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Machining is a severe plastic deformation process, wherein the workpiece material is subjected to high deformation rates and temperatures. During metal machining, the dynamic recrystallization mechanism causes grain refinement into the sub-micron range. In this study, we investigate the microstructure evolution of oxygen-free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu) subject to a machining process where the cutting speed and rake angle are controlled to manipulate the process strain, strain rate, and temperatures. Microstructures of the deformed chips are quantified using orientation imaging microscopy and novel statistical descriptors that capture the morphology and local lattice misorientations generated during the several mechanistic stages of the dynamic recrystallization process. Mechanical properties of the resulting chips are quantified using spherical nanoindentation protocols. A multiple output Gaussian process regression model is used to simultaneously model the structure-property evolution, which differs from more common approaches that establish such relationships sequentially. This modeling strategy is particularly attractive since it can flexibly provide both structure and property uncertainty estimates. In addition, the statistical modeling framework allows for the inclusion of multi-fidelity data. The statistical metrics utilized serve as efficient microstructure descriptors, which retain the physics of the observed structures without having to introduce ad hoc microstructure feature definitions.