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Über dieses Buch

The third International Symposium on Materials and Sustainable Development ISMSD2017 (CIMDD2017) will include a 2-day Conferences (07 & 08 November). Organized by the Research Unit: Materials, Processes and Environment and University M'hamed Bougara of Boumerdes, this symposium follows the success of CIMDD 2013-2015 and continues the traditions of the highly successful series of International Conferences on the materials, processes and Environment. The Symposium will provide a unique topical forum to share the latest results of the materials and sustainable development research in Algeria and worldwide.



Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology


Investigation of Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of Al Doped SnO2 Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel

Among materials well known to be used as Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO) and in the field of solar cells, SnO2 is one of the best. In this work we investigate the doping effect with aluminum on some physical properties of SnO2. Al doped SnO2 thin films have been synthesized by sol–gel route using the dip coating method. The films were deposited on glass substrates with different Al concentrations (1%, 3%, 5% and 10%) and heated at 500 °C. The used precursor is SnCl3 dissolved in ethanol. The obtained thin layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, by AFM microscopy and electrical measurements. The XRD spectra exhibit a tetragonal crystalline structure of SnO2 with a preferential direction along (101) for all samples, with grain sizes varying between 10.66 and 20.08 nm. On the other hand the UV-visible spectra show that: all samples of pure and Al doped SnO2 films have a good transmittance with values between 70–95% in visible region, and an optical gap varying between 3.28 to 3.64 eV. The electrical properties (resistivity, mobility and bulk concentration of charge carriers) obtained by means of Hall Effect indicate that the SnO2 n-type is inverted to p-type.

A. Boumezoued, K. Guergouri, C. Azizi, A. Aberkane, A. Khial

Formation Energies of Mn Doped ZnSnAs2

The defect calculations are firstly performed by replacing a single cation (namely Zn and Sn) with a single Mn atom in the pure chalcopyrite ZnSnAs2 supercell, and their corresponding formation energies show that the substitution of a Sn atom (rather than Zn) by Mn is strongly favored. Thereafter, a comparison of total energy differences between ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) are given. Surprisingly, the exchange interaction between a Mn pairs is found to oscillate with the distance between them. Consequently, the AFM alignment is energetically favored in Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 compounds, except for low impurity concentration associated with lower distances between neighboring Mn impurities, in this case the stabilization of FM increases. Moreover, the ferromagnetic alignment in the Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 systems behaves half-metallic; the valence band for majority spin orientation is partially filled while there is a gap in the density of states for the minority spin orientation. This semiconducting gap of ~1 eV opened up in the minority channel and is due to the large bonding-antibonding splitting from the p-d hybridization. Our findings suggest that the Mn-doped ZnSnAs2 chalcopyrites could be a different class of ferromagnetic semiconductors.

H. Bouhani-Benziane, K. Hebali, A. Bakhti-Siad, O. Sahnoun, M. Baira, M. Sahnoun

The Improvement of Tandem a-Si:H/µc-Si:H Solar Cells Perfomance by Optimized the Front Contact Barrier Height

In this study we have examined by simulation the role of the front contact barrier heights Φb0 (barrier at TCO/P window layer interface), on the performances of a-Si:H/µc-Si:H based tandem solar cell. The numerical simulation has been carried out by using AMPS-1D (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structures) program. The output parameters of tandem solar cell, like open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), short circuit current (JSC) and efficiency (Eff) are numerically calculated for different values of Φb0. The simulation results shown that the efficiency value increases from 9.07% until 11.60% when the front contact barrier height (Φb0) value increase from 1.1 eV to 1.4 eV. However, we achieved the best conversion efficiency of 12.33% with Φb0 equal to 1.9 eV and with a values of 60 nm and 1200 nm for thicknesses of top and bottom absorber layers, respectively.

Abbas Belfar, Tarik Kadi, Hocine Ait-Kaci

Realization of Diene Dienophile Interface Reaction in Oil/Water Emulsion

The aim of this work is the realization of the Diels-Alder reaction at the interface of an oil/water system and its application to micro encapsulation in developing heat-sensitive membrane microcapsules. This synthesis occurs in three steps:The synthesis of hydrophilic dienophile using polyethylene glycol with different molecular weights according to alcohol - maleic anhydride reaction.The synthesis of hydrophobic diene from either hydrophobic oligomer grafted to a pyrrole molecule, or by modifying octanoic acid with furan derivatives.The Diels-Alder reaction occurs between a diene and a dienophile hydrophobic.Several combinations of only adducts were prepared from modified triethylene glycol (TEG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) by action of maleic acid (MA), as a dienophile and (pyrrole/Octanol and furan derivative/octanoic acid) as diene.Under vigorous stirring, other adducts have been elaborated in an oil/water emulsion system by adding an aqueous solution of TEG-MA in an organic solution of Pyrrole-Octanol (in Octanol) or in water/oil emulsion system by adding an organic solution of Pyrrole-Octanol in Octanol in an aqueous PEG6000-MA solution.The products obtained were characterized with different techniques such as chromatography TLC thin layer, FTIR infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry DSC and optical microscopy with image acquisition system.

Abdallah Cheraitia, Nawal Brahimi

A New Four Variable Refined Shear Deformation Theory for Buckling and Vibration of Functionally Graded Plates

A new four variable shear deformation theory is developed for buckling, and vibration of functionally graded plates. The theory accounts for parabolic distribution of transverse shear stress, and satisfies the free transverse shear stress conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factor. Unlike the conventional shear deformation theory, the proposed four variables refined shear deformation theory contains only four unknowns and has strong similarities with classical plate theory in many aspects such as equations of motion, boundary conditions, and stress resultant expressions. The material properties of plate are assumed to vary according to power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. Equations of motion are derived from the Hamilton’s principle. The closed-form solutions of simply supported plates are obtained and the results are compared with those of first-order shear deformation theory and higher-order shear deformation theory. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the buckling, and vibration responses of functionally graded plates.

Ahmed Bakora, Fouad Bourada, Abdelouhed Tounsi, Adda Bedia El Abbas

Optical and Structural Properties of ZnS:La Thin Films Elaborated by Sol-Gel Method

The thin layers of undoped ZnS and ZnS doped La were deposited on glass substrates using sol-gel and dip-coating methods. The structural characterization of these samples was carried out by the X-rays diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). UV-visible spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to study the effect of deposition layers on the optical properties of ZnS doped La thin films. X-ray diffraction measurements show that these films are amorphous. Atomic force microscopy images of the films have revealed homogeneous and granular structure and the SEM micrographies show that the amorphous deposit films with uniform and porous structure. The optical transmission spectra in the UV - visible range have shown that the doped film present a good optical transmission ranging between 50% and 70% in the visible. The calculated values of gap were between 3.68 and 2.77 eV. Doping with lanthanum decrease the optical gap of ZnS. Analysis FTIR of the samples confirm the presence of the vibration band of Zn-S at 668 cm−1.

A. Tounsi, D. Talantikite-Touati, R. Khalfi, H. Merzouk, H. Haddad

Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Micropores Catalysts

The main objective of this presentation is to study the oxidation of allylic alcohols with the use of zeolites of type MFI and more particularly the ZSM-5 by the combination of experimental techniques and molecular modeling. This type of zeolite (MFI) is generally used in separation and catalysis processes. This is due to the relatively medium pore size, its high specific volume, its low Si/Al ratio, which makes it possible to prepare materials rich in metal ions, and also its low cost of synthesis. In a first step, an experimental study was carried out by syntheses of ZSM-5 zeolites with low transition metal contents, as we have done a series of catalytic tests on the oxidation of allylic alcohols by these zeolite products. The various physicochemical characterization techniques give us information on the structure and texture of the products obtained and confirm the effectiveness of the catalytic tests. We also used molecular modeling, which is an essential tool for predicting the reactivity of these materials. Molecular modeling techniques have been carried out using Gaussian 09 software used in specific computer programs to evaluate physicochemical, energy properties, determine reaction pathways, identify reaction intermediates and transition states of molecules and clusters (zeolite, oxidizing agent, substrate). All the results obtained showed the bearing capacity of the experimental study (in vitro) with a computational study (in silico) to predict all the scientific information on the zeolite-substrate system.

Atallah Dehbi, Nadia Toumi, Rawia Imene Bahoussi, Meryem Imene Amrane, Affaf Tabti, Imene Benchikh, Zoubida Lounis, Farouk Hamza Reguig, Abdelkader Bengueddach

Influence of Deposition Time on the CdS Thin Films Prepared by a Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD)

Cadmium sulfide thin layers are frequently used in photovoltaic, especially in the realization of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) based solar cells as buffer layer. In this work, cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin films have been carried out by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. They were deposited onto glass substrates from chemical bath containing cadmium sulfate, thiourea and ammonia at pH = 12. The temperature of the bath was fixed at 60 °C, and under 150 RPM stirring, the time deposition was varied (10 mn–40 mn). X-ray diffraction revealed the cubic and hexagonal structures formation with secondary phase CdO. AFM images of CdS thin films show that the substrate is covered with granular structures of different size, the root mean square (Rms) value prepared at different time (10 mn, 20 mn, 30 mn and 40 mn) are, 26.05, 25.08, 19.93 and 38.55 nm. High transmission is obtained in the visible and near infra-red.

