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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed post-proceedings of the 11th IFIP WG 5.1 International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management, PLM 2014, held in Yokohama, Japan, in July 2014. The 51 full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 77 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: BIM operations, maintenance, and renovation; BIM concepts and lifecycle management; design and education; naval engineering and shipbuilding; aeronautical and automotive engineering; industry and consumer products; interoperability, integration, configuration, systems engineering; change management and maturity; knowledge engineering; knowledge management; service and manufacturing; and new PLM.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

BIM Operations, Maintenance and Renovation

Building Information Modeling (BIM) for Facilities Management – Literature Review and Future Needs

Facilities management (FM) is a discipline comprising of various operations, activities and maintenance services to support the main functions of an in-use building or facility. It demands comprehensive sets of information about the facility. While various FM information systems are currently being used to manage such information, the multifarious graphical and non-graphical information stored in Building Information Models (BIM) from the pre-use phase have not been sufficiently integrated in existing FM systems. BIM, with its visualization, interoperability and information exchange capabilities, can streamline FM activities. Hence, use of BIM for FM has gained global research interest. This paper analyzes this trend based on qualitative analysis of the state- of-art literature on the topic. In particular, this paper scrutinizes the nature of BIM and FM within their variety of functions and interactions. The analysis concentrates on the value-adding potential of BIM and reports the findings to designate the benefits of BIM for FM, and assess potential challenges that are hindering the effective use of BIM in FM.

Mehmet Yalcinkaya, Vishal Singh

Maintenance of Facilities and Aircrafts: A Comparison of IT-Driven Solutions

Building Information Modeling (BIM) can significantly impact both new as well as existing architecture/engineering/construction (AEC) projects. It can provide a virtually simulated and large integrated database that can be leveraged not only in design and engineering, but also in planning and management operations, and facilities maintenance. Although most of the BIM tools are now mature enough to use in various phases of project lifecycle, they have been primitive and under-developed for many years. The concepts underpinning BIM have been around since the 1960s through various manufacturing industries such as automotive, ship building or aerospace. In the aerospace industry, especially in aircraft design and manufacturing, the concept similar to BIM is a Digital Mock-Up (DMU). It is both a tool and a product of engineering. As in BIM, aircraft’s DMU is also a comprehensive digital product representation that is used to simulate the use, behavior and performance of a finished aircraft. While BIM and DMU are used for different industries and products, they do share similarities and differences. This paper briefly describes BIM and DMU technologies and their context, specifically focusing on implementation of these two technologies for operation and maintenance (O&M).

Karoliina Parhiala, Mehmet Yalcinkaya, Vishal Singh

Towards a BIM Approach for a High Performance Renovation of Apartment Buildings

Building renovation is a key issue for energy saving in the future. The goal of this article is to show how this traditional activity can be industrialized thanks to a BIM supported process. The critical needs are explained and the proposed BIM presented.

M. Aldanondo, A. Barco-Santa, E. Vareilles, M. Falcon, P. Gaborit, L. Zhang

Similar Concepts, Distinct Solutions, Common Problems: Learning from PLM and BIM Deployment

This paper describes the similarities and differences between Product Lifecycle Management and Building Information Modelling concepts, focusing on integration issues relative to their methods, information systems, effects and criticisms. In this literature based discussion, the authors show that the two concepts share fundamental similarities but are distinct in their scope and level of integration as well as maturity of process and workflow management. The paper highlights several common problems and aims to provide guidance for deployment initiatives.

J. R. Jupp, Vishal Singh

BIM and PLM: Comparing and Learning from Changes to Professional Practice Across Sectors

This paper explores the effects of PLM and BIM on professional practice. It draws on existing literature documenting the experiences of both communities of practice to explain shifts in professional boundaries. A review of case study based literature compares the nature of changes triggered by PLM and BIM relative to the new activities, roles/responsibilities and knowledge competencies, and supply chain relationships. The paper synthesises these changes and reflects PLM and BIM experiences against each other so as to contrast the continuing evolution of professional practice and lessons learned.

J. R. Jupp, M. Nepal

Preliminary Study Impact of Building Information Modelling Use in Malaysia

The paradigm shift in the construction industry from 2D to Building Information Modelling (BIM) presents unforeseen challenges for new entrant construction industries. Experiences from advanced industry users of BIM shape the directions for future use. In Malaysia, BIM maturity is fast appreciating with increasing demand for efficiency and competitive advantages. However, adoption rate encounters resistance from several factors highlighted in previous research: people, process and technology. To improve on Information technology (IT) adoption models factors such as business process re-engineering, computer integrated construction and BIM adoption were considered for this research. This paper represents findings of an ongoing research, presenting the designed questionnaire to access perception of construction industry professionals (Architects, Quantity Surveyors, Engineers and Contractors) knowledge on BIM softwares and BIM attributes. Responses were derived from 120 construction professionals in the pilot phase of the research. The data is analyzed using SPSS for a descriptive overview of the most prominent BIM software usage. Smart PLS was utilized to analyze the path coefficient effects of each variable in the model. The Cronbach Alpha derived fell within an agreeable minimum threshold of above 0.60. The factors loaded appropriately to each variable. The path coefficient revealed people perception had the highest effect on collaborative processes, business process re-engineering (BPR) had the highest effect on BIM adoption and model variance R2 explained 24.6% of BIM adoption. The results will demonstrate the current state of BIM adoption in Malaysian construction industry complimenting current efforts to improve BIM awareness. At this stage, future research focuses on developing the second phase of the model and recommends towards extending and redefining the model with other mediating variables.

