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Über dieses Buch

Third International Conference on Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Computing – ITC 2012. ITC 2012 will be held during Aug 03-04, 2012, Kochi, India. ITC 2012, is to bring together innovative academics and industrial experts in the field of Computer Science, Information Technology, Computational Engineering, and Communication to a common forum. The primary goal of the conference is to promote research and developmental activities in Computer Science, Information Technology, Computational Engineering, and Communication. Another goal is to promote scientific information interchange between researchers, developers, engineers, students, and practitioners.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Full Papers

Chapter 1. High Through-Put VLSI Architecture for FFT Computation

Parallel-prefix adders (also known as carry tree adders) are known to have the best Performance in VLSI designs. The Design of the three types of carry-tree adders namely Kogge-Stone, sparse Kogge-Stone, and spanning carry look ahead adder is done and compares them to the simple Ripple Carry Adder (RCA). These designs of varied bit-widths were implemented on a Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA and power measurements were made with LIBRO. Due to the presence of a fast carry-chain, the RCA designs exhibit better delay performance up to 128 bits. The carry-tree adders are expected to have a speed advantage over the RCA as bit widths approach 256. An Efficient FFT is designed by implementing the adder which consumes low power is replaced in the adder module of FFT.

S. SreenathKashyap

Chapter 2. Formal Approach to Reliability Improvement with Model Checker

Since the 1960s, Fault Tree Analysis has been extensively used in Safety Engineering and Reliability Engineering, and other methodologies have been proposed. We study reliability analysis with formal methods. Fault tree analysis is one of the most popular methods of reliability analysis. With this, one analyzes the causes of a fault in a top-down manner. Model checking is an automatic verification method and has recently become popular. In this paper, we incorporate model checking into the fault tree analysis and show a case study of a pressure tank control system. Moreover, we propose a formal approach for introducing a fault detection mechanism. We show an example of a fault detection mechanism in the pressure tank control system, in which it is implemented using a set of lights to check electric current. We successfully show that model checking can evaluate the effectiveness of the fault detection mechanism.

Kazuhiro Yamada, Shin-ya Nishizaki

Chapter 3. DDoS Attacks Defense System Using Information Metrics

A Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack is a distributed, coordinated attack on the availability of services of a target system or network that is launched indirectly through many compromised computing systems. A low-rate DDoS attack is an intelligent attack that the attacker can send attack packets to the victim at a sufficiently low rate to elude current anomaly-based detection. An information metric can quantify the differences of network traffic with various probability distributions. In this paper, an anomaly-based approach using two new information metrics such as the generalized entropy metric and the information distance metric, to detect low-rate DDoS attacks by measuring the difference between legitimate traffic and attack traffic is proposed. DDoS attacks detection metric is combined with IP traceback algorithm to form an effective collaborative defense mechanism against DDoS attacks.

P. C. Senthilmahesh, S. Hemalatha, P. Rodrigues, A. Shanthakumari

Chapter 4. CEAR: Cluster based Energy Aware Routing Algorithm to Maximize Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Technological development in wireless communication enables the development of smart, tiny, low cost and low power sensor nodes to outperform for various applications in Wireless Sensor Networks. In the existing Tabu search algorithm, clusters are formed using initial solution algorithm to conserve energy. We propose a Cluster Based Energy Aware Routing (CEAR) algorithm to maximize energy conservation and lifetime of network with active and sleep nodes. The proposed algorithm, removes duplication of data through aggregation at the cluster heads with active and sleep modes. A comparative study of CEAR algorithm with Tabu search algorithm is obtained. Comparative study shows improvement in the Lifetime and energy conservation by 17 and 22 % respectively over the existing algorithm.

H. Sivasankari, R. Leelavathi, M. Vallabh, K. R. Venugopal, S. S. Iyengar, L. M. Patnaik

Chapter 5. TGAR: Trust Dependent Greedy Anti-Void Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), energy and reliable data delivery are two major issues. Sending data from source to destination without void problem is an objective of any routing algorithm. The existing Greedy Anti-void Routing (GAR) uses the Rolling ball Undirected Traversal to guarantee the packet delivery from source to the destination. In the case of sparse network when it encounters an obstacle in the route it fails to deliver the data. To address this issue, we propose Trust dependent Greedy Anti-void Routing (TGAR) to find the reliable path from source to sink. We use Bayesian estimation model to calculate the trust value for the entire path. Simulation results show that TGAR achieves successful data delivery and energy conservation in sparse networks when compared with the existing Greedy Anti-void Routing (GAR) Algorithm.

H. Sivasankari, R. Aparna, K. R. Venugopal, S. S. Iyengar, L. M. Patnaik

Chapter 6. DoS Attack-Resistant Framework for Client/Server Intelligent Computing

Nowadays, the client/server model is a representative distributed computing model, its most typical use being for web systems. The services provided by web applications are continually being developed to provide higher-level functions, which is creating the danger of Denial-of-Service attacks. We therefore propose a DoS attack-resistant framework using the client–server model. The focal point of this research is load reduction of the servers through hint information sent from clients to servers. We made a script generator that generates server-side and client-side scripts from one common script code. We implemented two client–server systems using the proposed script generator and evaluated the efficiency of the systems developed by the proposed framework.

Shintaro Tabata, Shin-ya Nishizaki

Chapter 7. Effect of Forwarding Strategy on the Life Time of Multi-Hop Multi-Sink Sensor Networks

Lifetime of a sensor network can be extended by judicious energy expenditure. Energy consumed is primarily a function of inter-nodal distance and thus effect of forwarding technique can no longer be overlooked while trying to enhance the lifetime of sensor network. Lifetime of a network has been defined differently in different papers depending upon the nature and application of the sensor network under consideration. In this paper we have proposed a forwarding scheme and have compared the same with greedy forwarding and residual energy based forwarding while finding the lifetime for the sensor network.

Kaushik Ghosh, Pradip K. Das

Chapter 8. Concept Similarity and Cosine Similarity Result Merging Approaches in Metasearch Engine

Metasearch engines provide a uniform query interface for Internet users to search for information. Depending on users need, they select relevant sources and map user queries into the target search engines, subsequently merging the results. In this paper, we have proposed a metasearch engine, which have two unique steps (1) searching through surface and deep web, and (2) Ranking the results through the designed ranking algorithm. Initially, the query given by the user is given to the surface and deep search engines. Here, the surface search engines like Google, Bing and Yahoo are considered. At the same time, the deep search engine such as, Infomine, Incywincy and CompletePlanet are considered. The proposed method will use two distinct algorithms for ranking the search results, which are concept similarity and cosine similarity.

K. Srinivas, A. Govardhan, V. Valli Kumari, P. V. S. Srinivas

Chapter 9. Aspect Dependency Analyzer Framework for Aspect Oriented Requirements

Aspect Oriented Software Development (AOSD) is an emerging software development technology that seeks new modularizations of software systems in order to isolate broadly based functions from the main program’s business logic. AOSD permits multiple concerns to be expressed separately and automatically unified into working systems. However, the complexity of interactions between aspects and base modules and among different aspects may reduce the value of aspect-oriented separation of cross-cutting concerns. This framework exploits the dependencies generated by the operators such as before, after, around and replace. It uses the specification of composition of aspects and if a conflicting situation emerges in a match point, it uses dominant candidate aspects to produce rules for composition which may be used to guide the process of composition. The proposed work generates a composition rule for each match point.