D. Haouanoh, R. TalaIghil, F. Bensouici, M. Toubane

Theoretical Investigation of Structural, Elastic and Electronic Properties of SnHfO3 Compound: Ab Initio Calculations

Perovskite materials are intensively investigated due to their potential used in diverse applications. In This study structural, electronic, elastic and magnetic properties of cubic SnHfO3 material have been investigated using the gradient generalized approximation GGA within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT). We have calculated the structural properties such as the equilibrium lattice constant, the bulk modulus and it is pressure derivative and they are in good agreement with the available data. Additionally, the results show that our material is stable in non-magnetic phase via the ferro- magnetic one. Furthermore, to confirm the stability for material of title, the elastic properties have been studied in detail and it is concluded that SnHfO3 is elastically stable. The magnetic moment is also discussed in our study; we find that the main contribution to the total magnetic moments comes from the oxygen atom, while the contributions of Sn and Hf atoms are very small. Finally, the electronic band structures reveal that this material exhibits a direct band gap (X-X) semiconductor by using GGA approximation.

D. Chenine, Z. Aziz

Al-Doping Effects on Structural and Morphological Properties of ZnO Aerogels Synthesized in Supercritical Ethanol

Aerogels of pure and aluminium doped ZnO (Al-ZnO) were synthesized by sol-gel route followed by supercritical drying in ethanol. The atomic percentage of the dopant is fixed at 1, 3, 5 and 10 at.%. The elaborated aerogels were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The DRX results revealed good crystalline quality of the synthesized samples with hexagonal wurtzite crystallographic structure. No crystalline phase related to aluminum ions or aluminum based compounds has been detected. With increasing Al content in aerogels, the crystallinity deteriorates and the cell parameters are found to be slightly changed. SEM images showed that the presence of Al atoms in the ZnO lattice strongly alters grain morphology, especially for higher doping levels (≥ 5 at.%). The EDAX spectra showed well-defined peaks related only to Zn, O and Al and confirmed the absence of peaks related to other impurities. FTIR measurements have shown that the introduction of the A1 ions in the aerogels greatly reduces the intensity of the Zn-O bond-vibrating band and shifts it towards low wavenumbers.

F. Mouzaia, D. Djouadi, A. Chelouche, L. Hammiche

High Quality Nano Thin Layer Silicon Transfer Using Plasma Hydrogenation

In order to transfer thin layers of silicon onto Si substrate, we report the effect of a thin epitaxial layer of SiGe on the nucleation and the growth of hydrogen platelets during plasma hydrogenation. SiGe strained layer was purposely used to introduce H trapping centers into Si wafers. Transmission electron microscopy has been used to quantitatively study the evolution of both density and sizes of these platelets during plasma hydrogenation. Upon hydrogenation, it is shown near SiGe layer that the platelets grow in size, reduce their density and the overall volume they occupy increase. This phenomenon is due to a non-conservative Oswald ripening. At the depth of the SiGe layer, a continuous (100) oriented cracks, which are parallel to the Si surfaces are formed.

F. Okba

Enhacing Pre-stressed Concrete Beam’s Capacity Using Externally Bonded Pre-stressed Composite Plate

The present study is carried out in order to highlight the influence of the use of new advanced materials like composite plates on the behavior of a pre-stressed concrete beams. In fact, a composite plate, due to its high stiffness, when bonded to a pre-stressed concrete beam may increase its bearing capacity and change its behavior by reducing the tensile stress level over the cross section.In this study, a composite plate is bonded to a pre-stressed concrete beam in aim to test its influence on the stress distribution in the cross section. The composite plate reduce the tensile stresses but does not eliminate them and the cross section remains in its class.However, when a pre-stressed composite plate is applied, the tension stresses may be eliminated and the cross section passes from class 2 to class 1 for example, where only compressive stresses are applied. Consequently, the cracks due to tensile stresses are avoided and the pre-stressed beam will be able to support more loads than before.

Hanane Mebsout, Baghdad Krour, Mohamed Bachir Bouiadjra

Artificial Metamaterials for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells

The reduction of the significant optical losses due to the reflection and the increase of the penetration of the solar photons into the silicon initiated the development of new photoelectrical techniques for silicon solar cells. Insertion of metamaterials in solar cells seems to be one of the interesting approaches owing to the promising properties of these news materials. Metamaterials are a class of man-made subwavelength structured composite materials. Metamaterials with their unusual electromagnetic properties allow unprecedented guiding of the incident light. In this paper, we undertake a numerical study of the optical response of a multilayer planar waveguide structure based on metamaterials for silicon solar cells. The structure comprises three layers embedded in air. The metamaterial layer is sandwiched between a glass layer and a silicon layer. We first analyze the electromagnetic parameters of the metamaterial layer. We then determine the optical parameters of this structure, namely the reflection, the transmission and the absorption. This study is based on the use of the transfer matrix method which is a very useful algorithm for reflection and transmission calculations of multilayer structures. According to the law of conservation of energy, the absorption coefficient is inferred from the transmission and reflection coefficients. Numerical simulations by using MAPLE software show a weak reflection of light at the air/glass front interface for optimal thicknesses of the structure’s layers. These results are compared with those of a conventional cell structure without metamaterial. Additionally, the effect of the incidence angles for both Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) polarizations is discussed.

Houria Hamouche, Mohammed M. Shabat

A New Technique for the Evaluation of the Parameters of GaAlAsSb(p)/GaAlAsSb(n)/InAsSb Double Interface from Current-Voltage Curve Analysis

Parameters characterizing a p-n junction based device like ideality factor n, saturation current Is, shunt resistance Rsh and series resistance Rs are very important since they can give a first idea on conduction processes occurring across the interface of the junction. They also inform about the device performances and the possibilities to optimize them. For a good understanding of the device operation and its performances, these parameters are to be determined as precisely as possible. In this work, a new and simple method is proposed for the analysis the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of a p-n junction diode. The method involves performing a mathematical operation on the experimental data that allows to calculate the parameters at values of forward current smaller than the reverse saturation current, is firstly applied to a simulated p-n diode. This technique was applied successfully to a heterojunction using antimonide semiconductors and the results were compared to those obtained by using two other methods encountered in the literature.

K. Mahi, B. Messani, H. Ait-kaci

Controlling Drug Release Through Poly(2-Hydroxyethylmethacrylate-co-acrylic Acid) Grafted Sodium Alginate

The present paper reveals the potential uses of grafted hydrogel of Alginate-g-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) in controlled drug delivery. The graft copolymerization reaction was carried out in a homogeneous medium, in the presence of potassium persulfate (KPS) as initiator and N, N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinker. The grafting Efficiency was calculated and found to be 77.47%.To investigate the structure of the obtained hydrogel, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used. Swelling behavior of the obtained hydrogel in different pH media was investigated. It was found that the synthesized hydrogel has a high pH sensitivity. Drug loading and controlled release properties of the grafted hydrogel, in both stimulated gastric (pH 1.2) and stimulated intestinal (pH 7.4) media at 37 °C, were also evaluated using Tramadol chlorhydrate as model drug. The kinetics of drug release from hydrogel matrices has been examined using several mathematical models. The results showed that the best fitted curves were obtained with Higuchi model. The in vitro release suggests that this hydrogel can be considered as an excellent candidate to design novel drug delivery systems.

L. Bounabi, N. Bouslah Mokhnachi, N. Haddadine, A. Benaboura

Theoretical Study of Eu3+ and Li+ Co-doped Ca2SnO4

The electronic structures of the non-doped and Li+, Eu3+ co-doped Ca2SnO4 materials were calculated employing the density functional theory with the WIEN2k package. The later is based on the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FP-LAPW), an approach which is among the most precise and reliable ways to calculate the electronic structure of solids. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) method was applied to the non-doped material. In order to describe better the strongly correlated 4f electrons of the Eu3+ the GGA+U method was used. The GGA+U method requires as the input the Coulomb repulsion strength (Hubbard parameter U) and the exchange parameter J (magnetic coupling constant), which are related to the Slater integrals. In this study, the effects of Eu3+ and Li+ co-doping on the lattice parameters, and also on the electronic structures are presented and analyzed in details.