W. I. Enegbuma, A. C. Ologbo, U. G. Aliagha, K. N. Ali

BIM Concepts and Lifecycle Management

BIM for FM: A Case Support for Business Life Cycle

Relatively little information exists about the use of BIM in the operation and maintenance of buildings. Reported cases of BIM adoption to support facilities management and lifecycle management reveals that the implementation of BIM for FM processes is, in general, limited to an experimental scale. Even large public owners who have been using BIM for managing their construction projects have not implemented it into their FM activities. Therefore, there is little evidence of the benefits of BIM in the operational phase. In addition, the challenges involved in shifting from traditional FM processes to new BIM-based processes are not well known. In this paper we document some of the issues involved in the adoption of BIM in FM and identify some applications, metrics and benefits related to its adoption. The findings are based on a case study carried out within a major re-development project in Manchester, UK. Results indicate a step rise in the level of awareness regarding potential benefits of BIM in FM activities and lifecycle information management.

Ricardo Codinhoto, Arto Kiviniemi

Fostering the Link from PLM to ERP via BIM

The AEC Industry in Transition

This paper investigates approaches for linking Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) via structured data stemming from Building Information Modeling (BIM) to information systems that get applied for Enterprise Resource planning (ERP) across Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC). The author highlights key pathways for such integration, with a particular focus on the hurdles contractors, suppliers and manufacturers need to overcome to master their transition to BIM-enabled PLM and the associated ERP. Based on a case-study (Hickory Group), the paper analyses the opportunities for the strategic repositioning of a construction and manufacturing firm who combines PLM with BIM and ERP within its organisation.

Dominik Holzer

The Turning Point: MEP Contractors as the Key to Achieving Lifecycle BIM

Developments in the construction industry across a number of countries over the past decade suggest that the use of Building Information Modeling (BIM) is becoming the norm for the design and delivery of projects. As BIM increasingly enters a broad range of domains within the built environment, the importance of Specialist Contractors - and in particular MEP Contractors - as part of these developments begins to show. MEP Contractors form a crucial link in the information-chain to achieve life-cycle BIM. This paper investigates the shift to the role of MEP Contractors in the context of BIM. It analyses the structural changes within the contracting professions, and it highlights the impact of BIM enabled MEP Contractors on the construction industry as a whole. The paper scrutinises this development by example of the BIM-MEP

AUS

initiative of the Australian Air Conditioning and Mechanical Contractors’ Association (AMCA). Accounts from BIM-MEP

AUS

illustrate the raise of the BIM-enabled MEP Contractors and thereby act as a reference for other international industry groups who may wish to follow their example.

Sumit Oberoi, Dominik Holzer

Design and Education

A Design Method for Product Upgradability with Different Customer Demands

A sustainable society requires changes in the traditional paradigm of mass production and consumption. Products such as personal computers and smartphones are discarded even though they are fully functional. This paper proposes a design method for product upgradability which satisfies various different customer demands to increase the product value and extend the value lifespan by exchanging components closely related to its deterioration in value. In addition, this paper also proposes a method that can specify future product performances, effective upgradable product components, and the side effects of upgrade on other product components. Finally, this paper discusses the applicability of our proposed design method by considering a vacuum cleaner and various different customer demands.

Masato Inoue, Shuho Yamada, Tetsuo Yamada, Stefan Bracke

Integration of Design Intent during the Product Lifecycle Management

There has been significant achievement in integrating product data during the whole lifecycle phases with shared common ontologies while taking advantage of intelligent retrieval mechanisms. In order to support integrated decision making on product redesign or maintenance operations, we should solve a challenging issue: ‘how the product lifecycle management (PLM) stores and retrieves the know-how and the knowledge of an organization concerning manufactured products’. This paper describes the extension of a previously developed PLM Semantic Ontology Model toward integration with design intent. The proposed approach uses OWL2 to represent product lifecycle data and design knowledge. The approach was applied to the redesign of a car door part for laser welding. Our work demonstrates how to retrieve design intent as a specific type of knowledge data in the context of design decisions. Such an approach can ultimately contribute to reducing design time, making knowledge transfer clear and thus improving the quality of designed products.

Min-Jung Yoo, Jumyung Um, Ian Stroud, Soumaya El Kadiri, Dimitris Kiritsis

A Short Portable PLM Course

This paper presents the modern education principles of a short PLM course designed to be deployed all over the world in universities that do not have a PDM software. The main objective of this course is to present the advantages of using a PLM strategy during the Product Development Process. A case study is used to present and explore different process areas of a product lifecycle within a collaborative environment. Students are required to perform tasks and develop a technical solution. Special attention is devoted to the information exchange using an open source PDM system.

Joel Sauza Bedolla, Javier Martinez Gomez, Paolo Chiabert

Product Lifecycle Management in Education: Key to Innovation in Engineering and Technology

Product Lifecycle Management in Education is the key to innovation and success in organizations in the engineering and technology sector. This paper illustrates that incorporation of PLM training in coursework and education of best practices, processes and solutions at educational institutions as well as organizations helps leverage the intellectual assets of an organization and turn them into deliverable assets. PLM education and training imparts vision, technical expertise and solutions to improve productivity and efficiency in the fields of engineering, business, operations and supply chain in different industries such as OEMs their suppliers, retail, pharmacy and apparel industry etc. PLM training and applications of core methods, tools and processes achieve major cost savings and resource sharing between different business segments besides advancing the innovation in engineering and technology.

