of Fabrics Made of Cellulose Fibres When Dyeing with Onion Peels

Natural dyes have become an alternative option for textile dyeing. In the present study, the extract of on-ion (Allium cepa) peels, as food industry waste, was investigated as a natural textile dye. The aim of the study is to compare the colour fastness indicators of cellulosic fabrics dyed with the extract of onion peels, pre-treated with the alum mordant and without pre-treatment. Three different fabrics have been chosen for the study: 100% cotton, 100% linen, and cotton/linen blend. All researched fabrics are dyed in the same conditions. There are two different samples of each fabric. One sample of fabric is dyed, and another is pre-treated with alum mordant before dyeing. Different colour fastness tests were performed on all samples: the colour fastness to rubbing, perspiration, washing and daylight. All tests were performed and evaluated according to ISO standards.

Diana Tuulik, Merje Beilmann
The Influence of Bio-Innovative Pretreatment to Cotton Fabric Whiteness

Raw cotton fabric contains added and non-cellulosic impurities, including starch and pigments, which are responsible for its yellow color. To remove the impurities in the raw cotton fabric with maximum efficiency, save energy and minimize the environmental impact, bio-innovative pretreatment and oxi-dative percarbonate bleaching were performed. The fabrics were desized with the enzyme α-amilase and bio-scoured with an enzyme complex containing neutral pectinase, followed by bleaching with an unconventional bleaching agent, percarbonate, at 60 and 90 °C. Since the main purpose of the pretreatment is to prepare the fabric for further processing with as little damage as possible, mechanical damage and hydrophilicity were measured using standard methods. Subsequently, the cotton fabrics were optically brightened in a wide range of concentrations and the spectrophotometrically determined values for whiteness, yellowing and tinting of the fabric were analyzed. The obtained results confirmed that the bio-innovative pretreatment has good efficiency and percarbonate provides good whiteness and absorption to achieve excellent whiteness.

Anita Tarbuk, Tihana Dekanić, Franka Karin, Irena Šabarić
Data-Driven Multi-scale Numerical Homogenization

Homogenization for complex, nonlinear materials, including composites and textiles, is considered. The effect of the microstructure, including nonlinearity, for various loadings is transferred to the homogenized medium through the Representative Volume Element technique. The classical approach through nested finite element analysis, the so-called FEM2 method, is very expensive. Data-driven techniques have been proposed, where the homogenization is replaced by a surrogate model based on data generated through selected numerical or physical experiments. An artificial neural network surrogate constitutive model leads to a FEANN method. Furthermore data-driven solution methods have been recently proposed, as a development of the LATIN iterative method. A short review of recent contributions is presented, with examples from composites, including woven composites and auxetics. Research topics will be discussed, including the development of Physics Informed Neural Network surrogates.

Georgios E. Stavroulakis, Eleftheria Bletsogianni
Auxetics, Theory and Textile Applications

Auxetic materials are characterized by unusual elastic behaviour, which means that when expanded in a specific direction, there are expanded in the perpendicular direction. This unique characteristic is derived from the various shapes of auxetic structures that are often characterized by complex 3D geometries. Aux-etic materials have enchanted mechanical properties such as fracture resistance, high energy absorption, and formability. Due to their advances, auxetic materials may be used in textile design and fabrication. In current manuscript the star shape auxetic microstructure in woven fabrics is studied. The results illustrate the behaviour of the auxetic microstructure in both tensile and compressive loadings. When comparing the results of the auxetic microstructure with those of the solid textile material, it is evident that the applied stresses show a more uniform distribution across the entire surface.

Ioannis Ntintakis, Georgios E. Stavroulakis, Stavros Karathanasopoulos
Electrospun Nanofiber Mats for Mammalian Cell Growth

Electrospinning can be used to prepare nanofiber mats from diverse polymers, polymer blends and embedded nanoparticles. Especially nanofiber mats from biopolymers promote cell growth for wound healing, tissue engineering or other biotechnological applications. These materials, however, are often not stable at high temperatures, which makes sterilization challenging. The paper discusses sterilization methods, a comparison of different biopolymer blends for cell growth, and the influence of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation (VUV) and plasma treatment on cell growth and adhesion on electrospun nanofiber mats. This mini-review thus serves as a base for researchers working on the improvement of nanofiber mats for mammalian cell growth, giving some general ideas as well as interesting special findings.

Andrea Ehrmann
Assessment of Silk Quality in the Shkodra Region of Albania: A Study on Physico-Mechanical Properties

This article focuses on a thorough investigation of the mechanical characteristics of silk produced in the Shkodra region, which was formerly well-known for its silkworm farming. A key determinant of silk’s quality and suitability for many uses, including textiles and fashion, are its mechanical qualities. Three different samples, each with a different number of filaments, are examined as part of the inquiry. The analysis's findings show that silk has linear density ranging from 0.251 to 0.57 [Tex] and tenacity ranging from 0.223 to 0.280 [N/Tex]; comparable to theoretical values of silk filaments. The study highlights the significance of silk production as a social and economic opportunity as well as a vital aspect of preserving the cultural heritage of the region.

Ilda Kola, Blerina Kolgjini, Suela Ademi
Characterization of Electrical Conductivity and Electrical Heating of RGO/MWCNT Coated Nonwoven Fabrics

In this study, the light-weight and flexible reduced graphene oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotube coated nonwoven fabrics were obtained by a facile and scalable blade coating technique. The polypropylene and polyester spunbond nonwoven fabric with mass per unit area of 25 g/m2 were coated with a water based-graphene oxide coating paste. Afterwards, the reduction process with L-ascorbic acid was applied to turn graphene oxide into electrically conductive reduced graphene oxide form. In addition, graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube nanocomposite coating formulations were also applied to the nonwoven fabrics to investigate the effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the heating property. The obtained reduced graphene oxide-coated nonwoven textiles with and without multi-walled carbon nanotube were characterized by means of FTIR and DSC. The electrical conductivity and heating property of coated nonwoven fabrics were examined. The heating test results revealed that the coating of polypropylene nonwoven fabric with reduced graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube was increased the surface temperature by 20.2 K and 38.6 K at 20 V, respectively.

Nergis Demirel Gültekin, Özgen Özturan, İsmail Usta
Polypyrrole Treated Leather and Triboelectricity

Leather has been used for various applications for thousands of years and it remains popular today for the making of apparel, footwear, furniture and accessories, thanks to its durability, flexibility and good insulation. But beyond its traditional properties, leather can also accept conducting polymers to enrich its electrical properties. In this study, leather samples were treated with polypyrrole to increase their electrical conductivity. Their triboelectric potentials were studied using a measuring triboelectric generator which combines sliding and vertical contact motions. The results were characterized by low voltages in the range of 53 mV to 115 mV. Thus it was seen that the hereby applied in situ polymerization of pyrrole on leather did not provide significant triboelectric outcomes. The polypyrrole treated leather samples which underwent the double in situ polymerization provided slighter lower voltages. This study constitutes a trigger for further research on the area of the triboelectric potentials of leather.

Aristeidis Repoulias, Majlinda Hylli, Ilda Kazani, Sotiria F. Galata, Sindi Cela, Savvas Vassiliadis
Proceedings of the Joint International Conference: 10th Textile Conference and 4th Conference on Engineering and Entrepreneurship
herausgegeben von
Genti Guxho
Tatjana Kosova Spahiu
Valma Prifti
Ardit Gjeta
Eralda Xhafka
Anis Sulejmani
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN


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