K. Santhi, G. Zayaraz, V. Vijayalakshmi

Chapter 10. Hybrid Extremal Optimization and Glowworm Swarm Optimization

Glowworm Swarm Optimization algorithm is applied for the simultaneous capture of multiple optima of multimodal functions. In this paper, we have attempted to create a Hybrid Extremal Glowworm Swarm Optimization (HEGSO) algorithm. Aiming at the glowworm swarm optimization algorithm is easy to fall into local optima, having low accuracy, and to be unable to find the best local optima. However for solving these problems, the present algorithm has been increased the probability of choosing the best local optima. Moreover we want to use this method to have a best movement for agents in Glow worm optimization algorithm. Simulation and comparison based on several well-studied benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness, efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithms.

Niusha Ghandehari, Elham Miranian, Mojtaba Maddahi

Chapter 11. Implementation of New Technique for the Capacity Improvement in Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks

In WDM network, the multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC-RWA) problem is for maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for minimizing the call blocking probability. In this technique, the incoming traffic is sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junction nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final destinations. Then, paths from source node to each of the destination nodes and the potential paths are divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. By simulation results, it is proved that the proposed technique achieves higher throughput and bandwidth utilization with reduced delay.

N. Kaliammal, G. Gurusamy

Chapter 12. A Comparative Review of Contention-Aware Scheduling Algorithms to Avoid Contention in Multicore Systems

Contention for shared resources on multicore processors is an emerging issue of great concern, as it affects directly performance of multicore CPU systems. In this regard, Contention-Aware scheduling algorithms provide a convenient and promising solution, aiming to reduce contention. By providing a collection of the scheduling methods proposed by latest research, this paper focuses on reviewing the challenges on solving the contention problem for UMA(Uniform Memory Access latency, single memory controller) and NUMA(Non Uniform Memory Access latencies, multiple memory controllers) types of system architectures. In this paper, we also provide a comparative evaluation of the solutions applicable to UMA systems which are the most extensively studied today, discussing their features, strengths and weaknesses. This paper aims to propose further improvements to these algorithms aiming to solve more efficiently the contention problem, considering that performance-asymmetric architectures may provide a cost-effective solution.

Genti Daci, Megi Tartari

Chapter 13. Developing Embedded Systems from Formal Specifications Written in Temporal Logic

We propose a semi-automatic method for developing embedded systems using program code extraction from formal specifications written in temporal logic. This method consists of the following four steps. (1) Write a formal specification for a system. (2) Refine the specification to adapt to the structure and function of the hardware. (3) Obtain a transition system representing a program from the refined specification. (4) Assign program codes to atomic propositions used in the specification, and convert the transition system to the program. As a case study to demonstrate that the proposed method is practical, we generate a program which controls a robot as a line tracer.

Shigeki Hagihara, Takahiro Arai, Masaya Shimakawa, Naoki Yonezaki

Chapter 14. Network Log Clustering Using K-Means Algorithm

Network attacks are a serious issue in today’s network environment. The different network security alert system analyse network log files to detect these attacks. Clustering is useful for wide variety of real time applications dealing with large amount of data. Clustering divides the raw data into clusters. These clusters contain data points which have similarity between themselves and dissimilarity with other cluster data points. If these clusters are given to these security alert systems, they will take less time in analysis as the data will be grouped according to the criteria the security system needs. This can be done by using k means clustering algorithm. In this first number of clusters are selected and then centroids are initialized. Then data points are assigned to the cluster with nearest centroid and mean of the centroid is calculated. This step is repeated till no data points are left. The objective is to cluster the network data log so as to make it easier for different security alert systems to analyse the data and detect network attacks.

Preeti Sharma, Thaksen J. Parvat

Chapter 15. Improvement Public Key Kerberos Using Identity-Based Signcryption

Several proposals have been developed that add public key cryptography to various stages of Kerberos to make the protocol work with large user communities and Public Key Infrastructures (PKI). But a man-in-the-middle attack on PKINIT allows an attacker to impersonate Kerberos administrative principals and end-servers to a client, hence breaching the authentication guarantees of Kerberos. It also gives the attacker the keys which an Authentication Server (AS) normally generates to encrypt the service requests of this client, hence defeating confidentiality as well. In this paper we provide alternative approach as Public crypto system instead of traditional public key infrastructure. This paper proposed used identity-based signcryption in Kerberos, that is eliminate need to public key certification that used in PKI by used identity of user as public key, and prevent the men-in-the-middle attacker from obtain the authentication key or impersonate Kerberos administrative principals. The identity-based signcryption used to sign and encrypt the message in a same algorithm in order to achieve authentication and confidentiality, also to avoid modified it during transmission.

Hussein Khalid Abd-Alrazzaq

Chapter 16. Intrusion Detection Using Keystroke Dynamics

In an effort to confront the challenges brought forward by the increased need for access control, we present an improved technique for authorized access to computer system resources and data via keystroke dynamics. A database of keystrokes of login ids and passwords collected from 38 users is constructed. From the samples collected, signatures were formed using three membership functions of Fuzzy Logic. Users were authenticated by comparing the typing pattern to their respective signatures. We have included the usage of the SHIFT and the CAPS LOCK keys as part of the feature sets. We analyzed the performance of the three membership functions of Fuzzy Logic based on features like FAR and FRR to evaluate the efficiency of the detection algorithms. The paper presents the results of the analysis thereby providing an inexpensive method of intrusion detection as compared to other behavioral biometric methods.

Mahalaxmi Sridhar, Teby Abraham, Johnelle Rebello, Winchell D’souza, Alishia D’Souza

Chapter 17. MRI–PET Medical Image Fusion Technique by Combining Contourlet and Wavelet Transform

This paper proposes the application of the hybrid Multiscale transform in medical image fusion. The multimodality medical image fusion plays an important role in clinical applications which can support more accurate information for physicians to diagnosis diseases. In this paper, a new fusion scheme for Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images based on hybrid transforms is proposed. PET/MRI medical image fusion has important clinical significance. Medical image fusion is the important step after registration, which is an integrative display method of two images. The PET image indicates the brain function and a low spatial resolution; MRI image shows the brain tissue anatomy and contains no functional information. Hence, a perfect fused image should contains both more functional information and more spatial characteristics with no spatial and color distortion. Firstly, the image is decomposed into high and low frequency subband coefficients with discrete wavelet transform (DWT). On these coefficients apply contourlet transform individually before going for fusion process. Later the fusion process is performed on contourlet components for each subband, for fusion the spatial frequency method is used. Finally, the proposed algorithm results are compared with different Multiscale transform techniques. According to simulation results, the algorithm holds useful information from source images.

Ch. Hima Bindu, K. Satya Prasad

Chapter 18. Comparison of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

In case of wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, routing protocols plays very important role. Routing protocols like AODV and DSDV are the protocols which are used for the high mobility to improve packet delivery ratio. AODV and DSDV are compared in this paper in terms of throughput, end to end delay and packet delivery ratio varying number of nodes, speed and time. In case of DSDV, routing protocol routing table at node is required to maintain which will not be the need in case of AODV. DSDV Routing protocol consumes more bandwidth, because of High mobility results in frequent link failures and the overhead involved in updating all the nodes with the new routing information. AODV use on-demand route discovery, but with different routing mechanisms. Our simulation result in NS-2 shows the performance of AODV is better under high mobility than DSDV.