Priyanka Gandhi

Naval Engineering and Shipbuilding

Knowledge Management: A Cross Sectorial Comparison of Wind Generation and Naval Engineering

Offshore wind farms and naval vessels are examples of complex systems. A number of differences exist, e.g. the first is an exemplar of a developing technology, the second a technology having been developed and enhanced over centuries. Never the less a number of similarities exist, e.g. the development of responsive systems in physically demanding environments. Each of the technologies adheres to a prescribed product lifecycle, e.g. “ISO 15288, Systems and software engineering – System life cycle processes”, whereby each phase has distinct information and knowledge requirements. Furthermore, the adoption of a structured lifecycle ensures each technology considers the complete lifecycle and its integration within a potential system of systems. This cross sectoral study will review in-service knowledge management in two different fields of engineering, firstly Offshore Wind Generation which is a complex infrastructure system and secondly Royal Navy vessels which are complex marine engineering systems.

Gary Ford, Joel Igba, Chris McMahon, Kazem Alemzadeh, Chris Rowley, Keld Henningsen

Information Resources for the Identification of Complex Asset Condition: A Naval Engineering Case Study

This paper describes the research in identifying the key data elements that are indicative of the material state of a naval vessel. Naval vessels are long lived complex artefacts, containing in excess of 100 integrated “hard” systems. The systems may be configured to provide a variety of prescribed capabilities and associated command objective. However, the “hard” systems will not fully integrate or function in a cohesive manner without the interaction of “soft” socio-technical systems (e.g. maintenance teams, operators); the two are interdependent and reliant. The In-Service phase will contribute 70% of the artefact’s through-life costs and may comprise an operating period of more than 25 years. The data generated and utilised within each mode will reflect the operational and technical requirements of the numerous stakeholders and the functional state of the vessel.

Gary Ford, Chris McMahon, Chris Rowley

A Requirements Evaluation Method for Ships to Maximize Operational Value under Uncertainty

Requirements defined by shipping firms play a role as the communication interface of product information between these firms and shipbuilders, and the product design is optimized based on the requirements. Ship service life is about 30 years, during which original requirements may lose some relevance. In this paper we explore the introduction of uncertainty and flexibility into requirements so that ships are designed optimally not only for a single given technical condition but for a range of possible operational scenarios, including shifts in the economic environment for shipping firms.

Kazuo Hiekata, Bryan Moser

Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering

Using the Product Lifecycle Management Systems to Improve Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul Practices: The Case of Aeronautical Industry

Airlines companies trust in MRO facilities for extending lifespan of their assets to ensure the availability of transportation services. Nevertheless, MRO services are complex because they involve several processes whose performance depends on the design and manufacturing of products while airlines require the best-cost efficiency, quality and safety. Product lifecycle management (PLM) could improve the productivity and quality of MRO since it enables the collaborative creation, management, dissemination, use, maintenance and repair of products and its operational process information across the entire life of products from market concept to product retirement. However, it seems that PLM and MRO relationship in the aeronautical industry has been studied very sparsely in the literature. This paper attempts to gain a better understanding of the influence of product life management system in MRO services. The objectives of this study are twofold: 1) to identify MRO provider’s requirements concerning PLM systems, and 2) to assess how PLM system could be improved to better support MRO services.

Alejandro Romero, Darli Rodrigues Vieira

Integrating Eco-design and PLM in the Aviation Completion Industry: A Case Study

Aviation represents 12% of the CO2 emissions from all transport sources in the world. These pollutants are even stronger in their impact because they are released at high altitudes. Therefore, aeronautical companies have adopted the eco-design and PLM perspective to integrate the environmental concerns into the development of their products. PLM permits to include the environmental matters into every phase of the development process, not forgetting traditional arguments such as function, costs, production and aesthetics. Research regarding ecologically concerned textiles in aviation completion industry is not available in literature, especially those regarding its whole lifecycle and supply chain. Therefore, this paper aims to analyse this unexplored concern by assessing the integration of eco-design and PLM perspective for the use of textile materials in this industry sector. Through a case study, the research team explored the completion function of a north-American company in general and, specifically, the use of textile materials for internal completion of the aircraft. Even though representing 1% of the total weight of the aircraft, textiles represent an important factor in the composition of an airplane and the fact that it is being thought off as another recyclable and not disposable part of it should mean a shift in the perception of its growing importance in the development of the plane as a whole.

Natalia Moreira, Daoud Aït-Kadi, Darli Rodrigues Vieira, Alejandro Romero, Luis Antonio de Santa-Eulalia, Yi Wang

Decomposition Analysis Resolution Process (DAR) of Systems Engineering Applied to Development of Countermeasure on Leakage of Engine Head-Gasket

This paper reviews a countermeasure development of leakage from coolant seals of head-gaskets in a diesel engine applying the Decomposition Analysis and Resolution Process (DAR). We can find complexity arising from some causes of leakage even in a simple square-ring rubber seal. The major causes are (1) large displacement around a head-gasket generated by the combustion, (2) seal distortion at a high compression, (3) seal rubber degradation induced by coolant microorganism deterioration, (4) uncontrolled seal production and (5) unsuitable rubber composition. Through our DAR, we can resolve the complexity of the leakage and can clarify all the cause positions and their relationships. We can confirm that an improved silicone rubber seal, which has a higher fatigue strength, an excellent acid-resistance and a uniform contact property, is the correct resolution. This paper also shows development of a hydrogenated nitrile rubber seal as a permanent measure, which can extend the Middle of Life (MOL) of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) of the industrial diesel engine production.