M. Baira, A. Siad-Bekhti, N. Siziani, H. Bouhani-Benzian, M. Sahnoun

Synthesis Cordierite Materials Starting from Algerian Kaolin

The objective of this work is to study the synthesis of the cordierite phase from Algerian kaolin known as DD kaolin. To do this, the kaolin is washed and sieved to prepare a particle size fraction <20 μ, rich in clay particles, and precipitated magnesium hydroxide is prepared to give magnesium and finally silica fume is added to the mixtures experimental, to fill the silica deficit. The weighing of the materials is carried out in such a way as to produce mixtures close to the ideal phase of the cordierite (2MgO.2Al2O3.5SiO2). The mixing is carried out in a large quantity of water with a metal stirrer at high speed. The mixture is heated during stirring until the sludge is obtained. The final drying is continued in an oven, the coarse powder obtained is finely ground in a porcelain mortar. The results of investigations carried out by simultaneous thermal analysis (ATD-TG) show a first exothermic peak at 945 °C. which is attributed to μ-cordierite, a second exothermic peak at 1200 °C. which indicates the crystallization of μ-cordierite in Indialite, and finally an endothermic peak above 1400 °C which indicates the fusion of the indialite.The results of investigations of the X-ray diffraction analysis on the calcined powders at high temperature, shows that only the Indialite phase is present from 1300 °C.

M. Kheloui, K. Boumchedda, S. Debbakh, B. Rabehi

Nonlinear Behavior of FGM Plate in Cylindrical Bending Under Uniform Loading

In this work, the nonlinear behaviour of an exponential functionally graded plate (E-FGP) is studied. The plates are subjected to uniform loads and their geometric nonlinearity is introduced in the strain–displacement equations based on Von-Karman assumptions. The material properties of functionally graded plates are assumed to vary continuously across the thickness of the plate in accordance with the exponential law distribution; the Hamilton’s principle is used herein to derive the solution of the system. Several numerical results for exponential functionally graded plates are given in the form of explicit graphs; and the effects of material properties on deflections and normal stresses across the thickness are determined.

Mohamed Bourada, Fouad Bourada, Abdelhakim Kaci, Mohamed Bouremana, Abdelouahed Tounsi

Template Optimization of Block Copolymer Thin Films by Self-Assembly Process

We study in this work the possibility to fabricate a template using block copolymers (BCPs) thin films. The self-assembled (S-A) Poly (styrene-block-methyl-methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) films are a useful template used after removing the PMMA domains with well-defined pore dimensions. Indeed, after thermal annealing the BCP spontaneously separates into a hexagonal array of micro-domains oriented perpendicularly to the surface. Two BCP formulations with natural periodicities of 29 and 37 nm are compared. The optimization of S-A process parameters as film thickness, annealing conditions on quality of the template morphologies was the aim of this work. Large process window was obtained for the low molecular weight BCP (film thickness from 20.3 to 43.5 nm) compared to the BCP with higher molecular weight. Increasing the film thickness affect the micro-domain orientation. Mixed orientation was observed on the final template. When the annealing temperature was varied from 200 to 260 °C, the periodicity was slightly changed. Both BCP formulations present parallel domain orientation above 260 °C, probably due to polymer decomposition.

M. Loucif Seiad, V. K. MKuppuswamy, M. Ferhat, R. Gronheid

Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose-Graft-Acrylamide Superabsorbant Hydrogel for Controlled Drug Delivery of Cetirizine

There has been considerable growing in recent years in the use of hydrogels as drug delivery systems because they can extend the duration of drug release and thus can reduce dose to be administrated improving patient compliance. Hydrogels are high-water content materials prepared from cross-linked polymers that are able of holding large amounts of water in their three-dimensional networks. Due their biocompatibility, low toxicity, and biodegradability, natural polymers are excellent candidates to develop new hydrogels.In the present work a crosslinked graft copolymer of acrylamide onto hydroxy ethyl cellulose (HEC-g-PAM) has been synthesized in order to examine its potential use in biomedical applications as drug carrier. The synthesis was performed using N,N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent and potassium persulfate (KPS) as initiator via free radical initiation. The structural properties of the hydrogel were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Swelling behavior in two aqueous media, simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) was also studied. The pseudo Fickian diffusion model was adopted to fit the results and a good linear relationship could be observed. Cetirizine, a highly water soluble drug, was chosen as drug molecule for the drug delivery study. For drug loading, the hydrogels discs were steeped in a saturated cetirizine (Ctz) solution for 48 h. Drug incorporation efficiency in the (HEC-g-PAM) hydrogels was determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was used to prospect the compatibility of the drug with the hydrogel used as excipient. Differential scanning calorimetry DSC study revealed that the introduction of cetirizine (Ctz) in the hydrogel network induced the amorphization of the drug. The thermal stability of the (HEC-g-PAM)/Ctz formulation has been studied. The in vitro drug release study indicated that 100% of the drug is released after 10 h.

N. Bouslah Mokhnachi, L. Bounabi, N. Baa, F. Ouazib, N. Haddadine

Improving the Power Efficiency of Organic Photovoltaic Cells with P3HT:ICBA Used as Active Layer

In this article the optical properties of poly (3-hexylthiophene): Indene-C60 bisadduct (P3HT:ICBA) layers were examined. The good absorption of the blend in the visible spectra of light allows using ICBA as acceptor material for the fabrication of organic solar cells. The structure of the realized device is glass/ITO/ZnO(np)/P3HT:ICBA/PEDOT:PSS/Ag.Indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) has been used as acceptor molecule to achieve open-circuit voltage Voc = 0.8 V when poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is used as donor polymer. Compared to [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) a shift in open-circuit voltage ∆Voc ≈ 0.2 V is observed. This study shows that the parameters of the cells with ICBA are improved compared to PCBM. An efficiency of 5.85% is obtained with ICBA and 3.89% is obtained with PCBM.

O. Ourahmoun

Solar Cell Based on p-Si/n-Zno:Al Thin Films: Simulation and Parameters Extraction

In this work, we propose to develop a method based on the single diode model circuit, which able to extract the five electric parameters: the photocurrent Iph, the saturation current Is, the ideality factor n, the series and shunt resistance (Rs and Rsh) of the solar cell based on silicon as an absorber and ZnO:Al as a transparent conductive oxide. In this context, an approach based on the genetic algorithms (GAs) was developed in order to model and optimize the simulated data. Optimal values of Iph, Is, n and Rs, Rsh between the experimental and calculated values were estimated by minimizing the quadratic error (6.7 × 10−5).

Safia Kerour, Meryem Lasladj, Abdeslam Bouloufa

Material Fracture of Dynamic VAWT Blade

In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. we modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtained the material fracture toughness Kc.

S. Lecheb, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, B. Safi, Y. Beggah, Y. Lounici

Effect of Dopant Material on the Performance UV Photodetector Based SnO2 Thin Films Deposited by Sol-Gel Dip-Coating Method

Metal oxide nanomaterials have been attracting growing interest for large domains applications such as gas sensors, photocatalysts, solar cell and UV photodetectors. In this works, the undoped and F, Al, Zn (3 at%) doped SnO2 thin films were successfully deposited by sol-gel dip coating technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoconductivity study. Structural analysis showed that all films are polycrystalline with tetragonal rutile structure where the crystallite size is calculated by the debye Scherer’s formula and it was obtained in the range of 6.49 to 9.33. Optical transmittance spectra of the films showed high transparency (>80%) in the visible range and gap energy values were obtained in the range 3.93 to 3.99. Finally, the variation of photocurrent with voltage and with time has been studied under UV illumination (λ = 365 nm). The high photocurrent is observed using F-doped SnO2 sample while the film doped with Al had the highest photosensitivity. Current-Voltage characteristics of dark and photo current exhibited linear behavior. The phenomena of photoconductivity in SnO2 thin films were interpreted by chemisorptions of oxygen molecules on the surface.

Kaour Selma, Rechem Djamil

Non Local Vibration of Damped Viscoelastic—FGM-Beam

This study presents a mechanical model to predict the effective damped viscoelastic behavior of a functional grading material (FGM). A detailed parametric study is carried out to elucidate the dynamic response of an Euler-Bernoulli beam with finite length on the basis of the non-local Eringen theory which reveal the influence of the material proprieties, nonlocal parameter and the viscoelastic parameter on the vibratory frequency of the system, we obtain the analytical solutions for the vibratory frequency of the system with boundary conditions. The applicability and the effectiveness of the model presented are demonstrated in canonical numerical examples.

Souad Hamzi, Ismail Mechab, Yassine Senhadji

Chemistry of Building Materials and Materials


Characterization of “Float Glass” Eroded by Sandblasting

In this work, soda-lime glasses of the “Float Glass” type have been characterized before and after sanding. The latter process consists in producing erosion by sandy particles on the surface of the flat glasses. The impact of this erosion on the properties of these glasses was studied. Two types of sand blasting were carried out, one sandblasting machine was used in the first one, while in the second one sandblasting was carried out at the laboratory to assimilate the effect of the sand wind on the vehicle windscreens. Sandblasting has been found to have an enormous influence on the properties of glasses; the density increased, the chemical attack of the glasses in the acid solutions was greater than by bases, the mechanical resistances and the optical transmissions dropped.