Shubhangi M. Mahamuni, Vivekanand Mishra, Vijay M. Wadhai

Chapter 19. Analysis of Image Segmentation Algorithms Using MATLAB

Image segmentation has played an important role in computer vision especially for human tracking. The result of image segmentation is a set of segments that collectively cover the entire image or a set of contours extracted from the image. Its accuracy but very elusive is very crucial in areas as medical, remote sensing and image retrieval where it may contribute to save, sustain and protect human life. This paper presents the analysis and implementation using MATLAB features and one best result can be selected for any algorithm using the subjective evaluation. We considered the techniques under the following five groups: Edge-based, Clustering-based, Region-based, Threshold-based and Graph-based.

Sumita Verma, Deepika Khare, Ravindra Gupta, Gajendra Singh Chandel

Chapter 20. Tumor Mass Identification Based on Surface Analysis and Fractal Dimensions

In present paper we have utilized wavelet transform and fractal dimensions to analyze tumor mass for breast cancer screening using mammogram. Boundary based features from shape of the tumor have taken into consideration as these represent one of the very important property for tumor mass analysis. In present work surface analysis using imaging of tumor mass for analysis of the lesions has been accomplished.

Medhavi Verma, Mahua Bhattacharya

Chapter 21. Mean-Shift Algorithm: Verilog HDL Approach

The abstract should summarize the contents of the paper and should Object tracking algorithms, when it comes to implementing it on hardware ASIC, it becomes difficult task, due to certain limitations in hardware. This paper shows how mean- shift algorithm is implemented in HDL along with the description of ports and interfaces.

Rahul V. Shah, Amit Jain, Rutul B. Bhatt, Pinal Engineer, Ekata Mehul

Chapter 22. Optimal Node Selection Using Estimated Data Accuracy Model in Wireless Sensor Networks

One of the major tasks of wireless sensor network is to sense accurate data from the physical environment. Hence in this paper, we propose a new methodology called Estimated Data Accuracy Model (EDAM) for randomly deployed sensor nodes which can sense more accurate data from the physical environment. We compare our results with other information accuracy models which show that EDAM performs better than the other models. Moreover we simulate EDAM under such situation where some of the sensor nodes become malicious due to extreme physical environment. Finally using our propose model, we construct a probabilistic approach for selecting an optimal set of sensor nodes from the randomly deployed maximal set of sensor nodes in the network.

Jyotirmoy Karjee, H. S. Jamadagni

Chapter 23. Improvement of system stability margins using coordination control of Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC)

The Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator (TCSC) and Static Var Compensator (SVC) are variable impedance Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) Controllers. A combination of the TCSC and the SVC installation is proposed to acquire superior performance for the power system. The coordination between the two pieces of equipment is designed with the SVC treated as the supplement of the TCSC. When operation of the TCSC is constrained by the inherent limitation of equipment, such as due to the firing-angle limitation of the thyristors, the adjustable SVC can supply the auxiliary support to improve the overall performance. The voltage and angle stability margins can be greatly improved with the compatible control schemes of the TCSC and the SVC.

Venu Yarlagadda, K. R. M. Rao, B. V. Sankar Ram

Chapter 24. Effect of Parasitics of Feed-Forward Compensated OTA on Active-RC Integrators

This paper analyzes the effect of parasitics of the Operational transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) on Active-RC Integrators. The analysis is carried out for an Active-RC integrator built around a feed-forward compensated OTA designed in 180 nm CMOS technology to operate at a supply voltage of 0.5 V. A non-ideality factor (NIF) has been defined that accounts for the deviation of the response of the Active-RC integrator from the ideal. Simulations performed on the transistor level integrator justifies the mathematical analysis presented.

S. Rekha, T. Laxminidhi

Chapter 25. Modeling of Photovoltaic Charging System for the Battery Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) requires energy harvesters to reduce the frequent replacement of the motes on field. This paper presents the modeling and design of a Solar Photovoltaic Charging (SPC) system with Incremental Conductance algorithm and Boost converter. Modeling of the chosen PV module (950 mW) is done and the characteristics are analyzed. The working of the Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) is checked under arbitrarily varying irradiance and temperature conditions. The generated energy is stored in the 4.8 V, 150 mA NiMH battery. In this paper, mathematical modeling of WSN mote as a resistor based on the energy consumption of the mote in the active and sleep state is proposed. Series Charge regulation is used to improve the battery lifetime. The entire SPC system is developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

R. Hemalatha, R. Ramaprabha, S. Radha

Chapter 26. Torque Computation of Induction Motor with VVVF Drive Subjected to Severe Torque Fluctuation

Load with severe torque fluctuations can be driven by an induction motor with control of input frequency using VVVF inverters. Situation of rise in load torque can be met by reduction in frequency at that instant. Situation of sudden reduction in load torque can be met by increase in frequency, at that instant. This paper deals with computations for such cases using the graphical relation between torque and speed, finally leading to a plot of instantaneous motor torque as a function of time.

M. V. Palandurkar, J. P. Modak, S. G. Tarnekar

Chapter 27. Performance Analysis of Different Current Controllers for Active Power Filter

Power Quality issues are becoming a major concern for today’s power system engineers. Large scale incorporation of non-linear loads has the potential to raise harmonic voltages and currents in an electrical distribution system to unacceptable high levels that can adversely affect the system. Active power filter (APF) based on power electronic technology is currently considered as the most competitive equipment for mitigation of harmonics and reactive power simultaneously. Instantaneous power theory is used for generation of reference current. This paper presents a comparative study of the performance of three current control strategies namely ramp comparison method, hysteresis current controller (HCC) and Adaptive hysteresis current controller (AHCC) is carried out and superiority of AHCC is established. Simulation results for all the method are presented using MATLAB/SIMULINK power system toolbox demonstrating the effectiveness of using adaptive hysteresis band.

Dipti A. Tamboli, D. R. Patil

Chapter 28. Optimum LQR Switching Approach for the Improvement of STATCOM Performance

Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is a device capable of solving the power quality problems in the power system. These problems happen in milliseconds and because of the time limitation; it requires the STATCOM that has continuous reactive power control with fast response. In this paper, an optimum Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) switching approach for STATCOM control is introduced to improve the performance by achieving the optimum performance between peak overshoot and settling time. Results are compared with the earlier conventional LQR approaches.

L. Yathisha, S. Patil Kulkarni

Chapter 29. Squirrel Cage Rotor Design for Safety and Reliability Improvement of a Three Phase Induction Machine

This paper presents design of a squirrel cage rotor for safety and reliability improvement a three phase induction machine. Induction motor with designed rotor is capable for use in overloading conditions. Presented rotor design reduces problems related to temperature rise, tooth pulsation loss, cooling, vibration, crawling, cogging and voltage ripples in three phase induction machine. This design reduces pulsation loss, unbalanced magnetic pull and noise in the machine with increase in the air gap length. Overload capacity and reliability improves with increase the air gap length of the machine.

Lokesh Varshney, Vikas Varshney, Albert Newwel, R. K. Saket

Chapter 30. Experimental Validation and Performance Comparison of Multi-Loop MPPT Controlled PV Systems on Low to High End Controllers

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is used in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power, irrespective of the temperature, irradiation conditions and load electrical characteristics. A new PV MPPT control system is developed, consisting of a flyback topology based DC–DC converter controlled by a DSP. In this proposed system a multi-loop control scheme is implemented to control the flyback converter. The system is highly effective for low power applications and can be easily modified to handle various energy sources (e.g., wind-generators). The proposed multi-loop control system is implemented on low to high-end controllers and their performances are compared. Experimental results describe the performance of the proposed design prototype are in agreement with the simulation results. 8-bit microcontroller NXP89V51RD2, 16 bit DSP TMS320LF2401A, 32 bit DSP TMS320F28027 and 32-bit DSP with floating point unit TMS320F28069 are used to realized this proposed design.