Satoshi Ohkawa, Hidekazu Nishimura, Yoshiaki Ohkami

Industry and Consumer Products

Introduction to a Model for Life Cycle Optimisation of Industrial Equipment

In this evolving context, to pursue a Life Cycle approach, realizing green products / system at the less cost of ownership, can be a strategic key for Advanced Countries companies to compete and survive in the global market. Aim of this paper is to present a model for Life Cycle Optimisation, considering both economic and environmental dimensions. At the end of the paper a first applica- tion of this model will be presented.

Daniele Cerri, Valerio Contaldo, Marco Taisch, Sergio Terzi

Integration of Environmental Assessment in a PLM Context: A Case Study in Luxury Industry

Nowadays, the environment becomes a major issue in our society. It gives rise to regulations, market demand and stakeholder’s pressure which are concerning companies. These latter have to reduce the negative impact of their new product by eco-design and adopting a continuous improvement for their existing product portfolio. To do so, environmental assessment system is needed. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the most known and recognized. However, this method is complex, requires significant resources and a large amount of accurate data. We propose a methodology to connect a simplified LCA tool with PLM system and ERP to evaluate an entire product portfolio at any time. This will allow design teams to consider the environmental issues in early design phase and gives the companies a global vision of their product portfolio. This methodology is experimented with packaging products of luxury brand, using the Teamcenter PLM system and a Simplified LCA Tool.

Djamel Yousnadj, Guillaume Jouanne, Nicolas Maranzana, Frédéric Segonds, Carole Bouchard, Améziane Aoussat

Escalation of Software Project Outsourcing: A Multiple Case Study

Project escalation is the phenomenon of continuously devoting resources into a seriously delayed and troublesome project. This study focuses on project outsourcing in which both client and vendor may lead to the result of escalation. As both parties may take a position of termination or continuation of the project, four escalation types were studied. In each escalation type, two cases were studied through in-depth interview. Using content analysis, determinants of escalations were identified. In the case of low intention of continuation by the vendor, but high intention of continuation by the client, credible deterrence resulted in project escalation. In the case of high intention of continuation by the vendor, but low intention of continuation by the client, credible commitment resulted in project escalation. This study provides lessons learned from eight escalation cases to avoid ineffective investment in time and money.

Hsin-Hui Lin, Wen-Liang Wang

Design Information Management for Product Sound Quality: Requirement Definition

In a current design information management of consumer products, it is difficult to take into consideration of the sensory preference of users in requirements definition phase. Especially, sensory preference on sound of products might be different individually and depend on environment where the products are used. The engineering metrics are necessary to be connected to the sensory preference of users to design the right products to user preferences. In this paper we propose a process to manage design information considering product sound quality, and investigate a consistent description method using SysML (Systems Modeling Language) from requirement definition to engineering metrics setting. Picking up a camera as an example of consumer products we extract customer demands using the evaluation grid method according to the cases where the camera is used. By applying the DSM (Design Structure Matrix) clustering analysis to the results of the interview, we cluster the fundamental requirements relating functional and performance requirements which include sound quality. Also a stepwise refinement from the requirement definition to the architectural design is performed using SysML diagrams, and the appropriate engineering metrics are derived.

Kazuko Yamagishi, Koichi Ohtomi, Kenichi Seki, Hidekazu Nishimura

Thermal Management of Software Changes in Product Lifecycle of Consumer Electronics

Because the power consumption of consumer electronic products varies according to processor execution, which depends on software, thermal risk may be increased by software changes, including software updates or the installation of new applications, even after hardware development has been completed. In this paper, we first introduce a typical system-level thermal simulation model, coupling the activities within modules related to software, electrical parts, and mechanical structure. Then, we investigate a case study of thermal management in both the development and maintenance phases of the product lifecycle. Reusing the simulation model, the thermal risk of software changes that may cause an enormous number of variations can be efficiently evaluated.

Yoshio Muraoka, Kenichi Seki, Hidekazu Nishimura

A Study for Building a Comprehensive PLM System Based on Utilizing the Japanese Strength of Industry

Keeping “the Japanese Strength” in digitizing the process of product development is important for the Japanese industry to survive in the intensifying global competition of market. This paper researches about the way of building a comprehensive PLM system based on "the Engineering Process Integrated Architecture (EPIA)" to realize it by taking up actual cases. The system, based on integrated database, consistently integrates the whole process of product planning, development and design, manufacturing preparation, production, purchasing, sales, service and maintenance, and it enables the mutual cooperation of the information of PLM/SCM/CRM.