Djamila Aboutaleb, Brahim Safi, Ahmed Hammouda, Mohammed Hadj Ammar

Effect of Chemical Activation on the Surface Properties of Apricot Stones Based Activated Carbons and Its Adsorptive Properties Toward Aniline

The present study reports the preparation of activated carbons from apricot stones (an agricultural waste) by chemical activation with phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2) in N2 atmosphere. The potential use of the prepared activated carbons as adsorbents and the effects of chemical activation on the surface properties and adsorptive mechanism of Aniline were investigated. The physico-chemical properties of the obtained materials were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, Scanning Electron Microscope coupled to energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscope (FTIR), Boehm titration and pH of point of zero charge (pHpzc). The results show that the prepared samples present high apparent surface areas and pore volume with surface functional groups. Adsorption studies were carried out under varying conditions of contact time, initial concentration and temperature. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models were applied, finding that the pseudo-second order model was the most suitable for the fitting of the experimental kinetic data. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The equilibrium data were well fitted to the Freundlich isotherm. Based on the results, it is, therefore, suggested that the adsorption is mainly brought about by dispersive interactions between Aniline and activated carbon surface. The prepared activated carbons could be used as a low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon for the removal of aniline from wastewater.

Zoubida Kecira, Asma Benturki, Mounir Daoud, Oumessaâd Benturki

Porosity Effect of a FG Porous Plate on the Behavior of Bonded Beam and Strengthened Structure Instability

In this paper an improved theoretical interfacial stress analysis is presented for simply supported beam bonded with a FG plate. This solution take into account the dislocation of the neutral axes and this is helpful for introducing the inhomogeneity through the thickness of the plate and thus this solution is applicable for wide range of composite material. The plate is assumed to be isotropic with a constant Poisson’s ratio and variation according to a power law for the elastic modulus through the plate thickness. Stresses distribution are presented in form of graphs, it is shown that both normal and shear stresses at the interface are influenced by the inhomogeneities due to the variation in mechanical characteristics or porosity distribution, also the geometric of the plate play an important role in the distribution of interfacial stresses. This research is helpful in understanding the mechanical behavior of the interface and strengthened structure instability. The results presented in the paper can serve as a benchmark for future analyses of bonded beams with composite plate.

A. Chedad, N. Elmeiche

Evaluation of the Impact Sound Transmission Through Concrete Floor Using Numerical Simulation and Laboratory Experiment

The present paper examines the impact noise transmission through some floor building assemblies using different approaches. Firstly, the Acoubat software has been used to simulate the impact noise transmission through different floor configurations used in Algerian construction mode. The results are compared with the available measurements based on Brüel and Kjær 2260 sound level meter analyzer equipment. The results of the first method show that the different cases of floor configurations need some improvement to ensure the acoustic comfort in the receiving apartment. The addition of resilient underneath tile reduces the impact noise level from 67 dB to 57 dB. When the polyethylene and mineral wool are used, the results showed that the total level of the impact noise can be achieved $$ {\text{L}}_{{{\text{nT}},{\text{w}}}}^{\prime } $$  = 56 dB and $$ {\text{L}}_{{{\text{nT}},{\text{w}}}}^{\prime } $$ = 54 dB, respectively. In conclusion, the recommended value of the impact sound level in the receiving room should not exceed 58 db. Secondly, we have developed two experimental methods, (i) field method in multi-storey residential building, and (ii) laboratory method using the following equipment: sound level meter analyzer Brüel and Kjær 2270 with accelerometer Brüel and Kjær 5408, BZ 5503 software, and impact-tapping machine Brüel and Kjær 3204. The laboratory method is good way to estimate the weighted sound reduction index of resilient materials mixed with mortar or layer placed under tile. The results show that the weighted sound reduction index of resilient layer can reach 18 dB, 6.6 dB and 11.6 dB for the rubber, PVC and Bitumen layer, respectively. The important results obtained in this paper can be used as platform to improve the acoustic rehabilitation of the multi-storey residential building.

Abdelouahab Bouttout, Mohamed Amara

An Overview of Functionally Graded Materials «FGM»

In this paper, we have presented an overview on functionally graded materials FGM. An overview has been exposed on the development of FGM, their concepts, their properties; their main manufacturing steps. Significant advanced techniques in manufacturing and processing over the last decade have produced FGM using processes that offer great latitude in making microscopic and material composition. In the future, the FGM with complex shapes and properties, including two and three-dimensional gradient will be produced using the production, a technique that requires the computer. This potential means that the designer is no longer limited to a range of existing homogeneous materials, although many studies have focused on the analysis of this material, engineers and other professionals engaged in the design process with FGM. Use of the FGM seems to be one of the most effective materials in the realization of the sustainable development in the industries. The paper will focus light on above issues and each plays an important role within the FGMs literature and ultimately influences on planning and development practices. It is expected that this comprehensive contribution will be very beneficial to everyone involved or interested in FGMs.

Adda Hadj Mostefa, Slimane Merdaci, Noureddine Mahmoudi

Experimental and Numerical Damaged Characteristics in Composite Plate with Crack Growth by Vibration Analysis

The aim of this paper was to presents a identification of dynamic behavior and response analysis of a glass-epoxy plate. The numerical simulation were carried out on model plate made of glass-epoxy, and the corresponding frequency response functions have been calculate. An initial study into the dynamic loads of this method has been considered, the use of the finite element method makes it possible to develop the model of the plate, the model is used to evaluate the maximal (displacement, strain and stress) and the natural frequencies, mode shapes of plate in composite glass-epoxy under damage condition.The stress should be increased to improve the strength of the plate. The experimental results can provide a reference for analysts and designers of composite material in aeronautical systems.

A. Chellil, S. Lecheb, H. Mechakra, S. Chellil, B. Safi

Tensile Behavior of Bio-Composites: Date Palm Rachi/Epoxy, Date Palm Pits/Epoxy

The present paper deal within mechanical characterization of a composite material reinforced by rachis short fibers of date-palm wood and loaded by the flour of date-pits. The palm and pits collected from region of Biskra were crushed in an electric shredder. After that, they were finely sieved and then mixed with an epoxy resin according to different volume fractions. To predict the mechanical properties of these composite, normalized specimens are made and tested under tensile loading according to respected volumetric fraction of fibers. Obtained results, showed that, rachis short fibers and flour of date-palm have a significant effect on the elastic modulus increase. But an important volumetric fraction of fibers decreased the tensile strength of this composite material.

A. Dakhli, R. Benzidane, R. Zehaf, L. M. Bennegadi, Z. Sereir

Fabrication and Characterization of TiO2 Nanoparticles

Titanium oxide (TiO2) is an attractive semiconducting material due to its characteristics photochemical properties and high chemical stability. TiO2 has been widely used for various applications such as a semiconductor in dye-sensitized solar cell, water treatment materials, catalysts, gas sensors, and so on. In this work, Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method using Titanium Isopropoxide (TiTP) as a source of Ti. Different solvents (isopropyl alcohol, ethanol and methanol) were used to prepare TiO2 nanoparticles. The structural characterization of the samples is carried out by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) And Fourier Transforms Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). (XRD) analysis reveals the anatase structure of the as prepared TiO2 with nanometer size. The founded size of the particle is to be 15 nm when using isopropyl alcohol as a solvent. The increasing time of the calcination (at the same temperature) causes the size increasing. FTIR measurements confirm the anatase structure of TiO2.

A. Bessi, B. Boudine, C. Boudaren

In Vitro Corrosion Study by EIS of Stainless Steel for Orthopaedic Applications

Stainless steel 316L is one of the most common biomaterials utilized for producing orthopedic implants. Since the device is in constant contact with the blood, which is a highly corrosive environment, it is necessary to know the effects of corrosion on the screw plates. Currently 316L stainless steel is the material most commonly used for osteosynthesis. To assess the sensitivity of the screw plates in physiological media of the corrosion test plate required. The 316L stainless steel plates were tested for corrosion characteristics. The corrosion behavior of orthopaedic implant stainless steel 316L has been studied in a simulated body fluid using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. Polarization experiments were conducted after 4 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, 168 h, 215 h, 10 days and 15 days, of immersion in Ringer’s solution. Very low current densities were obtained, indicating the formation of a passive layer. Impedance spectra, represented in the Nyquist plan, exhibited a single constant system suggesting the formation of one layer.

Faiza Kakaa, Mosbah Ferkhi

Application of the Rietveld Method in the Study of Phases in High Chromium Cast Irons

Grinding balls or crushing mills are elements used in cement industry. They require a high wear resistance under the action of abrasive products in the transformation of rock into fine particles smaller than a millimeter.To satisfy the mechanical and technological requirements, these balls are made of high chromium cast irons (10 to 13% chromium).The quantitative analysis of the phases containing these balls by the Rietveld method is an accurate and very important method to select their appropriate composition.The characterization techniques used in this work are the DRX and the SEM.