Atul Gupta, Venu Uppuluri Srinivasa, Ankit Soni

Chapter 31. Effect of Temperature on Si-Ge Hetero-Gate Raised Buried Oxide Drain Tunnel FET Electrical Parameters

The effect of temperature on SiGe hetero-gate raised buried oxide drain Tunnel FET electrical parameters like tunnelling bandgap, threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, etc. are discussed in this paper. A modified SOI based Silicon hetero-gate TFET structure has been used. The proposed device is almost free from short channel effects. The simulation is performed using Synopsys 2D TCAD tools where non local band-to-band tunnelling is applied.

Monalisa das, Brinda Bhowmick

Chapter 32. A Novel Inverter Topology for Low Power Drives

This paper presents a novel topology to a low cost converter which drives a spindle motor at high speed with high starting torque utilizing the bipolar starting and unipolar running algorithm. This topology is simple and developed with only eight switches in the converter to drive the spindle motor at high speed with high starting torque. The proposed scheme has been simulated on MATLAB/SIMULINK platform, the results are presented and discussed.

G. Nageswara Rao, K. Chandra Sekhar, P. Sangameswara Raju

Chapter 33. Enhancement of ATC in Presence of SSSC Using Linear and Reactive Methods

Fast, accurate algorithms to compute network capabilities are indispensable for transfer-based electricity markets. Available Transfer Capability (ATC) is a measure of the remaining power transfer capability of the transmission network for further transactions. Transmission System Operators (TSOs) are encouraged to use the existing facilities more efficiently. One of the limitations of reactive ATC is the error produced by neglecting the effect of reactive power flows in line loading. This paper presents the determination of shunt reactive power compensation with Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices, the Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) to improve the transfer capability of a power system incorporating the Linear and Reactive power flows in ATC calculations. By redistributing the power flow, the ATC is improved. Studies on a sample 5-bus power system model are presented to illustrate the effect of shunt compensation along with line flow control.

Y. Chittemma, S. Lalitha kumari, A. Varaprasad Rao

Chapter 34. Improvement of Power Quality and Performance Analysis of PV Fed UPQC in Utility Connected System

This study presents a combined operation of the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) with Photovoltaic cell system. The proposed system consists of a series inverter, a shunt inverter and a battery connected Photovoltaic array which is connected with the DC link of UPQC through a boost converter. The proposed system compensates the voltage sag, voltage swell, voltage interruption, harmonics, real and reactive power compensation. PV fed UPQC system is simulated in single phase 14-bus and three phase single bus system. The proposed system is validated with the results of computer simulation and hardware implementation. Sag is created by applying heavy load and swell occurs during light load conditions. These power quality problems are compensated with the help of UPQC fed Photovoltaic arrays.

S. Balasubramaniyan, T. S. Sivakumaran, Thulasidharan, D. Balamurugan

Chapter 35. Design of Adaptive FLANN Based Model for Non-Linear Channel Equalization

Wireless Communication systems require the most efficient techniques for reception of error-less data with high data rate. The channels introduce both linear and non-linear distortions. ISI plays a major role in this field. Also these channels contaminate the received sequence with random fluctuation. In this paper, an adaptive algorithm based on FLANN has been developed for channel equalization with analysis of MSE. The FLANN is developed with LMS technique as well as sign regressor based LMS technique and the results are compared. Also the result is compared with the standard adaptive LMS algorithm. The signed FLANN based model shows better performance as compared to LMS based FLANN model.

Sidhartha Dash, Santanu Kumar Sahoo, Mihir Narayan Mohanty

Chapter 36. A Security Framework for DDoS Detection In MANETs

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) adopts distributed wireless communication without a centralised control. It is more vulnerable to Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service attacks due to dynamic topology, limited physical security and decentralized approach. These attacks may collapse the entire communication networks. The detection of such attacks will improve the network security. This paper produces some clarification and a framework based on the Cluster Analysis to identify and to isolate the attacker from the network for detecting DDoS attack. The traffic is involved for XOR Marking to differentiate legitimate and non-legitimate data packets. Thus origin nodes of DDoS attacks are traced and isolated. Preliminary experiments are done with 2000 DARPA Intrusion Detection Scenario Specific Data Set to evaluate our method. The experimental results show that the proposed system is effective and efficient to identify DDoS attack.

P. Devi, A. Kannammal

Short Papers

Frontmatter

Chapter 37. Optimal and Robust Framework for Enhancing Network Lifetime Using Power Efficient AODV in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

The proposed system highlights one of the novel approach of enhancing the cumulative lifetime of mobile adhoc network on the backbone of most frequently deployed AODV routing strategies. MANET system is always associated with the design constraint from unwanted power drainage during communication. The proposed system considers the intermediate mobile nodes as vital factor which estimates the current mean power of the cumulative network as comparison threshold in order to evaluate the response of route request message along with impact of the proposed system towards the routing performances. Experimented in NS2, the proposed system shows optimal throughputs which can be definitely used for optimizing the energy on overloaded nodes in MANET and enhance the cumulative network lifetime extensively.

Bhagyashree Ambore, R. Suma, Jitendranath Mungara

Chapter 38. Voice Transformation Using Radial Basis Function

This paper presents novel technique of voice transformation (VT), which transform the individual acoustic characteristics of the source speaker so that it is perceived as if spoken like target speaker. Using features namely line spectral pairs (LSP) and pitch as spectral and glottal parameters of the source speaker are transformed into target speaker parameters using radial basis function (RBF). The results are evaluated using subjective and objective measures based on voice quality method. The listening tests prove that the proposed algorithm converts speaker individuality while maintaining high speech quality.

J. H. Nirmal, Suparva Patnaik, Mukesh A. Zaveri

Chapter 39. IPTC Based Ontological Representation of Educational News RSS Feeds

In order to make online news retrieval more appropriate in respect to end user, it is necessary to make machines aware of a greater part of the underlying semantics. Ontology will help to realize this future of web. In this paper, we have worked upon how to represent Educational News RSS Feeds by using an ontological structure. We are also incorporating International Press Telecommunication Council (IPTC) standards in our design since IPTC has proposed various standards for news industry to make the system more interoperable. Our main objective is to make a structure which can satisfy the specific demands of various categories of end users of the Educational domain. Designed ontology is then tested to meet various criteria mentioned in the paper.

Shikha Agarwal, Archana Singhal, Punam Bedi

Chapter 40. Design of Optimized Modular Multiplier Using Montgomery Algorithm for RSA Cryptosystem

Modular multiplication plays a vital role in RSA Cryptography and Elliptical Curve Cryptography. We have implemented a 256-bit Modular multiplier using Montgomery Reduction Algorithm in VHDL. The output of the Montgomery multiplier is Z = X*Y R

−1

mod M. Our main aim is to calculate the area required for the modular multiplier using Montgomery reduction algorithm. It is a full-featured circuit including Carry save Adders, shift registers, multiplexers, parallel registers component and are too big to fit into a single Altera Stratix Device on the Field Programmable platform, so that we are unable to test them in real hardware. However, each sub-component was simulated in Model-Sim SE 6.0 and Altera Quartus II 8.0 and proved functionally correct.