Akio Kamoshita, Hiroyuki Kumagai

Interoperability, Integration, Configuration, Systems Engineering

PLM Reference Model for Integrated Idea and Innovation Management

The authors present their research results and practical experience regarding implementations of PLM systems in a set of companies. In detail, the very early stages of product planning and innovation management are considered. As most of today’s enterprises already operate PDMS (Product Data Management Systems), excellent foundations for a company-spanning idea and innovation management exist. An extensive analysis showed that idea management – if established – uses autonomous databases and data models which are not merged into or consistent with already existing PLM models. Potential is scattered due to disruptions in the information flow. Mostly, marketing and strategic groups have no direct access to relevant development and service data and thus lack customer feedback and stimuli for new strategic product ideas. Furthermore, strategic, technological and market boundaries have not been modelled yet to allow for an efficient handling of « postponed » ideas. The authors developed an extended data model in combination with a reference process model for innovation and idea management. Strategic data comparable to business intelligence information is consolidated with regular PLM information offering advanced opportunities and efficiency for innovation management. The paper also features an implementation of the introduced reference data and process models in a state of the art PLM system. Additionally, the approach serves as a guideline for SMEs and enables the set-up of professional innovation and idea management including presets for workflows, model attributes and open innovation functionalities.

Manuel Löwer, Jan Erik Heller

Unification of Multiple Models for Complex System Development

In the design of automotive product, the constant evolution of customer requirements and international regulations leads to new considerations of the sys- tem design process. The authors propose a modeling approach for complex system design based on the coupling of collaborative models and heterogeneous experts’ (i.e. authoring) models used for product behavior assessment. The approach aims at modeling a system at different systemic and temporal levels in the design process and allows a flexible navigation with the possibility of changing or adding models in the design space. The purpose behind the use of this approach is to lead to an optimal design solution in the context of innovative design for complex system.

Nesrine Ben Beldi, Lionel Roucoules, François Malburet, Tomasz Krysinski, Pierre Gauthier

Performance Indicators for Configuration Management

Configuration Management (CM) with its aim to ensure functional and physical consistency between the product requirements and the reality during the whole lifecycle is becoming more and more important, since the awareness of the resulting advantages rises in many companies. The Institute for Information Management in Engineering at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology has developed a maturity model to evaluate the CM maturity for different organizations on the basis of different CM dimensions. The following paper enhances the capability of this model by developing performance indicators, which are aimed at measuring the quality of implemented CM activities as a supplement to their extent of application, which was measured before. Such indicators have been developed based on an extensive state-of-the-art analysis and were validated and refurbished through interviews with industrial experts.

Tanja Minzenmay, Maximilian Zeiss, Masoud Niknam, Jivka Ovtcharova

System Lifecycle Management: Initial Approach for a Sustainable Product Development Process Based on Methods of Model Based Systems Engineering

Modeling today’s products means modeling interdisciplinary ‘product systems’ integrating various authoring systems with the technical-administrative product structure and the related processes. Achieving sustainability of the stated product systems, yields new artifacts, expanding the area to be considered and impedes traceability. This paper introduces System Lifecycle Management as key concept. Along with an approach based on methods of Model Based Systems Engineering the outlined problems are solved on an exemplary sustainable development process. The paper defines a framework for modeling the product system in the early development phases, which accompanies system design considering sustainability aspects in a prospective view. To demonstrate the proposed method, the paper focuses on expanding existing modeling constructs by relevant behavior elements capturing semantic links and information. First analyses and capabilities of the approach are presented in a case study of a wheeled excavator.

Martin Eigner, Thomas Dickopf, Hristo Apostolov, Patrick Schaefer, Karl-Gerhard Faißt, Alexander Keßler

Interoperability Framework for Supporting Information-Based Assistance in the Factory

The aim of this paper is to propose new interoperability solution, based on Info-Engine framework and web services technology to support data exchange and extraction from PLM system, specially the Windchill tool. This solution will be implemented as a connector module of more generic framework, named Digital Factory Assistant (DFA). The DFA framework aims to provide factory workers by a set of knowledge and information based decision support to improve their activity performance.

Mohamed Anis Dhuieb, Farouk Belkadi, Florent Laroche, Alain Bernard

A Socio-technical Approach to Managing Material Flow in the Indonesian Fertiliser Industry

The Indonesian fertiliser industry is a significant contributor to the national economy. Given the need to distribute its products to customers on the 17,000 islands making up availability of ports are major factors in managing fertiliser product lifecycles. However, managing the flow of material around a port is a complex process, affected by a range of socio-technical factors. This paper proposes a conceptual model of supply network processes and their relationships to infrastructures such as ports based on a socio-technical systems analysis of material flow. Results from an application of the model to explore how changes to a port is operated affect material flow. These results were used to inform the development of an agent based simulation model to support decision makers in investigating the effects of their decisions in considering the impact of potential management interventions on the flow of materials within the port. The conceptual and simulation models are illustrated using a case study taken from a port in the Indonesian fertiliser industry.

Issa D. Utami, Raymond J. Holt, Alison McKay

Change Management and Maturity

PLM Serious Game Approach Available Both for Change Management and Knowledge Assessment

Minimizing the reluctance of actors in change management is a well-known and key issue that can be resolved thanks to a serious game approach during the upstream PLM deployment phase. If our initial choices have already allowed us to validate the relevance of a serious game for change management process, we found that the participants, who were familiar with the area of technology in question, have systematically initiated a high level discussion about the models used in the PLM. We thus tried to take into account these unexpected observation results to also address the downstream phase concerning knowledge identification and assessment. Indeed, the capitalization of industrial knowledge is an important issue for enterprises who wish to master the development and the innovative element of their product. A substantial amount of knowledge extraction methods has the drawback to require expensive work by KM experts. We witnessed that besides this, it is necessary to evaluate both knowledge and knowledge use. In this article, we present the two uses synthesized in a same Serious Game Environment. From an identification methodology based on an analysis under a PLM (Product Lifecycle Management) deployment, we developed and experimented a Serious Game platform to both minimize the reluctance of actors and validate the identification work of KM experts.