Fatma Zohra Boulassel, Benabbas Abderrahim, Rekaik Mouna

New Materials Rigid Obtained by the Acid Hydrolysis of Starch Followed by a Grafting of Acrylamide with and Without Bis-acrylamide

This work focuses on the development and characterization of new materials rigid based on non-plasticized starch. This material is obtained by the acid hydrolysis of starch followed by a grafting of acrylamide with and without bis-acrylamide. The results of infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) showed the success of the destructuring of the starch and grafting. The rheological study by viscometer to confirm the shear thinning behavior of the two graft copolymers and rheology in dynamic mode showed that the graft copolymer in the presence of bis-acrylamide (D) is more elastic than the graft copolymer without the bis-acrylamide (E) and the stored energy is higher than the dissipated energy. The film analysis by XRD showed an improvement of the crystallinity of the starch after destruction and a change of the morphology by grafting. The analysis by scanning microscopy (SEM) confirmed the graft structure change. The gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows an improvement in thermal stability after the grafting of the starch acrylamide. However, the graft copolymer in the presence of bis-acrylamide (D) is more stable than the graft copolymer without the bis-acrylamide (E). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed that the graft allows the production of copolymers having specific characteristics.

Karima Boumerdassi, Aicha Serier

Copolymerization of B-Pinene with Limonene Using Heterogeneous Catalyst

The use of renewable resources (resources from biomass) is increasingly common these days. There is a strong market demand for products that are more environmentally friendly. In this work, we investigate a new method for the preparation of new material using the B-pinene and limonene belonging to terpene and a catalyst, more efficient, easy to implement it is Maghnite H+, which is an Algerian montmorillonite treated by acid, is an effective catalyst for the cationic polymerization of many vinyl and heterocyclic monomers. We will try to determine the chemical structure of our product obtained by combining different spectroscopic methods (NMR and infrared spectroscopy (IR). In order to find the optimum conditions of the reaction and improve the productivity of polymer, we studied the influence of the amount of catalyst, time, temperature, solvent performance.

K. Bekhemas, A. Hachemaoui, A. Yahiaoui

Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical of Ligational Behavior of Curcumin Drug Towards Some Transition Metal Ions

Complexes of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III) and Zn(II) with curcumin ligand as antitumor activity were synthesized and characterized by conductivity, infrared spectra and electronic spectra. The molar conductance data confirm that all the complexes are no electrolytic, The IR spectral data suggested that the ligand behaves as a monobasic bidentate ligand towards the central metal ion with an oxygen’s donor atoms sequence of both –OH and C=O groups under keto–enol structure.The electrochemical behavior of the M(II) and M(II) complexes was determined by cyclic voltammetry which shows that the chelate structure and electron donating effects of the ligands substituent are among the factors influencing the redox potentials of the complexes.

L. Abane Merzouk, A. Adkhis

Zinc Based Materials as Efficient Catalysts for a Clean Synthesis of Biginelli Product

Ethyl6-methyl-2-oxo-4-phenyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate, Bigenilli product (noted DHPMs) was synthesized in the presence of chlorides and nitrates of metals as catalysts, in mild free solvent conditions. High DHPM yields were obtained with Zn(NO3)2 (97%), ZnCl2 (90%) and CuCl2 (76%). The reaction heptagram inspired by the principles of green chemistry show that in our reaction conditions, Biginelli process complies with the principles of sustainable development.

L. Bennini, T. Mazari, C. Khiar, S. Menad, M. Halouane, C. Rabia

Study of the Electronic and Elastic Properties of ZrN and Zr3N4

The electron structure and elastic properties of c-ZrN and c-Zr3N4 compounds are studied using the functional density theory with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) parameterized with the revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerh as an exchange correlation function. The mesh parameters obtained, the dielectric and elastic constants, the isostatic modulus of elasticity, the shear modulus at ambient pressure are in agreement with the experimental and theoretical values.Zr3N4 has a relatively high static dielectric constant. This high dielectric material can play an important role in the appropriate design of the next generation of microelectronic devices in which the reduced size requires that the gate insulators have high dielectric constants.

M. Azibi, N. Saoula

Degradation Studies on PVC Plasticized Submitted to Gamma Radiation up to 50 KGy

Many of the applications require sterilization by gamma radiation. When polymeric materials are submitted to gamma radiation, changes are observed on their molecular structure. Poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticized with DOP is one of the major bulk polymers which is widely consumed in various applications.In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation up to 50 KGy on mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break and Young’s modulus) and the changes induced in the thermal analysis and morphology was investigated. The results revealed that the gamma irradiation affected considerably the PVC plasticized properties at 50 KGy. This degradation is due to the chain scission, which caused a reduction in the average molecular mass and cross-linking rate on one hand.

N. Boutouchent-Guerfi, A. Benaboura, A. Dib

Electronic and Thermoelectric Properties of CdSnAs2

Electronic and thermoelectric properties of ternary chalcopyrite type CdSnAs2 were studied using the first principles density functional calculations performed in the full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in the WIEN2 k code. The thermoelectric properties are calculated by solving the Boltzmann transport equation within the constant relaxation time approximation. The calculated band gap using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke- Johnson potential (TB-mBJ) of CdSnAs2 compound is in good agreement with the available experimental data. Thermoelectric properties like thermopower, electricalconductivity scaled by relaxation time are calculated as a function of carrier concentration at différent temperatures.

N. Si Ziani, H. Bouhani-Benziane, M. Baira, A. E. K. Belfedal, M. Sahnoun

Milligels Synthesis and Characterization: Mebeverine Hydrochloride Uptake and Release

This study describes the millifluidic-based synthesis of conventional Polyacrylamide (PAM), Polyacrylamide-Sodium Montmorillonite (PAM-NaMMT) and Polyacrylamide-Organo-modified Montmorillonite (PAM-OMMT) composite milligels. These hydrogel particles with millimeter size are intended to be used for the design of Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) combining hydrogels and Clay performances. The composite hydrogels structure, the interactions between the PAM chains and the Clay and the networks thermal behavior were evidenced by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) respectively. PAM, PAM-NaMMT and PAM-OMMT milligels potential loading and release of Mebeverine Hydrochloride, taken as a model molecule, was investigated by UV Spectroscopy. This potential was examined as a function of the release medium, the networks chemical composition, the Montmorillonite (MMT) nature and its content.

N. Baït, B. Grassl, A. Benaboura

Dynamic Rheology Study of In-situ Gelation Process of Polyacrylamide-Montmorillonite Composite Hydrogels

This study describes the in-situ gelation kinetics of polyacrylamide PAM and PAM-Clay networks precursory reactional mixtures and the rheological properties of the resulting hydrogels. Elastic G’ and loss G” moduli measurements via oscillatory shear in dynamic rheology and the structural parameters calculation of the networks using the rubber elasticity theory enabled us to apprehend the relationship between the hydrogels structure and the composition of their precursory mixtures: (i) the presence of the Clay and its absence, (ii) its content and its homoionized or organo-modified nature and (iii) the presence of the cross-linking agent and its absence.

N. Baït, B. Grassl, A. Benaboura

Temperature Effects on Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 3% NaCl Solution by EDTA and Sodium Benzoate

Carboxylates are known as corrosion inhibition products of steels in medium contaminated with chlorides. Gravimetric method was used to study the temperature effects on corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in a medium of 3% NaCl simulating the marine environment of Mediterranean by two organic carboxylate products which are Ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium benzoate. The maximum inhibition efficiency for EDTA and sodium benzoate are about 86% at a concentration of 0.15 mol/l and 73% at 0.2 mol/l respectively at a temperature of 298°K. While for 308°K and 318°K of temperature, the results recorded for EDTA are 77% and 73%, and 69% and 46% for sodium benzoate at the same concentration 0.2 mol/l at the respective temperatures. Consequently, it is deduced that the inhibition efficiency decrease with increasing temperature. The Frumkin model correctly adjusts the fixation mechanism of the inhibition molecules on the surface steel for the two tested products. The free energy values indicate the spontaneity of the adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of the metal indicating a physisorption mechanism.

N. Brixi, L. Sail, A. Bezzar, O. Sebouai, S. Benmesmoudi

Dynamic Behavior of the Composite Rotor Blade Using an Adaptive Damper

The reduction of helicopter vibration is becoming increasingly important to the helicopter structure, due to increasingly higher cruise speeds and improved comfort objectives. The adaptive damper technique has been shown to be capable of reducing fuselage vibration during steady flight conditions, and also maintaining reduced vibration levels during severe manoeuvres. The work is based on modeling by finite element method the blade with viscoelastic damper by applying an aerodynamic force. To realize this modeling we have used the numerical simulation by ABAQUS software to analyze the aerodynamic forces of the helicopter blade; it calculates the frequencies and Eigen valuer, stress, strain and the displacement, however the stress increased with crack propagation. Numerical calculations prove that the elastomeric damper of viscoelastic type produces better results compared to other ordinary systems.