Sandip Kakde, Pravin Zode, Pradnya Zode

Chapter 41. Automatic Generation of P2P Botnet Network Attack Graph

Attack Graph is a useful representation to reflect attack route existing in network, because it reflects the life path of attack vulnerabilities. As P2P (peer to peer) roBotNetwork (Botnet) has a unique distributed and coordinated attacking behavior, it is difficult to detect its traces. In order to detect and mitigate P2P botnet attack, it is necessary to consider (i) all the hosts in the network as victim of attackers (ii) network-level information which carries malicious programs and commands. Traditional attack graph generation techniques generally have limitations such as time complexity, high space requirement and scalability of network attack graphs. This paper propose an idea to build an efficient botnet detection system model for automatically generating and analyzing network attack graph for P2P botnet using host-level and network-level information.

K. Muthumanickam, E. Ilavarasan

Chapter 42. Parallelization of Fractal Image Compression Over CUDA

Fractal Image Compression has been a promising scheme to allow for substantially high compression ratios for image compression. Several algorithms have been proposed based on this scheme. But the enormous amount of computing and therefore the long runtime needed to encode the image makes these algorithms impractical for commercial purposes especially on personal computers. Recently most of the personal computers & laptops are being shipped in with dedicated graphic processing units (GPU). In this paper we present an approach to parallelize the Fractal Encoding Scheme over GPU using CUDA. This makes fractal image compression feasible for personal computers.

Shazeb Nawaz Khan, Nadeem Akhtar

Chapter 43. Distributed Shared Files Management

Most often file sharing is the common and basic requirement of any domain. Users can use a system that connects to all the peers in the network to access the shared files. Files of interest can then be downloaded directly from the users in the network.

Saurabh Malgaonkar, Sakshi Surve

Chapter 44. Trusted Computing Architecture for Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) Optimization

The Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) is the most secured and recommended protocol for wireless networks today. WPA2 addressed the vulnerabilities of previous protocols wired equivalent privacy (WEP) and Wi-Fi protected access (WPA). WPA2 implemented block cipher AES to provide stronger encryption but it is still vulnerable to various attacks due to transmission of unencrypted management and control frames and group key sharing among peers connected to wireless network. With the rapid popularity of wireless networks, secure transmission of data is extremely essential. The solution for WPA2 shortcomings has been proposed and implemented in this paper and thus, provides protection to wireless networks from several attacks.

Swati Sukhija, Shilpi Gupta

Chapter 45. Parallel Pseudo-Exhaustive and Low Power Delay Testing of VLSI Systems

The aim of the paper is to conduct parallel delay testing of modules with different input capacities in a SOC, using mutual BIST pattern generator; especially iterative system realisations well suited for VLSI fabrication technologies. The quality of timing optimised and high performance digital VLSI systems is assured only through delay testing. A unique accumulator based Iterative Pseudo-Exhaustive Two-Pattern (IPET) generator for parallel delay BIST is presented. Generally, the accumulator belongs to the data-path of the SOC. Hence, IPET test can be generated using micro-code self-test strategy. Reduced hardware overhead due to accumulator based design and test time due to parallelism is found to be beneficial. A CMOS implementation of Low Power Architecture for delay testing is carried out, which reduces test power and test time. These architectures can be used as efficient chip-level designs for high speed and low power BIST of SOCs.

Deepa Jose, P. Nirmal Kumar

Chapter 46. An Algorithm for Traffic Analysis Using RFID Technology

In this paper, we presented a method for analyzing traffic on roads by using recent sophisticated technology, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). First, we gave a brief look at what is RF technology and how to setup readers on roadside for reading the tags. Initially each vehicle is tagged and when it is passed through the RF reader range, the tag data is read by reader. We proposed Traffic Analysis algorithm works at centralized system based on all reader’s data. Algorithm itself had three modules. First module for reading data, second module is about analyzing traffic at a particular reader and third module is for analyzing traffic in between readers.

RamaKrishna Kothamasu, Rajesh Madugula, Priti Kumari

Chapter 47. Trust-Based Grid Resource Management

Grid Resource Management and security issues have become critically important with the fast expansion of grid systems. The present day research is moving towards achieving a secured architecture for resource management in Grid System. We hereby, through this paper, wish to present a secured grid resource management for global grids by addition of a trust-based layer whereby allowing grid resource to enter the commercial area, wherein it shall help the grid consumer in Decision Making, as the system will offer only those gird resources which assure of a high degree of trust relationship of grid resource provider. For the successful deployment of a Grid infrastructure, it is essential to access and make maximum use of the resources that are available on the Grid and this is possible only if the secured resources can be tracked effectively and efficiently. It is achieved by presenting a secured Grid Resource Management System based on Trust-Management System.

Damandeep Kaur, Jyotsna SenGupta

Chapter 48. Switch Line Fault Diagnosis in FPGA Interconnects Using Line Tracing Approach

This paper aims at fault detection and location in interconnect of a Field Programmable gate array. We discuss the testing of interconnect types like single lines, double lines, global interconnect, Long length lines, switching matrices, Buffer drivers, Quad lines and direct lines. The proposed testing scheme uses a test manager which defines a part of the chip as the pattern generator and the other half as response analyzer. The chip is reconfigured several times to cover all portions of interconnect. The outcome of each reconfiguration is a bit which provides a pass or fail result. Testing is done in two phases, phase one involves several reconfigurations intended to detect various faults in the interconnect structure. The test manager provides the required test sequence in each configuration. This phase involves extensively testing the complete interconnect structure for all possible faults namely, configurable interconnection points struck on, configurable interconnection points struck off, wire struck-at-1, wire struck-at-0, two adjacent wires short and wires open.

Shilpa Dandoti, V. D. Mytri

Chapter 49. An Approach to Encryption Using Superior Fractal Sets

The voluminous digital data exchange between various computers has introduced large amount of security vulnerabilities. Encryption schemes have been increasingly studied to meet the demand for real-time secure transmission of data over the Internet and through wireless networks. In this paper, we try to study a new cryptographic key exchange protocol based on superior Mandelbrot and Superior Julia sets. In this study we analyze a cryptographic system utilizing fractal theories; this approach uses concept of public key cryptography by taking advantage of the connection of Superior Julia and Superior Mandelbrot sets. This paper exploits the main feature of public key security.

Charu Gupta, Manish Kumar

Chapter 50. Shape Based Image Retrieval Using Gradient Operators and Block Truncation Coding

The need of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) arises because of digital era. It is very much required in the field of radiology to find the similar diagnostic images, in advertising to find the relevant stock, for cataloging in the field of geology, art and fashion. In CBIR, the set of image database is stored in terms of features where feature of an image can be calculated based on different criteria like shape, color, texture and spatial locations etc. Among three features shape is the prominent feature and helps to identify the image correctly. In this paper, we are proposing Shape Based Image Retrieval (SBIR) to retrieve shape features extracted using gradient operators and Block Truncation Coding (BTC). BTC improves the edge maps obtained using gradient masks like Robert, Sobel, Prewitt and Canny. The proposed image retrieval techniques are tested on generic image database with 1000 images spread across 10 categories. The average precision and recall of all queries are computed and considered for performance analysis. Among all the considered gradient operators for shape extraction “shape mask with BTC CBIR techniques” give better results. The performance ranking of the masks for proposed image retrieval methods can be listed as Canny (best performance), Prewitt, Sobel and lastly the Robert.