P. Pernelle, T. Carron, S. Elkadiri, A. Bissay, J. -C. Marty

PLM Maturity Evaluation and Prediction Based on a Maturity Assessment and Fuzzy Sets Theory

Companies adopt PLM maturity models to evaluate PLM implementation and recognize relative positions in PLM selection to better harness PLM benefits. However, the majority traditional PLM maturity models are relative time-consuming and energy-consuming. This work focuses on proposing a fuzzy extended PCMA (

P

LM

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omponents

M

aturity

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ssessment) maturity model to brightly evaluate the gradual process of PLM maturity accompaniment with time changes, which aims to reduce the efforts spent on maturity evaluation. The proposed PCMA uses triangular fuzzy elements to express maturity levels that can solve vague and complexity issues in PLM evaluation. The proposed fuzzy PCMA is tested by two Chinese firms. The first evaluation uses PCMA maturity model to obtain the maturity levels for a Chengdu company in 2010. The PLM maturity for this company from 2011 to 2013 is conducted by the fuzzy extended PCMA maturity model through inputting the KPIs’ value. Fuzzy extended PCMA is also used to predict the maturity level for a Shanghai company. A comparison of the results obtained by fuzzy extended PCMA model and the real-life situation verify the effectiveness of the proposed model.

Haiqing Zhang, Aicha Sekhari, Yacine Ouzrout, Abdelaziz Bouras

Towards an Enhancement of Relationships Browsing in Mature PLM Systems

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) domain is at a key point in its development: its concepts and technologies are mature. PLM systems not only manage documents but information associated to a product along its lifecycle, such as Bills-Of-Material (BOM) or require- ments at different levels of granularity. All the dependencies between concepts lead to complex relationships from which it is not easy to get a coherent overview. The purpose of the paper is to know whether PLM systems are able to deal relationships complexity. Two case studies – one form manufacturing industry and the other one from a new application domain of PLM, Bio-Medical Imaging - are developed in the paper. They show that hierarchical browsing of existing PLM systems is not suitable to manage relationships complexity and must evolve to graph browsing.

Marianne Allanic, Thierry Brial, Alexandre Durupt, Marc Joliot, Philippe Boutinaud, Benoit Eynard

Comparison Framework for PLM Maturity Models

Throughout the recent years research about maturity models as well as their application possibilities has vastly increased in all sorts of organizations and institutions. The range of the topics they address has expanded as much as the way they can be structured and applied. One area, where the use of maturity models can have a great impact, is product lifecycle management (PLM). PLM is becoming more and more essential for companies as a way of staying competitive on any market due to enhanced understanding of complex processes and increased efficiency in the use of information throughout all stages of the lifecycle. In this regard, maturity models can be beneficial as methods to assess the organizations’ product lifecycle processes, illustrate improvement opportunities and even customize a roadmap to exploit them. However, considering the complex application options of maturity models, it can be difficult to choose an appropriate model for a certain purpose. This paper will provide a comparison framework for maturity models in the PLM area. The collected attributes as well as their categorized comparison shall provide guidance in choosing the correct maturity model depending on the user requirements.

Tom Stentzel, Masoud Niknam, Jivka Ovtcharova

Knowledge Engineering

How to Improve PLM Approach Efficiency Based on Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Management and Semantic Web Technologies Domains?

The objective of this article is to show that SEAMLESS, a designed and developed method from PCO Innovation, allows improving PLM approach efficiency by proposing to set up a business/Information System referential. PLM, as a PLM solution, is a software which basically supports product conception and product industrialization business processes (and potentially other upstream and/or downstream business processes). The functional scope may be really wide and the various amounts of subjects are strongly connected to each other. A PLM approach (which seeks to establish a PLM solution in the organization) is basically composed of a program with several projects. Among all PLM approach activities; upstream activities (and specifically specification activities) are absolutely crucial. This kind of approach is, generally, lengthy and complex. Specification activities raise many challenges. They come from a functional positioning (whereas a business one is expected) of user’s requirements and also from the deliverables documentary nature. Looking at what is a business/Information System referential; we observe that it has all the ingredients to avoid misunderstanding of user’s needs and the nature of the document. SEAMLESS is an assisted method to modelize, capture and restitute (graphically and/or textually) the underlying knowledge domain delimitating a set of activities. SEAMLESS allows implementing any knowledge referential by using a generic approach as well as modular and reusable components. By applying SEAMLESS approach on PLM specification activities, we improve PLM approach efficiency.

Bernard Chabot, Philippe Gautreau, Brice Sommacal

Future Product Development Cost Prediction Model for Integrated Lifecycle Assessment

Beneficial for PLM implementation is the use of data from every product phase for optimising future goods. The objective is to decrease engineering efforts. In order to determine monetary efficiency and its influence on the product’s lifecycle, it is essential to anticipate revenues and obtain information about expected costs. Most approaches focus on production expenses as they evoke the major share of costs. Development expenditures are not identifiable reliably. Existing methods premise the availability of accurate values as input. A new approach has been developed, that is based on requirements. Assuming that products with similar indicators cause similar development efforts, databases are set-up to allow for development cost prediction. The model was validated for civil aircraft. A retrospective analysis of existing aircraft and their requirements provided the necessary input. Approach and validation are presented and information about the software demonstrator that was integrated into a lifecycle assessment platform is given.