S. Chellil, A. Nour, A. Chellil, S. Lecheb, H. Mechakra, A. T. Settet

Micro-Meso Mechanics Based Modeling of Damage Evolution in Cross Ply Laminates Composites

This paper develops a numerical model to study the crack density evolution and delamination initiated from the transverse crack tips for microcracked ply in cross-ply laminates subjected to tensile loading. A representative unit cell using an energy based model is performed to study the growth of a new transverse crack and delamination process between two existing cracks in the 90° layer of a cross-ply laminate. However, an improved damage mesomodel for laminates allowing the calculation an energy standpoint, to the damaged laminate micromodel. A shear lag model was adopted to evaluate the stress distribution. The solution presented is obtained by using finite element analysis which implements micro-meso progressive failure analysis, while the effect of the stacking sequences has been done by varying the thickness of the 90° plies.

S. Benbelaid, B. Bezzazi

Thermoelectric Properties of Single Filled Skutterudites YbxCo4Sb12

Filled Skutterudites are one of the most promising thermoelectric materials for power generation applications. The choice of the concentration of filler atoms is key aspect for achieving low thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit value. We report an investigation of the thermoelectric properties of Yb filled skutterudites (YbxCo4Sb12). The insertion of Yb filler within the voids of the Skutterudite structure provides a wide range of resonant phonon scattering and therefore a strong reduction of the thermal conductivity is obtained.

Z. Benhalima, A. Bekhti-Siad, M. Sahnoun

Waste Management, Recycling and Environment


Recycling of Plastic Waste and Valorization of Clay Material in the Road Area

The experimental study carried out has a dual objective: valorize the clay material in the road area and improving the bearing capacity of the shaped layers by reinforcement with plastic waste (granules plastic). To do this, six mixtures of clay and sand of different percentages were studied: 100% Clay, 95% Clay + 5% Sand, 90% Clay + 10% Sand, 85% Clay + 15% Sand, 80% Clay + 20% Sand, 75% Clay + 25% Sand. Proctor compaction tests were conducted on mixtures (sand + clay + plastic waste). The results obtained show a clear evolution of the characteristics of the Proctor test according to the different types and percentages of the recycled plastic.

Oum Essaad Ouaaz, Bachir Melbouci

Experimental Study of an Inclined-Plane Electrostatic Separator

Free-fall electrostatic separator is the most basic and a standard solution to separate insulators mixtures. In this paper, an inclined configuration based on free-fall separator was studied. The performances of the studied separator were evaluated through recovery and purity of a separated mixture composed of Polyamide (PA) and Polycarbonate (PC) granular materials. Mainly, the applied voltage to the electrodes and the angle of inclination were the two studied factors. These two factors were varied respectively between 5 kV and 10 kV for the voltage and 25° to 90° for the inclination angle. The obtained results show that recovery rate is increased as the voltage increase so that the more is the voltage the more is the recovered quantity. Conversely, the best results are obtained for lowest inclination angle (25°). At 10 kV and 25°, the recovery rate was more than 70% with products purity roughly 97% for the PA and 98% for the PC. The inclined-plane allowed the increase in recovery rate and purity in comparison to the standard free-fall configuration.

A. Nadjem, M. Kachi, K. Rouagdia, M. Remadnia

Effect of Liquid Type on the Hydraulic Characteristic of Compacted Local Geomaterials for Use as Hydraulic Barriers

In landfill applications, compacted sand-bentonite mixtures are often used for constructing hydraulic barriers. This paper studies the valorization of local materials containing calcareous sand, tuff obtained from Laghouat region, to associate with bentonite in order to improve their hydraulic characteristics for use as landfill liner material. Firstly, a geotechnical characterization of mixtures chooses from a fixed percentage to 10% bentonite and daren’t percentages of calcareous sand and tuff so that they are complementary to 90% (by not 10%). Thereafter, the hydraulic characteristics study was conducted through free swelling test and the oedometric (Kid, indirect measure) test of all compacted mixtures have been carried out using both permeates by tap water and a landfill leachate in order to simulate long-term conditions. The results showed that the saturated hydraulic conductivity of landfill leachate is relatively lower than the one saturated by tap water. The B10CS20T70 mixture has satisfied the hydraulic conductivity criterion of bottom barriers and relatively stable against chemical attack from leachate (i.e. with water permeated: G(%) = 12.21% and kid from 7.10−9 to 1.83.10−10 < 10−9m/s; with leachate permeated: G(%) = 10.42% and kid from 7.10−9 at 1.44.10−10 < 10−9 m/s). Finally, a comparison between direct measurements of the saturated hydraulic conductivity by triaxial (Kd) test and oedometer test (Kid) in the range of effective stress applied 100–800 kPa led to propose equations of correlations between these two methods. In conclusion, adopted formulation B10CS20T70 perfectly meets the regulatory requirements in force and constitutes an economic product based on available local materials for engineers barriers.

Abdellah Demdoum, M. K. Gueddouda, I. Goual, H. Berkak

Application of Factorial Plan for the Recovery of Phosphate Rejects +15 mm by Flotation Method Case of the Mine of Djebel Onk, Tebessa - Algeria

The mining complex of Djebel Onk specializes on phosphate mining. Between the faced problems put down in this establishment, the phosphate rejections (+15 mm) considered low-grade issues of the treatment cycle, which represent 20% of sieved product. Actually, it occupies large surfaces in the region, which provoke negatively on the environment under the effects of climate changes (wind, rain, snow). The main objective of this study is to do a chemical characterization to know their composition and to seek the possibility of upgrading them in one hand and to recover the maximum occupied surfaces to protect the environment of the region in the other hand. It was noted according to the chemical analysis that they are rich in P2O5 (19–25%), treating this later makes it a new source of phosphate. The proposed method of flotation required the application of a statistical method by using design of experiments, which proved the influence of some chosen factors on (tenor) as a response.

M. Ali, I. Abdelaziz, O. H. Malek, M. Mohamed

Nanofiltration Performance for Synthetic and Natural Water Defluorination: Application to South-Algeria Groundwater

Currently, nanofiltration (NF) is gaining increasing importance in water treatment and can replace reverse osmosis especially in the case of brackish water. It is generally appreciated for its low energy consumption, good selectivity and high productivity. The purpose of this study aimed at evaluating the best performance of NF to remove fluoride ions using model solutions in order to treat a South-Algerian groundwater in the optimal conditions. WHO guidelines recommend a limit concentration of 1.5 mg.L−1 in drinking water. A commercial NF membrane (NF90) was investigated to study its efficiency in treating synthetic and natural brackish waters in a cross-flow NF membrane process at a pressure range from 3 to 15 bar using a bench scale NF pilot. The membrane performance was determined by the permeation flux and the rejection capacity as a function of trans-membrane pressure. The results showed that productivity and rejection increase with pressure for NF90. The latter parameter leveled off at a trans-membrane a pressure of 11 bar. The defluorination efficiency was about 98% from a synthetic solution with a permeate flux of 64.8 L/h.m2, an F−concentration of 10−3 M (42 mg/L) and pH = 7.2. In the same conditions, NF90 can retain more than 88% of fluoride ions from natural groundwater water (Robbah) at its natural pH (7.85) in the presence of other ions. The F−content was 0.35 mg/L well below the WHO threshold.

Amina Ramdani, Sana Gassara, André Deratani, Safia Taleb

Treatment of Colored Waters by Beads Chitosan, Extracted from Shrimp Waste

The valorization of shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris waste, in the reduction of the dye: solophenyl blue (BS) in aqueous solution was studied. To date, the principal valorization of this flow of waste remains the isolation of chitin. Indeed, its transformation into chitosan, allowed its solubility in diluted acid medium. The extraction of chitin requires several conventional steps (demineralization, deproteinisation, bleaching and desacetylation), which explains the high cost of the product. In order to overcome this problem, chitin was isolated by biological way thanks to a bacterium Lactobacillus helveticus. In this work, the chitin purified by lactic fermentation (ChitiBio), was used for the desacetylation under new soft conditions. (NaOH 40%, T = 30 °C during 10 days). The physicochemical analyses, spectroscopy FTIR and micrography SEM have allowed characterizing the chitin deacetylated under our particular conditions. Compared to the commercial chitosan (Fluka), spectrum FTIR and external morphology present a strong similarity. Thanks to the solubility of the prepared chitosan in acid medium, beads of chitosan were formed then tested in order to prove their effectiveness in the reduction of dye BS. Comparisons were made with the commercial chitosan (ChitosCom). Experiments of adsorption were carried out, in batch mode, with free pH (6) and room temperature (22–25 °C). For each adsorbent, kinetics of adsorption to various initial concentrations while colouring (BS) (10–300 mg/l) were followed during several days. The beads of chitosan (ChitiBioDA10dT30 and ChitosCom) have allowed reducing, considerably, the residual concentration of the dye to values lower than 1 mg/l. Thus, rates of abatement of 99% were reached and this for all the studied concentrations. The soft desacetylation is thus recommended in the production of the chitosan, starting from the chitin purified by biological way.