Padmashree Desai, Jagadeesh Pujari

Chapter 51. Performance Evaluation of TCP Congestion Control Variants Using Dynamic State Routing In Wireless Ad-hoc Network

A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure. TCP/IP protocol plays an important role in developing communication systems and providing better and reliable communication capabilities in almost all networking environment. The paper aims to investigate the performance of the TCP congestion control variants in MANET and its behaviour with respect to Dynamic State Routing. TCP optimization in MANETs is a challenging issue because of some unique characteristics of congestion control. The results presented in this paper clearly indicate that the Dynamic State Routing achieves maximum throughput, higher packet delivery ratio and less average end to end delay when TCP congestion control agent used is TCP Vegas.

Mayank Kumar Goyal, Yatendra Kumar Verma, Paras Bassi, Paurush Kumar Misra

Chapter 52. Security Based Requirements Engineering for E-Voting System

The election process is in need of secured electronic system that voters can rely on and have trust. Unfortunately, a recent study revealed that various E-Voting Systems show serious specification, design, and implementation flaws. When system is being built, tasks such as Security Requirements Elicitation, Specification and Validation are essential to assure the Quality of the resulting secure E-Voting System. In this paper we propose, to adopt Security Requirements Engineering in the early phases of E-Voting System development and consider the Security requirements as functional requirements. This helps in standardizing the Security Requirements for secure E-Voting System with completeness.

P. Salini, S. Kanmani

Chapter 53. Analysis of 3 Dimensional Object Watermarking Techniques

Due to the explosive growth of Internet and the development of digital content designing and processing techniques, many valuable materials can be represented in digital forms for exhibition and access via Internet. Due to the characteristics of easy duplication and modification of digital contents, it is necessary to develop a variety of watermarking techniques for various protection purposes such as ownership claiming and authentication. In this survey paper, we examine 3D model watermarking technologies developed over the last decade. We classify various algorithms into two classes: robust watermarking and fragile watermarking.

Deepika Khare, Sumita Verma, Ravindra Gupta, Gajendra Singh Chandel

Chapter 54. Graph Based Approach for Heart Disease Prediction

The diagnosis of Disease is a significant and tedious task in Medicine. The detection of heart disease from various factors or symptoms is a multilayered issue which is not free from false presumptions often accompanied by unpredictable effects. Thus the attempt to exploit knowledge and experience of several specialists and clinical screening of data of patients collected in data bases to facilitate the diagnosis process is considered a good option. The health care industry collects huge amounts of health care data which unfortunately are not mined, to discover hidden information for effective decision making. Discovery of hidden patterns and relationships often goes unexploited. Advanced data mining techniques can help remedy this situation. Weighted association rule mining is the most useful data mining technique. Weighted association rules are association rules with weights or strength of presence. As data mining techniques are being introduced and widely applied to nontraditional item sets, existing approaches for finding frequent item sets were out of data as they cannot satisfy the requirement of these domains. Hence, an alternative method of modeling the objects in the said data set is graph. Graph based algorithms efficiently solve the problem of mining association rules. In this paper we propose an efficient algorithm which integrates weighted association rule mining and graph based approach for heart disease prediction for Andhra Pradesh population.

M. A. Jabbar, B. L. Deekshatulu, Priti Chandra

Chapter 55. Elimination of Black Hole and False Data Injection Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are currently being used in a wide range of applications that demand high security requirements. Since sensor network is highly resource constrained, providing security becomes a challenging issue. Attacks must be detected and eliminated from the network as early as possible to enhance the rate of successful transactions. In this paper, we propose to eliminate Black Hole and False Data Injection attacks initiated by the compromised inside nodes and outside malicious nodes respectively using a new acknowledge scheme with low overhead. Simulation results show that our scheme can successfully identify and eliminate 100 % black hole nodes and ensures more than 99 % packet delivery with increased network traffic.

R. Tanuja, M. K. Rekha, S. H. Manjula, K. R. Venugopal, S. S. Iyengar, L. M. Patnaik

Chapter 56. An Efficient Algorithm for Finding Frequent Sequential Traversal Patterns from Web Logs Based on Dynamic Weight Constraint

Many frequent sequential traversal pattern mining algorithms have been developed which mine the set of frequent subsequences traversal pattern satisfying a minimum support constraint in a session database. However, previous frequent sequential traversal pattern mining algorithms give equal weightage to sequential traversal patterns while the pages in sequential traversal patterns have different importance and have different weightage. Another main problem in most of the frequent sequential traversal pattern mining algorithms is that they produce a large number of sequential traversal patterns when a minimum support is lowered and they do not provide alternative ways to adjust the number of sequential traversal patterns other than increasing the minimum support. In this paper, we propose a frequent sequential traversal pattern mining algorithm with weights constraint. Our main approach is to add the weight constraints into the sequential traversal pattern while maintaining the downward closure property. A weight range is defined to maintain the downward closure property and pages are given different weights and traversal sequences assign a minimum and maximum weight. In scanning a session database, a maximum and minimum weight in the session database is used to prune infrequent sequential traversal subsequence by doing downward closure property can be maintained.

Rahul Moriwal, Vijay Prakash

Chapter 57. A Blind Watermarking Algorithm for Audio Signals Based on Singular Value Decomposition

This paper proposes a blind digital watermarking scheme for audio signals based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Quantization Index Modulation (QIM). The process involves a watermark using a binary image file which has been readjusted using Arnold Transform before being embedded into the host signal. Synchronization code is embedded into the audio signal so that the watermark has the capability of self-synchronization against attacks. Experimentation is done to check the robustness of the proposed scheme in the presence of various attacks. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme provides good imperceptibility and robustness under various signal processing attacks.

Ankit Murarka, Anshul Vashist, Malay Kishore Dutta

Chapter 58. Performance Evaluation of Web Browsers in Android

In this day and age, smart phones are fast becoming ubiquitous. They have evolved from their traditional use of solely being a device for communication between people, to a multipurpose device. With the advent of Android smart phones, the number of people accessing the Internet through their mobile phones is on a steep rise. Hence, web browsers play a major role in providing a highly enjoyable browsing experience for its users. As such, the objective of this paper is to analyze the performance of five major mobile web browsers available in the Android platform. In this paper, we present the results of a study conducted based on several parameters that assess these mobile browsers’ functionalities. Based on this evaluation, we also propose the best among these browsers to further enrich user experience of mobile web browsing along with utmost performance.

E Harsha Prabha, Dhivya Piraviperumal, Dinesh Naik, Sowmya Kamath, Gaurav Prasad

Chapter 59. FPGA Triggered Space Vector Modulated Voltage Source Inverter Using MATLAB/System Generator®

This paper involves the digital implementation of Space Vector Modulation (SVM) for a 3-phase Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). The System Generator (SG), which links both Xilinx and MATLAB, is used for constructing the Xilinx modules for the procedural implementation of the SVM. The SG converts the Matlab simulation of SVM done using Xilinx Blockset, into the corresponding Very High-Speed Integrated circuits Hardware Descriptive Language (VHDL) code. This VHDL code is compiled in Xilinx and the subsequent bit file generated, is loaded into the PROM of SPARTAN XILINX FPGA XCS3500e FG320. On execution of the bit file, the firing pulses are generated, which are applied to the VSI with Induction Motor Load.