Jan Erik Heller, Manuel Löwer, Jörg Feldhusen

Product Data Management – Defining the Used Terms

The Product Data Management (PDM) system and its associated terminology have changed over the years. Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) has become the predominant system and tends to overshadow PDM. However, PDM remains relevant and is a system commonly used by design engineers; mainly as a storage place for drawings and a place where drawings can be found for further editing.

To obtain full benefit from the PDM/PLM systems, precise definitions are required. Without such definitions, the systems cannot function as they should and they cannot be used optimally. Furthermore, shortcomings in definitions may lead to a situation where the engineering community is unaware of the kind of help the systems can offer.

The main focus of this conference paper is definition of some of the terms inherent to PDM/PLM systems and their data.

Merja Huhtala, Mika Lohtander, Juha Varis

Knowledge Management

Assessing the Role of Knowledge Management in the New Product Development Process: An Empirical Study

The actual competitive context is stressing the importance of knowledge management (KM) enhancing organizational performance through the creation, sharing and reuse of knowledge.

The purpose of the present study is to empirically explore the role of KM in the enhancement of new product development (NPD) process within a set of companies with at least a R&D department located in Italy. The authors formulated a conceptual research model, including the relation between KM, NPD performance and strategies, that has been validated through statistical analyses. The outcomes confirm the positive relation between KM maturity and NPD performance in the Electrical sector. Moreover, the identification of Critical Success Factors (CSFs), is influenced by KM techniques adopted, revealing the impact of KM on NPD strategies. Finally the achievement of good NPD performances, such as the ease to fill out reports and projects, appears related to appropriate NPD strategies.

Romeo Bandinelli, Elisa d’Avolio, Monica Rossi, Sergio Terzi, Rinaldo Rinaldi

A Study on Developing a Decision Support Agent for Project Management

The term "business system" refers to the methods which use to manage their information or knowledge. All companies employ business systems during the development of new software, mechanical equipment or other projects. There are several stages in development projects. There are stages of planning, development, system examination, and upgrade. However, because business knowledge and system development knowledge are united in the systems engineer individual, and the final system image is designed in the engineer’s mind, the knowledge earned in the project is not adapted to the next system development project. Business knowledge and system development knowledge are different. A unification of measures for value of these two types of information is needed to treat the information equally. Then, this paper aims to achieve the decision support agent. This decision support agent should have the function of evaluating the value of knowledge and supporting judgment through all stages of the project. Additionally, because the environment around the system development is always changing, a function to evaluate the importance of knowledge from the data stream is needed so that the decision support agent may acquire and interpreted information in real time.

Shinji Mochida

Segregating Discourse Segments from Engineering Documents for Knowledge Acquisition

The broader goal of the research being described here is to automatically acquire diagnostic knowledge from documents in the domain of manual and mechanical assembly of aircraft structures. These documents are treated as a discourse used by experts to communicate with others. It therefore becomes possible to use discourse analysis to enable machine understanding of the text. The research challenge addressed in the paper is to identify documents or sections of documents that are potential sources of knowledge. In a subsequent step, domain knowledge will be extracted from these segments. The segmentation task requires partitioning the document into relevant segments and understanding the context of each segment. In discourse analysis, the division of a discourse into various segments is achieved through certain indicative clauses called cue phrases that indicate changes in the discourse context. However, in formal documents such language may not be used. Hence the use of a domain specific ontology and an assembly process model is proposed to segregate chunks of the text based on a local context. Elements of the ontology/model, and their related terms serve as indicators of current context for a segment and changes in context between segments. Local contexts are aggregated for increasingly larger segments to identify if the document (or portions of it) pertains to the topic of interest, namely, assembly. Knowledge acquired through such processes enables acquisition and reuse of knowledge during any part of the lifecycle of a product.

Madhusudanan N., B. Gurumoorthy, Amaresh Chakrabarti

Service and Manufacturing

Study on Improving Accuracy for Edge Measurement Using 3D Laser Scanner

A high accuracy edge measurement method of edges of components using point cloud data by 3D laser scanner is proposed in this paper. The proposed method consists of two parts: method for shape measurement of edges by using points of side faces of the components and method for length measurement of edges by attaching the 3D targets. At the experiments with a surface plate and a curved shell plate, the results give suggestions for having possibility of applying this proposed method for actual shipbuilding components.

Kazuo Hiekata, Hiroyuki Yamato, Jingyu Sun, Hiroya Matsubara, Naoji Toki

Lifecycle-Based Requirements of Product-Service System in Customer-Centric Manufacturing

Managing through-life information of products and services has become an important competitive means in customer-centric industries. The need for managing new types of product-service requirements for sustainability, traceability and performance have widened the traditional perspective of PLM information to integrate new issues, e.g. service information. In this study we examine how the diverse and through-life requirements information could better be integrated in product and business processes of customer-centric manufacturing. The study is based on a literature review and two case interviews. The objective is to elicit requirements information for Product-Service System (PSS). The study introduces the concepts of product-service system, and outlines through-life requirements in customer-centric business. PSS is a new concept for customer-centric business to improve the performance of sustainability, traceability, reusability and repeatability.