D. Aili, W. Arbia, L. Adour

Use of the Potato Peels and the Bentonite as Additives of Flocculation in the Wastewater Treatment of the STEP of Saïda

The objective of this study is to eliminate the pollutant load of wastewater from the STEP of Saida by the coagulation-flocculation tests using a jar-test bench. The analysis revealed a high COD and BOD5 content, which can reach 529.08 mg O2/l and 317.03 mg O2/l respectively. Conventional treatment based on coagulation-flocculation made it possible to reduce considerably this loading in the presence of the coagulant aluminum sulfate by means of natural flocculation auxiliaries, potato peels and bentonite. The efficiency of the treatment depends strongly on the optimization and control of all physico-chemical parameters. Turbidity is the best indicator of the effectiveness of this treatment. The optimal dose of aluminum sulphate is equal to 0.6 g, it is estimated at 10 mn, with a turbidity abatement of the order of 99.7%. The flocculation tests show that, with a mass of 0.5 g of bentonite and for an optimal dose of aluminum sulphate, the percentage reduction in turbidity is 99.66%. The treatment carried out in combination of aluminum sulphate and potato peels leads to good flocculation and clarification with a turbidity abatement of 98.01%. Examination of the results suggests the use of bentonite and potato peels as flocculation adjuvants.

Fatima Zohra Choumane, Fatma Kandouci, Bouhana Maachou

Demineralization Effect on the Physicochemical and Interfacial Properties of Sweet Whey

In Algeria, the rejection of whey into the environment is a favorable factor in the biological pollution of freshwater ecosystems due to its native biochemical composition (lactic bacteria, lactose and proteins), the crude sweet whey is an effluent and a co-product of cheeses of pasta cooked, pressed and the casein; rejected in the environment without prior treatment (case of cheese industry of SIDI SAADA, YELLEL, RELIZANE.Algeria), the whey subsequently affects the quality of freshwater ecosystems (wadi of Mina.Relizane.Algeria). The objective of the work has focused on the characterization of the physicochemical and interfacial properties of demineralized sweet whey. The results showed that the demineralization of sweet whey modified its physicochemical properties on the one hand and improved its interfacial properties on the other hand. In perspective, the valorization of the whey in question remains one of the major preoccupations of the local cheese industries.

K. Acem, A. Choukri, N. Saoudet, S. Tergou, H. Trari

Treatment of Medical Waste Using Electrocoagulation Process

The paper describes the removal of the anti-inflammatory “Ketoprofen (KTP)” by electrocoagulation process using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). pH, Current density, initial ketoprofen concentration were considered as input variables for RSM and the percentage removal (y%) of KTP was chosen as the response parameter. The disappearance of the molecule of KTP in synthetic wastewater and the appearance of by-products were followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Second-order model was obtained and showed the classification of these parameters based on their level of significance. Pareto analysis result and the values of Student’s distribution showed that current density had the most important effect on the response, which has a positive effect on the response, but the initial KTP concentration has a negative effect on the response. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed an important coefficient of determination value (R2 = 96.41%) between removal efficiency and predicted one by RSM developed model. Graphical response surface and counter plots were used to locate the optimum point. The electrocoagulation process was able to achieve 100% of KTP removal yield in 30 min.

K. Madi-Azegagh, F. Aissani-Benissad, I. Yahiaoui

Biosorption of the Anionic Dye Direct Red 89 by the Aquatic Plant Callitriche obtusangula

The use of aquatic plant biomass as sorbent is an economic way to mitigate water pollution because of abundance and low cost of this kind of biomass. In this study, we proposed the species Callitriche obtusangula (C. obtusangula) for the elimination of the azo dye Direct Red 89 (DR-89) which is a dangerous pollutant for humans, animals and their environments. Batch experiments were carried out to assess optimal parameters such as contact time, biomass dosage, agitation speed, pH and temperature. The results show that the maximum percentage of pollutant elimination was 46% after 90 min of treatment for an initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, an agitation speed of 200 rpm, a biomass dose of 2 g/L, and a pH equal to 1. Thermodynamically, the study proved that the phenomenon was endothermic (∆H = 34.84 kJ/mol) and spontaneous (∆G < 0). The Infra-Red analysis (FT-IR) was used to determine the mechanism of DR-89 sorption by identifying the functional groups involved in the present phenomenon. The spectra showed that the Callitriche biomass contains Carboxylic Acid, Aromatic ring, Amines, Alcohol, Alkane which were responsible for the dye retention on the biomass surface.

Khaled Benabbas, Imene Hocini, Nabila Khellaf

Extraction of Propionic Acid from Waste Water Using Rosmary

Experimental liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the extraction of propionic acid from water by rosmary at 291.15 K and at ambient pressure were investigated. Data for the binodal curve have been determined by cloud-point titration method and conjugate points on tie-line were obtained by correlating the refractive index of the binodal curves as a function of composition. The reliability of the tie lines generated from the composition data was tested and verified by two correlation models: Hand and Othmer, which were found to fit the data very well, producing high values of correlation coefficient (R2). In addition, these experimental tie line data were also correlated with NRTL model and the binary interaction parameters of the model have been obtained by regression with experimental data. Finally, the distribution coefficients and the selectivity factor of the solvent used were calculated and presented.

M. Timedjeghdine, A. Djellouli, A. Hasseine

Investigate Method to Reduce Methane Emission During Maintenance Operations from Algerian Natural Gas Transportation

Methane concentration in the atmosphere has critically increased recently, its account for about 50% of the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Increasing environmental concern and global warming have made it become an imminent consideration. The energy sector is the second largest contributor to methane emissions. The emissions of natural gas from gas transportation pipeline are an important factor for global warming. For this article we try find a way for preventing of waste this source because of economical aspect and environmental problems. First we calculate the volume of gas venting from pipeline and then get quantity of money value of this gas then we suggest a mobile compressor for saving this gas. Pipeline pump-down technique with portable compressor solution instead of venting will mainly allow 54.873 million m3 gases saving, which costs about 11.628 million USD and benefits justified purchase of 4 portable compressors.

M. Louhibi–Bouiri, M. Hachemi

Kinetics and Isotherms Adsorption of Reactive Dye by Thermally Treated Dolomite

Kinetic and equilibrium data of the adsorption of reactive black 5 (RB5) from synthetic solutions on Algerian dolomite were determined experimentally. The obtained samples, i.e., raw dolomite and its form heated at 900 °C (D900), were characterized by XRD and SEM. The kinetic mechanism is enough complex, involving different models such as those of pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich. The adsorption of RB5 at equilibrium increases strongly with increasing adsorption temperature. The affinity sequence is D900 >> raw dolomite with amounts adsorbed of 125.9 and 38.20 mg g−1, respectively. This difference would be correlated with the weight loss percentage and crystallographic properties. The kinetic mechanism involving different models such as those of pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich. The isotherms are found to be suitably fitted by the Redlich-Peterson equation, a model including three adjustable parameters and requiring nonlinear least-square analysis. A close agreement exists between the evolution of kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium, parameters, indicate chemisorption process. The fact that maximum adsorption occurs at isoelectric point emphasizes the prevalence of the non-electrostatic interaction. The process reflects for D900 a weak chemical interaction via a mechanism of surface complexation. In view of its adsorbed amount, D900 appears very effective for removing reactive dyes from wastewaters.

Samira Ziane, Amine Khelifa

Degradation of a Pharmaceutical Pollutant by Coupling Photo-Fenton and Adsorption Processes

This study concerns a novel process for the treatment of industrial aqueous pharmaceutical effluents. In our case, it is diclofenac sodium loaded with an organic matter. The former is difficult to be treated biologically. This hybrid process couples photofenton and adsorption on commercial bentonite within a single reactor. The efficiency of an advanced oxidation process, which is photo-fenton on diclofenac, has been tested. We attempt to increase the elimination efficiency by acting on pH, H2O2/Fe2+ ratio, and the initial pollutant concentration. The maximum yield achieved is 65%. In order to complete the elimination of our pollutant we have used adsorption on commercial bentonite, the various degradation parameters have been optimized: contact time, mass of the adsorbent, and concentration of the pollutant. The combination of the two processes photo-fenton/adsorption allowed us to increase the removal efficiency, which reached 87%.

S. Cherif, M. R. Boudraa, A. Moussa, R. Maachi, N. Nasrallah, N. Guendouz

Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Glass Foam Composites for Electromagnetic Application

This article deals with the synthesis and structural characterization of glass foams made from cullet and loaded with carbon fibers or used tires for electromagnetic absorption application. All the raw materials used for this work come from recycling or reconditioning. Two carbonaceous loads are tested; the carbon fiber scraps are used because they show an interest in the field of absorption and parallel to this, another load type (tire waste) is used for its high carbon content. This novel later load is used, to our knowledge, for a first time. Samples with different weight contents of the loads are achieved and characterized. The used percentages of loads, are respectively, between 0 and 10 wt.% and between 0 and 20 wt.% for carbon fibers and tire waste. In this article, we present and discuss the elaboration method, the morphological and structural results of the loaded glass foam composites. A low density was obtained from both composite, with a density between 0.28 and 0.53 g/cm3. An excess content of tire waste load leads to “collapse” of the gas bubbles during the heat treatment of the sample which induces an increase in the density of the composite. This is due to the decomposition of this load during the elaboration process. This result is confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy observation and also by gravimetric thermal analysis of the tire waste. Contrary to this, composites loaded with carbon fibers show better structure homogeneity and non-decomposition of carbon fibers during a heat treatment.