L. A. Abishek Rajaraman, P. Ganesh, P. Geeth Prajwal Reddy, M. Senthil Kumaran

Chapter 60. Face Recognition Using PCA and Bit-Plane Slicing

The objective of the paper is face recognition using PCA and Bit plane slicing. It made a study on the dimensionality reduction on bit plane of images for face recognition. The proposed frame work would aid in robust design of face recognition system and addressed the challenging issues like pose and expression variation on ORL face database. It is in contrast to PCA on the image the design of PCA on bit plane reduces computation complexity and also reduces time. In the proposed frame work image is decomposed with the help of bit plane slicing, the feature have been extracted from the principle component analysis (PCA).

T. Srinivas, P. Sandeep Mohan, R. Shiva Shankar, Ch. Surender Reddy, P. V. Naganjaneyulu

Chapter 61. Operational Analysis, Performance Evaluation and Simulation of Solar Cell Powered Embedded EZ-Source Inverter Fed Induction Motor

This paper presents the operational analysis and performance evaluation of solar cell powered embedded EZ-source inverter fed induction motor. Embedded EZ-source inverter (EZSI) produces the same voltage gain as Z-source inverter (ZSI) but due to the DC sources embedded within the X-shaped impedance network it has the added advantage of inherent source filtering capability and also reduced capacitor sizing. This is attained without any extra passive filters. These advantages are significant for applications like photo electric and wind electric system. The operational analysis and simulation results exemplify that an EZSI is the most promising technique for renewable energy applications in order to reduce the overall system complexity and thereby improving the inverter efficiency.

K. C. R. Nisha, T. N. Basavaraj

Chapter 62. Advanced DSP Based PLC Modem Over DC Lines for Real-Time Remote Monitoring of PV Plant Parameters

Photovoltaic plants are becoming an inevitable option to meet the present energy requirements. This gives rise to the need of a smart monitoring system which can remotely provide real-time reliable information of each and every panel to the plant operators. Real-time monitoring at such a vast scale can be a great boon to the investors in improving the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) plants as it can help to predict some basic faults in the individual panels, monitor their performance and suggesting corrective maintenance actions right away. In this paper, a remote monitoring system design using highly efficient low cost DSP’s is proposed which implements Power Line Communication (PLC) concept over DC lines. It minimizes the use of any significant analog circuitry and discards the use of any separate dedicated cables for communication, thus making the system robust and significantly cheaper.

Atul Gupta, Venu Uppuluri Srinivasa, Devendra Paranjape, Nikhil Kashyap

Chapter 63. Digital Security with Thermal Dorsal Hand Vein Patterns Using Morphological Techniques

Many biometrics such as face, finger prints and Iris have been developed extensively for human identification purpose and also to provide authentic input to many security systems in the past few decades. However verification using vein patterns of hand is less evolved and developed compared to other human traits. A new personal verification system using the thermal imaged vein pattern in the back of the hand that is the dorsal part is proposed in this paper. The hand vein pattern images are acquired using thermal tracer, enhanced using normalization and vein patterns are extracted using locally adaptive thresholding and skeletonization techniques. Similarity has been checked using Euclidean distance measure.

V. K. Sree, P. S. Rao

Chapter 64. Design of a Two Phase Inverter for a Specific Two Phase Induction Motor Through MATLAB Simulation

In this paper operation of two phase VSI supplying a two phase balanced cage induction motor is simulated using MATLAB simulation. The concept of switching function is used for simulation of balanced two phase motor for the first time. The simulation results give information regarding the voltages and currents of the various switches of the inverter have to withstand and hence help in choosing components with proper ratings for a specific motor for a two phase motor drive.

A. Y. Fadnis, R. M. Mohoril, D. R. Tutakne, Gaurav Gondhalekar

Chapter 65. Artificial Neural Network Based Power System Stability Analysis

In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach for the analysis of a power system stability has been proposed and proved to be effective. Here the main consideration is the power system voltage stability i.e. static voltage stability. With instance of 9-Bus [

3

] power system, also worked on IEEE-57 Bus [

4

] system and it is verified that the method is effective for power system voltage stability assessment.[

3

,

4

,

8

] The implementation of these structures is shown through Mat lab and by the use of ANN approach [

5

,

6

] and the above two methods are compared for the test system. The network would be a useful tool to assess power system voltage stability quickly.

S. Kumari Lalitha, Y. Chittemma

Poster Papers

Frontmatter

Chapter 66. Efficient Bandwidth Utilization in Client–Server Models

The amount of data sent in the network conspicuously affects the network performance and it also adds significant latency to the applications. Various data compression techniques have been in use for decades providing both storage efficiency as well as transmission efficiency. For applications that communicate over a network with limited bandwidth, efficient bandwidth utilization not only depends on the amount of data sent in the network, but also on the number of calls made between the applications, especially in client–server models. Therefore something apart from the techniques of data compression has to be ordained to achieve the latter. Mitigating the number of calls made between the client and the server should not affect the data consistency between them, thereby making the applications unreliable. I propose a model to be incorporated in the client–server frameworks to achieve efficient bandwidth utilization, by constricting the number of calls made between the two applications, and also the amount of data sent. Since there is a considerable amount of information sent on each call, reduction in the number of calls results in a substantial reduction in data transmissions. The information sent on each call, not only refer to the TCP/IP setup, but also the server’s original response to a request from another client. I confer the “eBUCS” protocol, which will be intricately tied up with the client–server frameworks, and also the scenarios under which the protocol will limit itself in order to avoid its adverse effects on the latency.

Alex Antony Arokiaraj

Chapter 67. Vlsi Approach for Four Quadrant Analog Multiplier for 2.4 Ghz to 2.5 Ghz

Wireless communication world is revolutionized because of the design of the multiplier in the 2.4–2.5 GHz band because of the unlicensed use of the frequency band to the entire user. Multiplier is a key block of analog communication system. Multiplier mixes the signals of different frequencies or signals of different types, to strength signal for long distance communication, which emphasises the designing of more efficient and low power mixers or multipliers for RF applications. MOS RF (radio frequency) multiplier with reduces on chip area operate at ISM Band frequency with high linearity. A 2.4–2.50 GHz band (ISM BAND) multiplier designed and simulated on tanner tool 13. The simulations results presented here are for 1–10 GHz. The circuit is implemented using 180 nm level 3 models and simulated in TSPICE simulator. The transistor operating in linear region reduces the drain current and also the power consumption with large input range. Power consumption is reduces to 68.57 μW.

Sanjay Tembhurne, L. P. Thakare

Chapter 68. Intelligent Enterprise Application Servers: A Vision for Self-Managing Performance

The recent trends in computing are posing performance challenges to Enterprise Application Server environments. Such emerging challenges triggered the development of self-managing and self-correcting computing and application server systems. There are attempts in building self-correcting Application Servers such as Web, EJB Servers. But majority of such mechanisms are solutions to specific components of the Application Servers. In this paper a vision of an Intelligent Enterprise Application Servers is discussed and intelligent control system based framework is proposed.

G. Ravi Kumar, C. Muthusamy, A. Vinaya Babu

Chapter 69. A Review of Disc Scrubbing and Intra Disk Redundancy for Reducing Data Loss in Disk FileSystems

Because of high demand that applications and new technologies have today for data storage capacity, more disk drives are needed, resulting in increased probability to inaccessible sectors, referred as Latent Sector Errors. Aiming to reduce data loss by LSE, two main techniques are extensively studied lately: Disk Scrubbing, which performs reading operations during idle periods on systems to search for errors and Intra Disk Redundancy which is based on redundancy codes. Based on previous evaluation results, we discuss and introduce the benefits on using both schemes simultaneously: combining different IDR coding schemes with different scrubbing strategies in particular regions that store crucial data. Finally, we apply a dynamic scheduling algorithm for a minimum impact on system performance.