Jorma Papinniemi, Johannes Fritz, Lea Hannola, Andrea Denger, Hannele Lampela

Product-Service Lifecycle Management in Manufacturing: An Industrial Case Study

Product-Service is a recent concept based on a novel product understanding consisting of integrated product and service shares. It represents a new trend for industries to innovate their artefacts and create fresh business opportunities. However, moving from product to services requires the identification of the needed assets to create the new solution and the integration of both product-related and service-related activities into a unique product-service lifecycle. In practice, such an evolution can be defined theoretically but it is hard to implement since supporting tools are strongly product-centred yet. As a consequence, product-service is still a fascinating idea especially in manufacturing sector. This paper tells about a success story of product-service management in manufacturing industry; it describes how a household appliances’ manufacturer shifted from traditional product lifecycle towards product-service lifecycle to manage the new service. The study starts from analysis of the AS-IS processes and mapping of the ecosystem tangible and intangible assets, and describes how the company was supported into the definition of an integrated product-service lifecycle.

Margherita Peruzzini, Michele Germani, Eugenia Marilungo

Process Information Model for Sheet Metal Operations

The paper extracts the process parameters from a sheet metal part model (B-Rep). These process parameters can be used in sheet metal manufacturing to control the manufacturing operations. By extracting these process parameters required for manufacturing, CAM program can be generated automatically using the part model and resource information. A Product model is generated in modeling software and converted into STEP file which is used for extracting B-Rep which interned is used to classify and extract feature by using sheet metal feature recognition module. The feature edges are classified as CEEs, IEEs, CIEs and IIEs based on topological properties. Database is created for material properties of the sheet metal and machine tools required to manufacture features in a part model. The extracted feature, feature’s edge information and resource information are then used to compute process parameters and values required to control manufacturing operations. The extracted feature, feature’s edge information, resource information and process parameters are the integral components of the proposed process information model for sheet metal operations.

Ravi Kumar Gupta, Pothala Sreenu, Alain Bernard, Florent Laroche

Skill-Based Asset Management: A PLM-Approach for Reconfigurable Production Systems

To handle complexity in a modern reconfigurable production system from a strategic and tactical planning perspective as well as to enable operational decision making a skill-based asset management system is introduced. It provides a novel approach of managing assets in the context of the asset lifecycle based on their provided skills. It aims at the vertical integration of higher level management systems with production execution level systems of small and medium sized manufacturing enterprises, using a common skill-based abstraction. Thus the skill-based asset management system can effectively provide digital factory functionality to companies while integrating into their existing IT systems.

Kiril Aleksandrov, Viktor Schubert, Jivka Ovtcharova

New PLM

Sustainable Product Lifecycle Management and Territoriality: New Structure for PLM

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) is a business strategy, which aims to streamline the flow of information about products and related processes throughout the whole product’s Lifecycle such that the right information in the right context at the right time can be made available. Recently some studies have been presented on general capabilities of PLM to improve sustainability paradigm, but the subject is still not solved completely. In this paper, first a critical review on the recent advances of Sustainable PLM is presented then a new structure for PLM is proposed based on combination of geographical information systems (GIS) and Lifecycle assessment (LCA), to reach an improvement on sustainable development in territorial scale for achieving a more sustainable paradigm in global scale.

Kiyan Vadoudi, Romain Allais, Tatiana Reyes, Nadege Troussier

Intelligent Information Technologies to Enable Next Generation PLM

The steadily growing complexity of products, interfacing processes, value creation networks and IT environments drive today’s PLM solutions to their limits. How does this effect engineers? Over 1,400 engineers from the German industry provided feedback in 2011 – with alarming but expected results. Almost two thirds of the respondents can only spend 20% or less time on average for core tasks such as development, design or validation. The study confirmed a lack of time for creative engineering activities caused by a massive coordination and communication overhead. Could engineers and designers be relieved from routine and administrative tasks in product lifecycle management by means of current “intelligent” technologies? In constant dialogue with industry and PLM experts, the Fraunhofer IPK and TUB have investigated the demand for intelligence in product lifecycle management. This paper reflects on the current situation of PLM and introduces a conceptual framework (Engineering Operating System) for next generation PLM. Subsequently, an Engineering Automation Capabilities (EAC) stair step model is proposed and selected research results for “intelligence” in PLM are presented.

Rainer Stark, Thomas Damerau, Haygazun Hayka, Sebastian Neumeyer, Robert Woll

Reframing of Product Position Rescues the Strategy at the Lifecycle Management

This paper shows the role of reframing product position at the lifecycle management. From surveys on the products of the leaders, it became evident that win-lose is determined by the competitiveness between a new product and the marketed products of the leaders. The result is that existing products inhibit the development of indirectly competitive new products. To explain win-lose in the NPD, the role of “reframing product position” is proposed. The conclusion is that reframing product position rescues the strategy at the lifecycle management.

Makoto Takayama, Tadashi Takayama

How Developers Explore and Exploit Instant Innovation from Experiment to Implementing New Product Development

This paper examines the nascent process of how Dynamic Instant Innovation (DII) is created by ambidexterity which is an individual’s capacity to be equally skillful with both hands. The influences of DII on new product development are introduced and analyzed through Holtzman’s paradox. This premise states that the greatest paradox that surrounds successful new product development is the need for free, unfettered creativity to complement disciplined, systematic processes [1]. Drawing from this paradox, strategies are proposed for new product development exploration and exploitation. A real case of needle-free injection product developed by the first author is presented using the DII concept.

Masayoshi Fukushima, Tadashi Takayama, Makoto Takayama

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