Younes Lamri, Ratiba Benzerga, Azzedine Ayadi, Laurent Le Gendre, Fayrouz Benhaoua

Materials Processing Technology


Bonded Composite Repairs Analysis in Pipes Under Internal Pressure Using Finite Element Technics

The use of composite systems as a repair methodology in the pipeline industry has grown in recent years. However, there are still no widely accepted standards governing the design and installation of such systems but the potential cost savings can be significant. Whilst composite repairs are gaining acceptance and approvals they do not as yet have full regulatory approval and this should be considered during the repair assessment process. In this study, the analysis of the behaviour of circumferential through cracks in repaired pipe with bonded composite patch subjected to internal pressure is performed using three dimensional finite element methods. The stress intensity factor is used as a fracture criteria which describes the elastic behavior of the structure. The obtained results show that the presence of the bonded composite patch reduces significantly the stress intensity factor, what can improve the lifespan of the pipe.

A. Achour, B. Bachir Bouiadjra, D. Ouinas

Elaboration and Characterization of Ceramic Materials from Kaolin-Phosphate Mixture

This work focuses on the reaction between kaolin and natural phosphate. Four mixtures were prepared by varying the kaolin content 20–80% by weight with a step of 20. All powders were ground and dried and then pressed in cylindrical form. Finally, the samples were sintered at 1300 °C for 2 h under static air. The reactions and the phase transformations of the powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (X-ray diffraction), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the mixing of two raw materials produces several composites with different amounts (HAp, anorthite, β-TCP and mullite). The presence of the different composites was confirmed by micrographic observations. The results showed that the 20K samples had a high degree of densification and a low open porosity.

Chouia Fateh, Belhouchet Houcine

Optimization of Tool Geometry Parameters for Rotary Peeling Veneer Process Based on TLBO Algorithm

Rotary peeling veneer is a very specific machining process, where the chip is the final product. The fact that works related to this manufacturing process are rare, our objective is to investigate on the optimal cutting parameters, tool edge geometry, through the use of Teaching-Learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm in order to obtain the best quality with the desired thickness of the veneer product. A study is carried out to identify the objective function that best characterize the machining parameters to be optimized. The challenge is to maintain the best possible quality of peeled veneer with the control of the pre-splitting condition and the veneer thickness variation. The developed algorithm, implemented in Matlab, used in this study is described through two pseudo-codes: main algorithm and the TLBO algorithm. In the main algorithm, the whole resolution procedure is prescribed. The second algorithm is dedicated to the description of all steps of the TLBO technique. Preliminary numerical results obtained from TLBO algorithm are consistent with the experimental ones. The proposed numerical model allows us to predict the characteristic tool angles for different chip thicknesses and friction coefficient. The need to use a pressure bar to produce a quality veneer is numerically proved.

Bourab Fatma-zohra, Aknouche Hamid, Hamrani Abderrachid

Light Scattering Applied to the Study of Biological Tissues: To an Optical Biopsy

This work is devoted to the study of light scattering in biological tissues. It aims to determine indicators that permit to differentiate between cancerous and normal tissues of a human organ and to seek a mean of therapy transport. For this, we analyzed the intensity and the spectral variation of the scattered light as a function of its scattering direction.This work gives some main results of the experiment and the simulation. We stepped impressive to discriminate between cancerous and normal tissues of a human organ, such as: Vesicle, Breast.

H. Chorfi, K. Ayadi, L. Boufendi

The Effect of Doping with N and Cu Atoms on the Hydrogen Sensing Properties of the ZnO Surface and ZnO Nanowires: A First-Principles Study

The effect of doping with acceptor atoms such as copper and nitrogen on the electronic structure and hydrogen sensing properties of the ZnO$$ \left( {10\bar{1}\varvec{ }0} \right) $$ surface and the ZnO nanowires was investigated using the first principles method. Our results show that the doping process can greatly affect the electronic structure of ZnO surfaces and nanowires, and consequently their responses to hydrogen adsorption can be significantly enhanced after doping with acceptors. We found that hydrogen adsorption is more favored on the doped ZnO$$ \left( {10\bar{1}\varvec{ }0} \right) $$ surface than onto the clean surface, and this makes the Cu-doped and the N-doped surfaces more efficient for H gas sensing applications than clean ZnO surface. Our results show also that the Cu-doped surface is more efficient for the H2 sensing applications than the N-doped surface however the N-doped surface is better for the atomic hydrogen sensing applications. We have also examined the effect of doping with Cu and N on the hydrogen sensing properties of the ZnO nanowires. The obtained results show that the H gas sensing properties of the undoped ZnO nanowires are many times better than those of the ZnO$$ \left( {10\bar{1}\varvec{ }0} \right) $$ surface. We found also that, the doping process can greatly enhance the atomic hydrogen sensing properties of the ZnO nanowires.

M. A. Lahmer

Macromolecular Complex Architectures: Synthesis and Characterization

The use of polymer materials becomes very important in our everyday life and their applications include several industries. The majority of such materials were synthesized for a long time via free radical polymerization FRP process. However, the obtained architectures were generally not controlled. In the mid 1990s, new controlled polymerization mechanisms were developed in the objective to synthesis a new controlled polymers able to satisfy our various needs in different sectors.In this contribution, we are particularly interested in the synthesis and characterization of two controlled macromolecular families: gradient and block copolymers. As it will be presented, the nitroxyde mediated polymerization NMP was successfully applied in the synthesis of those complex architectures, using Styrene, Butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate as monomers at different temperatures. Many experimental techniques were preferentially chosen to confirm the obtaining of required architectures. As example, let us quote SEC, H-RMN, RMN-HMBC and DSC techniques.

N. Cherifi, A. Benaboura, L. Billon

Study of COD Adsorption on Deferent Activated Carbon Prepared from the Date Stones of the South of Algeria

For the aim of valorization of local lignocelluloses natural residue from different activated carbon with a high surface areas were prepared by chemical activation using the phosphoric acid H3PO4 from the date stones of two locals varieties (Ghars and Mech Degla) of the regions of Biskra and El Oued in the south of Algeria and characterized by different techniques, the textural properties determined by N2 adsorption at 77 k and scanning electronic microscopy SEM. The surface function was found by the Boehm method and the elemental analysis of activated carbons was carried out.The adsorption of the organic pollutant (COD) of wastewater from the common Sidi Khouiled (Ouargla) by the activated carbons CGB1, CGE1, CMB1 has been studied. Under the process conditions there is a maximum absorption capacity of this pollutant 62.5 mg/g for CGB1. The experimental data were well described by the isothermal equilibrium equation Langmuir type II and the calculated adsorption capacity was 71.43 mg/g comparable by models Freundlich and Temkin. The kinetics of COD adsorption obeys the intra cellular model.

Ouahiba Belaid, Ahmed A. Bebba, Zineb Barhoum, Imane Raache

Study of Structural, Morphological and Optical, Properties of Fe Doped SnO2 Semiconductor Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Technique

The undoped and iron doped tin oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique, using tin chloride and iron III chloride as the starting materials. The effect of method conditions and Fe doping on the structural, morphological and optical properties of applied thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–vis spectroscopy. Surface topography of thin films was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM).XRD patterns showed an increase in peak intensities of the rutile and cubic crystalline phases of SnO2 by increasing the Fe content. SnO2 nanoparticles in the range of 9–20 nm size were obtained by the Scherrer equation using FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) values of the main peaks in the XRD diffraction pattern when calcined at 500 °C.The UV–Vis–spectroscopy analyses have shown that all the thin films were transparent in the visible region with an average transmittance ranging from 70% to 87%. And showed a direct band gap reducing with increase in Fe3+ doping from 3.82 to 3.72 eV.AFM images shown thin films with different contents of Fe. The effect of Fe concentration has been discussed.

S. Benkara, H. Ghamri, M. Zaabat

Effect of a Thermal Degradation on the Mechanical Behavior of a 5-Harness Satin Weave Carbon–PEEK

This paper presents an experimental analysis of a 5-harness satin weave carbon–PEEK (Polyether-ether-ketone) composite. In order to understand the thermal behavior of composites, when exposed to moderate and high temperatures, a thermal degradation study is carried out. To this end, a preliminary characterization of the composite before thermal exposure were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The results obtained by tensile and three-point bending test showed the effect of thermal heating on the mechanical behavior of the resin and the composite.

T. Saoudi, M. A. Belouchrani


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