Genti Daci, Aisa Bezhani

Chapter 70. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Energy Schemes for Hierarchical Cluster Based Routing Protocols in WSN: A Survey

Recent technological advances in WSN’s have led to so many new hierarchical cluster based protocols especially designed for sensor networks where energy metric is essentially concerned to increase the network life time. Therefore the energy of the sensor node is a crucial parameter in the protocol design to increase the lifetime of a sensor node in the network. In this concern much research already done in recent years, analysis different aspects like as, energy efficiency, power consumption, routing, Quality-of-service, cluster formation and so on. Each routing protocol is examined and explore under hierarchal type. In this paper we mainly focus on surveying hierarchal cluster based routing protocols for two different environments such as homogeneous and heterogeneous.

M. Jagadeeswara Reddy, P. Suman Prakash, P. Chenna Reddy

Chapter 71. Itinerary Management System

Usually, individual tourists tend to plan their itinerary well ahead they arrive, either through tourist guide or online information sources. With the enhancement of information technology, it is expected that mobile computed itinerary planning would be a complete supplementary to the hard copy travel guides and magazines in the future. However, current online itinerary planner overlooks the transportation link and optimum travel plan. It is this place where this paper plays its role. This paper aims to develop a guiding solution based on the B+ Trees Algorithm that helps in preparing an itinerary for tourists visiting any city on an individual basis. Our aim is to minimize the travelling time and maximize the time of sightseeing, shortest travelling time between tourist spots.

Janhavi Baikerikar, Saket Bhat, Vaibhav Baliga, Alfred Almeida, Abhay Tripathi, Lionel D‘souza

Chapter 72. Trust and Reliability Based Scheduling Algorithm for Cloud IaaS

Trust Models are used to enhance secure and reliable scheduling in Distributed, Grid and Cloud environment. Trust models that are being proposed or implemented in Distributed and Grid environment, does not fully fit in cloud computing environment. Since the parameters that have being taken into consideration in these trust models, does not fit in the cloud Infrastructure As A Service, a suitable trust model is proposed based on the existing model that is suitable for trust value management for the cloud IaaS parameters. Based on the above achieved trust values, a scheduling algorithm is also proposed that may further enhance the QOS of services been provided to the users.

Punit Gupta, Mayank Kumar Goyal, Prakash Kumar, Alok Aggarwal

Chapter 73. Hybrid Covert Channel an Obliterate for Information Hiding

In a prisoners’ problem there are two individuals attempt to communicate covertly without alerting a “warden” who controls the communications channel. This problem becomes more or less difficult because of various assumptions or requirements. One assumption which makes the problem considerably more manageable is that the participants are allowed to share some secret information such as an encryption key prior to imprisonment. Another assumption, which makes the problem much more difficult, is that the warden be allowed to modify as well as read the messages sent between the prisoners. This paper describes Hybrid Covert Channel techniques, in which no secret information needs to be shared before imprisonment. In this case if the warden is not allowed to modify the contents of the channel, a modification of an existing protocol will be shown to admit pure steganography. Then, a technique is described that allows pure steganography between two prisoners in the presence of an active content-modifying warden. This technique is possible through the use of two distinct channels rather than one: the subliminal channel for steganographic communication which is augmented by a supraliminal channel, one in which information is not hidden from the warden but cannot be modified.

Rajeshwari Goudar, Pournima More

Chapter 74. Steganography and Its Technique: Technical Overview

This paper is basically overview on the steganography. In this paper, we mainly present current, past and future work done in the field of steganography. Here we give a brief description on different techniques that are being used in steganography. These techniques do also have different types which are briefly explained here. This paper also contains the detection process used in different techniques of steganography. Furthermore, we also described the application of steganography in different field.

Gulshan Shrivastava, Aakanksha Pandey, Kavita Sharma

Chapter 75. Data Stream Mining: A Review

In the data stream model the data arrives at high speed so that the algorithms used for mining the data streams must process them in a very strict constraints of space and time. This raises new issues that need to be considered when developing association rule mining algorithms for data streams. So it is important to study the existing stream mining algorithms to open up the challenges and the research scope for the new researchers. In this paper we are briefly discussing the different issues and challenges in the data stream mining.

S Pramod, O. P. Vyas

Chapter 76. Comparison of Various Harmonic Mitigation Techniques in Induction Furnaces

Harmonics are a necessary evil associated with non linear loads such as Induction furnaces. As the amount of non linear loads in power system is increasing due to pro-filtration of non linear devices such as inverters, inductive loads etc.; it is leading to a deterioration of power quality. Non linear loads tend to inject harmonics in the power system. Induction furnaces are a major non linear load as far as our power system is concerned. This paper is an attempt to compare the various techniques of harmonic mitigation employed for mitigating harmonics in induction furnace.

Arvind Dhingra, Ashwani Kumar Sharma

Chapter 77. Real Time Remote Monitoring and Measurement of Loss due to Dry Flue Gas for an Industrial Boiler

The loss due to dry flue gas is quite considerable in boilers. This paper presents a novel method of wireless and real time monitoring of this loss in an industrial boiler. The proposed system consists of measuring the percentage of CO

2

present in the flue gas, temperature of flue gas and the ambient temperature. All these signals from the sensor are suitably conditioned and then transmitted to the central station using ZigBee communication. ZigBee is a popular wireless protocol used in process industries. At the central station the loss due to dry flue gas is calculated and displayed. At the central station, an ARM7TDMI-S is used for data acquisition and for calculating the boiler loss. In this work, not only the parameters are measured, but also wirelessly communicated to the central station for finding the loss due to dry flue gas.

C. L. Chayalakshmi, D. S. Jangamshetti, Savita Sonoli

Chapter 78. Characterization of Electrical and Thermal Properties of Enamel Filled with Carbon Nanotubes

The last decade has witnessed significant developments in the area of nanoparticles and nanoscale fillers on electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric materials. The dielectric and thermal properties of standard (Polyamide-imide) and nanoscale filled samples were detailed and analyzed. Carbon nanotubes have been tested as filler. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the process called chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The basic properties such as dielectric loss tangent (tanδ), dielectric constant(ε), dielectric strength, partial discharge inception voltage, surface resistivity, quality factor, phase angle, dielectric conductivity, dielectric power loss and thermal withstand strength of the enamel filled with carbon nanotubes were analyzed and compared with the properties of the standard enamel. The experimental results show that there was a significant improvement in the properties of the enamel by the addition of carbon nanotubes.

D. Edison Selvaraj, C. Pugazhendhi Sugumaran, A. SivaPrakash

Chapter 79. Tuned Fuzzy Logic Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

The switched reluctance motor (SRM) has gained much attention in the past few years over other types of electric motors in the drive applications due to its simple structure, ruggedness and inexpensive manufacturing potential. However, these merits are overshadowed by its inherent high torque ripple, acoustic noise and difficulty to control. When the exact analytical model of the controlled system is uncertain or difficult to be characterized, intelligent control arts such as fuzzy logic control (FLC) may allow better performance compared to conventional controllers. In this paper a PI-like fuzzy logic speed controller with output scaling factor tuned, by an updating factor, based on fuzzy logic reasoning, is applied to an SRM drive system. A reduced rule base is used to simplify the program complexity of the controller without losing the system performance and stability. The nonlinear modeling of SRM is done based on look up tables with data obtained by finite element analysis.

Nessy Thankachan, S. V. Reeba
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